1 Thiamine Deficiency and Benfotiamine Therapy in Brain Diseases , Dragan M Pavlović
Thiamine is hydrosoluble molecule from B vitamins family vitamin that is crucial for the metabolism of glucose and is essential for the normal growth and development of the organism, as well as for the normal function of body systems such as digestive, cardiovascular and nervous system, both central (CNS) and peripheral (PNS), and also stimulates the brain and improves the psycho-emotional state. Hypovitaminosis B1 is more common than it is thought, primarily due to the discrepancy in high intake of pure calories and the low intake of vitamins. The most frequent deficiencies of thiamine are Wernicke’s encephalopathy, Korsakoff’s psychosis, beriberi, Alzheimer’s disease, but many more cases are those of marginal deficit of thiamine. Benfotiamine is a synthetic vitamin B1 that is liposoluble than manifold increases his penetration in brain and peripheral nerves compared to thiamine. Benfotiamine is thiamine precursor that can be converted into thiamine in tissues and then metabolites into thiamine monophosphate and thiamine diphosphate. Polyphenols in coffee and tea can inactivate thiamine.The effects of benfotiamine are mild inhibition of cholinesterase, reduction in production of amyloid plaques and hyperphosphorylated tau. Benfotiamine inhibits the three main pathways leading to hyperglycemic damage. Long-term administration of benfotiamine corrects cognitive status. Usual doses of benfotiamine are 150 mg or 300 mg once or twice daily. In some cases, Korsakoff psychosis requires long-term administration of benfotiamine in maintenance dose with excellent results.
2 Alcohol Consumption Prevention Strategies , Lídia Susana Mendes
The alcohol consumption affects an increasing number of people around the world, and an estimated 2.3 million over the age of 15 are consuming alcoholic beverages [1]. Binge drinking (BD) is a consumption over 60 gr or more of pure alcohol in one occasion at least one time in the last month, affects young people (15-19 years), with a peak at 20-24 years [1].There are multiple factors of vulnerability associated with alcohol consumption. The choice of the drink and the age at which the consumptions occur result from the combination of both individual and social vulnerability. The Individual factors that condition alcohol consumption is age, gender, family conditions, religious affiliation, and socioeconomic status (WHO 2014; Collins, 2016). Other conditions, of society, such as the level of development, culture, context of consumption and production of alcohol, distribution and regulation, also have an influence in the consumption of alcoholic beverages.
3 Phosphatidylethanol (PEth); the Superior Direct Alcohol Biomarker against Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), Aspartate Amino Transferase (AST), Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase (GGT) and Carbohydrate-Deficient Transferrin (CDT) , Salah Eddine Breidi
As ethanol itself is metabolised and excreted quickly from the body, assessing alcohol consumption with a blood test relies on other markers indicative of consumption. Traditional tests include Liver Function Testing (LFT), Carbohydrate Deficient Transferrin (CDT) Testing, and a Full Blood Count (FBC). Phosphatidylethanol (PEth) testing, on the other hand, is a direct biomarker of alcohol consumption, can only be detected when alcohol has been consumed, and is directly correlated with the level of alcohol consumed.
4 Improving Sleep with the Unique and the Newly Developed Acupoint Protocol to Fight Against Cancer Pain , Tony Hong
Pain is a very common condition which can affect the quality of life of patients at any time. Rated from a dull ache to a sharp stab and ranged from mild to server in the daily life, pain management is attracting more and more attention because the occurrence of pain rises when people are getting older. Compared to men, women are more likely to experience pain which is generally classified into acute pain which is understood to be the normal response to tissue injury, and chronic (ongoing) pain that persists beyond the normal time of healing and generally lasts for more than three months [1].
5 CDC Alert for Hospital Infections due to Candida Auris Multiresistant , Dra Mirta D Ambra
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has received reports from international health centers that Candida auris multi-drug resistant yeast is causing health-associated invasive infections with high mortality. Some strains of C. auris have high minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) to the three main classes of antifungals, severely limiting treatment options. C. auris requires specialized methods for its identification and could be mistakenly identified as another yeast when the procedure is based on traditional biochemical methods. The CDC is aware that a strain of C. auris was detected in the United States in 2013 as part of ongoing surveillance. The experience outside the United States suggests that C. auris has a high potential to cause outbreaks in health centers. Given the presence of C. auris in nine countries on four continents since 2009, the CDC is alerting health centers in the United States to be on the lookout for C. auris infections in patients.
6 The Coexistence of Hypertension and Dyslipidemia in a Cohort of Iraqi patients with essential Hypertension: Cross Sectional Study , Ali Fawzi Abdalsahib Al Zamili
Hypertension and hyperlipidemia are among major risk factors for ischemic heart disease, the principal human killer worldwide. In addition, they form important components of the well-established metabolic syndrome. Generally speaking, dyslipidemia comprises abnormality in the level of triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol. The description of hypertension and dyslipidemia as a single entity under the title “dyslipidemic hypertension (DH)” has emerged in medical literatures since 1988; a suggestion was made at that time as being a genetic syndrome to explain the coexistence of dyslipidemia and essential hypertension in a subset of patients.
7 Sino-nasal T/NK lymphomas (Medio-Facial Malignant Granulomas) , Jbali Souheil
Nasal T / NK Lymphoma Was First Described In 1933 As A Medio-Facial Malignant Granuloma. The Diagnosis of This Rare Disease Is Clinical and Immuno-Histopathological. We Report 18 Cases of TNK Lymphoma Collected at ENT and Maxillo-Facial Surgery Department Of La Rabta Hospital Over A Period Of 17 Years (2000-2016). We Included in This Work All Patients Whose Diagnosis of TNK Lymphoma Was Confirmed Histologically and By an Immuno-Histochemical Study. The Classification Adopted Was That of The World Health Organization (WHO) For Lymphoma (2008). The Treatment Was Based on Exclusive Radiotherapy for Four Patients Classified Stage IE, Radio-Chemotherapy for Five Patients: All Classified Stage IE Diffuse, And One Patient Classified Stage IV. Exclusive Chemotherapy Was Performed in Four Patients: Classified Stage IIE In Three Cases and Stage IE Diffuse in One Case. The Mean Follow-Up of Our Patients Was 8 Months (2-42 Months). Clinical Remission Was Noted Only in Two Patients.
8 Using the Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire and Lifestyle Modifications to Improve Symptoms of Pelvic Floor Dysfunction , Marc Bonis
Objective: The purpose of the study was to determine if lifestyle modifications along with a specialized exercise program improved symptoms and pain levels due to pelvic floor dysfunction.Subjects: 36 women aged 45.5 ± 9.1 years old (mean ± s.d.) identified with symptoms of pelvic floor dysfunction.Methods: The subjects were assessed for symptoms of pelvic floor dysfunction using the Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire (PFIQ–7). After a 30-day control period of no changes to lifestyle and activities, the subjects were introduced to lifestyle modifications and a specialized exercise program that included eight 45-minute live group sessions and a home exercise program to be performed at least three times per week. The subjects were re-assessed after completion of the intervention. IBM SPSS Version 24 statistical programming was used, and Wilcoxon non-parametric analyses were applied to compare the pre- and post-intervention data to determine if significant relief from dysfunction occurred. Results: The intervention significantly improved pelvic floor disorder symptoms (PFIQ-7, z (36) = -3.777, p < 0.05) and diastasis recti separation, (z (36) = -4.926, p < 0.05). The level of significance was set at p = 0.05.Conclusion: Lifestyle modifications and a specialized exercise program can significantly improve symptoms of pelvic floor dysfunction.
9 Evaluation of Antidiarrheal Activity of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Anogeissus leiocarpus on Castor Oil-Induced Diarrhea in Rats , Michel Archange Fokam Tagne1*, Yaouke Rékabi1, Paul Aimé Noubissi2, Gaëtan Olivier Fankem3, Hypolyte Akaou1, Henri Wambe4 and René Kamgang3,5
Diarrheal diseases are a major public health problem in developing countries. Anogeissus leiocarpus (DC.) Gill. & Perr (Combretaceae) is used in Africa and particularly in Cameroon for the empirical treatment of diarrhea. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of aqueous extract of leaves of Anogeissus leiocarpus on castor oil-induced diarrhea in rats. Diarrhea was induced by administering 10 mL/kg body weight of castor oil orally to male rats. The determination of effective doses was made by assessing the weight and frequency of diarrheal stool of different doses of the extract (25 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg). The effects of the aqueous extract of Anogeissus leiocarpus on intestinal transit were determined with an activated charcoal meal in rats. The effects of the aqueous extract of Anogeissus leiocarpus on intestinal secretion were evaluated by measuring the volume of the intestinal content and by dosing the electrolytes (Na+, K+ and Cl-) in the intestinal content by the colorimetric method. Castor oil-induced diarrhea was significantly inhibited (P <0.01) by 59.93%; 69.39%; 68.88%; 67.60% and 75.00%, respectively in the animals treated with the aqueous extract of the leaves of Anogeissus leiocarpus at doses of 25 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg. The intestinal transit was inhibited significantly (P <0.01) by 29.34%, 31.35% and 43.29%, respectively of the aqueous extract of A. leiocarpus at doses 25 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg. The volume of the intestinal content was decreased significantly (P <0.01) by 53.91%, 83.43% and 72.17%, respectively in the animals treated with the extract at doses 25 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg as well as the concentration of electrolytes. These results would justify the use of leaves of Anogeissus leiocarpus in the treatment of diarrhea in traditional medicine.
10 Polymeric Nanoencapsulation of Indocyanine green for Photodynamic Therapy Technique , Mohammadreza Saboktakin
Indocyanine green (ICG) has been exploited as a photosensitizer for use in cancerous phototherapy including breast, brain, and skin tumors. Although ICG is of particular advantage for use in cancer phototherapy, it adversely tends to disintegrate in aqueous medium and such degradation can be markedly accelerated by light irradiation (photodegradation) and/or heating (thermal degradation). Furthermore, ICG after administered intravenously will be readily bound with blood proteins and hence leads to only 2±4min of plasmatic half-life. Among various pharmaceutical polymers, poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), PEG, Chitosan are the best-defined biomaterials with FDA approval for drug encapsulation due to its biocompatibility, biodegradability, and controllability for drug release. This review shows that novel applications of biodegradable polymers as nanocarrier for ICG to improve of physicochemical properties of ICG such as Half-life.
11 Transpersonal Caring Relationship , Joyce Reder
The enduring values and beliefs that brought me to nursing include a desire to have purpose in my life. This means I want to know that I did not waste my time on earth. Another belief is that every person deserves to be cared for by compassionate caregivers. My compassion for others comes from my belief in all people being children of God. My religious values are the most important beliefs I hold. Faith gives people a reason for everything they do. I believe we will be judged by God at the end of our time on earth and I want to be worthy of redemption. Caring for those who are sick or can-not care for themselves is, in my opinion, helping to do God’s work. Hopefully this work will assist in my being judged favorably.
12 Epidemiology, Diagnosis & Prevention of Newcastle Disease in Poultry  , Mebrate Getabalew1, Tewodros Alemneh2*, Dawit Akeberegn3, Daniel Getahun1 and Derbie Zewdie1
Newcastle disease is a contagious bird disease affecting many domestic and wild avian species. It is a zoonotic disease with widespread distribution. It is caused by avian Paramyxovirus serotype 1 virus which, with viruses of the other eight serotypes (avian paramyxovirus1-9), has been placed in the genus Avulavirus, sub-family Paramyxovirinae, family Paramyxoviridae. Virulent ND virus strains are endemic in poultry in most of Asia, Africa, and some countries of North and South America. Other countries, including the United States of America and Canada, are free of those strains in poultry. The strain of Newcastle pathogenicity can be classified into five pathotype: Asymptomatic enteric strain; Lentogenic strain; Mesogenic strain; Viscerotropic velogenic strain and Neurotropic velogenic strain. Clinical signs are extremely variable depending on the strain of virus, species and age of bird, management, concurrent disease, and pre-existing immunity caused by Paramixovirus with worldwide distribution affecting chickens of all age groups. The transmission of ND occurs through respiratory aerosols, exposure to fecal and other excretions from infected birds, through newly introduced birds, selling and giving away sick birds and contacts with contaminated feed, water, equipment, cannibalism and clothing. Gasping, coughing, sneezing, rales, tremors, paralyzed wings and legs, twisted necks, circling; colonic spasms and complete paralysis are the clinical pictures of the disease. Newcastle disease may cause conjunctivitis in humans, when a person has been exposed to large quantities of the virus. The objective of this review is, therefore, to understand the epidemiology, clinical signs, diagnosis, prevent and control of Newcastle disease in poultry.
13 Air Pollution, Health and Ethics , Robin Attfield*
Recent findings about nitrogen dioxide pollution in Britain and about particulate pollution worldwide raise ethical issues about the protection of human (and animal) health [1]. Many urban areas of Britain have been found to have illegally high levels of NO2. But it turns out that there is a world-wide problem with particulates, particularly in large towns and cities in Third world countries, as well as in much of Europe and North America. In many cases diesel engines are to blame. Does it follow that these should be phased out as soon as possible? Many of us would answer ‘yes’. But before we do, we should reflect on the broader picture. The aims of this presentation are to begin this undertaking, adduce relevant ethical principles, and to draw conclusions which are not invariably the ones that we might well adopt prior to reflection. First, can we phase out diesel engines? With automobiles, this is certainly possible, and it is open to governments to introduce scrappage schemes, encouraging people to trade in their diesel-powered cars and replace them with petrol-powered ones. But even this, as we shall see, is not unproblematic.
14 Electron Microscopy Study of Nerve Cell Death Types in Some Central Nervous System Diseases. A Review , Orlando J Castejón*
In the present review we describe the nerve cell death types in some nervous central diseases. Cortical biopsies of patients with congenital hydrocephalus, brain trauma, vascular anomalies and brain tumors are examined by means of transmission electron microscopy to study distinct and combined forms of nerve cell death. Most non-pyramidal nerve cells, astrocyte and oligodendrocytes undergo a hybrid oncotic-apoptotic and necrotic continuum process. In a lesser proportion another non-pyramidal nerve cells, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes show apoptosis or oncosis only. Autophagic cell death was rarely seen in non-pyramidal nerve cells in traumatic brain edema. The nerve cell death is discussed in relation with the severity of brain edema, anoxic-ischemic conditions of the tissue, calcium depolarization and Ca ++ influx, resulting in excitotoxic cell death, glutamate excitotoxicity, caspase dependent and independent mechanisms, oxidative stress, and calcium overload.
15 The Developmental Tasks and The Binge Drinking , Lidia Susana Mendes Moutinho*
In the last decade alcohol consumption in Europe has stabilized, nevertheless a high rate of Binge Drinking (BD) still occurs which means a consumption over 60gr or more of pure alcohol in one occasion at least once in the last month. This type of consumption is the most appreciated by the young people. The age of BD is most prevalent between 20-24 years [1].The age range in which this type of consumption has more followers is also the age that the integration of many developmental tasks is expected. According to Theory of Development of Erickson the people between the ages of 20 and 35 are in the stage designated as young adults. This stage of development suggests significant changes and an increase of responsibility which is a long-term commitment to sharing, companionship, monogamous relationships and a desire to start a family.
16 The Developmental Tasks and The Binge Drinking , Lidia Susana Mendes Moutinho*
In the last decade alcohol consumption in Europe has stabilized, nevertheless a high rate of Binge Drinking (BD) still occurs which means a consumption over 60gr or more of pure alcohol in one occasion at least once in the last month. This type of consumption is the most appreciated by the young people. The age of BD is most prevalent between 20-24 years [1].The age range in which this type of consumption has more followers is also the age that the integration of many developmental tasks is expected. According to Theory of Development of Erickson the people between the ages of 20 and 35 are in the stage designated as young adults. This stage of development suggests significant changes and an increase of responsibility which is a long-term commitment to sharing, companionship, monogamous relationships and a desire to start a family.
17 Miraculous Healing and Long-Term Medical Remission of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) – the role of Divinity within the Future of Medicine , Richard Sarnat* 
While “miraculous healings” or spontaneous medical remissions of various disease states have been scientifically reported previously, the exact mechanism, which allow for these seeming miracles or spontaneous remissions is poorly understood. By contrast, I have recently published multiple case studies of long term medical remissions, which have included the “miraculous healings” of Sarcoidosis, Chronic Lyme Disease, Fibromyalgia, Parkinson’s disease, severe chronic debilitating plantar arthritis and metastatic squamous cell carcinoma without the use of pharmaceuticals or antibiotics and where the mechanism of action used to initiate the “miraculous healing” appears to have a cause and effect relationship and thus is reproducible.This case report now adds Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) (case study #7) to the previous six case studies, which I have observed and now report to be successfully treated by a process, which Master John Douglas refers to as “Angelic Reformation.” These case reports are representative of the many hundreds of case studies I have documented (although most yet unpublished) over a ten-year period, while observing the work of Master John Douglas and the graduates of his Elite Development course. While certainly inspiring, admittedly all of these observations must ultimately be subjected to additional rigorous scientific methodology. Yet, the sheer number of miraculous healings I have observed and the fact that this body of knowledge can be taught to others who obtain similarly effective results is very promising, given our current confusion regarding the exact mechanisms of action and/or causation of autoimmune diseases, dementias and many other chronic disease states.
18 Antibiotic with Essential Metals Complexation and Interaction, An in Vitro Study by Spectrophotometric Method , Jinnat Begam Tumpa and Md Shahidul Islam*
The present research work describes of interaction and complexation studies of Amoxicillin with essential metal & antacid and also investigation of antimicrobial activity of Amoxicillin. Amoxicillin included the third generation drug of penicillin. In vitro analysis, Amoxicillin must be interacted with metal like Mg2+ and Mn2+. At pH 7.4, this study was performed in different ratios of Amoxicillin with metal and antacid both at room temperature 250 0C. by this study, it is investigated that drug Amoxicillin is complexed with metal as well as antacid which is confirmed by job’s plot. This experiment was carried out by using ultra violet spectrophotometer. The microbial sensitivity test is important to know whether there is any change in the effectivity of Amoxicillin after the interaction with metals. There was a remarkable change in the effectivity of Amoxicillin and its complexes. This research work confirms that there was interaction between Amoxicillin with Metals like Mg2+ and Mn2+ which was confirmed by Job’s plot method by spectrophotometric assay.
19 A Review Study on Different Plants in Malvaceae Family and Their Medicinal Uses , Upama Das and Md Shahidul Islam*
In this investigation, a total of 5 species under 5 genera belonging to the malvaceae family were mentioned. In this study Taxonomy and traditional medicine practices on Malvaceae family of Chittagong, Bangladesh was carried out. The plants which were used by local people, were surveyed and collected . The members of this family have mucilaginous substance. Stellate hairs are usually present on their young parts. Flower Bracteate/ebracteate, Bracteolateor Ebractiolate, Pedicellate, Dichlamydeou Spentamerous, complete, actinomorphic, regular, bisexual and hypogynous. Out of the total number of species Abutilon indicum (L.) Sweet., Hibiscus esculentus L., Hibiscus mutabilis L., Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L., were common and Gossypium herbaceum L. was rare species in the study area. Detailed survey has made in gathering information regarding use of medicine has been documented. Usually, the survey in each locality started with the interview of elderly and experienced members, locally known as Hakims. Besides, this the common people of the surveyed localities who themselves have used these plant based for health treatments were interviewed to prove veracity of the curative features of plants. Medicinal uses and data about the treatment of various alignments based on the information gathered by using questionnaires are given subsequently. For each species botanical name, local name, habit, habitat, phenology, status of occurrence, and medicinal uses have been mentioned.
20 Effectiveness of Nutrition Education on Nutrient intake and Nutrition Status of infants in Ondo State, Nigeria , Akinrinmade R1*, Njogu E2 and Ogada I3
Malnutrition during infancy has been linked to lack or low knowledge of appropriate feeding practices of the caregivers. This study determined the effectiveness of nutrition education on Minimum Acceptable Diet (MAD) as an indicator of complementary feeding to achieve the nutrient intake and nutrition status of infants (6-11months) in Ondo State, Nigeria. The study was a cluster randomized controlled trial design, whereby the participants were assigned to two groups. One intervention and one control group in a ratio of 1:1. The sample size was 142 for intervention group and 142 for the control group. Nutrition education on MAD was carried out among the caregivers in the intervention group and the control group received no nutrition education. The nutrition education was based on dietary diversity and meal frequency putting into consideration the hygiene practices. To determine the nutrient intake of the infants, data was collected from caregivers as the infants progressed in age using questionnaires. nutrient intake of the infants was assessed using 24-hr dietary recall. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 22.0. From the analysis, there was no significant difference in demographic and socio-economic status of the caregivers and Nutri-survey software for the nutrient intake. There was no significant difference in the complementary food intake of the infants as intended by the caregivers at the baseline. At the midline and the endline after the nutrition education, the nutrients intake of the infants in the intervention group was higher than the nutrient intake of the infants in the control group as analyzed using nutri-survey. Energy intake of infants in the intervention group was higher both at the midline (259kcal±20.67) and at the endline (366.7kcal±23.03) than those in the control group both at the midline (121.1kcal±17.05) and the endline (212kcal±22.04). There was a significant difference in WAZ (t. test; p=0.001), WAZ (t. test; p=0.001) but no significant difference in HAZ (t. test; p=0.049). There was an association between meal frequency and under nutrition (AOR: 0.489 (0.26-0.92) p-value; 0.027, dietary diversity and stunting (AOR:1.493 (1.25-1.80) p-value; 0.001).
21 Female are More Prone to Halitosis Due to the Changing of the Hormonal Balance-A Cross Sectional Study in Bangladesh , S M Mahmudul Hasan*, Sumia Afrin and Nafees Uddin Chowdhury
Introduction: Halitosis is the highly public health concern and about female are commonly affect this problem. A steroid sex hormone that acts as an important role in maintaining of oral physiology. The menstrual cycle pointed as a constituent that causes halitosis. The prevalence rate of halitosis during menstrual cycle unknown and various sociodemo graphic factors associated to the halitosis.Objective: The purpose of the survey was to get out the sociodemographic factors that cause halitosis during the menstrual phase.Methods: This study was cross-sectional survey, covering in Dhaka district of Bangladesh and data collecting period February 2017 to January 2018. The menstruation is 28 days between the days menstrual phase-1-4, follicular phase-7-11 and premenstrual phase-24-27 days. Anxiety score measured by using the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) questionnaire. Factors of halitosis during menstrual cycle risk measured by cross-tabulation and ordinal logistic regression were used to examine the association between sociodemo graphic factors halitosis during menstrual cycle.Results: Results showed that about 75% of participant were suffering from severe halitosis. In the adjusted model, high-level anxiety versus low-level anxiety (AOR=0.05,95% CI=0.02,0.23) and medium level anxiety (AOR=0.09,95% CI=0.02,2.69); rural versus urban (AOR=3.41,95% CI=1.24,9.34) was significant for malodor during the menstrual phase.Conclusion: This work confirmed the demographic factors were exacerbated oral halitosis during the menstrual phase.
22 Female are More Prone to Halitosis Due to the Changing of the Hormonal Balance-A Cross Sectional Study in Bangladesh , S M Mahmudul Hasan*, Sumia Afrin and Nafees Uddin Chowdhury
Introduction: Halitosis is the highly public health concern and about female are commonly affect this problem. A steroid sex hormone that acts as an important role in maintaining of oral physiology. The menstrual cycle pointed as a constituent that causes halitosis. The prevalence rate of halitosis during menstrual cycle unknown and various sociodemo graphic factors associated to the halitosis.Objective: The purpose of the survey was to get out the sociodemographic factors that cause halitosis during the menstrual phase.Methods: This study was cross-sectional survey, covering in Dhaka district of Bangladesh and data collecting period February 2017 to January 2018. The menstruation is 28 days between the days menstrual phase-1-4, follicular phase-7-11 and premenstrual phase-24-27 days. Anxiety score measured by using the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) questionnaire. Factors of halitosis during menstrual cycle risk measured by cross-tabulation and ordinal logistic regression were used to examine the association between sociodemo graphic factors halitosis during menstrual cycle.Results: Results showed that about 75% of participant were suffering from severe halitosis. In the adjusted model, high-level anxiety versus low-level anxiety (AOR=0.05,95% CI=0.02,0.23) and medium level anxiety (AOR=0.09,95% CI=0.02,2.69); rural versus urban (AOR=3.41,95% CI=1.24,9.34) was significant for malodor during the menstrual phase.Conclusion: This work confirmed the demographic factors were exacerbated oral halitosis during the menstrual phase.
23 Prediction of the State of the Cardiovascular System based on the Allocation of the Boundaries of the Implementation of the Dynamic System , NT Abdullayev*, OA Dishin, ID Ibragimova and KhR Ahmadova
Recently, research methods for rare experimental events have been intensively developed [1-9]. For a quantitative assessment of rare events, the time intervals between occurrences of successive events above (or below) some threshold Q are usually considered. In this case, both the probability density function of these repeated intervals and their long-term dependencies are investigated (autocorrelation function, conditional repetition periods, etc.). In the numerical analysis necessarily considers not very large thresholds Q, which provide good statistical estimates of repeated intervals, and then these results are extrapolated to very large thresholds, for which the statistics are very poor [1-5].
24 Is Cannabidiol the Cure-all Remedy we Have Been Looking for? , Leona Chang and Olga Ostrovsky*
Cannabidiol (CBD), the second major component of the plant Cannabis sativa, has become increasingly popular for its potential anxiolytic, anti-inflammatory, antiemetic, and antipsychotic effects. It is non-psychotropic and has no abusive potential thus far, however scientific evidence on the pharmacological effects of CBD are limited to preclinical studies. More large and well-controlled clinical trials are needed to establish the clinical applications of CBD.Cannabis sativa is one of three primary species from the Cannabaceae family, known for its cannabinoid extract, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (∆9-THC,). ∆9-THC is the most abundant component of Cannabis sativa and is popular for its psychoactive or euphoric effects. On the contrary, the second major component of the plant Cannabis sativa-cannabidiol (CBD)-does not have psychoactive effects; it has received the latest media buzz and marketing claims as a miracle cure for anxiety, depression, pain, inflammation, insomnia, and even cancer, without the high.CBD can be derived from varieties of Cannabis, commonly referred to as hemp or marijuana. Hemp and marijuana differ by the amount of ∆9-THC in the plant. The Agriculture Improvement Act of 2018 (or 2018 Farm Bill) defines “hemp” as any part or derivative of the plant Cannabis sativa, with a ∆9-THC concentration of no more than 0.3% by dry weight, in contrast to up to 30% of ∆9-THC which is in marijuana [1]. The 100-fold difference in the psychoactive component of Cannabis sativa is likely the growing public’s interest in the potential therapeutic effects of CBD.Products advertised to contain CBD have been increasingly found in oils, creams, cosmetics, gummies, and even dog treats. The increasing availability of cannabis-derived products is due to the passage of the 2018 Farm Bill which legalized hemp cultivation and declassified it as a Schedule I controlled substance. Now hemp-derived CBD is widely available in almost all 50 states. With the overwhelming ease in purchasing CBD products, what is the scientific evidence on CBD as a cure all drug and is it safe to use? There are a variety of pharmacologic effects of CBD reported in preclinical studies such as anxiolytic, anti-inflammatory, antiemetic, and antipsychotic properties (Figure 1). 
25 Charcoal-Based Dental Products in Clinical Practice: An Update , Asra Sabir Hussain*, Taha Mohammad Masood and Yousef Alharbi
Charcoal dentifrices and powders are classified as fashionable oral hygiene products of the modern age. They are primarily used for tooth brushing and extrinsic stains removal and, it is entitled as ‘tooth whitening’. The popularity of these charcoal-based products is increasing in many countries across the globe. Many patients these days are concerned about using charcoal-based dentifrices and powders for whitening effects and other benefits. However, it’s often advisable not to use charcoal-based dentifrices as the strength of evidence to support claims by the manufactures is relatively low [1]
26 The Efficacy of Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Therapy for Treating Knee Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Review , Leon Scott*
Objective: Past systematic reviews and meta-analysises of older studies of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) therapy report positive effect sizes favoring treatment over control. This systematic review was conducted to include the most recent studies and evaluate the clinical significance of PEMF compared to control.Data sources: A systematic review of PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane controlled trials Register.Methods: Level one and two trials reporting comparison of pulsed electromagnetic fields with placebo or other control were included. Mean differences were compared to the minimal clinically important differences (MCID) of functional and pain outcome scores.Results: Ten studies, including 495 patients, showed a VAS difference between groups of 11 points out of 100, and a WOMAC difference between groups of 9.7 points out of 100.Conclusion: PEMF is unlikely to make a clinically important difference in knee osteoarthritis pain and function compared to placebo and control groups.
27 Lack of Predictive Value of Ovarian Reserve Tests for Pregnancy Likelihood. The Huge Difference Between Quantity and Quality , G Barrenetxea*, E Martínez, M De las Heras, JI Arambarri1, M Axpe and J Barrenetxea
Objective: To evaluate the predictive value of different variables on the number of achieved oocytes and the likelihood of pregnancy after IVF.Design: Prospective cohort study.Setting: University associated private AR center.Patients: 718 patients undergoing their first IVF treatment during 2016 and 2017.Interventions: None.Main outcome measures: The study had two objectives. First, to identify factors capable of predicting the quantitative ovarian response of patients by applying a multiple linear regression analysis. Evaluated variables included age, BMI, antral follicle count (AFC), anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), basal FSH, LH and Estradiol determination, the amount of administered rFSH during ovarian stimulation and Estradiol and Progesterone levels on day of ovulation triggering. Second, to assess, by applying a multivariate logistic analysis, whether the same parameters, plus the number of achieved oocytes, were useful for identifying chances of pregnancy.Results: Whereas AFC was the most accurate factor predicting the number of achieved oocytes, with negligible added value of the remaining variables, age represented the most important factor influencing successful pregnancies. AMH, AFC and achieved oocytes after controlled ovarian stimulation do not predict the probability of pregnancy.Conclusion: Reproductive potential is more related to factors associated to oocyte and embryo quality than the number of achieved oocytes after COS. Our data show that age is the most important variable defining the probability of ongoing pregnancy and that neither AFC nor AMH can be used as criteria for ART exclusion, but as a tool for counselling and proposing different strategies such as oocyte accumulation.
28 International Students: A Population Facing Significant Stress , David Henneberry*
tress is a condition for which both treatments, and the patient’s ability to change and adapt, partially depend upon environmental factors. Some groups are particularly prone to exposure to significant stressors. The purpose of this opinion piece is to draw awareness of the significant stressors faced by a particular group of underserved individuals who bear a large burden of stressors while living almost unnoticed amongst us. International students are prevalent on all major university campuses, medical schools, stem subject programs and graduate colleges across the United States. Institutions eagerly cash payments for tuition, lodging and academic supplies but seldom devote resources to the mental health of this group. Their level of stress is unique, because it comes from so many different areas of life, all at potentially debilitating levels [1].
29 Echinchrome Pigment Isolated from Sea Urchin Improves Female Rat’s Fertility , Eman Y Salah EL-Din, Ayman S Mohamed*, Neveen Asmet Farag and Abdel Rahman A Tawfik
Background: Echinochrome (Ech) is natural product pigment found in sea urchin. The present study aimed to evaluate effect of Ech on fertility of female rats. Methods: 18 virgin females will assign into 3 groups: Control; received 1 ml 2% DMSO (orally) daily for 30 days, Low dose Ech; received 1 ml of 0.1 mg/kg and high dose Ech; received 1 ml of 1 mg/kg Ech. Results: High dose of Ech caused significant decrease in levels of glucose, AST, ALT, ALP, Creatinine, Urea, Uric acid, TC, LDL-C, Tg, while TP and albumin and HDL-C increase. Significant increase in FSH, LH, Uterus weight, Body weight gain, Placenta weight, Embryos number, Embryos weight, Embryo length was noticed after treatment with high dose of Ech. Conclusion: Echinchrome ameliorate female rats’ fertility through an improvement in sex hormones, lipid profile, glucose level, liver function and kidney functions.
30 Bacillus Thuringiensis Cry Proteins: The Status of Their Therapeutic Potential in Infectious Diseases , Gloria G Guerrero M*
Bacillus thuringiensis Cry proteins has been the subject of intense research in the last three decades. Cry proteins are highly specific towards different orders of insects [1,2]. Bt Cry proteins are a multigenic family. It can be distinguished two main families: Cyt (cytolitic) and Cry (Crystal) protein [1,2]. The protoxins or inmature proteins weights 130 kDa. To be active, protoxins should be processed by the C-terminal region, producing the fragment toxic of 60-70 kDa. The three-dimensional structure of the Cry1Aa, Cry3A toxins has been elucidated [1,2]. In general Cry toxins are formed by three domains [1,2]. Domain I, formed by a bundle of alpha –seven helix, domain II or the binding domain formed by anti-parallel beta-sheet and the domain III formed also by a sandwich of beta-pledged sheets [3,4] By another hand, it has been described the immunogenic and adjuvants properties of the protoxin Cry1Ac [5,6]. The study has been extended to other members of the Cry family, like the protoxins Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, Cry3A as well as to the Cry1A a, Cry1Ab and Cry3A toxins [7].
31 Acute Pneumonia: Infection or Inflammation in the Lung? , Igor Klepikov*
The question in the title of this letter is not a comparison of terms. The answer to this question is fundamental to substantiate the principles of care and further results of treatment of the disease. The choice of the answer to this dilemma determines the strategy for further directions in solving the problem of acute pneumonia (AP). The validity and correctness of this choice will affect not only the effectiveness of further actions and efforts, but also the fate of many patients. To come to a meaningful and reasoned view of the essence of AP, it is enough to analyze the arguments and facts accumulated by medical science and practice.
32 Central Auditory Processing Deficits in the Elderly , Lilian Felipe*
Elderly persons with and without hearing loss experience difficulty listening to speech in background noise, following rapid speech, attending to multiple speakers, or understanding complex messages. When the listening situation is complex or challenging the person expands additional listening effort, which can lead to fatigue, reduced attention, and forgetfulness. Beyond the age-related effects on hearing, known as presbycusis, the central auditory system suffers decline in processing abilities with memory and attention. This common occurrence for the aging brain to experience some decline in functioning, is known as, “central presbycusis”. Specifically related to the auditory system, the brain declines in its ability to listen to speech in noise, dichotic processing which is attending to stimuli in one/both/alternating ears, and temporal processing which is attending to rapid changes in stimuli. Research shows that engaging in cognitively demanding activities like reading, learning, playing games, playing chess, speaking another language, being physically active, engaging in social activities, and playing music can delay and/or reduce cognitive decline and dementia. This paper will further elaborate on the effects of central auditory processing deficits resulting from central presbycusis in the elderly.
33 Clinical Exploratory Recovery of Bacteria Pathogens Associated with some Abattoir Outfits in Port Harcourt, Rivers State: A Potential Public Health Concern , Azuonwu Obioma*1, Ihua Nnenna1, Orabueze Ifeoma Celestina2 and Anthony Augustine Uzochi1
The aim of this study was to investigate the association of some pathogenic pathogens with abattoir environment in Port Harcourt and possibly highlight some of their Public Health implications. The study was a cross sectional research design; hence samples were bacteriologically collected and examined for the presence of some pathogenic pathogens and their potential implication on the overall meat hygiene, using standard microbiological technique. Frequency distribution, prevalence and ANOVA t-test statistics was used at p<0.0 through the application of SPSS version 21 for the analysis of the data. Results implicated the presence of four types of bacteria namely; Clostridium spp, Staphylococcus spp, Bacillus spp, and Escherichia coli with prevalence rates of 4 (5%), 16 (20%), 20 (25%) and 40 (50%) respectively. Total Number of Coliforms (MPN Index/100ml) for all the selected Abattoir locations stood at ≥ 2400. The null hypothesis was therefore retained thus, the bacteriological quality of meat is strongly influenced by the conditions of hygiene prevailing during the production and handling process. It is therefore, strongly believed that without proper hygiene, the environment and materials used in abattoir can act as a source of microbiological contamination. However, indiscriminate littering with feaces is a threat, hence, requires serious control. Abattoir contributes to the problem of food borne diseases and potential health hazards associated with it. The findings from this study indicate that meat hygiene was compromised, and this situation calls for an improvement in abattoir management safety and the application of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) by relevant stakeholders to prevent an outbreak of an epidemic.
34 Vitamin A and its Derivatives- Retinoic Acid and Retinoid Pharmacology , George Zhu*
Retinol (Vitamin A) and its derivative retinoic acid (RA) are essential in the control of epithelial cell growth and cellular differentiation. Retinoid is indispensable in vision and RA inhibits the growth of some malignant cells. RA has also striking effect on pattern formation in developing and regenerating limbs, and also a potent morphogen in chick limb bud. Retinoic acid (RA) proved therapeutic benefits in cancer prevention, in skin diseases and in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). The elucidation of the molecular basis of vitamin A and its retinoid pharmacology emerged as paradigm for the connection between RA and its structure of RA receptors(RAR), oncogenic pml/RARa as constitutive transcriptional repressor that block myeloid differentiation at promyelocytic phenotype, and the molecular model of retinoic acid action in a special APL. A molecular model is further revised. As an approach to APL treatment, one possible the action of retinoic acid (RA), A consensus sequence (TCAGGTCA motif ) has been postulated for thyroid hormone (TRE) and retinoic acid responsive element (RARE)-containing in the promoter region of target genes. High dose of RA-RARE-PML/RARa complexes in intracellular localization appears to relieve repressors from DNA-bound receptor, including the dissociation of corepressor complexes N-CoR, SMRT and HDACs from PML-RARa or partially PML-RARa/RXR. Also release PML/RARa -mediated transcription repression. This transcriptional derepression occurs at RARa target gene promoter. Consquentially, PML-RARa chimera converted receptor from a repressor to a RA-dependent activator of transcription. The resulting pml-RARA oncoprotein proteolytic degradation occurs through the autophagy-lysosome pathway and the ubiquitin SUMO-proteasome system(UPS) as well as caspase 3, or lysosomal protease (cathepsin D) enzyme or/and EI-like ubiquitin-activating enzyme(UBEIL) induction. Accordingly the expression level of PML-RARa downregulated. PML protein relocalizes into the wild-type nuclear body (PML-NB) configuration or a truncated PML-RARa fusion fragment detected or/and the wild-type RAR upregulated. An effect is to relieve the blockade of pml/RARa-mediated RA dependent promyelocytic differentiation and retinoic acid (9-cis RA, ATRA, Am80) in APL therapy (See figure by Zhu G, January 1991, revised in 2012). Here, RA can overcome the transcriptional repressor activity of pml/RARa.The oncogenic pml/RARa uncover a pathogenic role in leukemogenesis of APL through blocking promyelocytic differentiation. This oncogenic receptor derivative pml/RARa chimera is locked in their “off ” regular mode thereby constitutively repressing transcription of target genes or key enzymes (such as AP-1, PTEN, DAPK2, UP.1, p21WAF/CCKN1A) that are critical for differentiation of hematopoietic cells. This is first described in eukaryotes.
35 Assay Linearity and Spike-Recovery Assessment in Optimization protocol for the analysis of Serum Cytokines by Sandwich ELISA Platform , Moses Dabah Lugos1,2*, Obadiah Dapus Damulak3, Venkateswarlu Perikala2, Gwom I Davou1, Uchejeso Mark Obeta5, Jim Monday Banda1, Beatrice O Oluwatayo4 and Joseph AE Okwori4
Background: A sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (sELISA) can be used as a diagnostic tool in medicine, plant pathology, and biotechnology, as well as quality control checks in industries. To generate quality and reliable data using this technique, it is essential to optimise the conditions of carrying out sELISA. The optimisation protocol for sELISA includes but not limited to the determination of the right dilution of the sample type, the optimal concentration for the primary antibodies, the use of correct diluent to mention a few.Aim of study: This study provides a practical approach to establish the right working dilution of serum samples for cytokine sELISA. Study volunteers and methods: We carried out Linearity of Dilution (LD) assay to measure sELISA accuracy and reliability for interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-9, FGF-basic and granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) using serially diluted serum samples from healthy volunteers and controlled by human group AB serum (hABs). Also, we undertook spike and recovery (SAR) assay to evaluate for interfering factors in the sample matrix. Results: Optimum sELISA signals were as follows: IL-4 = Neat, IL-6 = 1:4, IL-8 = Neat, IL-9 ≥ 1:100, FGF-basic = 1:8 and GM-CSF = Neat. The Spike & Recovery assay (SAR) data revealed higher per cent recovery rates for IL-8 and IL-9. Conversely, the remaining cytokines (IL-4, IL-6, FGF-basic and GM-CSF) showed low per cent recovery show the acceptable recovery rate of 80-120%. Our study showed that serum cytokines exhibit different signal strengths on the sELISA platform to varying dilutions of serum samples. Conclusion: It is therefore recommended that before embarking on serum cytokine sELISA analysis, multiple serial dilutions of serum samples must be used to determine the optimum working dilution for the respective cytokines to be adopted for the rest of the study.
36 Fronto-Ethmoidal Osteoma with Orbital Extension: Case Report , Laababsi Rabii*, Elkrimi Zineb, Boubzoub Anas, Ngham Hicham, Rouadi Sami, Abada reda lah, Roubal Mohamed and Mohamed Mahtar
Osteomas are benign bone tumors that can arise from any bone. They are the most common tumor of the paranasal sinuses, often small and asymptomatic. Secondary orbital extension of these tumors is considered an uncommon, while primary orbital osteomas are very rare, only appearing in literature as case reports. We report the case of an 18 years old man who presents with a fronto-ethmoidal osteoma with orbital extension, revealed by an orbital tumefaction, and who was treated with combined endoscopic and open surgery.
37 Rhodochrosite as Crystal Oscillator , Ricardo Gobato1*, Marcia Regina Risso Gobato2 and Alireza Heidari3
The electric charge that accumulates in certain solid materials, such as crystals, certain ceramics, and biological matter such as bone, DNA and various proteins) in response to applied mechanical stress, phenomenon called piezoelectricity. A crystal oscillator is an electronic oscillator circuit that uses the mechanical resonance of a vibrating crystal of piezoelectric material to create an electrical signal with a precise frequency. The most common type of piezoelectric resonator used is the quartz crystal, so oscillator circuits incorporating them became known as crystal oscillators. Particularly one using a quartz crystal, works by distorting the crystal with an electric field, when voltage is applied to an electrode near or on the crystal. This property is known as electrostriction or inverse piezoelectricity. When the field is removed, the quartz - which oscillates in a precise frequency - generates an electric field as it returns to its previous shape, and this can generate a voltage. The result is that a quartz crystal behaves like an RLC circuit, but with a much higher Q. Quartz crystals are manufactured for frequencies from a few tens of kilohertz to hundreds of megahertz. More than two billion crystals are manufactured annually. Most are used for consumer devices such as wristwatches, clocks, radios, computers, cell phones, signal generators and oscilloscopes.
38 Review on Principles of Zoonoses Prevention, Control and Eradication , Haregua Teshome* and Shimeles Abegaz Addis
Zoonoses are “those diseases and infection which are naturally transmitted between vertebrate animals and man”. The transmission may occur through direct contact with the animal, through vector (such as fleas or tick), or through food or water contamination. Zoonotic diseases cause mortality and morbidity in people, while also imposing significant economic losses in the livestock sector. Zoonosis constitutes a diverse group of viral, bacterial, rickettsia, fungal, parasitic and prion disease with a variety of animal reservoirs, including wildlife, livestock, pet animals and birds. The basic principles of zoonoses prevention control and eradication involves reservoir neutralization, reducing contact potential and increasing host resistance. Reservoir neutralization involves preventing spread of infection by removing the infected individual from the reservoir or by manipulation the environment where the reservoir resides. The removal of infected individual can be accomplished by means of a test and slaughter, and mass therapy. Test and slaughter have been most effective with agents spread by direct transmission and in which a limited number of reservoir species are involved. Mass therapy is usually restricted to a local situation in which all potential infected animals or people are treated without first testing them to identify infected individuals. Environmental manipulation can be designed to decrease environmental contamination by acting in relation to the portal of exit from the infected hosts or by decreasing exposure of susceptible hosts by acting in relation to the portal of entry. A basic principle in preventing direct transmission of an infectious agent from an infected individual to a susceptible host is to reduce the opportunity for contact between the two. Increasing host resistance may prevent infection of susceptible hosts or reduce severity of disease. Host resistance may be increased by genetic selection, stress reduction, chemoprophylaxis or immunization. The link among humans, animal populations and the surrounding environment should be done with proper care in order to protect serious consequence both for humans and for economically animals. Health professionals should educate the public about zoonotic diseases to effectively practice prevention, control and eradication strategies.
39 Macroscopic Cardiac Changes in Antipsychotic Therapy , Volkov VP*
By a morphometric method of research, the macroscopic changes of the heart in the process of antipsychotic therapy was determined. The study of the effect of this therapy on the heart showed that changes in the organ at the macroscopic level of its organization develop gradually during the first ten years of treatment, after which they quickly reach almost the maximum and practically do not progress in the future. This reflects a significant reduction in the rate of cardiac remodeling at the organ level, as well as the foreground of microstructural myocardial damage.
40 Obsessive-Compulsive Traits, as Behavioral Invention & Foundation of Cultural-Historical Evolution: A Pilot Study , Saeed Shoja Shafti*
Introduction: No doubt, evolutionary psychologists are trying to enlighten personality and individual differences by way of various theories. But, essentially and from an evolutionary point of view, a few studies exist regarding personality characters. In the present assessment, relationship between obsessive-compulsive personality traits and achievement of people had been assessed.Method and Material: Four hundreds relatives, who had been elected randomly, have been questioned by means of a self-reply inquiry form as regards the existence of obsessive-compulsive personality traits, in their highest and lowest successful offspring. Data were analyzed by z test for comparison of proportions.Results: Except for ‘stubbornness’, all of traits were meaningfully more prevalent among the highest successful kids, in comparison with the lowest successful children. “Perfectionism’ was the most prevalent character among successful group, tagged along by ‘Rigidity regarding Morality and ethics’, ‘Orderliness and devoting to details’ and ‘Devoting to work and avoiding Leisure’. ‘Obligating others to submit his or her style of behavior’, ‘collecting objects and money’ and ‘parsimoniousness’, were the least prevalent qualities.Conclusion: Obsessive-compulsive traits, at a sensible level, seem to be one of the main interactive dynamics that may help people with regard to achievement of personal and social triumphs.
41 The Quest for Reality , Kurt Forrer*
The world is not an objective reality, but a solipsistic fact. To put it quite simply. objects have no point of view. The subject alone has a point of view; hence there is no such thing as an objective world, let alone an objective reality. The world and its myriad of things might as well be a dream. Like a dream it arises in the morning as we wake up, and like a dream after waking, it disappears as we go to sleep. But surely, so we protest, the world must exist to all those who are still awake, which must be testimonial to the fact that the world is real and continues to exist when we go to sleep. Although a tempting inference, logically it is untenable, for this is a double premise. Indeed, one cannot have more than one point of view at one and the same time. What is it then that infuses the sense of reality into the imagery of the world and the dream? It can only be one ‘thing’: Consciousness. Consciousness is indeed the sine qua non of existence.Consciousness emanates matter and not the other way round. Thus consciousness is to be seen as Primary Reality, while matter can only be regarded as relative, or indeed, ‘parasitical’ reality much as are the reflections in the water of a lake. However, the reflective power of consciousness is inherent unlike that of ordinary water, which receives its imagery from its surroundings. Anything that is intermittent cannot be regarded as real. Only something that remains constant and totally unaltered can qualify for reality status. So the prime question here is if consciousness meets these qualifications? In short, is consciousness continuous or intermittent? At first sight it definitely seems to be an intermittent phenomenon for we say of the man, for instance, who suffered a blow to his head and lies there motionless that he is unconscious. Yet when he regains consciousness, we realise that he was only unresponsive to the outside world.But what about the consciousness of the man or woman we consider to be dead? Does it persist?Doctor Moody had no doubt that ‘life’ continued after what we term death, that consciousness was not extinguished and that the individual, although discarnate, retained its identity and lived on in a different realm. His research was naturally heavily criticised. But then, in 1998, a book came on the market that contained a report on an NDE that fulfilled all the requirements of impeccable scientific observation, procedural reporting and indubitable substantiation. It describes Dr. Spetzler’s daring operation on Pam Reynolds, which not only backs up Moody’s observations but also puts to rest all the arguments about a spirit world where one’s relations are encountered after death. It also shows that the senses of our body are not a primary function, but a secondary one, one that in fact is of a lesser quality than primary sensing. From the evidence of this case we must infer that contrary to common perception, NDEs support the notion that consciousness exists separately from the brain and is non-intermittent and therefore alone qualifying for reality status. Consciousness is in fact the ground of all life which is inherent in consciousness. There can be no doubt that consciousness is not generated by the brain, but that it is the Ocean of Absolute Reality and Life in which we and all creation ‘reflect’.
42 Behavioral Changes in Broiler Chicks Exposed to Carbaryl , Sabina Khanam*
Background: Pesticides are the synthetic chemicals used for to protect crops and livestock from various pests. Carbaryl a carbamate pesticide have the potential to cause behavioral disturbances in broiler chicks. Carbaryl inhibit the action of enzyme acetylcholinesterase due to this neurotrans-mission is block in the nervous system of animals because it is absorbed by gastrointestinal tract.Results: Twenty days old broiler chicks of either sex were taken for the study and evenly divided into two groups consisting one control and one treated group. 2mg/kgbw of Carbaryl was added into the diet of treated group for 21 days. Difficulty in walking, dizziness, less food consumption, weakness and less activity was recorded in treated group.Conclusion: Behavioural effects of carbaryl are briefly reviewed earlier. The results of present study showed that a dose of 2mg/kgbw of carbaryl cause neurotoxic effects in both animals and humans.Keywords: Carbaryl; Behaviour; Nervous system
43 A Study to Investigate the Effect of ‘Frontal Lift’ Osteopathic Manipulative Technique (OMT) in Patients with Chronic Sinusitis , David Lintonbon*
Chronic sinusitis (CRS) also referred to as rhinosinusitis is a condition involving inflammatory disease of the nose and paranasal sinuses as defined by the Royal College of Surgeons guidelines (RCS) 2016 and cited in earlier research by Mendez-Sanchez et al. [1] and recent research Bergmark & Pynnonen [2]. The etiology of chronic sinusitis is largely unknown or believed to be multifactorial; with inflammation, infection and obstruction of sinus ventilation suggested by RCS (2016). CRS is subcategorized as with and without polyps (Rosenfeld, 2015). CRS can cause two or more persistent symptoms (one of which must be nasal obstruction and/or nasal discharge and/or facial pain/pressure or loss of smell) that last for more than 12 weeks (NICE, 2018) unlike acute sinusitis which has an infective a etiology and commonly resolved within 12 weeks of onset. CRS affecting 1 in 10 UK adults cited the RCS (2016), is reported to have a significant impact on health-related quality of life, high health-care provision and significant days lost to industry
44 Leadership Roles and MotivationFactors Leading to Occupational Burnout amongst Staff, including Nurses, Working in the Public Health Field , Aikaterini Frantzana* and Marianna Charalambous
Introduction: Occupational Burnout consists a modern problem in Public Health workplaces. The present paper was conducted in the context of the analysis of the leadership and instigation factors as well as the way they can affect the Occupational Burnout amongst staff working in the public health field including nurses.Purpose: The reasons for choosing the ideal leadership in the Path Goal Theory are put forward and a realistic incentive framework is presented so as Occupational Burnout to be reduced in Greek public hospitals.Methodology: This paper includes a scrutinized search of review and research studies conducted internationally as well as in Greece while they refer to the Occupational Burnout Syndrome.Results: The complex and stressful field of Public Health requires a combination of rapid and intense work rates that lead to the onset of the Occupational burnout Syndrome. Significant staff shortages, debilitating circular working hours, imprecise definition of tasks, the absence of economic and social incentives, along with the need of cooperation with different characters and different specialties necessitate not only the proper management of materials and human resources but also the implementation of policy incentives for employees’ motivation. The leader shares the employees’ needs for recognition as personalities, satisfaction of their personal aspirations, professional development and training by designing appropriate training and informational schemes. This motivation must include the satisfaction of individuals’ needs within a rational work schedule.Conclusions: Timely diagnosis of Occupational Burnout, empowerment, counseling and support of the staff in Public Health sector, including nurses, could help address the Burnout Syndrome. The effective leader must utilize the appropriate motivation and stimulation for his staff.
45 Permanent Resident Virus in Human Beings Viral Microecology of Human Being , Chen Guomin1 and Junru Wu2*
For analysis of the origin of life, viruses are compatible with cells. The formation, survival, and development of virus depend absolutely on cells. The existence of viruses must have their long-term host for survival, spreading and extending. Like other species in nature, human beings also coexist with a group of human-hosted viruses, which are called permanent resident viruses in human beings. The immune system of species has the anti-microbial invasion function. The virus has a special coexistence mechanism with its long-term host, who has a perfect immune system. Since the immune system has no capacity for entering into cells to recognize and remove viral nucleic acids, the invading viruses can reside in cells for a long time as a recessive existence under the dynamic balance between residual viral replication and immune clearance pressure. In this normal state, the virus and its long-term host are “stakeholders” living harmoniously. Consequently, the normal state of all natural viruses after the occurrence of the immune system of the species, constitutes the viral microecology of the host (excluded viruses parasitic air cavities in microorganisms). 
46 The Effects of Phosphatidylserine (PS) Expression on HL 60, and the Efficacy of the Role of Doxorubicin (DOX) on HL60 , Mohammad Alshugeer*, Hesham H Ameen and Abdullah Alhassoon
Introduction: In recent studies the importance has been shown of the interactions between CD47 expressed on HL60 cells and the inhibitory Protein Kinase C (PKC) (Bisindolylmaleimide I). Study objectives: the study aimed to explore the function of CD47 expressed on HL60 cells and the inhibitory Protein Kinase C (PKC). Methodology: Initially, the expression of Phosphatidylserine (PS) levels in HL60 was analysed. The effect of PS expression on tumour cell growth and programmed cell death was also examined by triggering with BRIC-126 antibody. At the same time, we were able to observe the efficacy of doxorubicin (DOX) on HL60 when combined with other established leukemic drugs. The HL60 cell lines were analysed using flow cytometry to find out how PKC (Bisindolylmaleimide I) was expressed in HL60 and whether that expression was dependent on whether PKC is activated or inhibited. Although the efficacy of DOX on HL60 was clearly demonstrated by the research the mechanism through which it works was not clearly demonstrated.Study Findings: There was an agreement with the view that PKC may have an anti-leukemic affect, and that it may potentially be a therapeutic target in neoplastic cells, although this would require further research specific to those areas. The data collected also tended to agree with the view that DOX could be a useful treatment for some malignant diseases.Conclusion: The results of the present study showed the potential of using PKC as anti-leukemic therapeutic option.
47 Complications Associated with The Occurrence of Impacted Mandibular Third Molars in Saudi Arabian Sub-Population: Najran Province Experience , Braimah Ramat Oyebunmi1*, Dawood Ali-Alsuliman1, Yahyah Alsalah1, Hakeem O Agbaje2, Nasser Naji Alalhareth1 and Nahal M Alsawas1
Introduction: Impacted third molars impaction is a global clinical condition that is rising. Literature is still lacking on the reported cases of associated pathologies with impacted mandibular third molars despite its richness in prevalence and its surgical removal.Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study with data such as gender and age of patients, special relationships of the impacted molars, reason for extraction, tooth extracted and associated pathologies collected from the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Najran Specialty Regional Dental Center, Najran Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from 2015-2018. The data were processed and analyzed using IBM SPSS software version 25 for IOS (Armonk, NY: IBM Corp).Results: A total of 1024 mandibular third molar extractions was carried out during the study period from 609 (59.5%) females and 415 (40.5%) males (F:M = 1.5:1) (Table 1). Out of this number, 570 (55.7%) had associated pathology with 270 (47.4%) males and 300 (52.6%) females and prevalence rate of 55.7%. The age ranged from 17 to 69 years (mean ± SD, 31.4 ± 9.6years) with majority in the age group (21-30) years. Distal caries on the second molar tooth accounted for the highest number of associated pathologies 193 (18.8%) followed closely by pocket alone between the second and third molars 157 (15.3%).Conclusion: Distal second molar root caries and pocket formation between the impacted tooth and second molar tooth was the most associated pathology with the impacted molar in the current study. These were frequently associated with a mesio-angular impaction
48 Does Psychotherapy Change the Brain Functioning? , Myrthala Juárez-Treviño*
In the past century psychoanalysis, psychological psychotherapy and biological psychiatry developed knowledge separately one from each other. In the last 20 years, neuroimaging has been determinate in displaying the effects of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy in the brain functioning. Relevant neurophysiological findings in psychotherapeutic processes and neuroanatomy of the mental apparatus from a neuropsychoanalytical perspective are revised
49 Herpetic Encephalitis Associated with Multiple Myeloma: Diagnostic Challenge , Lígia Henriques Coronatto1*, Karyme Hussein Daghastanli2, Helton Benevides Santana de Oliveira3, Ana Flávia Pincerno Pouza4, Ligia Lorraine Araújo5, Marília Martins de Moura6, Enzo Barnabé Monteiro7 and Sônia Maria Cesar de Azevedo Silva8
Multiple myeloma is the second most common onco-hematologic neoplasm, accounting for 1% of malignant neoplasms. It is an underdiagnosed condition, as well as herpetic encephalitis. However, it has been known that the relation of myeloma with infections is common, due to the involvement of humoral immunity. Herpetic viral encephalitis has as its main etiological agent the herpes simplex virus 1. The case was described based on a clinical reasoning about a diagnosis permeated by multiple plausible diagnostic possibilities, aiming to contribute to a better characterization of the clinical and diagnosis of two entities that have low rates of diagnostic suspicion and high rates of morbidity and mortality. During the investigation, several etiologies were proposed as responsible for the decreased level of consciousness, leading to a search for a broader range of diagnostic hypotheses, which preceded confirmation of the final diagnosis. The atypical clinical described here presented obstacles to the correct diagnostic suspicion, so that the absence of signs and symptoms characteristic of both diseases led to a search for a broader arsenal of differential diagnoses. Thus, delayed diagnosis and late treatment were factors that contributed to the patients’ reserved prognosis. The association of both diseases are poorly described in the literature, so further studies on that subject are necessary
50 A Review: Targeted Cancer Therapy as a Fight Against Brain Tumor , Rehana Hanif1, Yamna Saud Anwari1, Qurat-ul-ain Iqbal1, Rabia kalsoom1, Rana Khalid Iqbal1and Farhana Naureen Anwar
The brain tumor is the second most deadly disease for causing death among cancer patients. It can be treated by conventional treatment techniques i.e. chemotherapy, neurosurgery, and radiotherapy but with some improvement, it mostly results in the increase of medical problems by non-specific targeting of normal cells in addition to the cancerous cells. Different CNS diseases include cerebrovascular disease, Parkinson’s disease, epilepsy, Alzheimer disease, and other neurogenerative disorders. Despite advance ongoing research, a number of patients are dying every year by these diseases. Different techniques are used including invasive and non- invasive to treat these diseases. Molecular targeting agents are being used which have the advantages of easily crossing multiple barriers i.e. Brain blood barrier (BBB), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain blood-tumor barrier to reach the malignant site, low toxicity and better efficacy than conventional treatment techniques. Antibodies, nanoparticles and proton therapy can be used for specific targeting of tumor antigens which spare normal cells from the diseased ones. Although there are some issues i.e. difficulty in crossing multiple barriers, toxicity profiles, sometimes non-specific delivery, degradation of therapeutic agents by the enzymes. Research work is in progress to solve these issues.
51 The Genetic Revolution: The Challenges of Genetic Sequencing in Substance-Use Disorders , Xochitl Longstaff *
Substance Use Disorders present a global public-health issue and are responsible for approximately 12.4% of deaths worldwide as well as injury or illness in over 40 million individuals every year [1]. Substance Use Disorders are associated with loss of productivity, higher levels of domestic violence, and increased propensity for criminal behavior and incarceration [2]. Due to the high numbers of people affected by this disorder and the large burden it places on society as a whole, developing effective treatment protocols to combat substance Use Disorders is necessary. The brain-disease model can reduce the stigma around addiction as it suggests that the likelihood of substance abuse is influenced by factors such as genetics and neural pathways rather than any moral shortcomings or poor decision-making skills [2]. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) and Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) allow scientists to investigate genes associated with substance-use on a much deeper level [3].
52 Quality Criteria of a Research Output , John KE Mubazi*
An autonomous scholar, whether engaged in teaching, research, or professional service, writes with a clear demonstration of satisfying four criteria: originality, rigour, significance, and coherence. The first three are measures of relative quality while the last demands that the work has a unifying theme. In the subsequent subsections we discuss what each criterion could take into account.
53 Natural Products for the Therapy of Proteinopathies Underlying the Neurodegenerative Conditions: Protein Misfolding and Fibrillization in Alzheimer’s Disease and Parkinson’s Disease , Robert P Weinberg*, Vera V Koledova, Anthony J Sinskey and ChoKyun Rha
Significant progress has been made in our understanding of dysregulated proteostasis and protein misfolding which underlie the pathogenesis of such neurodegenerative diseases as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD). In the 1990s the kinetics of β-amyloid (Aβ) fibrillization was well characterized [1,2]. Epidemiology had shown that mutations in amyloid precursor protein (APP) or the beta- and gamma-secretases which elevate the level of Aβ in the brain, as well as mutations which increase the propensity for Aβ to polymerize, are strongly associated with the development of Alzheimer’s disease. Oligomers of Aβ are more neurotoxic than the monomers [3-5]. These observations suggested that molecules which would interfere with polymerization and fibrillization might slow the progression of AD. During the testing of natural compounds, Thioflavin-T (Th-T) was often used to monitor the state of Aβ polymerization [6].
54 Compliance with Standard Precautions Among Operating Room Nurses at a University Hospital, Egypt , Bishoy Magdy Girgis Awadalla*, Amal Fakhry Garas and Naglaa Fawzy Hanafy
Standard precautions (SPs) have been introduced as means to protect health care workers (HCWs) from exposure to blood borne pathogens (BBPs). Few studies have been conducted to identify the level of compliance with SPs among nurses. Aim: This study determined the level of compliance with SPs among operating room (OR) nurses.Design: A cross sectional survey was carried out in this study.Sample: A convenient sample of 37 OR nurses working in the morning shift.Setting: The sample was recruited from three specialty areas (general, cardiothoracic and orthopedic surgery) at a university hospital, Egypt.Methodology: A Compliance Assessment Sheet (CAS) consisted of two sections; The first section was used to collect self-reported data on (A) Demographic variables related to the OR observed subject and (B) Background data related to OR nurses’ variables; The second section was observation checklist that identified the occurrence of eight SP practices.Results: The result showed low compliance level with SPs. None of OR nurses in the three specialty areas complied with goggles wear. The highest level of compliance with SPs was among OR nurses in cardiothoracic surgery; while general surgery was the lowest in compliance.Conclusion: The study concluded that, the levels of compliance among OR nurses under the study were low. Recommendation: The results can be used to enhance nurses’ safety by focusing on areas of non-compliance.
55 Sub-Acute Toxicity Study of Ethanol Leaf Extract of Terminalia Chebula On Brain, Stomach and Spleen of Wister Rats , Joseph Oyepata Simeon1*, Builders Modupe1, Isinkaye Deborah R1, Sabastine Aliyu Zubairu2, Musa Tabitha Lubo3, Oyepata j Philip4, Joseph Opeyemi Tosin1 and Wazis Chama Haruna
Introduction/Aim: The incidences of medicinal plant toxicity in the society are becoming serious in the society. There is the need for scientist to determine the toxicity profile of most is therefore very important. Terminalia Chebula is traditionally is found in natural colon cleansers and used in treatment of constipation, digestive disorders, irregular fevers, flatulence, ulcers, vomiting, colic, and hemorrhoids. In this study the effect of sub-acute administration of Terminalia Chebula on the brain, spleen, and stomach were evaluated. Method: Rats of either sex were selected. Group 1 received distilled water (10 ml/kg), while group 2, 3 and 4 received Terminalia Chebula 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg respectively. Animals were kept in standard cages and given access to the extract, water and food orally for 28 days, after which they were weighed and sacrificed. Blood was collected by cardiac puncture and taken immediately for hematological and chemo pathological analysis. The brain, spleen, and stomach were also harvested for histological study of the effect of the plant using haematotoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining technique.Result: There was Significant (P<0.05) decrease in RBC, HGB, MCV, while there was no change in the level of neutrophiles, basophiles, eosinophiles and platelets. The size of the brain, spleen and stomach were observed to be slightly significantly (p<0.05) increased in rats with dose level of 400 mg/kg, while there was no significant (p<0.05) change observed at the 200 and 800 mg/kg dose. Histopathological examination of the brain and stomach showed normal features at all doses. The spleen showed Slight lymphocyte hyperplasia at all doses and normal features at the control (10 ml/kg).
56 Arab Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes (ASPED) Masterclass in Pediatric Bone Disease 2nd November 2018, Dubai, United Arab Emirates , Asma Deeb1*, Mohamed Dubayee2, Fahd Al-Juraibah2, Zulf Mughal3 , Dieter Haffner4,5 and Abdelhadi Habeb6
The Arab society of Paediatric Endocrinology and diabetes held a masterclass for paediatric bone diseases in Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE) in collaboration of Kyowa Kirin. This 1-day event was run within the framework of the ASPED School and was attended by 76 delegates and 14 faculty. Plenary lectures and patient case reports were presented. The talks covered all aspects related to rickets and highlighted that nutritional vitamin D deficiencies are relatively common. This is the case despite the availability of proper nutrition and the adequate level of sun light. It was emphasized that is it vital to establish a diagnosis in light of potential underlying genetic abnormalities or comorbidities which may mask initial laboratory assessments and potentially lead to an unsuitable treatment choice. Considering a less common genetic form of rickets is important in the region owing to the high frequency of consanguinity. It has been pointed out that even when a correct diagnosis and initial management is selected, it is essential to follow up patients regularly and adjust their treatment to match their needs during different growth phases. Overall, the 14 regional and international speakers discussed nutritional and hereditary rickets, disorders of phosphate homeostasis, management of hypophosphataemic rickets and skeletal disorders beyond rickets. Lively discussions around all presented topics dominated the day, with a interest in new treatments, including burosumab as a novel fully human anti-FGF23 monoclonal antibody therapy. Burosumab has demonstrated effective inhibition of the FGF23-mediated pathway and has received approval by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of adults and children with X-linked hypophosphataemia (XLH). Preliminary experience in the region of its use has been presented
57 A Novel Treatment of Symptomatic Menopause Autologous Ovarian Transplantation Research in Progress , Boris Petrikovsky*1, EV Zharov2 and A Ansari3
Following the onset of menopause, some women suffer from significant effects, including hot flashes, osteoporosis, mood swings, loss of libido, among others. While natural menopause occurs at the age of 50 plus, on occasion this process may be induced at age 40 or less due to premature menopause [1,2].
58 Modern Era of Rice (Oryza Sativa L.) Genomics for Precise Genomics-Assisted Drought Breeding , Muhammad Mahran Aslam1,2*, Arooj Fatima Ramay3, Muhammad Usama4 and Noor Ahmad5
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important food crop and requires larger amount of water throughout its life cycle as compared to other crops. Hence, water related stress cause severe threat to rice production. Drought is a major challenge limiting rice production. The screening of rice germplasm under drought and its characterization at the morphological, genetic, and molecular levels revealed the existence of genetic variation for drought tolerance within the rice gene pool. The improvements made in managed drought screening and selection for grain yield under drought have significantly contributed to progress in drought breeding programs. The availability of rice genome sequence information, genome-wide molecular markers, and low-cost genotyping platforms now makes it. Drought possible to routinely apply marker-assisted breeding approaches to improve grain yield under drought. Grain yield Grain yield QTLs with a large and consistent effect under drought have been identified and successfully Genetics pyramided in popular rice mega-varieties. The transgenic approach Proteomics is successful in generating drought tolerance in rice under controlled conditions, but field-level testing is necessary. Genomics-assisted drought breeding approaches hold great promise, but a well-planned integration Allele mining with standardized phenotyping is highly essential to exploit their full potential.
59 Nutritional Benefits of Citrus Fruits , Waleed Fouad Abobatta*
Citrus is an evergreen shrub or small trees grown in tropical, sub-tropical and temperate regions, citrus including Oranges, Mandarins, Tangerines, Limes, Grapefruits, Lemons, and Citrons. Citrus fruits are a precious resource of phytochemicals which are beneficial for the human body, like vitamin C, Vitamins B, potassium, phosphorous, and other elements, also, there are various active compounds extracted from citrus fruits used against heart diseases, and in treatments of hypertension, also, it is used as anticancer, inflammation, antiviral, antibacterial and antifungal activity. Citrus juice contains enzymes considered a natural tool for obesity control and contained a range of different protein which burns human fats.
60 Obsessive-Compulsive Traits, as Behavioral Invention & Foundation of Cultural-Historical Evolution: A Pilot Study, Introduction: No doubt, evolutionary psychologists are trying to enlighten personality and individual differences by way of various theories. But, essentially and from an evolutionary point of view, a few studies exist regarding personality characters. In the present assessment, relationship between obsessive-compulsive personality traits and achievement of people had been assessed.Method and Material: Four hundreds relatives, who had been elected randomly, have been questioned by means of a self-reply inquiry form as regards the existence of obsessive-compulsive personality traits, in their highest and lowest successful offspring. Data were analyzed by z test for comparison of proportions.Results: Except for ‘stubbornness’, all of traits were meaningfully more prevalent among the highest successful kids, in comparison with the lowest successful children. “Perfectionism’ was the most prevalent character among successful group, tagged along by ‘Rigidity regarding Morality and ethics’, ‘Orderliness and devoting to details’ and ‘Devoting to work and avoiding Leisure’. ‘Obligating others to submit his or her style of behavior’, ‘collecting objects and money’ and ‘parsimoniousness’, were the least prevalent qualities.Conclusion: Obsessive-compulsive traits, at a sensible level, seem to be one of the main interactive dynamics that may help people with regard to achievement of personal and social triumphs.
According to DSM-5, ‘obsessive-compulsive personality disorder’ is one of the most prevalent personality syndromes in the population, with likely frequency ranging from 2.1% to 7.9% [1]. In systematic studies, ‘obsessive-compulsive personality disorder’ appears to be diagnosed about twice as often among men. The necessary feature of ‘obsessive-compulsive personality disorder’ is perfectionism, preoccupation with orderliness, and mental and interpersonal control, at the expense of openness, flexibility and productivity. This configuration begins by early adulthood and is existent in a variety of circumstances. Personalities with such kind of disorder attempt to maintain a sense of control through painstaking attention to rules, procedures, lists, trivial details, or schedules to the extent that the main point of the activity is missing (Criterion 1) [1]. They are disproportionately watchful and susceptible to repetition, paying unusual attention to detail
61 Methods of Chitin Production a Short Review , Luciano Pighinelli*, Broquá J, Zanin BG, Flach AM, Mallmann C, Taborda FGD, Machado LEL, Alves SML, Silva MM and Dias RJSP
In addition to be the second most abundant natural polymer in nature, a renown has a great potential as a biomaterial in the area of biotechnology, because it is biocompatible, bio reactive and biodegradable [1,2]. Such characteristics, diverse applications in areas such as agriculture, food, environmental, and as two areas with greater focus: pharmaceutical and health [3,4]. Its structure consists of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine units with β- (1,4) bonds, having as main characteristic the insolubility in water and some organic acids [5]. Chitin belongs to the group of structural polysaccharides, together with cellulose, the second polymer being more abundant in the biosphere [6-9]. Due to its structural nature, a product release system was not found in any of the arthropod exoskeleton, in the structures of molluscs [10], in the cell wall of fungi [11,12], protozoa and bacteria, egg shells of nematodes [13,14], the shrimp fishery residue being the most widely used source [15].Throughout the decades of research and handling of this polymer, many methods of extraction have been developed, being the chemical method most found in the literature, being also used in the means of production of industrial chitin.
62 Application of Optimal Control Theory to Biomedical and Biochemical Processes , NU Ahmed*
In a recent paper [1] we proposed a dynamic model to represent the population of antigens and antibodies in cancer patients, in particular, the antigen-specific-antibody interactions to elicit immune response that leads to the death of cancer cells. The antibodies are known to be powerful medications for cancer immunotherapy. We published extensive numerical results in [2] demonstrating efficacy of the method. In another paper we considered bio-reactors and their optimal control and presented some interesting numerical results in [3]
63 The of Results the Test New Multidisperse Anthelmintic Composition Prazinox At with Mono-And of Mixtinvasion of Echinococcosis and Multiceptosis Dogs , AM Bittirov1*, RM Zahokhov2, AS Vologirov3, AA Bittirova4, SA Begieva5
In the subjects of the Russian Federation, echinococcosis and multiceptosis are the most common cestodosis and are found in dogs with an EI of 100%. The goal is to study their distribution in dogs and to test the effectiveness of the new multidisperse anthelmintic composition Prazinox at with mixed invasion of cestodes E. granulosus and M. multiceps. Studies have shown that intestinal taeniidoses in dogs in the form of mono- and mixed invasions is widespread with at total EI of 100%. Associative invasion in dogs caused by intestinal cestodes of E. granulosus and M. multiceps was manifested with EI = 50.0% with an intensity of invasion, respectively, 388.0±14.5 and 3.1±0.4 ekz. /head. In the group of dogs infected with the mixed invasion of E. granulosus and M. multiceps, the new multidisperse anthelmintic composition Prazinox at a dose of 20mg / kg body weight had EE and IE - 100%. At the same time, on the 5th day the deworming of eggs suborder Taeniata in feces did not detect. This dosage of new multidisperse anthelmintic composition Prazinox should be recognized as an effective therapeutic dose.
64 Schizophrenia and Decreasing in Corticolimbic Gabaergic Function , Behzad Saberi*
Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase (GAD) and Gamma Amino Butyric Acid (GABA) activities in the cortex, nucleus accumbens and thalamus would be decreased in schizophrenia. Also, there would be a reduction in presynaptic markers in some GABAergic interneurons in hippocampus and frontal cortex. Glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 KDa is expressed in axons and terminals while Glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 is expressed in dendrites and perikarya. Neurons which express GAD 67 mRNA in prefrontal cortex and other brain parts are reduced in numbers than ones expressing GAD 65 [1].
65 Effect of Wire Tension on Rate of Weight Bearing in Ilizarov Apparatus , Mohammad Reza Effatparvar1* and Alireza Asghari Ardabili2
K-wires play an important role in stability of Ilizarov fixator. In this fixation system, wires are tensioned for bearing patient weight. In this study, measuring of vertical bending of k-wire would show the effect of horizontal tension of wire. Russian Ilizarov K-wires were inserted into artificial tibia sawbones and fixed on the ring. Then, after wire tensions in range of 70kg to 130kg by tensioner device and vertical forces of 40kg to 100kg by bending test device, vertical displacements were measured. 49 data about to wire displacements are recorded. in the minimum horizontal tension (P) (70 kg) and maximum vertical loading (F) (100 kg), the rate of vertical displacement (Y) received to the highest amount (0.837 cm), but in condition that P was maximum (130 kg) and F was minimum (40 kg) the amount of Y got to the lowest point (0.112). Regarding to the obtain data, effect of k-wire tensile on decreasing the vertical displacement and prevent from k-wire cutting is obviously Figure out. More tension is better way to earning stability. This should be noted; the maximum amount of tension is the half of yield point.
66 The Role and Place of Albumin in Modern Transfusiology. Problems and Ways to Solve Them , Andrey Belousov*
The advantages of albumin over less costly alternative fluids continue to be debated. Many scientific articles were devoted to the clinical analysis of the use of albumin in acute illness as well as its comparison with other fluid regimens. However, the lack of fundamental knowledge about the physical and chemical properties of commercial albumin generates many unpromising discussions about the effectiveness of the use of albumin among practitioners and medical scientists. The manuscript provides information about the different variants of commercial albumin, the mechanisms of their action, indications and contraindications to use. The main purpose of this article is to objectively show the failure of generalizing conclusions and recommendations on the clinical use of commercial albumin, taking into account its various physical and chemical characteristics. To date, all studies should be conducted either in the form of a comparative analysis of a specific clinical effect, or within the framework of studies of only one brand of albumin. Otherwise, generalizing the conclusions, the recommendations on the use of different forms of albumin are not correct and generate a lot of useless of the discussions. The presented information is based on fundamental knowledge of physical and chemical properties of commercial albumin. This manuscript is not only educational information, but also is scientific guide for clinicians.
67 Reducing Adverse Reactions to Eradication of Helicobacter Pylori , Fan Chen*
During the eradication of Helicobacter pylori in patients, many adverse reactions inevitably occur due to the variety of drugs used and the relatively long course of treatment. Mild to moderate adverse reactions even account for many patients, and severe adverse reactions also account for some patients. In view of this situation, this article elaborates how to reduce adverse drug reactions from the following aspects. Of course, since the purpose of using drugs is to eradicate Helicobacter pylori, we should consider reducing adverse drug reactions without reducing the eradication rate.
68 Comparative Osteology: A Cross-Species Study of First Rib Parameters and Their Relation to Body Mass with Emphasis on the Woolly Mammoth , AP Harrison1*, J Pingel2 and J Bülow3,4
Scaling of body parts in relation to final adult body mass has been of interest for almost 300 years. However, it has been used quite recently to provide estimates of body mass for extinct species, for example the Woolly Mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius), based solely on isolated bones, mainly of limb origin. This manuscript addresses the discrepancies that appear when one uses different limb bones as predictors of body mass and examines the potential use of rib parameters as a means of improving the assessment of adult body mass in a range of diverse living mammals as well as the extinct Woolly Mammoth. The findings of this study have important implications for furthering our understanding of basic biology, physiology and scaling, as well as potential applications in terms of estimating body mass in the field of forensic science
69 New Single Rod Implant Innovation in Indonesia , Eka Rusdianto Gunardi* and Denny Khusen
The term implant is familiar in Indonesia because it is cultural and mystical, such as the beauty implant, black magic implant, and also popular for contraception. A contraceptive implant is an implantable medical device used for the purpose of birth control. The implant may depend on the timed release of hormones to hinder ovulation or sperm development, the ability of copper to act as a natural spermicide within the uterus, or it may work using a non-hormonal, physical blocking mechanism. As a country with the largest implant acceptors in the world, Indonesia has developed implant that consists of single rod called Monoplant®. Monoplant® is expected to be the best option because it only consists of a single rod implant that is easy to insertion and remove, effective and safe for at least three years [1,2].
70 The Medical-Surgical Lexicon in the Middle English Version of Lanfranc’s Chirurgia Magna , Cristina Raffaghello*
This article aims to examine the surgical in two great treatises written down in late Middle Ages by one of the most important European physicians: Lanfranc of Milan. A particular attention has been paid to the lexicon regarding the surgical instruments and care of diseases.
71 Comparative Evaluation of Total Phenolics, Total Flavonoids Content and Antiradical Activity in Six Selected Species of Family Rosaceae Using Spectroscopic Method , Kiran Zahid1*, Maqsood Ahmed2 and Farah Khan3
The current study aims to investigate the total phenolics, total flavonoids content in addition to radical scavenging activity in six selected species of Family Rosaceae. Double Maceration Technique was adopted for extraction process. Results indicated the presence of phytochemicals in three species i.e. Pyrus communis, Prunus armeniaca & Malus pumila while absence of alkaloids and terpenoids was reflected in other three species i.e. Prunus persica, Prunus domestica & Fragaria vesca. Maximum Phenolic and flavonoids content was found in Fragaria vesca (leaf ) using 70% ethanol as a solvent. All the tested plant species exhibited DPPH anti-radical properties however Prunus domestica (Leaf) 96.06±0.57 possessed maximum antioxidant potential with IC50 value of 0.236±0.001 mg/mL using Graph pad Prism 5.04 software. Ethanolic extracts gave preferable results and have the potential in extracting phytochemicals; these phytochemicals played tremendous role in treating multiple disorders including anticancer, antidiabetic and neurological disorders like Alzheimer or Dementia.
72 Influence of An Age on Organometric Parameters of a Heart at the Antipsychotic Cardiomyopathy , Volkov VP*
By a morphometric method of research and calculation of Cohen’s coefficient the force of impact of an age factor on pathomorphological changes of heart at the organ level of his organization at development of a neuroleptic cardiomyopathy was determined. It is established that at patients of different age crucial importance plays not an age factor, but side cardiotoxic effect of antipsychotics leading finally to development of the neuroleptic cardiomyopathy.
73 Graphene-Based Sensors for Clinical Analysis , Livia Alexandra Gugoasa*
Graphene presents great interest as sensor material. Its exceptional physical and chemical properties made it a star material for the electrochemical detection of different analytes from biological samples. The applications in which graphene-based materials were involved generated thousands of papers but in this mini review we sum only very few of them.
74 The Impact of Stress, Anxiety, Fear and Depression in The Cause of Cancer in Humans , Sorush Niknamian*
Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behavior, such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination. Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person’s thoughts, behavior, feelings, and sense of well-being. Fear in human beings may occur in response to a specific stimulus occurring in the present, or in anticipation or expectation of a future threat perceived as a risk to body or life. In psychology, stress is a feeling of strain and pressure. Also, this is one type of psychological pain. Cancer as mentioned by Drs. Zaminpira and Niknamian, is an Evolutionary Metabolic Disease (EMHC) which is caused by increasing the amounts of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) through the Butterfly Effect (BE) inside human eukaryotic cells. Therefore; increasing inflammation is a promising factor in the cause of cancer. The aim of this review and meta-analysis is to find the link between the depression, stress, fear and anxiety and the possibility of causing cancer. These emotional states have been observed in cancer patients as well. Anxiety and Fear are the two main emotional states which are the side effects of cancer disease, and also, high amounts of emotional stress and depression have been discussed in this review to raise the possibility in causing cancer.
75 Endothelial Progenitor Cells: Characterization and Role in Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformation , Nida Fatima1*, Ashfaq Shuaib2 and Maher Saqqur
Background: The angiogenesis in Cerebral Arteriovenous malformations (cAVMs) may occur through activation of chemokines [stromal-cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1)], which ultimately recruit endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) for aberrant neovascularization. Thus, we determined the role of EPCs in the vasculogenesis of cAVMs.Methods: Literature search was made through electronic database on “PubMed”, “EMBASE”, “Google Scholar”, and “Science Direct” from 1990-2019 using MeSH headings of “Endothelial Progenitor Cells”, “Arteriovenous Malformation”, and “Stromal-cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1)” using Boolean operator “and”/”or”. The inclusion criterion included human experimental studies on EPCs in the cAVMs.Results: Histo morphological characteristics of vasculogenesis, both quantitatively and qualitatively, are pivotal in determining the prognosis of patients with AVMs. cAVMs patients have higher expression of markers of EPCs precursors, which is characterized by stem cell (CD133), endothelial (VEGF-2, CD31, and/or VE-cadherin), and hematopoietic cell markers (CD31). The SDF-1 was co-expressed with CD31+, predominantly on the endothelium of the vessel wall, and recruit ECPs from the peripheral cells to the target tissues thus leads to active remodeling and angiogenesis. A positive correlation exists between the VEGF- A (r=0.53) or HIF-1 α (r=0.43) and SDF-1 α.Conclusion: The EPCs plays an important role in the vasculogenesis of cAVMs lesions through activation by SDF-1/CXCR4 pathway. Therefore, further experimental studies are needed to formulate a therapy targeting these EPCs in the management of patients with cAVMs.
76 Features of Reduction of Th1, Th2 Lymphocytes Functions After Intoxication of Various Toxic Chemicals , Pavel F Zabrodsky*
Experiments on random-bred albino rats showed that organophosphorus compound (malathion) acute intoxication (0.5 LD50) in the greater degree reduces function of Th1 lymphocytes and bound with them of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction and production IFNγ, in comparison with function of Th2 lymphocytes and synthesis of IL-4 by them; the opposite effect is characteristic for methanol (0.5 LD50; decreases Th2-lymphocytes function (IgG and IL-4 production) to a greater extent); acetonitrile and trichloromethane acute intoxications (0.5 LD50) invokes a reduction of functions of Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes and production of cytokines by them (IFNγ and IL-4) equally.
77 Therapeutic Potential of Phthalimide Derivatives: A Review , José Guedes da Silva Júnior*1, Vanderlan Nogueira Holanda1, Daywison Silva Rodrigues Gambôa1, Talyta Valéria Siqueira do Monte2, Hallysson Douglas Andrade de Araújo, José Adelson Alves do Nascimento Júnior1 Victor Felipe da Silva Araújo1, Maria Auxiliadora Macedo Callôu1, Shalom Pôrto de Oliveira Assis3, Vera Lúcia Menezes Lima1
Phthalimides belong to the group of cyclic imides and have as common chemical characteristic two two carbonyls bound to the same nitrogen. Such compounds are obtained by various organic synthetic processes, generally using phthalic anhydride as the precursor. Because they present various biological activities such as antinoceptive, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, anti-convulsant, antimicrobial, among other actions, these molecules have been object of study in several research centers worldwide. This review article is intended to provide highly relevant information on the biological activities of these compounds and their mechanisms of systemic action that have already been elucidated. The articles used in these studies were obtained through the Internet [from Elsevier, NCBI and Science direct] in the period of July and August of 2018. Several compounds were identified acting in various pharmacological actions. The phthalimides and their derivatives studied in this study presented individual molecules, but also conjugated with other pharmacophoric groups, in order to improve their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic aspects and thus generate better therapeutic responses. In spite of the studies with phthalimides, it is still necessary to investigate, mainly the mechanisms of action of these molecules, explaining all the interactions that they can make, so that new and more audacious studies can be carried out.
78 Inhibition of Escherichia Coli, Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Staphylococcus Aureus and Enterococcus Feacalis through Malus DomesticaExtracts to Eliminate Food Borne Illness , Hina Nazar1, Umar Farooq2*, Kashif Akram3, Afshan Shafi2, Zafar Hayat4, Madhura A Jayasinghe5 and Samra Naseem6
The present study was designed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of aqueous extracts of Malus domestica (peel and pomace) against food-borne pathogens (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus feacalis). Extraction conditions (temperature and time) were optimized to obtain maximum yield by using response surface methodology. Antibacterial potentials of the extracts were examined through disc inhibition zone technique and the results were compared with commercial antibiotic. Results indicated that maximum antibacterial activity was shown by peel extract against Staphylococcus aureus with average zone of inhibition 19.25±0.89 mm while pomace 12.75±0.71 mm. The antibacterial activities of peel extract were comparable with commercial antibiotic (20.13±0.83 mm). Escherichia coli were appeared to be the most resistant with inhibition induced by the extracts of peel 15.00±1.07 mm and pomace11.50±0.53mm.
79 Chemabrasion Sheikhing Treatment of Difficult Acne and Acne Scarring , Iftikhar Sheikh*
 Acne is one of the commonest skin disorders. During Adolescence 70% of the population have some clinically evident acne [1]. This is commonly seen as oily face, obstructive horny plugs or inflammatory lesions like pustules. These may complicate into cysts, abscesses, scars, keloids, hyper-pigmentation and above all psychological damage to self-confidence. The striking feature of acne is greasy skin and severity of acne is directly proportional to sebum excretion rate SER [2]. Raised SER is often due to end organ hyper response of the sebaceous glands (SG) mostly at normal levels of circulating androgens [3]. SG are larger and more permeable in acne skin [4]. Chemabrasion may be introduced as a surgical procedure with a new idea where microdermabrasion (MD) is combined with chemical peeling to achieve permanent partial destruction or shrinkage of target organs i.e. SG. This results in decreased number and size of SG. The MD produces controlled removal of superficial skin layers in successive sessions and the chemical peeler absorbed through abraded opened follicles selectively causes partial destruction of SG. This can be proved by measuring the SER before and after treatment [11]. So, investigations of SER are very important for understanding the physiology of SG, pathogenesis of acne and the efficacy of this treatment ‘chemabrasion sheikhing’
80 403Improved Muscle Activity Following Motor Training Without Vision of the Throwing Motion in Baseball Pitchers , Won-Ho Choi1 and Yun-A Shin2*
Throwing motion without vision has the potential as a training method to improve proprioception by concentrating more on joint movements in throwing. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to suggest a method of training motor sense, which can improve ball velocity and the pitchers’ control (target accuracy). The study population consisted of 20 high school and college baseball players. Rotator cuff and elbow joint muscle activation, ball velocity, and ball accuracy in the stride, arm cocking, acceleration, and deceleration phases during throwing the ball with maximum effort (TBME) with or without vision were measured. Muscle activation during TBME was shown in the arm cocking and acceleration phases after visual blockage training. However, there were no significant differences in the surface-detected motor unit potential (SMUP), ball velocity, and accuracy when pitching with or without vision and after visual blockage training. Although the significance of this study was low, the SMUP and muscle activity tended to increase with acute practice, which is considered to be a meaningful result. We suggest that further studies should implement the training program for longer periods, wherein adaptation of the nervous system can be achieved through continuous practice.
81 Prevalence of Heamonchosis in Small Ruminants and Its Associated Risk Factors in and Around Ejere Town, West Shoa, Oromia, Ethiopia , Feyisa Bekuma* and Bayisa Dufera
A cross sectional study was conducted from July 2017 to February 2018 for determination of small ruminant haemonchosis and investigation of associated potential risk factors in and around Ejere town, west shoa, Oromia, Ethiopia. The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of Haemonchus in the area. The totals of 384 animals were included in the study from these 261 sheep and 123 goats depending on the number of small ruminants of the district they were taken randomly from whole animals. The overall prevalence was 63.02% which is lower than the previous reports. This is due the most pastureland is occupied by agricultural activity so that small ruminants are not exposed to this gastrointestinal parasite. The prevalence was higher in sheep (63.6%) than goats (61.78%). In case of species there was no statically significant difference (p > 0.05). The prevalence in young was higher as compared with adult small ruminants with prevalence of 74.72% and 52.47% in young and adult respectively. Depending on body condition the prevalence was higher in poor body conditioned animals (94.5%) due to lack of resistant against diseases and lower in good body conditioned animals (30%). There was significant difference between body condition and Haemonchus prevalence (p< 0.05). from all peasant associations the highest prevalence was recorded in Ilu aga (75.3%) and the lowest was observed in Chirri (48%) there was no significant difference between origin of animals and haemonchosis (p>0.05). The prevalence also higher in September (79.68%) followed by October (67.96%) and November (41.4%). late summer is favorable for Haemonchus to undergo its development and consumed with grass. The prevalence was higher in female (71.6%) than male (58.4%) due to females are always under stress of parturition and pregnancy. There is no significant difference between sex and Haemonchus prevalence (p >0.05). Further studies on the economic importance of helminthiasis and drug resistance patterns of anthelmintics should be conducted for the holistic implementation of helminthiasis control..
82 Lactate Dehydrogenase: Physiological Roles and Clinical Implications , Ahed J Alkhatib1* and Nawaf Abduallah Mohammad Alrakaf2
The present study aimed to review the literature about lactate dehydrogenase regarding physiological roles and clinical implications. The enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is widely spread in almost each cell in the body, and its prime function is to convert lactate to pyruvate through oxidation process. LDH exists in the cytoplasm of cell and when cell dies it becomes extracellular. The levels of LDH vary according to metabolic needs of each tissue such as development, biological conditions, and pathological aspects. Its levels are increased in a variety of clinical situations from inflammatory conditions to malignancies. The specificity of LDH cannot be taken as a single parameter but helps with other biochemical investigations.
83 Harvesting of Plants According Ethnomedicinal Culture of Nso Tribe, Cameroon , Eustace Bonghan Berinyuy*
The firm beliefs of the rural community of the Nso ethnic tribe in the powers and role of plant especially medicinal plants can be used to develop a model for harvesting plants. Their belief systems enable several spiritual cultures like Islam, Christianity, African traditional religion etc. to coexist with each other happily for centuries without major crisis. The belief system differs from science, but all scientific principles are taken care off with different justifications. All plants belong to God and is therefore, necessary to ask God permission to use plants by means of prayers. These prayers are said before harvesting medicinal plants. Traditional rites are performed before falling down trees with economic values like colanuts (Cola acuminate), kirah (Prunus africana) etc. It’s interesting that even the highly educated or elites would not build a house where economic trees like cola nuts or medicinal plants needs to be destroyed without consulting traditional medicine practitioners. It’s very difficult to find an adult without any basic knowledge of traditional medicines especially in treating simple ailments like wounds, stomach upsets, fever etc.
84 Prejudice to the Environmental Balance Exacerbate the Outbreak of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis after the War against Daesh in - Al-Ramadi, Al-anbar Governorate , Amal H Atiyah* and Faraj Hato Joni
Pollution resultant from military operations after the war against Daesh that happened in Ramadi city have direct or indirect significant impact, on contaminated of environmental elements which start to exacerbation the outbreaks of zoonotic Leishmaniasis. In view of the fact that is one of the interpretations of the negative consequences on society, combined with bad personal hygiene. The distribution of CL has explicit affected by demographic characteristics as well as climatic changes. Age group, type of construction, seems to have significant effect on morbidity with parasite. Incidence fluctuated according to degree of temperature during seasonal period a cutaneous leishmaniasis lesion observed in many parts of body’s patients. However, a difference in the percentage of skin infestations was note, including face, hand, and arm and leg. Actually, the exact health situation in area’s study is more complex and cannot be given based on a restricted data.
85 A General Outlook at the Pathogenesis of COPD , Maria Benito*
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by deregulated chronic inflammation of the airways and persistent airflow obstruction, leading to emphysematous destruction of lung tissue and declining pulmonary function. There is a raise in infiltrated inflammatory cells in the lungs of COPD patients. Many processes are involved including damaged repair process that accelerates the development of the disease. Inflammatory mediators and dysfunctional airway smooth muscle (ASM) also play a role in COPD. Proteases and growth factors triggered by infectious pathogens, air pollution or second-hand smoke involved in the development of local and systemic immune response are upregulated during exacerbations. The role of innate immunity in COPD pathogenesis has been implicated in acute exacerbation that together with elevated interleukin (IL) 1-like cytokines suggests that inflammasomes play a role in the pathogenesis of COPD
86 Healthcare Delivery to the rural area in Iran , Hooshang Lahooti*1, Kevin Rod2 and Alayar Kangarlu3
The population explosion in Iran since 1979 uprising, mismanagement, and widespread corruption in the various echelon of Islamic government hierarchy has strained the neglected social infrastructure that has not kept up with the demands and changing demographics. This effect is apparent in the provision and delivery of primary healthcare to rural areas. The contributing factors, such as lack of health education to prepare sufficient numbers of health professionals and the distribution of medical services has not equitably reached all corners of the country. The significant gaps in accessing the medical care between different socioeconomic strata affected the rural healthcare delivery profoundly compared to urban settings. The healthcare system is part of the infrastructure, and its implementation is for the good of all Iranian and not as a business enterprise. Having said that there is a need to develop and implement a comprehensive universal/national healthcare policy; this can be achieved by considering the previous achievement and recognising the importance of solving future complex problems. This healthcare policy should cover the health education, delivery of healthcare and an efficient system free of corruption for reimbursement of healthcare professionals. It is essential to address these problems reasonably well to prevent the occurrence of them in the future secular government in Iran if ignored, that will prevent the recovery and revival of the nation at all levels. The new system should entail a non-profit government funded a system that is a universal, centralised/single-point healthcare insurance in Iran for all Iranian. The point to emphasise is that delivery of health; dental and pharmaceutical cares are not subject to entrepreneurship and profit-making facilities. These are the fundamental needs of a society that is provided by a government. The funding for the healthcare is by collaboration with the universities educating the necessary health professional and financial support by pharmaceutical industries, private sectors and the government. 
87 Becoming God in the Multiverse , Paul C Mocombe*
This work explores the nature of God in the multiverse according to Paul C. Mocombe’s structurationist theory of phenomenological structuralism. The author posits that God is not an omnipotent, omniscient, etc., Being that stands outside of spacetime. Instead, God is consciousness, a fifth force of nature, which constitutes the multiverse along with gravity, electromagnetism, and the strong and weak nuclear forces. God is the evolution of consciousness at the subatomic particle level, a fifth force of nature, a psychion constituted as a subatomic psychionic field, which evolves via experience as embodied aggregated neuronal energy in microtubules of brains recycled/entangled/superimposed throughout the multiverses. In the human ethos, the psychionic/pan-psychic subatomic field that is consciousness becomes God, which is associated with attributes that we must embody in order to reproduce our being in material resource frameworks.
88 Syndrome of the lodges in the wake viperine enemasures in intensive care Chu of Bouake. Ivory coast , Koffi N’guessan R*, Ogondon Bernard, Pete Yaïch DC, N’da Koffi Cinthia, Kouame Ke, Boua Narcissus and Brouh Yapo
Viperine envenomation’s are serious because of the local complications they cause.Objective: To describe the clinical and evolutionary aspects of patients with post-envenomation syndrome.Patients and Method: Retrospective and descriptive study of cases of viperine envenomation syndrome treated in intensive care unit at the CHU of Bouaké during the period from January 1, 2012 to March 31, 2016. We identified 126 cases of envenomation including 37 viperine envenomations and noted 06 cases of compartment syndrome. The average admission time was 11.50 hours with extremes of 02 and 48 hours. There were 04 men for 02 women. Farmers were the most affected including five and a shepherd. The bite was located at the feet and ankles at 04 patients and at the hands at 02 patients. Painful tension was observed in the muscular compartments with extensive locoregional edema, and disappearance of peripheral pulses necessitated a discharge fasciotomy. Antivenom serotherapy was systematically performed with the FAV Afrique at a dose of 02 doses on average associated with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid antibiotics and multimodal analgesia (paracetamol, tramadol and / or morphine). The average duration of hospitalization was 13 days with extremes of 10 and 19 days. The evolution was favourable in all the patients without amputations with sequelae of tendinous retractions
89 Personalized Approach in the Diagnostic and Treatment of Tinnitus , Lisotskaya VV*, Merkulova EP, Greben NI and Eremenko UE
Tinnitus is a disease that affects millions of people. However, there is still no standard for diagnosing and treating this disease. What necessitates a lot of new research in this area?The object: 40 patients with Tinnitus studied at Audiology department of the State Institution “The Republican Center for Research and Practice in Otolaryngology”, from 2018 to 2019 year.The aim: To determine the most effective method of management patients with Tinnitus.The methodology: Mathematical statistics, Student t-test, Fisher test. All patients underwent DPOAE, TEOAE, tympanometry and acoustic reflexes, Auditory Brainstem Response, high-frequency audiometry, Word Recognition test.The results: The study involved 40 individuals an equal man (N=23) and women (N=17) in the middle age at 32,31 ± 10 years (95% CI 18-55 years). All patients (N=40) were divided into 2 groups: 1 group (соntrol) - patients with tinnitus with standard diagnostic and treatment plus white noise masking, 2 group (experience) –patients with tinnitus who were managed with personalized approach. It was found that statistically significant difference was observed between the both groups diagnosed with DPOAE and TEOAE. All patients successfully passed the TEOAE-test from 2 groups. But all patients showed lower results at 1501, 2002, 6000, 8000 Hz frequencies by the distortion-product otoacoustic emissions. It was significantly revealed an elongation or the shortening of the peak of I wave (t≥ 0,95) with an increase in the amplitude and an increase in the latency. Speech intelligibility was 80±5% (t≥ 0,95in both groups. Based on the characteristics of the peak of I wave, drug treatment was prescribed to stimulate or inhibit the functioning of the auditory nerve in the experience group for 2 weeks. Additionally, in the group of experience group, listening to delta waves at a frequency of 5kHz was assigned for three months. Significant difference was achieved in the experiment group and was accompanied by the restoration of the amplitude of the peak of I wave to 61,3 ± 5.8 % to normal and completely passing DPOEA during 6 months.Conclusion: Personalized approach increases the effectiveness of treatment of tinnitus and the quality of life this kind of patients.
90 Anti-Abortion Law is an Ethical Issue, Thanks for Alabama Governor Kay Ivey , Othman Alfleesy*
Michael Cook the editor of Bio Edge published an article on 19 May 2019, titled: Alabama passes most restrictive abortion law in US, which seems to me one of the most important issue for human life. On the basis of this important article let me say:The good soul is driven by good motives and loving living feelings and Governor Kay Ivey was that one. Your courageous step in making this immortal, courageous, moral and ethical decision is a real and tangible expression of your humanity, your living conscience, your high morals, and the principles of your ethics, education and behaviour, regardless of social or political altercation dilemmas.
91 Training Implications for Firefighters through objective Measurement of the Physiological Demands of Firefighter Job Tasks , Dierdra K Bycura*, Christopher P Repka, Anthony C Santos and Nanette V Lopez
The purpose of this study was to describe the direct measurement of physiological demands of firefighter job tasks within a modified Candidate Physical Abilities Test (CPAT) broken out by specific task. Twenty male firefighters from a large municipal fire department in the southwest United States participated in the study. To directly measure cardiorespiratory demands of firefighting job tasks, the study incorporated the measurement of individual firefighter physiological demands on four different physiological variables (VO2, Heart Rate-HR, Respiratory Exchange Ratio-RER, Energy Expenditure per Minute-EEM). These four variables were measured during participant completion of a modified physical protocol for firefighters (CPAT); 8 tasks repeated for 15 minutes in duration at baseline, 6 weeks post-baseline, and 14 weeks post-baseline, using the Cosmed K4b2 portable metabolic system. Tukey’s HSD comparison test was performed to compare the differences between responses of each task (p ≤ 0.05). Results demonstrated significant differences between some tasks. VO2 requirement to complete the tasks increased from baseline to 14 weeks post-baseline while RER decreased. Knowledge of physiological work required of specific and accumulated firefighter job tasks could inform type of training, timing and fitness ability needed to safely perform job tasks and directly target fitness maintenance for the job.
92 The Multifunctional Therapeutic Approach to Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease: Molecular Bases, Pharmacology and Perspectives in Medicinal Chemistry , Aldo Sena de Oliveira*1 and Anderson Luiz Machado2
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that affects a large part of the elderly population, aged over 65 years. With increasing life expectancy, AD has become the most common form of dementia, leading to progressive impairment of daily living activities and a variety of neuropsychiatric symptoms and behavioral changes. Despite advances in recent years, the chemotherapy treatment of AD still presents a challenge, since a great part of the therapies only act in the reduction of the symptoms in order to improve the quality of life of the patient. In this context, this mini review seeks to illustrate and emphasize the need to understand AD at a molecular level and to combine multi-target strategies in order to develop new drugs, safe use and with fewer adverse effects, as a way to contribute to the advancement of research in an area that represents a major global public health problem.
93 Review on Some Virulence Factors Associated with Campylobacter Colonization and Infection in Poultry and Human , Wafaa MM Hassan1*, Mekky AAA1 and Enany ME2
Campylobacter is one of the most important four global diarrheal diseases. It is considered to be the most common bacterial cause of human gastroenteritis in the world causing a disease called campylobacteriosis. In developing countries, campylobacteriosis in children under the age of 2 years are especially frequent and sometimes resulting in death [1]. Mainly C.jejuni and C. Coliare well recognized causes of human campylobacteriososis with symptoms ranging from mild watery diarrhea to serious neuropathies [2]. 
94 Patient Perspective Regarding Medical Services in 21st Century , Alexandrina Maria Pauceanu*
To start, I would like to mention that this document is my opinion based on my personal experience from the previous years. It is not meant to accuse or denigrate anyone in anyway. It is meant to be a reflective document from a patient and business professional perspective. In the recent years, we have witnessed a boom of private medical practices. Do not get me wrong, this is a good thing from economic perspective; it is good from competition point of view as well. However, the question remains: what about us, the patients?
95 Pharmaceutical Residues in the Aquatic Environment: Recent Studies in Estonia , Maiu Tiismus, Erki Lember and Maret Merisaar*
Ecotoxicological impacts of pharmaceuticals in the environment were first paid attention to in the 1990-ies, when a massive death of the bird species Gyps africanus or white-backed vulture occurred in Pakistan and India. This was found to be caused by accumulation of diclofenac in their kidneys. These residues originated from veterinary treatment of free-range livestock that the birds had been eating Oaks et al. [1].
96 Risk of Imminent Transformation of Diabetes Mellitus Postpartum in Women who covered with Gestational Diabetes: Physiology and Perspectives of Treatment , JC Paredes Palma*1, Lorena Balladares Macedo1, DRA claudia Nayely Paredes palma1, Daniel López Hernández2, Georgina González Zarate2, Carlos Ramirez Velazquez3, Mario Alberto Huesca Rodriguez4, Erik Osvaldo Sanchez Hemández5 and Beatriz Irene Sanchez Trampe6
In the last 30 years the incidence of obesity has increased alarmingly and almost on a par with the Metabolic Syndrome, which evolves into Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM2) [1]. In 2012, the International Diabetes Federation (IFD) estimated that more than 371 million people lived with this disease and that 4.8 million people die because of its worldwide [2]. The frequency of DM2 in Mexico, from 1998 to 2012, has seen a trend towards an increase of 4.7%, from a morbidity rate of 342.1 to 358.2 cases per 100 thousand inhabitants, specifically in 2012, 418,797 patients were reported. diagnosed with diabetes (which represents 0.4% of the Mexican population), 59% of the cases were female, being the age group of 50-59 years of age the most affected, with a morbidity rate of 1,237.90 cases per 100,000 inhabitants [2-6]. 
97 Review of Green Synthesis and Antimicrobial Efficacy of Copper and Nickel Nanoparticles , Ahtesham Ahmad Shad1* and Wajahat Ahmed Shad2
Nanotechnology is the field of significant importance and exhibit versatility in approaching other sciences at micro to macro levels. The presence of nanoparticles in natural environment has gained special attention recently in medical world. Because of smaller size, inorganic and organic nature, optical phenomenon, physical and biochemical properties in relation with size to volume the nanoparticles are applicable in various disciplines and sciences. Moreover, due to major threat of prevailing antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and slow progress in developing new drugs, the need of time also provoked these nano-technological approaches due to their antibacterial activity. The various kinds of nano-particles have been extracted and prepared from various methods i.e. gold, silver etc. This review aimed to highlight green synthesis phenomenon in preparation of copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni) nanoparticles as few data is available. Moreover, antibacterial efficacies of these nanoparticles are also explained to give a better look in understanding and expanding the knowledge accompanied with already described other nanoparticles.
98 Leading Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease Among the Population of The North-West of Russia , Boris Fishman1*, Alla Horoshevskaya1, Zurabov V1, Abdulin A1, Prozorova I1, Prozorova N1, Mikhail Yukhno1, Svetlana Butrimova2, Oksana Lole3, Pavel Staricov3, Anton Dovgal3 and Raff S4
Arterial hypertension and coronary heart disease cause huge damage to the health of the population, being the strongest risk factor for the excess mortality of the population. The results of many prospective studies conducted in the country show a high prevalence of these FR and prove their influence on the indices and dynamics of CVD mortality [1,2]. The concept of RF became the scientific basis for prevention, reducing morbidity and mortality from CVD and is widely used in practical work [3-5].
99 Burnout Syndrome in Syria: What are the affecting factors? , MHD Bahaa Aldin Alhaffar1*, Ghadir Abbas2 and Omar Hamadah3
Background: Burnout syndrome is the response to work-related process of chronic stress. In recent years, burnout syndrome began to be investigated in college students. A more comprehensive definition of burnout has recently been proposed to differentiate three different clinical subtypes of the syndrome: the frenetic type, the underchallenged type, the worn-out type characterized by overload, lack of development, neglect respectively. Risk Factors for Burnout include Specific job characteristics and personality characteristics. Emotional Intelligence (EI) is proposed to have the potential to deepen and enrich students’ understanding of competency during medical training, and possibly contributing in developing burnout among students.Materials and Methods: we preformed cross-sectional study on medical and dental students of Damascus University. A specially designed questionnaire was used to collect data consisting of three sections: the first dedicated to collect the demographic data for the sample, the second is (BCSQ-12-SS) questionnaire to evaluate burnout syndrome, the third is (SSREIS) to measure emotional intelligence. SPSS 22 was used to perform the statistical analysis.Results: final sample size was 376 students, 51.3% of whom were dental students, and 48.7% were medical students. The prevalence of overall burnout was 48.9%, while 22.1%, 24.2%, 19.1% had overload, lack of development, neglect respectively. Family income and type of work students did and practicing a hoppy were significantly related with burnout (P= 0.033, P= 0.21, P= 0.049). Students had an average emotional intelligence of 121.2, EI was significantly related (P= 0.089) and negatively correlated (P= -0.007) with lack of development, and was significantly related (P= 0.043) and negatively correlated with neglect (P= -0.065), and it was positively correlated with overload (P= 0.014)Conclusion: High prevalence of burnout is present among health care students, Emotional intelligence appears to have a role in the syndrome and further studies need to be carried out to intensely investigate this relation and other contributing factors to the burnout, and to develop programs to help these students in adapting coping mechanism to avoid burnout
100 Training to Train Resident as A Clinical Teacher: Perception of the Participant Residents , Piryani Rano Mal1*, Piryani Suneel2, Mishra Ravish3 and Poudel Rajesh4
Introduction: The residents have long been recognized as resource for clinical teaching to students, interns, junior residents. They need to train to become effective clinical teachers. That’s why Universal College of Medical Sciences Bhairahawa, Nepal organized one day “Training to train resident as a clinical teacher”. The objective this study was to take feedback of the participant residents and assess how they perceive the training at level-I of Kirkpatrick model of evaluation.Methodology: Feedback of the participants of training was taken on the valid semi-structured questionnaire comprised of four parts: Part A-Demographic information, Part B-Overall feedback on training, Part C. Feedback on specific sessions and Part D- Feedback for the improvement. Data was analyzed using IBMS SPSS version 21. Results: The participants rated training on scale 1-10 (1=poor, 10=excellent) for usefulness 9.21±1.05, content 9.07±1.00, relevance 9.29± 0.82, facilitation 9.50± 0.85, and overall 9.29± 0.82. They rated on specific session/s “knows about adult learning principles” 8.71±1.25 and “learning domains” 8.93±1.41 on scale 1-10 (1=poor, 10=excellent), while on sessions “How to be an effective clinical teacher” 3.79±0.43 and sub-session “How to plan a lesson for teaching” 3.79±0.43 rated on Likert Scale 1-4 (4=extremely important, 3=moderately important, 2=slightly important, 1=not important). The residents perceived that the training updated their teaching skills 3.64±0.50 rated on Likert Scale 1-4 (4=Strongly agree, 3=Fairly agree, 2=Slightly agree, 1=Not agree). The residents mentioned that training was interactive, participatory and friendly and demonstration of clinical skills through video was significant.
101 Peculiarities of Implementation of the Concept of Providing Quality of Drugs in Ukraine , K Smetanina*
The modern quality assurance of medicines covers the quality assurance of drugs, from the stage of their pharmaceutical development, research, through proper production, quality control, storage, implementation and the provision of information to the physician and patient. According to this concept, reliable guarantees of quality and safety of the drug should be provided at all stages of the drug life cycle.The quality of each drug should be proven at the stages of preclinical studies and clinical trials, objectively evaluated in the case of state registration, securely secured in the course of industrial serial production, and constantly controlled in the wholesale, retail and medical applications. In the focus of the WHO’s recommendations, all areas of the implementation of the concept of quality assurance of drugs should be aimed at meeting the needs of patients.
102 Autoimmune diseases of the nervous system: Risk factors and therapeutic challenges , Mostafa A Abdel Maksoud*1,2
Autoimmune diseases are a heterogeneous group of pathological conditions that have a rapidly increasing morbidity and mortality rates nowadays. The complex nature and the inscrutable etiology of these diseases have made them a non- negotiable challenge for immunologists. The neurologic autoimmune diseases are considered more dangerous as they affect the system that orchestrate all other body systems. However, the available body of knowledge in this area is so much little than the required and still many questions are needing to be answered. The risk factors that could lead to autoimmune reactivity are still also a matter of debate. This review will focus on the risk factors that could be potentially considered as contributors for the appearance of autoimmune reactivity and their implications in the therapeutic approaches of these diseases.
103 Autoimmune diseases of the nervous system: Risk factors and therapeutic challenges , Mostafa A Abdel Maksoud*
Autoimmune diseases are a heterogeneous group of pathological conditions that have a rapidly increasing morbidity and mortality rates nowadays. The complex nature and the inscrutable etiology of these diseases have made them a non- negotiable challenge for immunologists. The neurologic autoimmune diseases are considered more dangerous as they affect the system that orchestrate all other body systems. However, the available body of knowledge in this area is so much little than the required and still many questions are needing to be answered. The risk factors that could lead to autoimmune reactivity are still also a matter of debate. This review will focus on the risk factors that could be potentially considered as contributors for the appearance of autoimmune reactivity and their implications in the therapeutic approaches of these diseases.
104 Alzheimer’s Disease and Metabolic Dysfunction: No Association Between L72m Ghlr Variant in Brazilian Population , Daiane Priscila Simão-Silva1*, Patricia Fernanda Rocha Dias2, Micheli Pecharki2, Paulo Henrique Ferreira Bertolucci3, Lucas Trevisani Rasmussen4, Spencer Luiz Marques Payão4, Mauro Roberto Piovezan5, Helio Afonso Ghizoni Teive5, Lupe Furtado-Alle2, Ricardo Lehtonen and Rodrigues Souza2
Introduction: In Alzheimer’s disease (AD) the pattern of expression of ghrelin is modified. A reduction in this peptide hormone was observed in some regions of the brain as the hippocampus and the temporal lobe, both associated with cognitive system and memory. Ghrelin is the multifunctional hormone with an important role in regulation of energy balance and metabolic function and is coded by the GHRL gene. Objective: The aim of this work was to verify the relationship of the L72M GHLR variant, that is associated whit metabolic disorders, with Alzheimer’s disease. Materials and Methods: By case-control association study, DNA samples from 194 AD patients and 201 elderly control (EC) were genotyped for L72M GHLR variant (rs696217). Results and Discussion: The allele frequencies were similar in cases and controls (72M: 9.07% and 7.71%, respectively). These results suggest that L72M variant is not a risk factor to AD. We did not find association with this variant of GHLR, which has a larger correlation with metabolic effects and recent evidence suggests a strict link between metabolic disorders and AD. This work does not exclude the possibility of action of the other variants or epigenetic control factors of GHRL in AD.
105 Quality of Life and Spirituality in The Context of Chemical Dependency , Irami Araújo-Filho1*, Jurema Ribeiro Luiz Goncalves2, Nathalia Silva Gomes3, Eliseu da Costa Campos4 and Amália Cinthia Meneses Rêgo5
Objective: To describe the sociodemographic characteristics, quality of life and spirituality of users of alcohol and other drugs at the Center for Psychosocial Care in the Triângulo Mineiro region of Minas Gerais, Brazil, comparing levels of quality of life and spirituality according to sex.Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out with chemical dependents from this region of Brazil. The questionnaire on Sociodemographic and Economic Profile, quality of life (WHOQOL-bref), and spirituality, religiosity and personal beliefs (WHOQOL - SRPB) was applied.Results: A total of 232 chemical dependents were included in the study and 80.4% were male. In the Physical, Psychological, Social and Environmental domains, men presented higher scores than women. The women obtained a worse score in the Psychological and Environmental areas.Conclusion: The importance of proposing a Single Therapeutic Plan more adapted to the female reality, considering spirituality as an essential strategy for the recovery and handling of quality of life
106 Perception on Psychiatric Reform from A Standpoint of the Families , Bruno Vilas Boas Dias1*, Érica Alves da Conceição2 and Laís Fecchio Garcia2
The aim of this study was to obtain the perception of the relatives of patients with mental disorders, about the treatment offered at the Psychosocial Care Center (CAPS) and to identify the preference about the hospitalization in psychiatric hospitals and the treatment offered after the Psychiatric Reform. Qualitative, descriptive and exploratory research based on the Theory of Social Representations, following the guidelines of the Discourse of the Collective Subject. The sample consisted of 20 relatives of patients who were treated at CAPS II, in the city of Campo Limpo Paulista, in the interior of São Paulo. The central ideas obtained by relatives who are in favor of hospitalization in psychiatric hospitals were: “Aggression” and “Benefit of Hospitalization”. Family members who are not in favor of hospitalization and prefer the treatment offered by CAPS were: “Ineffective Method of Hospitalization” and “Family Tie “. Even after the Psychiatric Reform, there are still relatives in favor of hospitalization in psychiatric hospitals.
107 Toxicological Effects, Prophylactic and Curative Activity of Rauwolfia vomitoria Leaf Extracts on Plasmodium Berghei NK 65 infected Swiss albino mice , Omoya Funmilola Oluyemi* and Falusi Olatunde Ademoye
This study evaluates prophylactic and curative antiplasmodial effects of Rauwolfia vomitoria leaf extracts on Plasmodium berghei NK 65. The extracts of the leaves at 100, 200 and 400 mg kg-1 body weight/day dose levels were used to treat the test groups 72 hours before infection for the prophylactic test and 72 hours post infection for the curative test while a standard antimalarial drug, chloroquine, at a dose of 5 mg kg-1 body weight was administered on the positive control group. The negative control groups were left untreated. The level of parasitemia, Percentage Packed Cell Volume (% PCV), erythrocytes (RBC) and leukocytes (WBC) counts in the different groups were monitored also, bicarbonate, creatinine, uric acid, urea, calcium level and histological effects of extracts were determined during the period of study. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemicals of water and ethanol leaf extracts were determined. The water and ethanol crude extract at 400 mg kg-1 body weight/day had chemo-suppression of 95.27 and 97.21% for prophylactic test as against 81.88% for the standard drug while the level of parasitemia was reduced by 80.91 and 87.64% respectively after treating for five days in the curative test as against 88.98% for the standard drug. The variations in the values of Percentage Packed Cell Volume (%PCV), erythrocyte counts, bicarbonate, creatinine, uric acid, urea and calcium level for groups treated with water and ethanol extracts were significant (p<0.05) for prophylactic and curative treatment. Histological features revealed that there were well-formed liver hepatocytes with minor injury in ethanol extract when used as prophylactic treatment. Alkaloid, Anthraquinones, Cardenoloides, Glycosides, Phenol, Phlobatanin, Reserpine, Resins and Saponin were present in the crude extract. The result of this study suggests that extracts of R. vomtitoria has antiplasmodial effects, these however supports local claims on the efficacy of the plant’s leaf in the treatment malarial infections. This study has implications in future development of antimalarial drugs with little or no cytotoxic effect.
108 Processes of Cultural Change and Health Education , Alessandra Gargiulo Labriola*
In the era of globalisation, the profound technological transformation of production processes is leading to an important change in both the pace of life and time of work, study and leisure. The strong technological acceleration produced by the fastest means of transport, forces us to travel, to run without considering however the impact of our way of travelling on the environment and on the quality of life in our city. In an ever more interconnected world, which changes with extraordinary rapidity and speed, it becomes urgent to reflect on phenomena that we usually define synthetically with the industry 4.0 [1]. How do we educate ourselves in these profound changes? How to question the opportunities that new generations will have to make a great contribution to human and sustainable development in the future of society. If in the time of St. Jerome the language was latin today is the “digital”, the language of the web, big data, internet of things. A new language that changes schools and transforms work into factories permeating every moment of our life in being globally and locally interconnected. The language of the web is a language that lays the foundations of a new humanism and that, therefore, cannot and must never lose sight of the centrality of man. When we confront with the digital world, when we look at an uncertain future, we must never forget the depth and strength of our cultural roots even in the time of “the engineering of flows and the existential processes that we pretend to control with rationality “[2], robotization, digital skills.
109 Effect of Production Factors on the Development of Colorectal Cancer in the Population of the Omsk Region , NG Shirlina* and AS Kolchin 
The data of an epidemiological analytical study (case-control) are presented, in which 609 people living in the Omsk Region took part. The prevalence of colorectal cancer risk factors associated with production factors in the population of the Omsk Region was studied.
110 Human Identification by Amelogenin Test in Libyans , Samir Elmrghni* and Mahmoud Kaddura
Sex typing is essential in medical diagnosis of sex-linked disease and forensic science. Gender for criminal evidence of offender is usually as the initial information for investigation. For individualization, identification of gender is performed in addition to the STR markers recently. We reported the anomalous amelogenin results of 2 male samples (out of 238 males) represented as females (Y deletions) and another 2 samples with (X deletions) in Benghazi (Libya). The frequency in both was about 0.8%. Higher than those of the other populations reported. To confirm amelogenin results of the controversial samples, DNA was further used in SRY and Y-STR typing. All samples typed as males but two showed with X chromosomes. From the results, it was highly suggested that for the controversial cases of human gender identification with amelogenin tests, amplification of SRY gene or/and Y-STR markers will be adopted to confirm the gender [1].
111 Neurotoxin and Alpha-Neurotoxin Time-Resolved Absorption and Resonance FT-IR and Raman Bio spectroscopy and Density Functional Theory (DFT) Investigation of Vibrionic-Mode Coupling Structure in Vibrational Spectra Analysis , Alireza Heidari1,2*, Jennifer Esposito1 and Angela Caissutti1
α-Neurotoxins are a group of neurotoxic peptides found in the venom of snakes in the families Elapidae and Hydrophiidae. They can cause paralysis, respiratory failure, and death. Members of the three-finger toxin protein family, they are antagonists of post-synaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the neuromuscular synapse that bind competitively and irreversibly, preventing synaptic acetylcholine (ACh) from opening the ion channel. Over 100 α-neurotoxins have been identified and sequenced. Parameters such as FT-IR and Raman vibrational wavelengths and intensities for single crystal Neurotoxin and Alpha-Neurotoxin are calculated using density functional theory and were compared with empirical results. The investigation about vibrational spectrum of cycle dimers in crystal with carboxyl groups from each molecule of acid was shown that it leads to create Hydrogen bounds for adjacent molecules. The current study aimed to investigate the possibility of simulating the empirical values. Analysis of vibrational spectrum of Alpha-Neurotoxin is performed based on theoretical simulation and FT- IR empirical spectrum and Raman empirical spectrum using density functional theory in levels of F/6-31G*, HF/6- 31++G**, MP2/6-31G, MP2/6-31++G**, BLYP/6-31G, BLYP/6-31++G**, B3LYP/6-31G and B3LYP6-31-HEG**. Vibration modes of methylene, carboxyl acid and phenyl cycle are separately investigated. The obtained values confirm high accuracy and validity of results obtained from calculations [1-42] (Figure 1).
112 Detection of Vibrioes in the Aquatic Environment and the Sewage System by Culture Method in Selected Areas in Yemen , Mohammed F Al-Helali1 , Nisreen Yahya Al-Kahtani1 and Hassan A Al-Shamahy2*
Water sources contamination is nearly always the result of human activities and drinking water source is especially vulnerable in areas where population density is high and human use of the land is extensive. When water sources become contaminated, it is difficult to purify. Liquid waste dis-charged on to the soil initiates solute and microbe movements are the main source that contaminates water sources. Thus far, there are no records of any studies in which Vibrioes contaminations have been studied in aquatic environment in Yemen, so in the present study, we tried to isolate vibrioes in Thiosulfate citrate bile salt media (TCBS) selective media from different sources of drinking water, in addition from swages system in Sana’a city. A hundred and thirty water specimens were collected from drinking water sources that appear to be free from phytoplankton, 70 specimens were collected from drinking water sources that contain phytoplankton from Sana’a city and surrounding villages. 500 ml fresh drinking water or 500ml fresh drinking water contain phytoplankton specimens were passed through the membrane filter, soaked first on alkaline peptone water then 2 loop-full of the culture broth streaked to the TCBS media, and then bacterial growth colonies were identified with standard bacteriological methods. Also 75 specimens from different places of sewage system of Sana’a city were collected. An equal amount of swage’s water and enrichment media (alkaline peptone water) were mixed then incubated for 24 hours then sub-cultured to TCBS media after that bacterial growth colonies were identified with standard bacteriological methods.The rate of V. cholerae was zero from drinking water sources or from sewages. V. algenolyticus was isolated from only one fee phytoplankton drinking water sources (rate=0.8%), while in drinking water sources that contain phytoplankton V. algenolyticus and V. fluvialis were isolated with rate equal to 4.3% and 25.7% respectively. The crude prevalence rate of potential pathogenic Enterobacteria was 78.5% for drinking water sources. The rate of Salmonella typhi, and Shigella species, in swages system were 16.4% for both of them, while V. cholerae rate was zero.We conclude from this study that, the prevalence of Vibrio cholerae in drinking water sources and sewages in Sana’a city was zero, while others Vibrioes as V. algenolyticus and V.fluvialis were isolated. The prevalence rate of other pathogenic bacteria species that transmitted through water ingestion in drinking water sources was high which indicate human fecal contamination of water sources. The rate of contamination with these bac-teria is higher than that reported from other Arabic countries. Also non-V.cholerae species were low in free phytoplankton sources, while high level of non-V.cholerae was present in phytoplankton sources.
113 Pre-procedural Planning and Analysis of Coronary Anomalies During TAVR , Parivash Badar1* and Jacob C Vinson2
Variations in coronary anatomy and the presence of anomalous coronary arteries are associated with high-risk valve cases i.e. higher rates of morbidity and mortality. Therefore, it is valuable for physicians to be aware of the importance of the application of screening tools to determine the location of the coronary arteries from the aortic root. Imaging modalities such as Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography (Coronary CTA) can be utilized to evaluate and determine coronary origin, course and termination, thus allowing physicians to anticipate, prepare for and prevent complications in technical valve procedures, i.e. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR).
114 Sources of Sand and Dust Storms in Kuwait , Raafat Misak*, Abeer H Al Saleh and Ahmed O Abdulhadi
In Kuwait, the main threat on highways, oil fields, air bases, military camps, new settlements and agricultural farms is the sand encroachment phenomenon. During June – September 2018, Kuwait experienced severe sand and dust storms. The wind speed reached 70 km /hour. The north-west wind was prevailing. The sand and dust storms forced the closure of three ports and disruption of air traffic. The visibility was below 300 m. Several incidents were reported along Wafra Roads. Multiple sources of sands and dust storms (SDS) are observed in wide areas in the terrestrial and coastal environments of Kuwait .These sources vary in nature, land use, history, activity, impact and composition .The objective of the current study is to identify and characterize the sources of SDS in Kuwait .To realize this objectives, field surveys were conducted during 2017- 2018 . Landsat images of 2010 and 2017 were analyzed for land use comparison.
115 What should be our community’s Responsibility? , Temple F Smith*
Nearly everyone in the various fields of Bio Medical research is aware of emerging gene editing tools developed round the CRISPR-Cap9 system. What seems less clear, is now fully involved in the discussions of the associated ethical and societal issues is this research community. This is needed not just in the education of our students and other mentored, but with the general public. The importance of this is readily seen in the diversity of published opinions on both the utility of and implications of these new gene editing tools. For example, in the book “GMO Sapiens” by Paul Knoepfler and with Nature’s [1] headlines: “Russian biologist plans more CRISPR-edited babies” scary views are being presented
116 An internet is one of the most powerful tool for remote Medical Consultation for peers , Sanong Suksaweang* and Khongpakorn Sangmas
In order to get help, sometimes people can be assisted via a modern social network service like Facebook. This friend of mine was timely helped just the right time before he did anything wrong into his own help condition. Via regular check Facebook posting, I found his post very striking in term of picture and the question. I, therefore, took action immediately as I should. Luckily, he complied to my advice and got the right intervention with his doctor. In my opinion, Facebook can be one of the interesting tools for our medical personals to think about when it comes to Health services.
117 Add Onion to Your Dishes to Clean Your Arteries , Dongfeng Wu*
One of my close family members had some heart valve problems recently. He went through many heart-related tests, such as, electrocardiogram (EKG) [1], Echocardiogram test [2], transesophageal echo test (TEE) [2], and cardiac catheterization (CATH) [2], etc. The last one, CATH, is to check the coronary arteries blockage. Among all the bad news, one good result is that his blood vessels are very clean, without any build-up of fatty deposits, and even the doctor was a little bit surprised; since so many people are suffering from clogged arteries at this stage of life.
118 Editorial on Carcinoma Prostate , Nayab Mustansar*
When healthy and normal cells in the body change and grow out of control it forms a cancer. There are different kinds of cancers. Most common are the breast Cancer, thyroid cancer and prostate cancer. Breast cancer and prostate cancer spread to bones most commonly. A cancer can be a benign cancer or a malignant cancer. A malignant tumour has a metastatic spread that is it spread to other organs whereas a benign cancer can grow but cannot spread [1].
119 Detection of Essential Oils Adulteration: A Quick Overview and Current Challenges , Paul Vargas Jentzsch*1, Luis Ramos Guerrero2 and Valerian Ciobotă3
Essential oils are highly appreciated raw materials due to a variety of their intrinsic characteristics and properties. They are complex mixtures of volatile compounds produced by plants as secondary metabolites; communicational and defence roles were attributed to constituents of essential oils [1]. Over the years, many researchers have reported a great variety of properties of essential oils including antimicrobial and antioxidant activities, as well as, some other effects of biological interest that could be used in human and veterinary medicine [2]. 
120 New Perspectives and Competences in Redesign Clinical Organization and Appropriateness in Internal Medicine Wards: The Impact of ICT , Ilario Stefani* and Antonino Mazzone
Modern Internal Medicine is faced with the need to ensure continuity of care by operating in highly technological contexts. The complexity in managing today’s health needs must adapt to the growing articulation of demand and, on this basis, create flexible responses to emerging opportuni-ties. Nowadays we are witnessing a new evolution in communication, with the expansion of virtual technologies that increasingly replace traditional forms. In this article we will briefly discuss the feasibility and the impact of new medical technologies, communications set and devices application in Internal Medicine, with particular attention to chronic patients, with prolonged interventions to support a growing fragility, favouring integration in health, social and welfare services.
121 Environmental Bioindication using Some Morphometric and Physiological Parameters of Plants , Guzel R Valeeva*, Zarina M Khafizova and Violetta A Gabdrakhimova
The work aims at assessing the quality of the environment in the city of Kazan (Russian Federation) through the study of such indicators as the fluctuating asymmetry (FA), the chlorophyll content, and the delayed chlorophyll fluorescence in the leaves of birch (Betula pendula). We collected the samples at 21 sites within the city with high levels of anthropogenic stress. In the study, we evaluated the morphometric parameters of the leaf lamina (on the basis of these parameters, we later determined the level of fluctuating asymmetry), the content of photosynthetic pigments in the leaves, as well as the delayed chlorophyll fluorescence
122 No Proof that Biofilm Bacteria are Causing Dermal Filler Granulomas , Lemperle Gottfried*
An estimated 1000 patients worldwide, who develop foreign body granulomas after the injection of all kinds of dermal fillers, are treated falsely with systemic antibiotics over several months – just because one pathologist claimed to have found the reason for granulomas in a local bacterial infection. The problem is the easiness today how authors can find, copy, and refer to articles, whose results they never questioned but cited, only. One copies the results from the other – and by the way of repeating a hypothesis several times, it becomes the truth for the majority of a whole community of dermatologists and aesthetic surgeons. Since its first publication in 2005 [1] a multitude of at least 30 publications [2] offer broad-spectrum antibiotics as the treatment of choice for dermal filler granulomas. One reason is the widespread fear of injecting corticosteroids locally because the possibility of causing skin atrophy if injected outside the granuloma. If corticosteroid crystals (triamcinolone, prednisolone, betamethasone), the logical and effective treatment of choice [3,4], are injected strictly intralesional by moving the needle back and forth within the nodule, skin atrophy will never occur. The second reason for bacteria is causing granulomas is appealing because it blames the patient and excludes the product and its injector.
123 In the Wake of the “Implant Files”: Unheard Ideas to Make Device-Based Therapies safer and always more Innovative , Egron Sandrine*
The invention of implantable devices has revolutionized how doctors treat their patients. The case of faulty aortic valve replacement illustrates the spectacular progress which has been achieved. The first prosthetic aortic valve was implanted in 1952 by Dr. Hufnagel. The valve was made of a rigid cylindrical bulb chamber containing an acrylic ball. The prosthetic valve, which was placed in the descending aorta during a high-risk surgical procedure, improved the conditions of hundreds of patients in the fifties, though it offered poor hemodynamics and patients could hear the valve’s prosthetic ball bouncing around in the chamber [1].
124 Homophobia: A Psychodynamic Analysis , Jesús Dueñas Becerra* and Mariela Castro Espín
The World Day to Combat Homophobia and Transphobia is commemorated, in the Cuban archipelago and beyond our island geographical borders, since 1973; date in which homosexuality -as a no so graphic entity- was eliminated forever from the International Classification of Mental Illnesses. To evoke this historical event, I make this article available to the readers of this periodical publication. It is not possible, in any way, to explain what homophobia is without first conceptualizing the words homosexuality and phobia. The specialized literature defines homosexuality as sexual preference or attraction for people of the same sex, while phobia describes it as intense and persistent fear towards a specific object, situation or activity.
125 Measuring and Evaluating the Levels of Coagulation Factors and Platelet in the Serum of the Patients with Moderate and Severe Brain Injury , Behzad Saberi*
Brain injury is a common accident and many factors involve in it’s occurance. Due to daily increasing in vehicles numbers and some other dangerous factors, Brain injury incidence is increasing day by day. In case it would not be treated on time, it will cause high levels of mortality and disability. Current usual scale to detect the severity of head injury is GCS which although it is beneficial but has many limitations and in most of the time cannot be measured and used appropriately during clinical practice. So it would be necessary to try to find biomarkers that can determine the severity of brain damage in this patients group. This study has been done to determine and compare the levels of coagulation factors and platelet in the patients with moderate and severe brain injury [1-6].
126 Association Between Timp-/Angiotensin II,Profile and Cardiac Remodeling in Patients with Essential Hypertension and Heart Failure with Mid-Range Ejection Fraction , Asparuh Nikolov1*, A Blazhev3, M Tzekova2, K Kostov2, and N Popovski4
Background and Aims: Arterial hypertension (AH) is a leading cause for heart failure with mid-range ejection fraction (HfmrEF). The aim of our study was to: 1. Measure levels of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloprotease-3 (TIMP-3) and Angiotensin II (AII) in sera of patients with AH and HFmrEF. 2. In sera of controls. Material and Methods: 56 patients with AH and HfmrEF were examined, mean age 65.62±9.69; and 22 age and sex matched healthy subjects, mean age 56.4±5.53. 41 of patients were with hypertension mediated organ damage and 15 were without. Patients were divided in two subgroups- subjects with left ventricular hypertrophy (n=32); (HFmrEF+LVH) and subjects without left ventricular hypertrophy (n=24); (HFmrEF-LVH). ELISA was used for measuring AII and TIMP-3. Results: Patients with HFmrEF-LVH showed higher levels of TIMP-3: 7.747 (1.21916.725) than HFmrEF+LVH 4.693 (2.06210.463); (KW=0.48; p=0.48) and healthy controls 6.460 (1.00712.520); (p>0.05), but not significantly. TIMP3 showed correlation with grade of AH (r=0.85; p=0.02) and stage of AH (r=-0.52; p=0.05); and PLVW (r=-0.40; p=0.03). Patients with HFmrEF+LVH showed statistically significantly higher levels of AII: 8.533 (1.47713.009) than HFmrEF-LVH 1.333 (0.4776.932) and healthy controls 1.539 (0.2745.218); (KW=3.48; p=0.04). AII correlated with TIMP-3 (r=-0.50; p=0.0001), hypertensive cerebrovascular damage (r=0.57; p=0.0009), DBP (r=0.30; p=0.05), stage with AH (r=0.47; p=0.001); CK-MB (r=0.42; p=0.002) and UA (r=0.35; p=0.02). Conclusion: Our data suggest an association between changes in levels of TIMP-3/Angiotensin II profile and cardiac remodeling. Determination of serum TIMP-3/Angiotensin II profile may be a useful method for monitoring of development and progression of LVH.
127 Exhibition of Postural Time-Force Parameters in Varying Severity of Osteoarthritis of Knee During Performing Sit-To-Stand Testing , Shin-Tsu Chang* 1,2,3, Hsin-Yi Wang2,4, Shun-Hwa Wei4 and Shao-Chi Lu5
Background: Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is an irreversible leading cause of disability in elder. Clinical and research assessment for knee osteoar- thritis often use radiographic finding to determine the disease severity. But recently research found that radiographic diagnosis couldn’t reflect the functional activity of life capacity of patient with knee osteoarthritis. Load distribution influence functional capacity of patient with knee osteoarthri-tis. It is important to know the correlation between performance and functional capacity of knee osteoarthritis patients. Purpose: In this study, a sit-to-stand task was chosen to compare the force-plate measured time-force parameters and weight bearing asymme-try degree in knee osteoarthritis patients with different functional severity. Method: Study content sit-to-stand performance task and Lequesne severity index questionnaire. Forty-nine subjects participated in this study and were categorized into four groups (normal, mild functional limited OA knee patient, moderate functional limited OA knee patient, severe func-tional limited OA knee patient) according to Lequesne severity index questionnaire grading which assesses the functional disability of knee osteoar-thritis patients. Sit-to-stand performance used a four-load cell force-plate to detect ground reaction force during movement. Then four parameters (sit-to-stand total time, the ground reaction force, the moving rate of center of force (COP), and asymmetry index) which measured by force-plate were compared with the Lequesne severity index questionnaire grading. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the four parameters difference between four groups. Results and discussion: Compared with the normal subjects, the knee osteoarthritis patients take more time to stand up (p=0.003). Insufficient lower extremities extensors muscle strength (p=0.039), slower COP moving rate (p<0.001) were also found. The asymmetry index has shown the discrepancy between normal subjects and OA knee patients which showed weight shifting to their sound side. There was a good correlation between the patient’s Lequesne severity index and asymmetry index. Conclusion: Objective assessment of the OA knee patient’s functional performance reflects the patient’s subjective assessment of their function-al ability. OA knee patients shown a tendency of slow sit-to-stand movement, weakness lower extremities extensor muscle strength, poor posture control and weight shifting to sound side associated with reduced functional performance.
128 The Association Between Oxidative Stress,Inflammation and Diabetes , Sharon Hall Murff*
The concept of stress has been studied over many decades. An individual can research various forms of stress such as psychological, physiological, emotional, acute, and chronic. Other terms related to stress are daily hassles and oxidative. Holmes & Rahe [1] and Selye [2] reported that stress is a force or, are forces that place demands on an individual and as a result a series of responses occur. Selye [2] also reported that the forces, also termed stressors, evoke positive or negative responses in an individual. The aim of this manuscript is to describe the association between oxidative stress and diabetes mellitus. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disorder related to impairment in glucose metabolism. In 2013 a report from the World Health Organization (WHO) indicated that globally, the number of people with chronic diseases such as diabetes was increased [3]. The world-wide mortality rate for people with diabetes and other chronic diseases (i.e. cardiovascular and renal diseases) has been estimated to be greater than 60% [4]. Predictions related to the global prevalence of diabetes are that by the year 2030 over 400 million people will have diabetes. He et al. [5] reported an association between chronic diseases, inflammation, and stress, more namely, oxidative stress.
129 En-Bloc Transurethral Resection of Non-Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer. Current Evidence and Glimpses into the Future , David D’Andrea1, Francesco Soria1,2, Kilian M Gust1, Paolo Gontero2, Rodolfo Hurle3, Thomas RW Herrmann4, Dmitry Enikeev5, Petr V Glybochko5, Sergey Kotov6, Maxim Ryabov6, Lukas Lusuardi7 and Shahrokh F Shariat1,5,8,9,10*
Background: The purpose of this review was to summarize the current evidence on en-bloc transurethral resection (eTURB) of non-muscle-in-vasive bladder cancer compared to conventional TURB (cTURB) with a particular emphasis on ongoing randomized trials. Materials and methods: A PubMed/MEDLINE search of the English-language literature from its inception until June 2019 using the following terms in isolation or combination “bladder cancer”, “en bloc”, “TURB” and “resection” was performed. Evidence synthesis: Compared to cTURB, eTURB has been shown to achieve higher rates of detrusor muscle (>95%) and better quality of the specimen for pathological evaluation. Complication rates and perioperative outcomes are comparable between the two techniques. Moreover, eTURB seems to achieve lower recurrence rates. However, the retrospective nature of the studies and underpowered prospective trials limit the interpretation of these results. There are currently two active randomized trials which are evaluating the one-year recurrence rate (EB-StaR) and difference in the rate of detrusor muscle in the specimen between cTURB and eTURB (eBLOC), respectively. Conclusion: eTURB seems to provide a significant improvement in the surgical management of NMIBC with regards to oncology and safety outcomes.
130 Level of Obesity and Prevalence of Diabetes Among Children and Adolescents of Some Affluent Families of Bangladesh , KC Bhuyan*
The present analysis was based on data collected from 662 children and adolescents of 560 families of students of American International University - Bangladesh. The children and adolescents were classified by level of obesity, where level of obesity was measured by percentiles of BMI. It was observed that, among 662 children and adolescents 465 were in underweight group. Obesity and severe obesity were observed among 9.1 percent children and adolescents. A big (38.1%) group of obese children were suffering from diabetes. Obesity and prevalence of diabetes were significantly associated.The present analysis was done to identify the most responsible variables for obesity and diabetes. The identification was done by performing factor analysis and discriminant analysis. The detected responsible variables were parents’ education, occupation, family income, food habit of the child and utilization of time by the child.
131 Malt Extract as a Healthy Substitute for Refined Sugar , Daniela F Seixas Chaves1*, Daniela Valim Hatano2 and Dulcineia Rossini Milan2
An overconsumption of refined added sugars may cause inflammation, insulin resistance and an increase in visceral adiposity. It is important to highlight that refined sugar is devoid of micronutrients and phytochemicals and natural sweeteners such as malt extract and honey have a different effect in oxidative stress markers and overall health. Malt extract contains approximately 90% carbohydrate, most of it in the form of maltose, B vitamins (mainly niacin), amino acids and some minerals such as magnesium and potassium. It is also rich in phenolic compounds mainly ferulic acid and flavan-3-ols. It has a high antioxidant activity, both in vitro and in vivo, which makes malt extract a healthy substitute for refined sugars.
132 New Development Method for Determination of Cefuroxime Axetil (CUA) and Cefprozil (CZ) in Pharmaceutical Drugs by RP-HPLC , MA Alfeen1* and Y Yildiz2
High performance liquid chromatography was one of the most important technologies used in drug control and pharmaceutical quality control. In this study, an analytical method was developed using chromatography method for determination of two Cephalosporin as like: Cefuroxime Axetil (CUA), and Cefprozil (CZ) in pharmaceutical Drug Formulations. Isocratic separation was performed on an Enable C18 column (125mm × 4.6mm i.d, 5.0μm, 10A ÌŠ) Using Triethylamine: Methanol: Acetonitrile: Ultra-Pure Water (0.1: 5: 25: 69.9 v/v/v/v %) as a mobile phase at flow rate of 1.5 mL\min. The PDA detection wavelength was set at 262nm. The linearity was observed over a concentration range of (0.01–50μg\mL) for RP-HPLC method (correlation coefficient=0.999). The developed method was validated according to ICH guidelines. The relative standard deviation values for the method precision studies were < 1%, and an accuracy was > 98%. The results were within the limits allowed by the US Pharmacopoeia and successfully for determination of Cefuroxime Axetil (CUA) and Cefprozil (CZ) in Tablets and dry syrup of the local pharmaceutical formulations.
133 Comparison of Two Methods for The Determination of Potassium in Vitreous Humor , Focardi M1, Lanzilao L2, Bonari A2, Rensi R1, Pinchi V1 and Gualco B1*
The estimation of time since death is one of the important issues faced in the daily forensic practice. The well-known and largely adopted methods of investigation in an early phase, however, cannot be applied after the first 24 hours from death. Several body parts and fluids have been analyzed over the years in order to find a correlation between biochemical markers and the postmortem interval. Among those methods, the study of the concentration of potassium in vitreous humor demonstrated a time-related increase. The methods for the determination of potassium concen-tration published in the literature are of common use in clinical chemistry laboratory, even if we should consider the well-known matrix effect given that such instruments are validated for plasma or urine analysis. The aim of the present research is to compare a gold standard method not affected by this effect with the low cost and easily available indirect potentiometric method provided by an automatized system.
134 Does Veterinary Science have a future in Australia? , JAL Maxwell*
In 2018, an Australian veterinary scientist asked the question, “Does Veterinary Science have a future in Australia [1]? The discipline of veterinary science has a relatively short history in Australia, and it was not until the 20th century that university veterinary education began. Four university veterinary schools were established in the 20th century (1909, 1910, 1936 and 1974), and during the 21st century, three new schools were added (2005, 2006 and 2008). Today, Australia has more veterinary schools per capita than any other western nation. Australia’s veterinarians serve in private practice, government, academia and industry. Initially, veterinary scientists devoted their expertise to servicing economic livestock and this justified their utility to Australia’s economy. However, today, approximately 90% function in private practice, with the majority providing a dog and cat GP service in urban and major regional centres, so the author askes the question, do we need the veterinary professions at all?
135 Metabolic basis of trained immunity , Kewei Qin1, Tengfei Zhang2 and Chaofeng Han3*
Innate immunity is considered to be unable to construct immunological memory in the traditional concept. However, in recent years, there is growing evidence to dispute this idea. Plants and invertebrates lacking an adaptive immune system can mount resistance to secondary infections [1,2]. NK cells and monocytes are also found have memory characteristics [3,4] In 2011, Netea et al. [5] proposed a new term “trained immunity” for describing innate immune memory responses. In 2012, Quintin et al. [6] further demonstrate trained immunity even occurred in mice lacking T and B cells, serving as an increased response to secondary infections which is monocyte- dependent after priming with β-glucan from Candida albicans. 
136 The Stiffness of the Blood Vessels as a Component of Cardionephro - Cerebrovascular Risk for Obesity , Murkamilov Ilham Torobekovich1,2* and VV Fomin3
Summary: In the studied sample the prevalence of 1st degree obesity was 70.4%. In 1st degree obesity, a significant increase in the stiffness index and the duration of the pulse wave are recorded, which were significantly more often associated with the type of the “A” pulse curve. In 3rd de- gree obesity, a significant increase in the level of central aortic and systolic blood pressure was accompanied by a statistically significant increase in the level of augmentation index and the value of augmentation index brought to a pulse of 75 beats per minute. In persons with obesity, a relationship was noted between the value of body mass index with a stiffness index, an alternative stiffness index, and A2d4 vascular parameters. Materials and Methods: The study included 715 people aged 18 to 88 years (mean age 53.5 ± 11.8 years) with obesity, women 409 (57.2%) and men 306 (42.8%). All examined individuals were measured for body length (cm), body weight (kg) with the determination of body mass index (BMI, kg/m2), blood pressure (BP) systolic and diastolic (mm Hg), frequency heart rate (HR, beats/min). Depending on the BMI classified obesity (WHO, 1997): 1st degrees (30–34.9 kg/m2), 2nd degree (35–39.9 kg/m2), 3rd degree (more than 40 kg/m2). Investigated the central arterial (aortic) pres- sure (CAP) and the parameters of vascular stiffness (VSt) on the apparatus “AngioScan-01” (LLC Angioscan-Electronics, Russia). Results: The presence of grade 1 obesity was detected in 70.4% of the examined individuals, grade 2 obesity in 22.3%, grade 3 obesity in 7.1%. In the studied sample, people of middle (45.1%) and elderly (27.8%) age prevailed. Among the study participants, obesity in 10.2% and 46.5% of cases was associated with smoking and tachycardia. Significant increase in central aortic pressure (140 ± 20 mmHg. versus 133 ± 21 mmHg; p <0.05) and systolic blood pressure (143 ± 20 mmHg. vs. 135 ± 20 mmHg; p < 0.05) were observed in patients with obesity of the 3rd degree compared with the 1st degree. A statistically significant increase in the augmentation index and the value of the augmentation index resulted in a pulse rate of 75 beats per minute (AIp75) of the vessels was recorded in persons with grade 3 obesity. The stiffness index and the duration of the pulse wave were significantly higher in the subgroup of examined individuals with 1st degree obesity. The type of pulse curve “A” was more often detected in persons with obesity grade 1. A direct link is noted between the value of BMI with a stiffness index (r = 0.298; p = 0.001), an alternative stiffness index (r = 0.119; p = 0.001) and A2d4 indicators (r = 0.101; p = 0.001) of the vessels. In patients with obesity, the most associated diseases were arterial hypertension (64.3%), comorbid diseases (34.8%) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (14.4%). In addition, among those examined with obesity, cerebro-vascular diseases were detected in 3.3%, coronary heart disease in 8.5%, chronic kidney disease in 9.9%, and type 2 diabetes in 11.3%.
137 Use Them but Do Not Abuse Them , Alex Atock*
The origin of the partnership between man and horse goes back to prehistory. There is evidence of this partnership in the art and literature of ancient China, Egypt, Persia and Greece. Xenophon wrote “The Art of Riding” 2000 years ago. The horse played its part in peace and in war. It was used for practical purposes in agriculture, hunting and transport and it was also used for recreation and sport. Most of the sports were purely local and depended on the culture and traditions of each community. Some of these sports were based on military skills, others were derived from hunting, but it is probable that wherever horses were used some form of racing will have taken place.
138 Informational Hygiene as A Medical and Biological Tool for Health Preservation in The Digital Era , Eduard I Denisov*
Brief overview and essay of the issues of digitalization of economy and society is presented. Some technical trends in developing new devices and medical and biological problems and achievements are discussed. The concept of allostasis as new biological approach and information hygiene as new branch of preventive medicine are briefly considered. The need for risk assessment and risk management thru international ISO/IEC stand-ards as well as need for new sanitary supervision systems with appropriate methods, criteria and norms are suggested. 
139 Acute Toxicity of The Pharmaceutical Substance Branched Oligohexamethyleneguanidine Hydrochloride at Mice and Rats after Intragastric Administration , Denis O Shatalov1,2, Stanislav A Kedik1,2, Natalia V Krupenchenkova1, Elizaveta A Voroshilova1*, Ivan S Ivanov1,2 and Diana A Akhmedova1
The toxicity of pharmaceutical substances remains one of the main issues of modern research. Accordingly, the search for analogues with lowered toxicity as compared to established substances remains a major task for modern pharmacology. A promising compound in this respect is OHMG-HCl, the toxicity of which is examined in this study. The results of the study indicate that the application of OHMG- HCl to be a promising perspective due to its low toxicity.
140 Mitochondrial Therapy for Disease Treatment and Prevention: What’s New? , Jan Tesarik*
Many diseases caused by mitochondrial dysfunction are caused by mitochondrial DNA abnormalities. The concept of mitochondrial therapy is based on the repair or removal of the existing anomaly. This can be done by replacing affected mitochondria by healthy ones, by in situ correction of the damaged mitochondrial DNA or by selective destruction of the affected mitochondria. In theory, all these concepts are applicable at the precon-ception stage, thus preventing the mother-to-child disease transmission, as well as at more advanced developmental stages (embryonic, fetal and postnatal) to alleviate disease symptoms in specific organs and tissues. Animal reasearch has paved the way to human therapies at all of these levels. So far, the only successful human application concerned the preconception stage and was based on replacement of diseased mitochondria in pa-tients’ oocytes with healthy ones originating from oocytes donated by healthy women. However, new developments in molecular biology techniques, enabling a direct reparation of mitochondrial DNA mutations or selective destruction of the affected mitocondria, will hopefully make it possible to treat mitochondrial diseases at both preconception and postconception stages, without the need for recourse to third-party (donor) biological material.
141 Histological Study of Effect of Ethanol Stem Extracts of Homalium Letestui in Paracetamol Induced Injury in Albino Rat, Using Various Staining Techniques , Sabastine Aliyu Zubairu1, Musa Tabitha Lubo2, Joseph Oyepata Simeon*3, Builders Modupe3 and Joseph Opeyemi Tosin4
Introduction/Aim: The use of medicinal plants has attained a commanding role in health system all over the world. This involves the use of me-dicinal plants not only for the treatment of diseases but also as potential material for maintaining good health and conditions. Many countries in the world, that is, two-third of the world’s population depends on herbal medicine for primary health care. Homalium letestui is an evergreen tree. The plant has been of immense benefit to traditional users. A bark-decoction, combined with other medicinal plants, is taken by draught for orchitis, and bark-scrapings enter a prescription given to a newly delivered woman. In this study the histological effect of the ethanol stem extract of Homalium lestetui on rat paracetamol induce liver injury was carried out using H&E and Gordon and Sweet silver impregnation Technique. Method: Thirty-six rats where used for this work. Group one served as the positive control receiving normal saline, group two served as or-ganotoxic group received paracetamol 2000 mg/kg body weight, group 3 received silymarin 100 mg/mg, while group 4, 5 and 6 received 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg of the extract respectively. General staining procedure Hematoxylin and Eosin and the specific staining technique, Gordon and Sweet silver impregnation Technique were carried out on the liver. Haematological and chempathological investigation were also done. Result: In the groups pretreated with the extract there were slight areas of vacuolation, cellular degeneration, hepatocytic hyperplasia, cellular proliferation and Pyknotic nucleus compared to organotoxic group which revealed severe cellular degeneration, vascular congestion, hepatocytic hyperplasia and pyknotic nucleus in H&E stain. In Gordon and Sweet silver impregnation Technique, there were well structured reticular fibers with no obvious abnormality seen in the H. letestui administered group, while there were distortion and degeneration of the reticular fibres in the group that received paracetamol only. Conclusion: Histological work suggests that the plant may prevent or protect the liver architecture.
142 Monitoring of Organophosphorus Pesticides in Brazilian Food , Tatiana SM Fernandes* and Ronaldo F Nascimento
The accumulation of agrochemicals in agricultural products is a major concern since the plants act as intermediates in the transport of soil, water, and air contaminants to humans and fauna. The assessment of pesticide residues in food has become a priority objective, ensuring the quality of food and protecting consumers against possible risks. Brazil has legislation on pesticides, but monitoring is still far from other countries, as is the case in the USA and Europe. Therefore, it is necessary to establish better practices for the evaluation of pesticide residues in food.
143 Analytic Hepatic Deterioration in Rectal Cancer: Liver Steatosis Vs Disease Progression , Losada Vila Beatriz*
Hepatic steatosis is a phenomenon that is often objectified in imaging tests that, if there is no analytical alteration of the hepatic profile, does not need further follow-up. It can be caused by chemotherapy treatment, so in oncological patients should be monitored more closely. We present the case of a patient treated with capecitabine who, once the treatment was finished, began to increase bilirubin and transaminases, showing an increased diffuse hepatic steatosis in an MRI
144 Use of Laboratory Animals in A Pre-Clinical Trial: A Critical View of the Biomodels Development and Application , Gabriel Melo de Oliveira1*, Cleiton Felizardo Brito1 and Ana Karina Furtado2
The scientific use of laboratory animals throughout history demonstrates changes in their vision and applicability, specifically from a moral, ethical and current legislation. In the Laboratory Animal Science Division of the Cellular Biology Laboratory, the development of experimental models and the performance of pre-clinical tests emphasizes the 3Rs principle of refinement in relation to equipment and methodologies. Thus, we transform the point of view over animal model as a Bioreactor for a Biomodel, being able to associate clinical/behavioral methods, consequently, to increase the welfare animal, reproducibility and confiability of the results.
145 Estrous Cycle Ratio as a Reproductive Index in the Rats , MJ Adeniyi1* and FO Agoreyo2
Estrous cycle is an endogenous rhythm. Previously, studies have evaluated and analyzed the cycle based on its regularity and length and diestrus proportion. The aim of the review is to introduce estrous cycle ratio as a reproductive index and highlight its relevance. Twenty murine studies were retrieved from electronic databases published between 1999 and 2019. Estrous cycle ratio was calculated according to the method of [1]. The result shows that the average estrous cycle ratio is 0.81 with a nadir of 0.5 and a zenith of 1.5. Increase in estrous cycle ratio may signify prolongation of follicular phase length and delay in ovulation. Decrease in estrous cycle ratio may indicate delay in luteal regression with attendant delay in the initiation of new folliculogenesis. Therefore, estrous cycle ratio is an estrous cycle evaluation index.
146 Screening of Oat (Avena Sativa) Varieties in Saline-Sodic Soil , Muhammad Arshad Ullah1*, Imdad Ali Mahmood1, Muhammad Sarwar1 and Muhammad Rasheed2
Oat has much privileged sodium ion levels than wheat, soybean, cotton, and other seasonal crops. Oat cultivation is still well thought-out to stand for a supportive biological assess to recover saline lands due to its high capability to accrue salt ions in its straw, which is widely used as forage for livestock. Seeds of Oat (Avena sativa) were sown in a pot study to different combinations of salinity and sodicity [S0=4.70dSm-1+ 19.12 (mmol L-1)1/2, S1= 9.02dSm-1 +30.65 (mmol L-1)1/2 and S2= 11.35 dSm-1 +34.69 (mmol L-1)1/2]. Seven oat varieties namely Bulbin, S-2000, Dilawar, PD2LV65, No.667, Bob and Cyprus were used for screening against salt tolerance. The leaset % decrease in grain yield (35.24) was attained in S-2000 oat variety than other varieties. Therefore, this oat variety showed minimum loss due to toxic effects of salinity cum sodicity. Dilawar oat variety attained the highest grain yield (1.38 tha-1) under S2 [11.35dSm-1 +34.69 (mmol L-1)1/2]. Bulbin oat variety received the least position (1.21tha-1) in this salinity level. % decrease at S2 over S0 was indicated salt tolerance of oat varieties. Bob oat variety attained the lowest % decrease at S2 over S0 (42.27). Therefore, this variety had the maximum salt tolerance other than six oat varieties under this experiment.
147 Medically Complex Children; Defining A Specialty , Mark Bleazard*
Medically complex children can be defined as subset of pediatrics with multiple co-morbidities, technology dependence, increased healthcare needs, and significant functional limitations [1]. The proportion of medically complex children requiring services in the pediatric healthcare environment is rapidly increasing [1]. In addition, medically complex children have the potential to significantly impact institutional indicators of success including hospital-readmissions and mortality rates, as well as healthcare costs [2,3]. Significant vulnerability as well as increased reliance on artificial and technological devices for survival may also disproportionally impact other quality measures of success including nosocomial infections, ventilator associated pneumonia, central line associated blood stream infections, surgical site infections, catheter associated urinary tract infections, pressure ulcer rates, and sepsis morbidity and mortality rates.
148 Obesity, Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Eating Behavior Disorders , Habiba Libaton*1, M Mziwira1,2 and R Belahsen1
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease related to obesity is a growing epidemic worldwide, resulting in the accumulation of triglycerides and free fatty acids in the liver. In Morocco, the increase in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease related to obesity highlights the contribution of environmental factors to this public health problem, without denying the caloric contribution that is due to macronutrients, high energy density and low oxidation. In fact, the dietary transition experienced by Morocco following the production of the food industry and the presence of the media has turned the Mediterranean dietary model characterized by a diet rich in starch and fiber, low in fat and a physically active life to a pattern with more diversified diet rich in sugars, saturated animal fats and processed foods, low in fruits, vegetables and fibre and a sedentary and stressful lifestyle [1]
149 Asean Harmonization on Traditional Medicines , Suwijiyo Pramono*
Term “Traditional Medicines” has two meanings. The first one means all healing methods that are used traditionally by the people as curative, preventive, rehabilitative, paliative and promotive manner for their health. It can be psychological, physical and/or herbal interventions. An exemple of psychological intervention is supranatural approach, while accupuncture and accupressure are the exemples of physical interventions.
150 Detection of Escherichia Coli in Freshly Harvested Spinach Samples Collected from Five Different Markets in Zaria , Karaye GP1*, Karaye KK2 and Kaze PD1
Escherichia coli, though, normal flora of the digestive tract of human and animals have over the years evolved the ability to cause a wide range of disease. A total of 100 freshly harvested and ready to sale spinach samples in five selected market in Zaria, Kaduna State were collected and analysed for E.coli 0157: H7. Twenty (20) samples each were collected from Sabon Gari, Palladan, Samaru, Hayin Dogo and PZ. Isolates were screened using the conventional biochemical characterization for E. coli O157: H7. Twelve (12) gram of spinach leaves each was washed with sterile distilled water. Five (5) mls of each washing was inoculated into 5 mls of double strength Mac Conkey broth and inoculated for 24 hours at 370C. A loop full of the positive colonies was subcultured on EMB Agar and incubated for 24 h at 370C a greenish metallic sheen on the surrounding medium were observed. These presumptive positive colonies were stored in nutrient Agar slant at 40C until it was required for biochemical test. E. coli was confirmed by biochemical test and the growth on EMB Agar. Out of the 100 samples collected, Isolates were screened using the conventional biochemical charac-terization for E. coli O157: H7. A total of 119 (47.6%) E. coli O157: H7 and 16 (6.4%) E. coli O157 was isolated respectively. Therefore, there is need to characterize the E. coli from spinach in local markets in Zaria, so as to checkmate and create awareness on the spread of E. coli especially 0157:H7 infection in livestock and humans in Zaria and Kaduna State.
151 Stilbene-Based Two-Photon Thermo-Solvatochromic Fluorescence Probes with Large Two-Photon Absorption Cross Sections and Two-Photon Triple Fluorescence: Detection of Solvent Polarities, Viscosities, and Temperature , Chi Bao Huang*, Xiao Jun Peng and Jiang Li Fan
The unusually sensitive solvatochromism of 2,5-dicyano-4-methyl-4’-dimethylaminostilbene (P1) whose emission maximum varies from 445 nm in cyclohexane to 641 nm in DMSO are described. 1a with remarkably large two-photon cross sections exhibits very strong polarity-, viscosity-, and temperature-dependence of fluorescence, and can be used to detect polarities, viscosities, and temperature. The successful application of P1 provides a brilliant prototype for the developments of ideal two-photon fluorescence probes.
152 Biphasic P Waves–Paying Attention to Details , Jochanan E Naschitz*
On a rather usual electrocardiogram (ECG) a rather unusual morphology of the P waves provided the chance for my young colleagues and me, the veteran, to sharpen some of our professional skills. The Case: The patient, a 69-year-old man, was transferred for rehabilitation in the following of mitral and aortic valve replacement. The ECG on admission showed sinus rhythm, 98 bpm, and left ventricular strain (Figure 1).
153 The Use of Digital Imaging Techniques for Better Understanding of Cellular Reactivity , Ahed J Alkhatib*
Using ordinary techniques in viewing microscopic activities is limited by being qualitative in nature. Looking for more advanced understanding of image properties suffers from subjective views. Looking for more professional imaging analysis is available and not affordable in all settings. From our experience in immunohistochemistry, we used to localize biomarkers using indirect immunoproxidase techniques, but analyzing sections was a problematic and mainly beneficial for diagnosis since the result is mainly interpreted as positive or negative. The research needs in histopathology require more data for statistical analysis through examining hypotheses. To overcome these difficulties, we used the imaging analysis tools exist in adobe Photoshop software. The idea depends in calculating the total pixels per image, then an option to select a color of the image to compute its distribution as pixels. The obtained number is divided by the total pixels in slide. The resulting number is recorded. The same process is repeated for all sections that represent study groups. Using this technique leads to generate digital data that can be statistically analyzed and to compare the differences in groups and to determine the significance in occurring of cellular phenomena. Finally, we have used this technique for more than 10 years and published important articles in various journals.
154 Post-Partum Ilio-Psoas Abscess. A Rare Case of Puerperal Sepsis with Streptococcus Agalactiae , Huda Saleh*1, Rati Barman1 and Gamal Sayed1,2
Mrs. A a 41 years old gravida 6 para 5 lady delivered vaginally, with spontaneous onset of labour at 39 weeks of gestation under epidural analgesia with intact perineum. She had a regular antenatal care at a large tertiary care center. Her antenatal risk factors were a high body mass index and mild anemia with a normal Glucose tolerance test and no other medical or surgical co morbidities. Day one post vaginal delivery she started complaining of left hip and back pain restricting her mobility. Her pain was of new onset and described as spasm like and starting from left hip and radiating to the whole of her left leg. An initial management plan was conservative in form of analgesia and although she had some relief from the pain aspect, yet she started complaining of lower abdominal pain, left back pain and left hip pain with radiation till the toes with inability to walk and presence of fever with chills.
155 The Origin of the Plant Diversity and the Origin of Human Races , Maria Kuman*
The article offers a parallel between the unlimited possibilities of plants to adapt and the unlimited possibilities of humans to adapt. While in the Darwin’s evolutional theory, proclaimed in 1859, external influences modify the material body, for Goethe (in 1790) the external influences modify the archetypal form called plants’ spirit. For Goethe, the whole diversity of plants is a result of adapting of this initially created archetypal form, called plant Spirit, to different environmental conditions - adapting the plant’s spirit was taking many different forms. I think this was a genius intuitive insight of Goethe, but as all intuitive insights it was too much ahead of his time to be appreciated. It seems that the humans’ unlimited ability to adapt to different environments has the same origin – it is done through the initially created archetypal form, called human Spirit, which is nonlinear electromagnetic field (NEMF). The quantum origin of this NEMF is the basis of the human extremely flexible adaptation, which is the foundation of the origin of races. The racial features developed as adaptation to the different climatic conditions at different geographical latitudes. However, the unlimited ability of humans to adapt could only be explained if it was done through the quantum features of his NEMF, called human Spirit.
156 Health Care and the 2020 Us Election , Mildred A Schwartz*
Health care promises to be a leading issue in the 2020 US election. In the past, health care policies helped Democrats get elected. Currently, new policies may not give the Democrats such a clear advantage because of divisions in the party associated with contenders for the presidential nomination. Health care promises to be a critical issue in the forthcoming US election, ranking among the most contentious issues roiling the public sphere and accentuating the division between Republicans and Democrats [1]. To a large extent, health care played a similar role in the 2018 midterm election [2,3].
157 Health Care and the 2020 Us Election , Mildred A Schwartz*
Health care promises to be a leading issue in the 2020 US election. In the past, health care policies helped Democrats get elected. Currently, new policies may not give the Democrats such a clear advantage because of divisions in the party associated with contenders for the presidential nomination. Health care promises to be a critical issue in the forthcoming US election, ranking among the most contentious issues roiling the public sphere and accentuating the division between Republicans and Democrats [1]. To a large extent, health care played a similar role in the 2018 midterm election [2,3].
158 Steroid-Induced Osteoporosis; At a Glance , Berrin Durmaz*
Due to its strong immunosuppressive effects, steroids are a valuable group of drugs and are widely used in the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. With the discovery of cortisone and cortisol in the 1930s, synthetic derivatives of glucocorticoids are used successfully in many fields of medicine such as rheumatology, allergy, lung diseases, dermatology, hematology [1], Glucocorticoids (GC) in the treatment of many inflammatory conditions plays an important role. Nowadays steroids major reasons for its use; rheumatologic causes such as rheumatoid arthritis, polymyalgia rheumatica, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It has been reported that oral steroid use in the population is between 0.5-0.9%. The use of GC in the 70-79 age group is approximately 2.5%. [2]. During chronic use of steroids, well-known side effects such as diabetes, osteoporosis, myopathy, cataract, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis suppression, susceptibility to infections are seen. In addition, lipodystrophy and neuropsychic disorders are the most common side effects [3,4].
159 Post-vaccination epidemiological analysis of hepatitis “B” viral infection among selected communities in the Central region of Ghana , Yussif Mijirah Dokurugu1*, Evans Duah2, Clement Agoni2, Ransford Kumi Oduro2, Richard Kobina Dadzie Ephraim3 and Samuel Essien-Baidoo3
Introduction: Hepatitis B viral infection (HBV) remains a global health threat. About 257 million people currently living with HBV worldwide. HBV is prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa with prevalence of >8% established including West Africa. Though Anti-HBV vaccines existed since 1982, as the single most important Hepatitis B prevention measure. Ghana started active mass immunization program on HBV in infants in 2002 with sin-gle-combined Expanded Program Immunization (EPI) (pentavalent vaccine). However, this do not cover persons outside the EPI especially Adults. We designed this study to evaluate the impact of this vaccination programs, the accessibility of vaccines and the scope of this program in selected communities in the central region of Ghana. Methods: We screened and evaluated 1021 respondents from five Ghanaian indigenous communities in the central region namely Nkanfoa, Mankessim, Abura, Yamoransa and Gomoa Pinanko. They were screened for HBV and evaluated for status of Anti-HBV vaccination and on knowledge on the existence of such vaccine. Results: Majority of the respondents were between the ages of 52 years and 68 years representing 28.2% of the study population. Sixty-three (63) screened respondents tested positive to HBV infection. We recorded 6.2% HBV prevalence for the study. 11.9% had history of previous An-ti-HBV vaccination whereas 33 (3.2%) had knowledge on the existence of Anti-HBV vaccines. The age class ≤17 years had all benefitted from the EPI hence were previously vaccinated. Interestingly, they all had no knowledge of such vaccines in existence. However, 4 respondents of this beneficiaries tested positive to HBV. Conclusion: HBV is still endemic in Ghana. Despite the inception of EPI, there is still more work to be done to finally eradicate HBV from the country. EPI should be extended to benefit adults who missed the opportunity to be vaccinated from year 2002. A state of emergency should be issued on HBV and public education intensified. Easy accessibility and affordability of Anti-HBV vaccines are key in eradicating HBV from Ghana
160 Underutilization of the Subcutaneous Route of Administration , Kenneth W Locke*
Therapeutic proteins have become an important part of treatment, particularly for serious and chronic diseases, and the subcutaneous (SC) route of administration has become a more popular, yet still underutilized mode of delivery. The extracellular matrix of the hypodermis is composed of a network of fibrous proteins (e.g., collagen and elastin) embedded within a viscoelastic gel. The viscoelastic gel is composed of glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans that create resistance to bulk fluid flow in the SC space.
161 Underutilization of the Subcutaneous Route of Administration , Kenneth W Locke*
Therapeutic proteins have become an important part of treatment, particularly for serious and chronic diseases, and the subcutaneous (SC) route of administration has become a more popular, yet still underutilized mode of delivery. The extracellular matrix of the hypodermis is composed of a network of fibrous proteins (e.g., collagen and elastin) embedded within a viscoelastic gel. The viscoelastic gel is composed of glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans that create resistance to bulk fluid flow in the SC space.
162 Cognitive Dissonance in Iranian Multiple Sclerosis Patients , Atefeh Ashrafi Birgani* and Elham Foroozandeh
Multiple Sclerosis is a chronic disease characterized by loss of myelin in neurons. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the cognitive dissonance of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with healthy people. Methodology: MS participants were selected using non-probability sampling method from Iranian patients and healthy participants were paired with MS sample in education, age and illness stage. They were asked to complete dissonance arousal and reduction questionnaire (Har-mon-Jones;2008). Discussion: The results showed that the average score of MS patients was significantly higher than non-clinical subjects (p<0.05). It can be stated that one of the basic reasons of dissonance cognition in MS referred to probably impairment of memory, learning and cognitive functions. Keywords: Cognitive dissonance; Multiple sclerosis; Cognitive process Abbrevations: MS: Multiple Sclerosis
163 Features of Coping Behavior of Tuberculosis Patients , Sukhova Elena Viktorovna*
According to the results of the study of psychological and social characteristics of patients with tuberculosis, as well as the results of the survey on the targeted author’s questionnaire presents the features of coping behavior of patients with tuberculosis.
164 Carcinoma of the Faacial Skin among Yemenis; (A Prospective Hospital-Based Study) , Ali Ali AL-Zamzami*
Objective: The study aimed to study facial skin carcinoma among Yemenis to determain, the types, sites, the relation of this disease to the age and gender, and to define the possible risk factors associated with development of facial skin carcinoma. Material and Methods: The study is a prospective descriptive hospital based- study carried out at Al-gomhori –Teaching Hospital in Sana’a Republic of Yemen. The material consisted 126 cases of Yemen patients who attending to the department of oral and maxillofacial surgery and to the consultant unit of the head and neck surgery and diagnosed clinically, radiographically and histopathologically as having facial skin carcinoma. Patients who had previous treatment (surgical, radiation or chemo - therapy) or who had recurrent cancer were excluded. Data: were collected from history (using a questionnaire sheet), clinical examination of patients and from the histopathology results of the biopsies. Data were analysis using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). Results: In this study, 126 cases were reported, 81 cases (64.3%) were males and 45 cases (35.7%) were females, male to female ratio was 1.8:1. Carcinoma of the Facial skin is still remaining the disease of elderly patients, particularly those who have history of long-standing exposure to sunlight. The patients age was ranged from 8 to 92 years, the mean age for both genders was 64.29 ± 15.33 years. The majority of patients (95%) were over the age of 40 years. Basal cell carcinoma was the communist type, accounting 74.6%. Sqaumous cell carcinoma was the second type of facial skin carcinoma, accounting 25.4%. Naso-labial region and infera-orbital region were the most involving sites, accounting 20.6% and 19.8% respectively. Outdoor works (long-standing exposure to sunlight) was the main risk factor that play an important role to developing 68.1% of basal cell carcinoma and 75.0% of sqaumous cell carcinoma. Conclusion: Carcinoma of the facial skin in Yemen as in all countries still remains the disease of the elderly patients, 95% were over the age of 40 years. Males were affected more than females. M: F ratio was 1.8: 1. Basal cell carcinoma was the most common type, accounting 74.6%. Naso-labial region and the naso- labial region were the most involving sites, accounting 20.6% and 19.8% respectively. Prolonged exposure to sunlight (outdoor work) was the main risk factor that play an important role to development of facial skin carcinoma among Yemenis.
165 Novel Diagnostic Biomarkers in Liver Disease-a Metabolomic Review , Ahmed I*1, Niaz Z2, Cheema S3, Kassem W4 and Manuele F5
Disease of the liver are complex and pose significant challenges to physician due to diagnostic difficulty requiring invasive techniques such as liver biopsy. Changes in the odour of human excretions could provide diagnostic insight into pathophysiological imbalance. Identifying underlying volatiles metabolites responsible for these odorous changes can be correlated with the pathological process within the body. Advances in the tech-nology have enabled us to interpret the volatile signature of these changes in the odour. This has opened a promising area to lay the foundations of a rapid, non-invasive and point of care diagnostic tool. This review explores the diagnostic potential of volatile organic metabolites as novel biomark-ers and extends the discussion on the clinical applications of these biomarkers in liver disorders. 
166 Plant Toxins , Ogori Akama Friday*1,2
Plant toxins are generally the metabolites produce through plants to protect themselves against different threats like insects, predators and mi-croorganisms These toxins found in food plants is due to natural or new reproduction methods which enhance defensive mechanism. The plant part which may cause toxic effects includes roots, tuber, stem, fruits, buds and foliage. Natural toxins are present in numerous types of plants and these are ingested as food and when consumed in large quantity and not cook properly leads to food poisoning. These toxic substances when ingested can be potentially harmful to human health. Some plants produce phytotoxins that can severely harm or destroy any herbivore. Such as toxic proteins which have a role in defense against pathogens and insects. Such as ricin and rRNA N-glycosidase which have the potential to be used as bio-threat agents. They can be modified to exemplify improved affinity and efficacy for health endorsement. Several of these plants are commonly consumed as food. They have been developed as an evolutionary movement for self-protection. These toxic substances when taken in considerable amount can be harmful to human health and cause discomfort.
167 Wheat Gluten, Desirable or Dangerous Genes , Ewa Filip* and Małgorzata Kaplewska
My opinion is issued to collect and broaden the information about gluten, or more precisely, whether its presence and properties should raise concerns. Knowledge about gluten has expanded considerably over the last dozen or so years. It is known that it is a large polymer consisting of a mixture of proteins. Gluten occurs in popular cereals such as wheat, spelt, barley, rye and oat. Works carried out by cereal breeding institutes require a continuous control of the presence of various forms of these proteins in wheat grain, because, firstly, there is a need to obtain fertile varieties with high grain quality parameters, and secondly, to improve the physical and chemical properties of farinaceous products. As it turned out, gluten, which brings many positive aspects in the breeding process of cereals, as well as in the production of bakery products, can become a cause of many prob-lems for humans. According to many authors, apart from celiac disease, there are already over 50 other diseases, such as osteoporosis, autoimmune diseases, cancer and neurological diseases that are being associated with gluten effects
168 Facial Lipodistrofia In Patients Living with HIV/AIDS: From Diagnosis to The Necessary Interventions , Elcio Magdalena Giovani*, Silva AC, Noro Filho GA, Santos CC and Pollo IC
The advent of Aids has brought new challenges to the health area and the dentist surgeon plays an important role in the management of these patients. Antiretroviral therapy has dramatically changed the morbidity and mortality associated with HIV/Aids infection but has contributed to the emergence of other new situations that require proper approach. Lipodystrophic Syndrome Associated with HIV/AIDS is of multifactorial origin but is strongly associated with the use of antiretrovirals. It comprises alterations in the distribution of body fat, accompanied or not by metabolic alterations. The loss of facial fat, called facial lipoatrophy, is one of the most stigmatizing signs of the syndrome. This condition, often revealing the disease, brought back the stigma of AIDS, leading patients to depression and total seclusion of their daily life activities. It is necessary that Dental Sur-geons always share with the multidisciplinary team working with HIV/AIDS patients to identify these changes and seek effective and recommended treatment options for the treatment of facial lipoatrophy associated with HIV/AIDS
169 Public Health Impact of Substance Use on Adolescent: A Snapshot of Yenagoa in Bayelsa State. Nigeria , Raimi Morufu Olalekan1* , Abdulraheem Aishat Funmilayo2, Major Iteimowei2, Ebikapaye Okoyen3, Bilewu Olaolu Oyinlola4
The Nigerian polarization of its society with an estimated population ranging from 198 to 210 million people, growing at the rate of 3.2% per annum, into a large rural sector and a small urban component could provide a basis for the rapid increase in the prevalence of substance use among adolescents, which has aroused public health concern and have been declared a national public health and social emergency with a threat multiplier. One in every five people in the world is an adolescent, regrettably four out of every 10 teenager’s you meet on the street now abuse drugs and if unchecked, seven out of every 10 young persons on your street would become drug addicts by the year 2030 particularly in the major cities. Yet, many adolescents lose their lives during this adolescent period. However, the World Health Organization reported that an estimated 1.7 million adolescents die yearly mostly through accidents, suicide, violence, pregnancy related complications, substance abuse and high-risk behaviors or illnesses that are either preventable or treatable. Adolescents suffer from a preponderance of health risk and behavioral problems. Admittedly, substance abuse is particularly problematic for this population and causes significant harm to their health and well-being. However, the teenage years are so volatile that parents should not worry about making much progress. Consequently, substance use affects developing brain by increasing the risk of addiction, mood disorders, lowered impulse control, increased risk for adverse consequences, confusion, cognitive impairment, and medical morbidity, which can contribute to hospi-talizations and health care costs, as well as loss of independence and has been known to increase risky sexual activity, emphysema, lung cancer, heart disease, oral cancers, laryngeal carcinoma, and a number of other health issues in older age, decreased academic grades, and making poor decisions, that can be detrimental to the adolescents using or to others crime, militancy and violence behaviors etc. This article addresses the current trends and research related to the public health impact of substance use on adolescent. It is therefore vital for parent and societies to seize the opportunity of applying behavior modification, mind transformation and remodification therapy to young adults. Also, citizen advocacy should be intensified and encouraged on the health impact of substance use. It is also imperative that all stakeholders engage in concerted efforts to target both parents and adolescents in substance use control strategies
170 Influence of Endometrial Microbiota on Reproductive Outcomes in IVF Programs , Veronika Smolnikova1*, Lela Keburiya1, Tatiana Priputnevich1, Vera Muravieva1, Elena Kalinina1 and Gennadiy Sukhikh1
Introduction: Implantation failures are one of the causes of the inefficiency of IVF programs. Recent studies have shown that in humans, some biotopes such as the uterus and placenta, previously considered sterile, are colonized by their unique microbiota. Disturbance of the uterine micro- biota can be one of the reasons for the decline in the effectiveness of assisted reproductive technology programs. Materials and methods: A total of 80 patients with infertility were enrolled in the study: group I included the patients with fresh embryo transfer and group II included the patients with frozen-thawed embryo transfer. After routine embryo transfer, the most distal 5 mm portion of the embryo transfer catheter was placed in the sterile container. A study was conducted using culture–based methods with extended nutrient media. Results: In patients with fresh embryo transfer in ovarian hyperstimulation cycle, 28 species of microorganisms were detected. Pregnancy in this group occurred in 20 women (40 %). The microflora was dominated by Lactobacillus spp. (90% of women). In patients with frozen-thawed em- bryo transfer, 20 species of microorganisms were detected. Pregnancy in this group occurred in 13 women (43.3 %). The microflora was dominated by Lactobacillus spp. (69.2 % of women). Bifidobacterium spp. were significantly more frequently detected in patients of group II than in those of group I (23.3% and 2%, respectively). Conclusion: The evidence of this study suggests that the uterus is not sterile, the uterine microbiota may differ from the cervical canal microbi- ota, the uterine microbiota is one of the predictors of the success of embryo implantation.
171 Integration of Basic Sciences in Undergraduate Nursing Curricula , Fred Saleh*
Background and aim: Undergraduate nursing curricula often offer basic science courses during the first academic year of the degree program. These include Gross Anatomy, Embryology, Physiology, Pathophysiology, Biochemistry, and Microbiology. They are often given as separate courses, thus lacking horizontal and vertical integration with major nursing courses, such as medical-surgical nursing, critical care nursing, pediatric nursing, maternal nursing, recovery nursing, emergency nursing, operating room nursing, and geriatric nursing. This study aims to survey undergraduate nursing curricula in Lebanon about the integration of basic science courses. Materials and methods: We conducted two separate comprehensive PubMed and Medline searches using the following combined MeSH terms: “Gross Anatomy, Embryology, Physiology, Pathophysiology, Biochemistry, OR Microbiology, AND Nursing, AND Lebanon”. In parallel, we reviewed the nursing degree catalogs and the related description of courses of the nursing programs currently offered by various universities in Lebanon about whether basic sciences are integrated into the curriculum. Results: Our results showed that Anatomy, Embryology, Physiology, Pathophysiology, Biochemistry, and Microbiology are still delivered as separate courses during the first years of the nursing programs which we reviewed. On very few occasions, some of these courses are rather offered during the second or third year. Also, and except for combining Anatomy with Physiology in one course in some of the reviewed programs, proper horizontal integration is still lacking. Embryology is mostly not given as a separate course, but rather either embedded in the Anatomy course or not given at all. Finally, we did not find vertical integration in the 12-degree-programs which we reviewed. Discussion and conclusion: Proper horizontal and vertical integration of basic sciences in undergraduate nursing curricula in Lebanon is still lacking. This often results in a knowledge gap, as well as in difficulty in correlating “normal” with “abnormal” by the students. 
172 Brain-Computer Interfaces: From Past to Future , Murad Sultanov*
More than 100 years ago, scientists were interested in the capabilities of the brain and tried to understand whether it is possible to somehow influence it. In 1875, English doctor Richard Caton managed to register a weak electric field on the surface of the brain of rabbits and monkeys. Then there was a lot of discovery and research, but only in 1950, José Manuel Rodríguez Delgado, a professor of physiology at Yale University, invented the device, which could be implanted in the brain and controlled by radio signals. Thus, began the era of neural interfaces and technologies capable of enhancing human biological capabilities. Already in 1972, a cochlear implant went on sale, which converted the sound into an electrical signal, transmitted it to the brain and actually allowed people with severe hearing impairments to hear. Moreover, in 1973, for the first time, the term “brain-computer interface” was used - a computer-based neuro interface. 
173 Classification of Salivary Gland Diseases among Yemenis: (A Prospective Hospital-Based study) , Ali Ali AL-Zamzami*
Objective: This study aims to classification of salivary gland diseases among Yemenis to established data base, determine the common disease, common site and the relation of these disease to the age and gender. Material and Methods: The present study designed as a prospective descriptive hospital –based study carried out at Al-gomhori –Teaching Hospital in Sana’a. All patients attending to the department of oral and maxillofacial surgery and to the consultant unit of the head and neck surgery complain of salivary gland disease were examination. Data were collected from patient history (using a questionnaire form), clinical examination of patients, radiographs examination and from the histopathology results of the biopsies. Biopsy result used to confirm the diagnosis. Results: A total of 140 cases of salivary gland diseases were studied,64 cases (45.7%) were males, and 76 cases (54.3%) were females, male to female ratio was 0.8-1. The age of patients was ranged from 3 to 82 years, with mean age for both gender of 40. 09±21.149. The majority of patients (79%) were over the age of 20 years. The most common disease of salivary glands tumor was salivary gland tumor, accounting 43.6%, followed by cystic lesions 20.7% and sialolithiases (20.0%). The less common salivary gland diseases were sialadenitis and sialadenosis, accounting,12.9% and 2.9% respectively. Sqaumous cell carcinoma was the most common types of salivary gland malignancy, accounting 50. 0%. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common types of benign tumors accounting,78.3%. Major salivary glands were the most involving site by both tumors. Rhanula was the most common type of salivary gland cyst accounting, 75.9%, usually found on the sublingual glands. Sialolithiases, usually found on the major salivary glands, 89.3% of this disease were located on the submandibular gland. Sialadenitis, frequently caused by bacterial and viral infections, 77% of them were bacterial sialadenitis and 22.2% were viral sialadenitis. Bacterial sialadenitis, commonly located on the submandibular gland, whereas, viral sialadenitis restricted to the parotid glands. Conclusion: One hundred and forty cases of salivary gland disease among Yemenis were studied,64 cases (45.7%) were males, and 76 cases (54.3%) were females, male to female ratio was 0.8-1. The age of patients was ranged from 3 to 82 years, with mean age for both gender of 40. 09±21.149. The majority of patients (79%) were over the age of 20 years. Salivary glands tumor was the most common salivary gland disease, ac-counting 43.6%, followed by the salivary gland cyst and sialolithiases accounting, 20.7% and 20.0% respectively. Sqaumous cell was the most com-mon type of salivary gland malignancies accounting 50. 0%. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common type of benign tumors accounting 78. 3%. Both salivary gland tumors commonly located on the major salivary glands. Rhanula was the most common type of salivary gland cyst, accounting 75.9%,usually located on the sublingual gland. Sialolithiases, accounting 20.0% of all salivary gland disease, 89.3% of this disease were located on the submandibular gland. The less common types of salivary gland disease were sialadenitis and Sialosis, accounting 12.09% and 2.9% respectively. 
174 Comparative Efficacy of Different Pesticide Residue Mitigation Modules in Mango , Muhammad Asif Farooq*1, Muhammad Jalal Arif1, Muhammad Dildar Gogi1, Ahmad Nawaz1, Bilal Atta2
A study was conducted at different locations of Multan from March 2016 to April 2017 in which 4 IPM modules were devised for mango in comparison with the control, with the focus of pesticides residues mitigation and maximum yield. Pesticides residues mitigation modules (PRMMs)were based on the IPM tactics to suppress pest population with no or minimum use insecticides. Each module was applied in an area of 1 acre of mango orchard and pest population was monitored before and after the application of the modules. After the season of the mango was completed the yield was compared of all the modules and yield loss was also calculated in terms of fruit quantity and fruit quality. It was observed that the orchard which was grown under PRMM-2 showed maximum reduction in pest population calculated as much as 92.66% followed by PRMM-1 which was accounted for 86.13% reduction in pest population. PRMM-3 reduced the pest population up-to 77.97% followed by PRMM-4 which reduced the pest population to level of 71.43% over control. So, the best results in terms of pest reduction were observed in PRMM-2 which included spray of pesticides along with the use of cultural, mechanical, and attract and kill methods for the mango pests. This module outperformed the chemical method by 21.23% better in terms of pest population reduction while only IPM module with no pesticides used, pest reduction was 14.7% over chemical control methods which are in common practice by most of the farmer community in the country. PRMM-2 produced 25.29% more market-able fruits in comparison of control module while PRMM-1 produced 21.17% more marketable fruits over control. In case of PRMM-3 and PRMM-4 the percentage of surplus marketable produce over control was calculated as 17.21% and 11.47% respectively.
175 HBG2 and HBG1 Nucleotide Substitutions and Hbf Production in Thalassemia Patients , Cristina Curcio1*, Benzoni E1, Seia M1 and Giannone V1
HbF represents the main hemoglobin fraction during fetal life. After birth, the synthesis of HbF decreases gradually and is replaced by HbA so that HbF levels are less than 2% in adults. During adulthood, HbF may be slightly or significantly elevated because of pathological or nonpathological causes such as HPFH. This status is caused either by fetal globin gene promoter variants or large deletions affecting the human fetal globin genes. In thalassemia, an increase in HbF is linked to β-thalassemia major, δβ-thalassemia or thalassemia intermedia and improves the clinical picture as γ globin chains compensate for the lack of functional β- globin chains. The degree of HbF persistence varies greatly among adults and is largely ge- netically controlled. Research of causes that induce the expression of γ globin gene can impact the definition of clinical condition, as well as provide potential targets for treatment of hemoglobinopathy, as an increase in HbF production ameliorates β-thalassemia severity. In this report we present full DNA analysis of both HBG2 and HBG1 genes in a cohort of 96 β- and/or α-thalassemia subjects with high HbF levels and 30 healthy individuals to update the list of HPFH polymorphisms.
176 Characterization of Union Sites for Opioids in Human Lymphocyte Membranes , Carlos Osvaldo Navarro Venegas* and Luis Alberto Raggi Saini
The opioid peptides Methionine enkephalin and β-Endorphin are stimulators of Natural Killer cytolytic activity. To know the biochemical mech-anisms that explain this action, the binding of Methionine enkephalin and Naloxone in presence or ausence of Na+ ion and GTP to human Lymphocyte membranes was characterized. Methionine enkephalin or β-Endorphin in concentrations greater than physiological concentrations delivers stimulations of the order of 25% on the respective control value. For the receptors, a binding assay of the radioligands (3H)-Methionine enkephalin and (3H)-Naloxone was used, with the Scatchard analysis finding only one type of binding site in each case, with KD values of 6.8 and 5.9 [nm] and Bmax of 38 and 54 [fmol/mg of protein] respectively. These values are not comparable to those described in nervous, tumor or lymphoid tissue. The displacement tests revealed similarity between Naloxone and Methionine enkephalin binding sites due to their mutual displacement, unlike that observed with β-Endorphin. In contrast to previous studies, it was found that the effect of the Na+ ion (100 mM) did not modify the IC50 values, whereas GTP markedly reduced the total binding of both ligands: Methionine enkephalin and Naloxone and suggests the participation of a protein with G protein charac-teristics
177 Prefrontal Cortex Role in Stress Processing and Regulation , Behzad Saberi*
Regulation and processing of the stress are the important roles of the prefrontal cortex. During exposing to stress, various regions of the prefrontal cortex will be activated like lateral and ventrome-dial prefrontal cortex and medial orbitofrontal cortex. Amygdala responses to the stress as a natural mechanism but long-term stim-ulation of the amygdala leads to its dysfunction and consequently prefrontal cortex dysfunction. Due to the inverse relationship be-tween prefrontal cortex and amygdala, increasing in the activity of the prefrontal cortex leads to reduced activity of the amygdala.
178 Superfoods: Big Focus on Honeybee Pollen in Korea and Japan , Ventura Coll Francesc*
Honeybee pollen has traditionally considered a food of nutritional interest as a source of free essential amino-acids and proteins, carbohydrates and vitamins. The biochemical research on honeybee pollen carried out and published by Josep Serra Bonvehí and Francesc Ventura Coll lead to medical studies “in vitro” and “in vivo” in Japan and South Korea. Honeybee pollen is well known as a nutritional complement but not so well are its preventive and therapeutic effects. For this reason, the television channel MBN from South Korea, which produces TV programs on healthy life, came to Barcelona to film the work in laboratory and to make an interview, the content of which is developed here
179 Postoperative Cognitive Decline , Phillip Gordon*
Post-operative cognitive decline (POCD), described many years ago [1], remains a challenge for all physicians who care for elderly patients. A lot of work has been done in this area but investigators need to be mindful about incorporating some basic precepts into their research protocols. While central nervous system dysfunction after surgery and anesthesia has been described to occur, especially in older adults, it is important to bear in mind that, as Silverstein and colleagues [2] point out, any illness requiring hospitalization may be associated with cognitive decline
180 Justification for Inclusion of Domestic Enzymes in Feed of Laying Hens , A Yu Lavrentiev*, VS Sherne and NV Danilova
Great demands are raised to feed poultry concerning their composition, as they contain several types of grain feed, which contain anti-nutrients that reduce the digestibility and use of these nutrients. Low nutritional value of several grains is since there are significant amounts of other non-starchy polysaccharides, which include beta-glucans and pentosansalong with fiber in them. According to generalized data, the main anti-nutritional factors and wheat, rye and triticale are pentosans, most of which are arabinoxylans. Beta glucans mainly have a negative impact on the absorption of nutrients in barley. Non-starchy polysaccharides have another negative property-they strongly swell, forming viscous adhesive solutions that limit the absorption of already digested protein, starch, fat, and other important biological compounds. The use of enzyme preparations in feed inactivates anti-nutrients, promotes better digestion and use of feed nutrients. This helps to increase egg production and improve the quality of eggs.
181 How Do We Clean Up This Mess? - A Review of The Testing Methodologies Used for Detection of Live Bacteria in Healthcare Environments , Andrew Kemp1* and Mathew A Diggle2
n light of the increasing numbers of disinfectant resistant bacterial species, and the proven direct link between disinfectant resistance and antibiotic resistance, the detection of live bacteria in high risk environments within healthcare, is of increasing importance. The benefits of accurate identification, and in some cases quantification, is paramount in indicating the effectiveness of cleaning products, protocols and therefore safety to practice for patients and staff. A review of the currently available environmental testing methods, highlighting those tests most appropriate for the different areas of our healthcare services has been explored. Looking at the latest technological advances in surface and microbiological testing, to determine their efficiency in adequately detecting organisms of potential significance, and therefore informing us of the most appropriate ways in which to treat areas that have been potentially contaminated. The outcome of using the correct testing methods can determine the true impact of surface contamination in primary and cross infection. Moreover, informing us of the effectiveness of cleaning interventions in the hope of decreasing potential causes of infection (including staff behaviours) and subsequently improving patient outcomes.
182 Raman Spectroscopy: An Evaluation of Antimicrobial Characteristics of Technical Lignin , Klanarong Sriroth1* and Jackapon Sunthornvarabhas2
Technical lignin from agricultural biomass has high potential for various applications and receives strong attention as one of the key materials in the future. One of its unique properties is antimicrobial property against wide range of microorganisms which is very helpful in medical and cosmetic application as potential natural antimicrobial agent. The current challenges are ability to swiftly identify its potency for both product development and routine analysis and its dark color from chromophores that were generated during delignification thus make it less attractive. Coniferyl alcohol, a chromophores and one of the three basic unit of lignin, is a key component that is responsible for antimicrobial property and also responsible for color generation of lignin after delignification. In order to control and monitor, it is essential to use characterization tools that is sensitive to the compound. Raman spectroscopy was reported to be the most efficient tools to monitor chromophores better than IR spectroscopic method. Therefore, using Raman spectroscopy to obtain tendency of antimicrobial property of lignin is suitable and appropriate.
183 Discriminating Bangladeshi Children and Adolescents of Affluent Families by Level of Obesity , KC Bhuyan*1, Atika Farzana Urmi2
The present analysis was based on data regarding level of obesity of 662 children and adolescents of 560 families of students of American Inter- national University, Bangladesh. The children and adolescents were classified by level of obesity, where level of obesity was measured by percentiles of BMI. It was observed that, among 662 children and youth 465 were in underweight group. Obesity and severe obesity were observed among 9.1 percent children and adolescents. Among the obese and severe obesity group, 53% killed their time by watching television and another 26.7% spent their time by doing other works including games and sports. Obesity and severe obesity were associated with time spent by the children and adolescents. Among these groups 31.7% were suffering from diabetes. Diabetes and level of obesity were significantly associated. Among obese and severe obese group around 42% were habituated in taking restaurant food and these two characters were also significantly associated. Some socioeconomic factors of parents were also associated with level of obesity. The discriminant analysis showed that the children and adolescents of different levels of obesity were significantly different mainly for parents’ education and fathers’ occupation.
184 Clitoral Cyst Complicating Neonatal Female Circumcision in a 6 Years Old Child: A Management Plan to Delay Surgical Excision Until Puberty , Anthony Jude Edeh1*, Chijioke Chinedu Anekpo2, Balantine Ugochukwu Eze3 and Kevin Emeka Chukwubuike4
Among many traditional African societies, including the Ibos of south eastern Nigeria, ritual circumcision has a strong irrational bias and many parents continue to believe in old myths or conjure up new ones to justify this practice. Despite the implementation of laws prohibiting female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C), this practice is still performed on nearly 2-3 million women annually [1,2]. We report a case of an unfortunate 6-year-old child who had neonatal ritual circumcision in Enugu, Nigeria. This was complicated by a small clitoral cyst which is asymptomatic but worries the parents. To prevent further physical and psychological trauma to this child we advised delay of excision surgery until puberty unless the cyst becomes complicated
185 Simulation Programs in Disaster Medicine , Evangelia Michailidou*
The Significance Soft Abilities in the services of disaster med-icine Soft skills are characterized as the individual qualities that empower a person to communicate adequately and harmoniously with others in stuff conditions and are fundamental for effective execution in any relational setting. According to Abbas [1] these properties are much more pivotal in the medical services industry of disaster medicine and not only, where therapeutic experts and representatives more nearly collaborate with patients and differ-ent human groups, as a rule under to great degree troublesome and passionate conditions.  
186 Applied Transdérmic Photobiomodulator Therapy About the Primary Carotide Artery in Patients Under Hormonal Blockers and Dynude Disorders and Pathogenic Flora of Orofaringeoand Systemic Repercussions , Juliano Abreu Pacheco1*, Adriana Schapochnik², Cláudia Conforto de Sá³, Antônio Cesar M Santiago4, Guilherme Luna Martinez5 and Marco Aurelio Kenichi Yamaji6
The purpose of this study is to categorize a transdermal anatomical location in the Primitive Carotid Artery (Common) for the use of modified Intrasvacular LASER Irradiation of Blood (ILIB). This study was conducted in twelve patients undergoing hormone blockers - Anastrozole / six and Tamoxifen / six and five patients without hormone therapy, all of which were performed in patients currently undergoing disease control therapy, where the site primary neoplastic were the mammary ducts (uni or bilateral). The noninvasive therapy of systemic LASER in the cervical region was motivated by the biological, technical and functional inactivity guided by the INCA (National Cancer Institute - Brazil) in order to avoid any manipulations on the same side of the operated breast, specifically the arm, due to to the possibilities of undesirable intercurrences that may cause clinical lowering and laboratory markers during the multidisciplinary treatment. Cancer patients treated with personalized protocols associated with the carotid region reduce the health-disease process related to morbidities as a consequence of the dysgeusias and imbalance of the oral microbiome. Adding to these benefits of photoenteral therapy (ILIB modified), systemic ones, promoted by the bifurcation of the primitive carotid artery in internal and external, triggering a homeostatic hormonal balance and vascularization of the anterior region of the face, correspondingly.
187 Complexity in Association of Virus and Immune Regulators on the Development of Atherosclerosis via Formation of Foam Cells , Nurul Islam Rosmera1, Muhammad Amir Yunus1*, Ida Shazrina Ismail2 and Rafeezul Mohamed2
Numerous evidences have associated the relation of bacterial and viral agents with atherosclerosis development. Murine norovirus (MNV) especially MNV-4 has been correlated to the regulation of atherosclerosis development in mice. Different studies have demonstrated variable impacts of MNV-4 infection in murine models of atherosclerosis and in vitro studies. Here, we also included the effect of MNV-3 strain on macrophage foam cell formation in vitro produced by our laboratory
188 Influence, Significance and Importance of Body Mass Index in Scientific Research and Various Fields of Science , Katarzyna Zygmunt1, Maciej Kuchciak 2, Marcin Nycz3, Miłosz Szczudło4, and Gabriel Bobula*5
Modern generations of humans pay a lot of attention to a healthy lifestyle, and body mass index is the most popular determinant of health. This tool is used by all people, both amateur trainers, as well as professionals, scientists and researchers. It is used in gym, laboratory, medical office, home, just everywhere and by everyone. BMI indicator applies in different fields of science, trying to determine different aspects of its impact on physical, psychological and social aspects of life. This mini review presents selected examples of the use of body mass index in various fields of science by scientists from different countries.
189 Rosacea: Not Curse of the Celts, But of Many More , Christian Diehl*
From what I can remember from my medical studies, a long time ago, when our Professors were naming rosacea as “acne-rosa-cea”, there was always a mention to its nickname: the “Curse of the Celts”. Hence our formation was including the notion that rosacea was more common among the fair-haired, blue-eyed “Nordic type” [1]. Meanwhile, over the years and with more experience and a deeper knowledge of other continents and populations, I was able to observe that this notion was not exactly and even far from being correct.
190 Autism Spectrum Disorders, is it Under Reported In Third World Countries , Amar Al-Shibli1 and Osama Hamdoun*2
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is defined as a pervasive de- velopmental disorder characterized by impairment of social com- munication, repetitive and restrictive patterns of behavior, inter- ests, and activities. The incidence of autism steadily increasing in the past decades in both developing and developed countries. Worldwide prevalence of ASD is 7.6 per 1000 (1 in 132). The prevalence of ASD in Eu- rope, Asia, and the United States ranges is 1 in 40 to 1 in 500 while comparing developed countries to developing countries its notable that the incidence is lower in developing countries, an example of developing country is China which has the incidence of 1.1 in every 1,000 children. However, this is not reflecting the reality, in fact the lower incidence is due to under reporting of the affected children
191 Combination of Liver Resection with Methods of Local Thermal destruction in the Treatment of Metastases of Colorectal Cancer in the Liver , Chzhao Alexey V, Ionkin Dmitry A*, Olifir Anna A, Vishnevsky Vladimir A, Zhavoronkova Olga I, Stepanova Yulia A, Karelskaya Natalia A, Zemskov Vladimir M and Kozlova Maria N
Relevance: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common of the detection among malignant tumors. More than 80% of patients with metastases of the CRC to the liver are unsuitable for radical surgical treatment. It is this category of patients that shows the application of local thermal destruction methods. The Aim: Improving the life quality and increase life expectancy (in combination of chemotherapeutic treatment) in patients with metastatic of colorectal cancer in the liver (CLM). Materials and Methods: Cryo destruction have been performed in 24 patients with CLM. There were 11 women,13 men. The median age was 56.3 + 4.5 years.” The size of the tumors in the liver was 1.5 - 9 cm, the number of tumors - from 1 to 10 (4±3). The target temperature: -186ºÐ¡. Exposure time: 3-5 min. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in a combination of cryo destruction was performed in 3 patients, Cryo + liver resection - in 7, a combination of liver resection + RFA + Cryo in 5 patients. Open intraoperative RFA and percutaneous RFA were performed in 20 patients, combination of liver resection and RFA in 16 patients. All patients subsequently underwent adjuvant chemotherapy, supplemented with regional chemoembolization in 9 cases. Results: Life-threatening complications in postoperative period has been developed in 2 (8.4%) patients: intra-abdominal bleeding in 1(4.2%) case, and multiple organ failure resulted in death on the 47th day after the intervention (liver resection+ Cryo+RFA) in 1(4.2%). Postoperative morbidity also includes biliary fistula in 2(8.3%) patients, ascites- in 7(29.6%), pleural effusion in 6(25%), pneumonia – in 2(8.3%). Complete pain and right upper abdominal discomfort reduction after the procedure were observed in 40%, significant pain reduction - in 20% of patients. Median survival was 12.0±4 months for Cryo only, 11,0±4 months for RFA only, 7,6±4 months for Cryo in combination of RFA, 13,5±5 months (p<0.05) for Cryo in combination with liver resection, 18,5±6 months (p<0.05) for liver resection in combination with other methods of local destruction (RFA, Cryo). Conclusion: Combination of different methods of local thermal destruction in case of unresectable CLM improves the quality of life and with adjuvant chemotherapy could prolong survival rates.
192 Tinea Infections: Changing Face or Neglected? , Laura Atzori*, Laura Pizzatti and Monica Pau
Dermatophyte infections are of great importance in dermatology practice. The general impression from the literature retrieval is that we are experiencing a change in tinea infections, and these changes involves epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and therapies. The question is whether dermatophytes are changing their biological attitude or there is a tendency to neglect the diagnosis, because of the common use of topical mixed antibiotic/antimycotic corticosteroid cream, delaying the assessment until no response and evident worsening. Following short review encompass actual knowledge to provide matter of tough and auspicate generation of new studies. The menace of antifungal resistance is worth global alert and address the need of reporting and execution of antifungal sensitity tests, which is not a routinely procedure. The adoption of innovative diagnostic techniques, such as MALDI-TOF and PCR identification are by the way, nevertheless, a trained dermatologist should first of all suspect the infection, even when clinical presentation is not obvious, and possibly perform a simple direct mycological examination after KHO clarification, which rapidly confirms the diagnosis. The use of combined steroidal topical drugs should be avoided, further altering the clinical presentation, sometimes giving the false impression of temporary healing, and favoring patient’s intermittent self-application, with consequent risk of side effects, including skin atrophy. Development of new antifungal and clinical trials realization is a sore point, for the apparently limited interest of pharma industry in respect to the biologics and biosimilars indications. Timing and dosage revisiting of old drugs is the current research topic. Main field of therapeutic interest is implementation of onychomycosis treatment.
193 Promoting Interprofessional Collaboration in Biomedical Research , Patricia A Findley*
Health professionals working in silos or in ways that are not collaborative is no longer sustainable for healthcare [1]. For over 20 years national and international professional organizations have sought the reform necessary to educate health professional student in an interprofessional (i.e. interdisciplinary) manner. The impetus for this reform came in 2000 when the Institute of Medicine (IOM) released the report “To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health System”[1
194 A Critical Analysis of HPV Vaccination in Children , Bittmann S*, Luchter E, Weissenstein A and Villalon G
Worldwide, infection with HPV viruses is the most common sexually transmitted disease. The prevalence of HPV infection varies considerably from country to country and can change significantly with changes in lifestyle and sexual behavior. Every year, about half a million women worldwide develop cervical cancer, with up to four-fifths of them from developing countries. The lack or underutilization of cancer screening programmers in developing countries plays a decisive role in this. It is estimated that around 230,000 women worldwide die of cervical cancer every year [1]
195 Management of Chemotherapy Induced Neutropenia – an Unmet Clinical Need , Ananya Gupta1*, Benazir Abbasi2 and Sanjeev Gupta2
One of the major side effects of cancer chemotherapy is myelosuppression leading to an obligate period of neutropenia. Systemic infection resulting in neutropenic sepsis is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer patients. Due to these reasons chemotherapy induced neutropenia has been considered as an “oncologic emergency”. The current system of management of febrile neutropenia involves administration of prophylactic antimicrobials and hematopoietic growth factor supplements (granulocyte colony stimulating factor G- -CSF). However, neutropenia is detected in these patients only after the onset of infection limiting the efficacy of these therapeutic interventions. Repeated infections results in prolonged periods of hospitalisation, delay in treatment and chemotherapy dose reductions. Therefore, timely detection of neutrophil nadir and prevention of systemic infection can significantly improve the outcome of cancer treatment.
196 A Problem Not to Be Born Into , Guarina Isabel Molina*
In adults, obesity is defined as having a body mass index (BMI) over 30 kg/m2, and as of 2016, 13% of adults worldwide suffered from obesity. While being a preventable condition, the prevalence worldwide continues to rise year after year. On this instance, I would like to take a word to focus my attention of a special population group in which this epidemic promise to do twice the harm: pregnant women. When thinking of a pathology at hand, one is usually concerned about the health of the mother. However, more recent studies have pointed out evidence that maternal obesity is not only a threat to the gestating woman, but also to the offspring, both in early childhood and in adult life. Is it to wonder if, by not educating ourselves and our patients on time, we are allowing our future generations to be born into a culture of disease. Statistics report that over 14 million women worldwide in 2014 suffered from obesity, and that over 1/3 of pregnancies in the United States occurred on obese women
197 A Qualitative Analysis of the “Broken Soul” Phenomenon Encountered in Long-Distance Racing-Theoretical and Empirical Insight into the Soultron , Devan Allen Mc Granahan* and Adam M Booth
Exercise physiologists and physiological philosophers alike have long pondered the phenomenon of “soul breaking” within a long-distance race. Here we present a novel, transdisciplinary introduction to the soultron, or the quantum particle of the soul. Soultrons are exchanged when a runner of a lower Race Energy Level passes another runner and assumes a higher Race Energy Level in the course of running along parallel tracks. Once released, the soultron is left suspended in the open atmosphere of the race. Soultron destination can be explained via soultron affinity, but the behavior of the soultron in the company of three or more runners has yet to be explored and determined. Empirical work based on observations of paired runners on municipal pathways concludes with a call for a quantum theory of soultron mechanics.
198 Role of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Treatment and Prevention of Obesity; Molecular Strategies to Recommended Acceptance , Atif Amin Baig1*, Omar Mahmoud Al-Shajrawi1, Yasrul IAB1, Anam Mahmood2, Sarfaraz A3, Chandrika M4, Hassanain Al-Talib5 and Nordin Simbak2
The incidence of obesity is increasing at an alarming rate which has led to a surge the obesity-related morbidity in the world. It is now a most evident problem in world’s population therefore, it needs to be addressed [1]. According to WHO, obesity is defined as BMI equals to or greater than 30kg/m2 which is the accumulation of fat in adipose tissue to such an extent that may be fatal [2]. Obesity is now replacing malnutrition, infectious and contagious diseases as the most vital contributor to ill health. The obesity-related health problem poses a burden on the health care system and lowers the quality of life of obese people. Particularly, it causes many chronic conditions like hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes type, kidney stones, respiratory issues, gout, arthritis, stroke, chronic fatigue sleep disorders and certain types of cancer such as breast and prostate cancer [2,3]. 
199 B-Scan Ophthalmic Ultrasonography of Retinal Detachment , Uduma Fu1*, Akpan Si2, Megbelayin E2 and Abraham E2
Retinal detachment (RD) is categorized into rhegmatogenous, tractional or exudative. In as much as it can be detected using ophthalmoscopy, elucidation with B-scan ocular ultrasonography is not hindered by opaque medium. Besides, B-scan can even give an insight into RD aetiologies and associations
200 Heavy Metals in Cosmetics: The Notorious Daredevils and Burning Health Issues , Abdul Kader Mohiuddin*
Personal care products and facial cosmetics are commonly used by millions of consumers on a daily basis. Direct application of cosmetics on human skin makes it vulnerable to a wide variety of ingredients. Despite the protecting role of skin against exogenous contaminants, some of the ingredients in cosmetic products are able to penetrate the skin and to produce systemic exposure. Consumers’ knowledge of the potential risks of the frequent application of cosmetic products should be improved. While regulations exist in most of the high-income countries, in low income countries there is a lack of similar standards. In most countries for which these legal regulations have been identified, restrictions on the permissible level of heavy metals are strict. There is a need for enforcement of existing rules, and rigorous assessment of the effectiveness of these regulations. The occurrence of metals in cosmetic products is of concern for three principal reasons: a) The use of cosmetic products could represent a possible source of population-wide exposure daily, and often long-term exposure to metals in cosmetic products b) Metals can accumulate in the body over time, and c) A number of them are known to exhibit different chronic health effects, such as cancer, contact dermatitis, developmental, neurological and reproductive disorders, brittle hair and hair loss. Some metals are potent endocrine disruptors and respiratory toxins. Moreover, some metals, such as Cd, As, Pb, Hg and Sb, are exceptionally toxic with a wide variety of chronic health effects, whereas Cr, Ni and Co are well known skin sensitizers. Since the issue of heavy metals as deliberate cosmetic ingredients has been addressed, attention is turned to the presence of these substances as impurities
201 Protracted Symptoms after Heat Stroke. Is Vasopressin the Culprit? , Thomas Brown*
Nausea is a common finding in patients diagnosed with heat related disorders but there are no reported cases of severe persistent nausea after initial symptoms of heat stroke have resolved. I present a case of a Cross Country athlete that developed protracted nausea, headache and hypertension after experiencing exertional heat stroke
202 Detection of Resistance mecA Gene In Gram Positive Bacteria Described as Nosocomial , Zúñiga B1, Jara MA1, Mosnaim AD2 and Navarro C1*
Shortly after the introduction of an antimicrobial to the market it has been possible to find bacteria that are resistant to its action. This resistance is natural in some bacteria, while in others it is a condition acquired through the incorporation of genes that code various mechanisms of resistance.These resistant strains represent a big problem in human hospitals when causing nosocomial infections, since the therapeutic options are limited. In veterinary medicine, although nosocomial infections are increasing, they are still less studied than those acquired by people. However, these infections -both in human and veterinary patients- have in common to be caused, mainly, by methicillin-resistant staphylococci. Due to this fact, in addition to the fact that methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is transmitted between different animal species, including humans, the purpose of this work was to detect the mecA resistance gene in bacteria described as nosocomial.For this, three environmental bacterial strains isolated from Veterinary Hospitals of the University of Chile and that showed resistance to oxacillin were used: Staphylococcus kloosii, Micrococcus sedentarius and Enterococcus faecium. After the extraction of the DNA, the technique of the Polymerase Chain Reaction and the corresponding electrophoresis, fluorescent bands of approximately 500 bp were obtained. These amplicons were sent to be sequenced and the sequences obtained were compared with those described in the GenBank® for the mecA gene. The percentages of nucleotide identity of 97%, 97% and 98%, respectively, confirm the presence of strains that possess the mecA gene and suggest its early incorporation as positive control strains in future investigations
203 Long Term Effects of Abuse and Violence on Children’s Behavior , Maria Lourdes A de Vera*
Abuse and Violence are a health risk among Children. It carries the potential of producing long and debilitating mental health problems that includes maladaptive behaviors, anxiety disorders, personality or relational issues. This health issue requires equal importance as any other physiologic and physical disorder. It advocates the use of client centered or person-centered therapy. Every child is a human being having similar rights as any adult have. It includes their right to association with both parents, human identity, the provision of the basic needs for physical protection, food, universal state-paid education, health care, and criminal laws appropriate for the age and development of the child, equal protection of the child’s civil rights, and freedom. Prevention of a disruptive home environment is better than a whole system of cure. Abuse, whatever the nature is; physical, psychological or sexual according to Mullen and Fleming (1998) reveals a significant connection between a history of child abuse and a range of adverse outcomes both in childhood and adulthood. The important role of the family and community where the child is raised is stressed. This study describes coping mechanism, mental health wellbeing and functioning of an abused child. The child’s right to be respected for his views is necessary in the treatment and healing process.
204 Perspectives on Insulin Stimulation of Glucose Transport , Richard D Sauerheber*
Although the mechanism by which insulin stimulates glucose transport proteins in the plasma membranes of insulin-sensitive cells has long been intensively studied, many details still remain controversial. The simplest, most energy-efficient mechanism that is consistent with most available data is described. The mechanism is counter to much published literature and is thus important to discuss
205 Screening of Fifteen Sugarcane Genotypes under Irrigation based on Genetic Variations and Heritability for Agro-morphological Traits at Early Selection Stage in Ferké, Ivory Coast , Crépin B Péné*1 and Michael Béhou2
The study aimed to determine the best performing early-season sugarcane genotypes tested at the first selection stage under sprinkler irrigation, in comparison with a check variety (R579). The experimental design used was a randomized complete block (RCB) with 17 cane genotypes in three replications. Every plot consisted of five dual rows of ten meters with 0.5 and 1.90 m of inter-row spacing, i.e. 95 m² per plot and about 5000 m² for the whole experiment. It was carried out on a commercial sugarcane plantation of Ferké 2 located in the northern part of the country, over two seasons (plant cane and first ratoon) as an early-season crop from November 18, 2015 to December 05, 2017. Over each micro-plot, data based on different agro-morphological traits were collected at harvest from three central dual rows. The study showed that based on sugar yields, six genotypes higher or equivalent to check varieties used, namely N47, R95-2202, ECU01, R97-0391, N49 and CP98-1029, were found promising for the next and final advanced selection stage, with respectively 20.3, 16.5, 15.2 , 14.2, 13.3 and 13.3 t sugar/ha. Their cane yield performances ranged from 115.8 to 160.8 t/ha compared to 160.4 and 134.0 for check varieties R579 and SP70-1006, respectively. Not only sugar yield, but also, recoverable sucrose, cane internode infestation rate and number of tillers per hectare were found as the most relevant agro-morphological traits in genetic variation of sugarcane genotypes tested in line of their higher broad sense heritability values.
206 PSA Testing? Over-Treatment? Active Surveillance? Biopsy value? No PSA for Elderly? , Charles Chuck Maack*
I have been an avid student researching and studying prostate cancer as a survivor and continuing patient since 1992. I have dedicated my retirement years to continued deep research and study in order to serve as an advocate for prostate cancer awareness, and, from an activist patient’s viewpoint, as a mentor to voluntarily help patients, caregivers, and others interested develop an understanding of this insidious men’s disease, its treatment options, and the treatment of the side effects that often accompany treatment.  
207 Increasing Rape Cases in Pakistan Call for Effective Remedial Efforts in the Society , Rana Muhammad Mateen*
Every country in the world is suffering from rape against women and children. In Pakistan number of rape cases are increasing regardless of several efforts at government and non government level. Culture and norms in the society are such that rape incidences are not reported due to expected dishonor in the society. Solid efforts are required at the government level for awareness of the women rights in the society to overcome this stigma. Proper implementations of the women and children protection laws, media campaigns, changes in the curriculum and healthy discussion can help produce fruitful results
208 Engineering Approaches in Life Science and Health Care , Christine C Huttin*
Contrary to engineering sciences, where the cost criterion is an issue for engineering in optimization of physical systems; in medical and health systems, usually highly regulated for market access and reimbursement of medical services, researchers are used to combine two criteria, cost and effectiveness or cost and efficacy. The field is usually called outcome research, and it relies nearly exclusively on a specific industry called outcome research firms, mainly recruiting consultants from the life science industry firms or researchers trained in economic evaluation techniques (especially pharmacoeconomics).In the US however, important political circles have rejected these double criteria especially in the Senate to keep technological trajectories and research and innovation investments close to the production efficiency curve (Philipson et al. es, xx) in order, not to be too disruptive. The field is Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER), versus what is called in most European regulated markets HTA, where usually both cost and effectiveness criteria are used. This on-going problem of course is debated to keep a good adjustment of supply and demand needs, and the more regulated the health system, the more, normally, local demand needs, and its variations are integrated. However, the current globalization stage of both supplies, but also demand with the implementation of Universal Health Coverage, lead to reconsider this debate since local adjustments of supply and demand, even regional adjustments are not enough. Conventional outcome research is therefore challenged and new methodological approaches are explored, among them, MCDAs and especially relevant to engage multistakeholders in a consensual process over the adjustments of supply and demands. However, researchers on patterns of utilization of medical care (especially pharmaco epidemiologists) removed, especially after September 11 events, economics or cost criteria from the studies, with a top priority setting for research on safety issues. This leads to reduce the access to market to a lot of potential useful medicines and may have contributed to a disequilibrium between the portfolio of medicines of major firms and the markets where they could get enough returns. Too marginal return of investments in their drug incremental innovation especially was jeopardized by this process. In the current situation, major R&D areas have been withdrawn from the research pipelines, the most critical being the AMR areas. Discussion at Padova and Paris with Prof Fraga lead to review engineering approaches used not only for the supply of drugs (such as the optimization of penicillin production presented in Paris) but also engineering approaches to re design workflows of tasks in physicians’ practices, to possibly compare ways to adjust supply and demand, with scenarios analysis. A previous research project on transaction cost economics in primary care (as a collaboration with the California Medical Association) lead to identify areas of uncertainty where such approach could be useful: impact of pandemics, failure of computer system, loss of liability insurance. The paper will propose some optimization solutions for efficiency of the workflow in situations of uncertainties, in primary care. For instance, physicians will know in advance, seasons and announcements for a flu epidemic, but not exactly the day or the week it might hit their populations of patients, especially more or less anticipated events such as flus, allergies, others, on a weekly basis. The current discussion paper will formalize some scenarios within the engineering approach on transaction costs approach and Huttin C application for primary care.
209 Electrochemical Sensor Based on the Clay- Carbone Paste Electrode Modified by Bacteria-Polymer for Elimination of Phenol , R Maallah*, MA Smaini, C Laghlimi, J El Mastour and A Chtaini
A Cyclic voltammetry (VC), Square Wave Voltammetry and Impedance Spectroscopie methods for the determination of trace amounts of phenol at bacteria-polymer-Clay-CPE bioelectrode is proposed. The results showed that the bacteria-polymer-Clay-CPE exhibited excellent electro catalytic activity to phenol. This electrochemical biosensor shows an excellent performance for detecting phenol.
210 Factors Affecting Nurses’ Compliance to Standard Precautions in Resource Scarce Settings , Aurang Zeb*1, Dildar Muhammad2 and Awal Khan3
Background: Standard precautions are universally accepted guidelines for infection control practices in health care settings. Good compliance to standard precautions prevents nurses from occupational exposure to blood and body fluid and decrease the risk of infection transmission to them as well as to patients. Aim: The overarching aim of the study was to determine nurses’ knowledge, their compliance and factors affecting their compliance to SPs in resource scarce settings. Method: A cross sectional study was conducted to determine nurses’ knowledge, compliance and factors affecting their compliance to SPs in three tertiary care public sector hospitals in Peshawar. A total of 199 registered nurses were recruited to the study through Stratified random sampling. SPSS version 20 was used for data analysis. Results: The mean knowledge score reported was 11.64(58.2%) with SD of 2.16(10.8%) out of 20(100%) marks. The maximum score documented was 18(90%) whereas the minimum score was 6(30%). A significant result with p-value 0.011 was obtained between training of infection control and SPs Knowledge. The mean compliance score was 33.83(56.38%) with SD of 10.84 (18.06%), with the maximum value 59(98.33%) and the minimum value of 10(16.67%) out of 60(100%). A significant association was noted between gender and compliance (p-value 0.006) and as well as between infection control training and compliance (p-value 0.001). Contributing factors towards noncompliance to SPs reported were lack of resources, workload and lack of infection control policies. Conclusion: This study identifies that nurses working in tertiary care hospitals of Peshawar do not have enough knowledge and compliance to SPs. The study suggests that health authorities should take necessary actions for developing and implementing infection control practices in these hospitals
211 Titanium Scaffolds – Hopes and Limitations , Magda Dziaduszewska and Andrzej Zielinski*
The state-of-art on titanium scaffolds is briefly reviewed. The real hopes from medicine associated with scaffolds are indicated. The limitations of different scaffolds associated with their mechanical, chemical and biological properties are discussed. The great importance of titanium scaffolds is demonstrated as the materials of high biocompatibility and corrosion resistance, fair mechanical properties and important biological behaviour.
212 Nutraceutical Potential of Parkia speciosa (Stink Bean): A Current Review , Nur Hayati Azizul*1, Yin-Hui Leong2, Nurul Izzah Ahmad3 and Salina Abdul Rahman1
Background: Inadequate fruits and vegetables intake contributes to the prevalence of major diseases such as cardiovascular diseases and cancers. Parkia speciosa [stink bean] is a common vegetable consumed in the Southeast Asia. Although it contains various phytochemicals that can help prevent disease development, the effort to develop a specific treatment or food products from Parkia speciosa remains a challenge. Here, we explore research works of the medicinal benefits of P. speciosa that can be used as a guide to develop future clinical studies. Method: We conducted a database search on PubMed, Google Scholar, and Science Direct using the keywords “nutraceutical potential”, “Parkia speciosa” “antioxidant”, “hypoglycemic”, “antitumor”, “antimicrobial” and “cardiovascular effects”. We included clinical trial, in vitro and in vivo studies that were written in English or Malay; and excluded review articles with no time limitations. Result: We reviewed a total of 28 research articles. No clinical trial was found. The articles were grouped into antioxidative, hypoglycemic, antitumor, antimicrobial and cardiovascular effects. Six articles had combination of the medicinal properties. Seeds and empty pods are the most common plants parts used. Each bioactivities differed depending on the plant parts, extracts, methods, cultivar and plantation site. Conclusion: P. speciosa demonstrated antioxidative, hypoglycemic, antitumor, antimicrobial and cardiovascular effects that were contributed by its phytochemical compounds. This finding could be used as a database for future clinical studies. We recommended researchers to use the information from the articles reviewed for drug development and clinical trial.
213 Chitosan Copolymer with Activated Carbon as Nanocomposite Through DFT Modeling , Juan Horacio Pacheco-Sánchez*
Our aim is to simulate nanocomposites through intermolecular interactions among copolymer chitosan (Ch) and activated carbon (AC) in the simplest form of them. Structural properties as pore size distribution are to be investigated in this way. A geometry optimization (DMol3-DFT-GGA-PW91) among C17 carbon-ring and a chitosan copolymer unit provides one nanocomposite system. First, we draw sketches of chitosan copolymer and arbitrary carbon rings to determine their structure stabilities through the minimum energy criterion, which is also applied on AC+Ch system. Second, we consider Cn carbon rings as activated carbon by knowing that average pore size distribution is around (9Å) according to BET measurements. Some carbon rings known as carbyne, alternate single and triple bonds, and those known as cumulene only have double bonds. The alternation of bond lengths in carbon rings is at least one signal of the consequences of Jahn-Teller effect. Third, we propose pore size distributions of the nanocomposite by means of radial distribution functions. Nanocomposite AC+Ch molecular complex system is expected to be applied in medicine as mitigating intoxication in human beings.
214 Refugees and Asylum Seekers-A Somewhat Challenging Australian Experience , Ingrid Muenstermann*
This article is written by a social scientist, a sociologist, who is concerned about Australia’s current treatment of refugees and asylum seekers. The previously welcoming attitude of politicians, policy makers and people has changed considerably and the Australian Customs and Border Protection Services ‘keep Australia safe’: no maritime arrivals will be processed in Australia nor will they ever can settle in Australia.
215 Solar Activity and its Stronger Magnetic Field Stimulated the Human Brain and Brought the Renaissance , Maria Kuman*
Renaissance was the period of blooming arts, literature, architecture, and the sciences in the middle of the last Mini Ice Age (15th and 16th centuries). Based on study of the glaciers, the article provides evidence that the Renaissance was caused by increased solar activity and sudden warming in the middle of the last Mini Ice Age. Increased solar activity always means increased magnetic field of the Sun, which increases the magnetic field of the Earth. Since our memory is magnetic in origin, external magnetic fields stimulate the brain and memory. If so, the increased magnetic fields of the Sun and Earth during the warming period in the 15th and 16th centuries could be expected to be the factor that stimulated the human brains. This boosted their creativity and caused the blooming of the arts, literature, architecture, and the sciences called the Renaissance.
216 Cell Proliferative and Cell Cycle Effects of Atrazine Using Human Breast Cell Lines , Egbe Egiebor1*, Nadia Abou Zeid2 and Ali Ishaque1
Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer related deaths in women. Several risk factors can increase breast cancer occurrences and strong evidence has shown that exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals including atrazine can lead to breast cancer etiology. This study examined the effect of low level/environmentally relevant concentrations of atrazine on two breast cell lines (MCF-7, an estrogen responsive breast cancer cell line and MCF-10A, a non-cancerous human breast epithelial cell line) by studying cytotoxicity, proliferation and cell cycle events. To study cytotoxicity, cells were exposed to atrazine within a concentration range of 0.315 μg/L to 100,000 μg/L for 96 h and cell proliferation as well as the LC50 were calculated at 24, 48,72 and 96 h using the RT-CES. Cell cycle was studied by exposing the cell to 3 μg/L atrazine, and nuclei was isolated and analyzed using a BD FACSCalibur. The percentage nuclei in the cell cycle was calculated using Modfit LT 3.0. Results showed that there was an overall decreased in LC50 over time in both cell lines. Exposure of MCF-7 and MCF-10A to 3 μg/L of atrazine for 96 h, stimulated an increase in cell proliferation compared to control. Lower concentrations of atrazine showed even stronger impact on cell proliferation. However, ATR induced more cell proliferation in MCF-7 than in MCF-10A. Significant increases were recorded in the percent nuclei in G1 and G2 phases of MCF-7 cells exposed to ATR. Increase in the percent nuclei was only recorded in the G1 phase in MCF- 10A cells exposed to ATR. This adds to the body of evidence that ATR may indeed play a significant role in the onset and progression of cancer.
217 Oral Health During Pregnancy Are We Listening? , David Leader1,2*
Oral health care during pregnancy benefits the mother and the unborn child. According to the most recent PRAMS data (2017), around 55% of women in Massachusetts do not receive oral health care in the year before and during pregnancy. This essay describes the disconnect between knowledge and practice and frames the issue as a health communication problem. Health communication theory such as application of the Diffusion of Innovation model may promote adoption of oral health interventions by systemic and oral health providers.
218 Some Pollutants to Defeat to get Clean Drinking Water , Juan Horacio Pacheco-Sánchez*
The colorants, especially synthetic origin present in waste wa-ter, are responsible for many harmful effects to the environment, flora and aquatic fauna. Among the most important effects are the reduction of dissolved oxygen, eutrophication, the formation of recalcitrant and toxic compounds to cells and obstructing the pas-sage of light to the water bodies and aesthetic impairment [1,2]. As an example, red 2 is an azo colorant that may cause intolerance in people who are affected by salicylates. 
219 Radiation Prosthesis for Improving the Life of Cancer Patients , Harisha Dewan*
Cancer, one of the non-communicable diseases, is amongst the major public health problems in India. Radiotherapy is being used as an adjunctive form of treatment in the management of head and neck cancer. Adverse tissue reactions are associated with the use of radiotherapy in the management of patients with head and neck cancer. With a proper oral hygiene and dental care program, protective radiation prostheses can help reduce the morbidity seen with existing radiotherapy regimens.
220 Antimicrobial Resistance: “The Threat of Future Health” , Aikaterini Frantzana1*, Marianna Charalambous2 and Demetrios Lamnisos3
Introduction: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is now a major issue in healthcare. Antibiotics may be used for the treatment of fungus and parasites. They are applied in veterinary and food chemistry except for Medicine. Purpose: The purpose of this article is the detailed assessment and prevention of antimicrobial resistance in hospitals and the community after the indiscriminate use of antibiotics. Methodology: The manuscript consists of a thorough scrutiny of both international and Greek research and review studies regarding antimicrobial resistance and national action plans. Results: The emergence of antimicrobial resistance to antibiotics constitutes a huge threat for human health. Moreover, it is a paramount European and global concern involving scientific providers. Recognizing the severity of the situation, the government established a series of measures to raise awareness among all those involved and curb the consumption of antimicrobial drugs Conclusions: A holistic approach with prudent and rational use of antimicrobial agents is required in order to reduce AMR and hospital- acquired infections.
221 Understanding Cardiac Rehabilitation , Tsaloglidou A*1, Koukourikos K1, Frantzana Aik2 and Kourkouta L1
Introduction: Cardiovascular disease remains the most frequent cause of death globally. Patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) who have experienced an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or have undergone cardiac surgery are prime candidates for applying to cardiac rehabilitation programs. Cardiac rehabilitation is a multidisciplinary, systemic approach to implementing secondary prevention therapies of known beneficial effects. Purpose: The purpose of this review study is to investigate the contribution of cardiac rehabilitation programs in improving patients’ cardiovascular health and enhancing their quality of life after an incidence of acute myocardial infarction or after a cardiac surgery. Methodology: An Extensive review of the relevant literature was performed via electronic databases (Medline, Scopus and Google Scholar) and international scientific journals, using the appropriate key words: cardiac rehabilitation program, myocardial infarction, cardiac surgery and a combination of them. Results: All cardiac rehabilitation programs should contain specific key components aimed at optimizing cardiovascular risk reduction, encouraging healthy behaviors and compliance with these behaviors, reducing disability, and promoting an active lifestyle for patients with cardiovascular disease. The components of cardiac rehabilitation programs are staffed by a highly skilled team comprising a medical director, cardiac care registered nurses, exercise specialists, dietitian, and counselors. These programs include provision of comprehensive long-term services involving the following key elements: basic patient assessment, nutritional counseling, risk factor management (lipids, blood pressure, weight, diabetes mellitus, and smoking), psychosocial interventions, physical activity counseling and exercise training. Conclusions: Cardiac rehabilitation is a complex intervention offered to patients after myocardial infarction or cardiac surgery to achieve professionally recommended cardiovascular prevention targets and thus good clinical status leading to improved patient’s quality of life. Despite the beneficial effects of cardiac rehabilitation, the overall participation rates remain low due to absent or inadequate legislation, funding, professional guidelines and information systems in many countries, as well as patient related barriers
222 Viral Hepatitis: Implication Of Viral Types from A To E , Chateen I Ali Pambuk*, Fatma Mustafa Muhammad and Mohammed Rhael Ali
Hepatitis is the emergence of inflammatory condition in the liver tissue as a result of viral infection. There are several different types of viral hepatitis as a result of the virus that causes the disease. In most cases, the source of the disease is the result of infection of three basic viruses’ implication: the hepatitis A, B or C virus and with less frequent infections caused by Hepatitis D and E virus. Catching any of these viruses can lead to viral hepatitis, which accompanied by a wide different range of symptoms according to the virus implicated. Some of these infections are accompanied by mild and virtually inconceivable symptoms, but other symptoms may lead to liver breakdown, coma and death (if no alternative liver is found). The aim of this descriptive minireview, generally, is to shed light on the main types of virus involved in hepatitis
223 Analysis of Somatic Variants in Growth Hormone Secreting Pituitary Adenomas by Whole Exome Sequencing , Jinuk Kim and Young Zoon Kim*
Background: Whole-genome and whole-exome sequencing (WES) studies of pituitary adenoma have reported on average three mutations per patient tumor and discovered calcium signaling pathway mediated role of tumorigenesis. The aim of this study is to analyze the somatic variants in growth hormone (GH) secreting pituitary adenoma using WES. Material and Methods: Whole-exome sequencing was used to identify somatic mutations in GH-secreting pituitary adenomas from 14 patients (7-45 years), including a sample from a patient with germline GPR101 duplication. A mean sequencing depth of 94x was achieved covering 98% of targeted exonic regions at a minimum depth of 10x. Results: A total of 30 somatic variants were identified from 14 tumor samples. A recurrent hotspot mutation in GNAS, a well-established gene implicated in acromegaly, were identified in four patients. In addition, missense variants in CACNA1H and WIPI1 were identified which have only been reported in single patients previously. We also observed variants in GNAQ, RASGEF1B and PARP4 (this latter one in the GPR101-positive sample) genes that are involved in cAMP and calcium signaling pathways but have not been previously reported to be altered in acromegaly. Large deletions in chromosomes 1, 6, 10, 11, 12, 16, 17, 19 and 20 were also observed in at least eight patients. Conclusion: By combining our findings with data from previous studies of GH-secreting adenomas, we conclude that pathways involving calcium and cAMP signaling are likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of somatotroph adenomas
224 A Multicentred Phase III Comparative Study between Single Rod Implant Monoplant® and Double Rod Implant Indoplant® , Eka Rusdianto Gunardi1*, Denny Khusen1, Heriyadi Manan2, Julian Dewantiningrum3, Hendy Hendarto4, Retno Budiarti Farid5, Hadriah Oesman6, TY Prihyugiarto6 and Joedo Prihartono7
Objective: To analyze to determine the effectiveness, safety, and time of both contraceptive methods between single rod implant monoplant® and double rod implant indoplant®. Design/data identification: Clinical trial, ‘Open’ (‘open label ‘Randomized Clinical Trial). Materials and methods: This study is a phase III clinical trial, conducted randomized and multicentre, comparing two types of contraceptive implants, namely Monoplant® and Indoplant® performed in Indonesian healthy women. Random blocks of tithe allocation and randomly assigned divided by 5 Monoplants and 5 Indoplants. Results: Based on the interim results obtained from examining the twenty-fourth month this can be concluded as follows: all centre have completed the number of research subjects, the length of recruitment of subjects extends between 5.5 months to 16.5 months, continuity up to 24 months for contraception implantation of monoplant® or Indoplant® is still good, discontinued use for 24 months totaling 50 subjects, namely 27 subjects for monoplant® and 23 subjects for indoplant®, the main cause of discontinuation for both types of contraception is a disruption of menstrual patterns, there is one case of pregnancy that is most likely due to the initial selection error of the acceptor, there were 7 subjects who had to be removed because they wanted more children even though they had previously agreed to use implants for 3 years, there is no significant difference in levonorgestrel levels in the 24th month between monoplant® contraception and indoplant® contraception, the levonorgestrel levels of the two study groups in the 24th month were mostly located between 200 to 400 picograms which were still actively preventing ovulation. Conclusion: There is no significant difference the effectiveness, safety, and time in levonorgestrel levels in the 24th month between single rod implant monoplant® and double rod implant indoplant®.
225 Prevalence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus in Some Ready-to-Eat Meat Products , Saad M Saad1, Fatin S Hassanin1, Fahim A Shaltout1*, Marionette Z Nassif2, Marwa Z Seif2
Although Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a bacterium that remains widely studied because of its high pathogenic potential and its ability to develop resistance to antibiotics routinely used in clinical practice; this study investigated the occurrence of methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in some ready to eat (RTE) meat products collected from some public restaurants and street vendors in Benha city, Qalubiya governorate, Egypt; a total of 120 RTE beef products represented by kofta, burger, shawerma, and luncheon (30 of each) were examined for the prevalence of S. aureus and molecular detection of MRSA strains represented by the presence of mecA gene containing isolates; results revealed that kofta was the most contaminated samples with S. aureus where the mean count was 5.2x10 CFU\g; followed by burger, shawerma and luncheon samples. Molecular detection of MRSA isolates carrying mecA gene revealed that out of eight examined isolates, 2 (25%) of examined isolates were MRSA strain. The presence of S. aureus especially MRSA strains in high prevalence among examined RTE meat products emphasizes the necessity of enforcing application of strict hygienic measures and GMP during preparation, handling, and serving; in addition, the health authorities must exert more control over street vendors and fast food restaurants.
226 Treatment for Colorectal Cancer: Robot-assisted vs Laparoscopic Surgery , Shivani Kamlesh Modi and Satyajit Patra*
Over the past few years, Robotic surgery has been an emerging field in colorectal surgery. Over years there has been continuous shift towards minimally invasive procedures with enormous potential advantages, but progress is impeded because of limited evidence, lack of technology and cost of expenditure. However, recent advances and feedback in robotic surgery and single-port incision in laparoscopic surgery are likely to improve surgical outcomes for treatment of colorectal cancer. Currently, laparoscopic surgery is preferred for colorectal cancer over open surgery and its usefulness is unquestionable. Laparoscopic surgery has become the standard of practice for various digestive tract surgeries. Although, robot- assisted is gold standard for various other procedures, more research is needed to prove its safety and efficacy in the treatment of colorectal cancer. Robotic surgery may overcome limitations of laparoscopic surgery such as assistant dependent camera movements, retraction issues, lack of user- friendly environment and rigid instrumentation. Prolonged operative time, learning time, increased expenses and more trauma to the patient and family are major drawbacks of robotic surgery. In recent years robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery has been increasingly applied, again with lack of comparison and evidence over conventional laparoscopic surgery. The aim of this study is to compare robotic-assisted surgery and laparoscopic-assisted surgery for the treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC).
227 Secular Changes in Relative Height of Children in Japan, South Korea and Taiwan: Is “Genetics” the Key Determinant? , Hiroshi Mori*
At age 20 years, Korean men were recorded as being 2 cm taller than Japanese but 3 cm shorter than Taiwanese in the beginning of last century [1], when Korea and Taiwan were under Japan’s colonization. These differences could have been attributed mostly to genetics. At the turn of the century, Japan’s economy was the richest and Taiwan was 60% greater than S. Korea in per capita consumption of animal products. Yet Korean males were slightly, by 1-2 cm taller than their Taiwanese peers in height. Genetics was no longer a strong explanation of relative height. Following Blum [2], a high consumption of animal proteins does not result in increasing body height if overall consumption of calories and other essential nutrients is insufficient. This paper tries to identify what essential nutrients may have been insufficient in Japanese and Taiwanese food consumption, particularly among growing children.
228 Therapeutic Properties of Honey , Frantzana Aikaterini1*, Alexiou Dimitra2, Panagiotopoulou Konstantina3, Ouzounakis Petros4 and Tsiliggiri Maria
Introduction: Honey is a product of high biological value and helps both the growth and strengthening of susceptible individuals. The history of honey begins in ancient times, where for many centuries, it was the only known sweetener. Even today, honey remains a key component of Mediterranean cuisine because of its high nutritional value. Purpose: The purpose of this review is to inspect closely and thoroughly the usefulness of the nutritional value of honey and the healing properties of it. Methodology: Regarding the methodology followed, a review was conducted through articles and books related to the subject using PubMed, Google Scholar and Scopus electronic databases with key words: honey, nutritional value of honey, therapeutic use of honey. Results: The biological value of honey is determined by a series of beneficial effects that it causes to the human organism. Its antimicrobial action prevents the growth of bacteria and other pathogens. Its antiseptic properties help clean, disinfect or heal wounds and burns. Honey besides having a lower caloric value than sugar, it also has many other beneficial properties Conclusions: In recent years, more and more people are turning to the consumption of natural products, including honey. The beneficial effect of honey on human health is widespread and its use as a food in our daily diet, as a product of superior caloric value, is increasing.
229 The Accuracy Performance of the Point of Care Test (POCT) Boditech I-CHROMA™ Testosterone Method using External Quality Assessment Schemes: RIQAS and UKNEQAS , J Bolodeoku*1, O Coker1, S Bains1, C Anyaeche2, TK Kim3 and F Chinegwundoh4
The estimation of testosterone levels in the blood is an important part of urological practice. This study evaluated and compared the performance of the quantitative Boditech point of care test Boditech i-CHROMA™ testosterone method with other laboratory testosterone methods enrolled in the external quality assurance services, RIQAS and UKNEQAS. Samples 1-12 of Cycle 41 from the RIQAS scheme and forty-six distributions of the UKNEQAS Testosterone scheme were analyzed using the Boditech i-CHROMA™ testosterone method. The Boditech i-CHROMA™ testosterone method compared well with the laboratory methods registered in both schemes. The best correlation was with the Diasorin Liaison method (r2=0.96851) in the RIQAS and the TOSOH AIA method (r2=0.767) in the UKNEQAS. The method with the least bias from the RIQAS was the Diasorin Liaison (-2 ng/mL) and from the UKNEQAS was the Tandem Mass Spectroscopy (0.049 ng/mL). In conclusion, the Boditech i-CHROMA™ POCT Testosterone method compared well with other laboratory methods and can be considered a reliable method for testosterone estimation within its limitations.
230 Improving Diagnosis in Pediatric Orthopedics Surgery Using 3D Printing , Leonardo Frizziero*1, Gianmaria Santi1, Alfredo Liverani1, Valentina Giuseppetti1, Giovanni Trisolino2, Elena Maredi2 and Stefano Stilli2
In this paper is presented a new methodology for the diagnosis of flat feet in orthopedic application. The resulting new workflow will guarantee higher efficiency reducing costs and time. In particular an economic valuation of both workflows is performed showing the reduction of costs with the methodology presented. Through this elaborate it will be shown that today’s most widely used medical technique for the diagnosis and treatment of congenital flat foot from tarsal synostosis have some weaknesses that could be optimized. To reduce weaknesses, the alternative methodology presented involves a new technology within the traditional method’s workflow. In Orthopedics, as in other fields of medicine, new technologies are introduced aiming to improve the patient healthcare. These technologies allow to perform the same treatments in a simpler and faster way making them much more effective and precise. The technology introduced In Proposed methodology is the 3D Printing.
231 Living Conditions and Health Problems of Immigrants , Kourkouta Lambrini1, Frantzana Aikaterini2*, Koukourikos Konstantinos1, Dimitriadou Alexandra1 and Tsaloglidou Areti1
Introduction: Immigration creates problems in host countries, as there is no basic health control of the refugees in the country to which they are migrating. Purpose: The purpose of this article is to investigate the impact of migration on the health of refugees and their contraction from various diseases. Methodology: The manuscript consists of a scrutinized review carried out through scientific articles, books and electronic databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar and Scopus using the key words: migrants, refugees, migrant health problems. Results: The large number of refugees, combined with inadequate infrastructure in their host countries, places refugees in a high-risk group in jeopardy for their physical and mental health. Their poor living conditions, inadequate nutrition and prolonged stress are responsible for most of their health problems. Children’s refugees are also at greater risk, especially when they are unaccompanied. They are the subject of all kinds of exploitation, they are experiencing stress and are forced to take an adult role. Conclusions: Implementing preventative programs, providing psychological support, informing and educating adult refugees and integrating refugee children into school will contribute to their emotional development and socialization
232 Introduction to nanoMIPS Prepared by Solid-Phase approach as an Alternative for Antibodies in the pseudo-ELISA Diagnostic Assay , Katarzyna Smolinska-Kempisty1* and Joanna Czulak
The presented article describes the possibilities of replacing antibodies with artificial molecules in the pseudo-ELISA diagnostic assay. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ELISA is based on specific antibodies, linked to an enzyme, to detect the determined molecule. However, the production of antibodies is complicated and therefore its price is high. Also, the stability of the antibodies is inadequate for their price. For this reason, research into artificial molecules that could replace natural immunoglobulins is becoming extremely important. The article presents studies comparing the use of antibodies and molecularly imprinted nano molecules, nanoMIPs, as artificial antibodies in the ELISA assay.
233 Plant, Human being and Symbiosis , Berov G Lyubomir*
Dear reader, in this article I present a unique perspective on how dominant plant species influence the human societies inhabiting their growth areas. I then raise the point that, in order for the human beings to continue increasing our “living space” without disturbing the balance in nature, we must learn to ward off the manipulative influences of other “living creatures”, and become the leader, at least within the planet Earth
234 Evolutionary Toxicology and Genomics: Utility of Natural Populations’ Sensitivity and Resistance Mechanisms to Persistent Organic Pollutants in Ecological Risk Assessment and Public Health , Goran Bozinovic*
Susceptibility to toxic chemical exposures is determined by genotype-environment interactions. Genetically variable natural populations live in spatially, temporally, and chemically complex environments, and their exposures to persistent organic pollutants should be carefully considered when quantifying evolution’s role in mechanisms of sensitivity and resistance. Although most natural populations’ genomes are not sequenced, reasonably robust lower-throughput custom platforms and data imputation methods help infer missing genotypes and improve the analysis of non-model organisms’ sequencing data. Such datasets yield insights about population processes and variance of allelic diversity within and between sensitive and resistant populations. The advantage of this approach is that an a priori choice of biomarkers of an adverse effect is not necessary. Population genomics provide insights into the sequence variations that define differences in gene expression and protein polymorphisms underlying mechanisms of sensitivity and resistance to polluted environment. Complementary “omics” approaches with model-organism and natural populations offer a better understanding of biological effects and should be an integral component of comprehensive ecological and human health risk assessment.
235 Hybrid Rice Technology: An Overview , Ehsan Shakiba1* and Robert C Scott2
Hybrid rice is one of the important innovations in agriculture along with the discovery of the semi-dwarf gene as well as the green revolution. Since releasing the first hybrid rice cultivar in China, the production of hybrid rice has grown rapidly in all world rice growing regions. Developing high yield hybrid rice cultivars with acceptable quality depends on the agronomic characteristics of their parents. This review discusses about the importance of the hybrid rice, methods for developing hybrid rice and their parents, and genes/QTLs associated with desirable agronomic traits.
236 Toprak’s Kidney Care: A New Comprehensive Kidney Care for Chronic Kidney Disease Patients and their Caregivers , Omer Toprak*
A new special comprehensive kidney care for end stage kidney disease patients which name is “Toprak’s Kidney Care” defined in this paper. Toprak’s Kidney Care means donating your life to your patients and their caregivers. Toprak’s Kidney Care should be considered in the renal recovery and dialysis discontinuation in patients who have residual renal function, in conservative management of patients who withdrawal from dialysis or who choose a life without dialysis or renal transplantation.
237 A Parkinson’s Disease Journey from Patient side view , Jorge Garza-Ulloa*1 and Gordon Johns2
There are a lot of research papers about Parkinson’s disease from the medical point of view, this research paper is from the heart’s patient side view, there are aspects of Parkinson’s that only those living with it truly understand. This paper is based on a treasure from a personal experience into a Parkinson’s disease journey of Gordon Johns. Each degenerative neurological disease patient are real heroes, that fight every day with the evolution of their symptoms that struggle their life 24/7. We, as Biomedical researchers on degenerative neurological disease believe that observing the evolution from the symptoms and emotions progressions, and how they are handling by patients will help: researchers, doctors, others patients, caregivers and all people with human kindness to understand this terrible progressive disease that still doesn’t have cure. Testimonies like this, will point a more human way to find and develop new treatments that will help to deal with the disease for a better quality of life of Parkinson’s patients and find a way to slow down or stop the disease progression or find a cure in the near future for it. I add my sections for: analysis of this case from a Biomedical researcher perspective, Parkinson’s disease general acknowledges and conclusions to find ways to deal with this cruel disease.
238 Wearable Functional Near-Infrared (FNIR) Technology and Its Applications in Naturalistic Conditions , Francis Tsow and Audrey Bowden*
Wearable functional near-infrared technology (fNIR) is a noninvasive neuroimaging technology that is affordable, low cost, and user-friendly, making it a promising technology to study how our brain works in naturalistic conditions. A practical user-friendly fNIR device that allows naturalistic use (e.g., home-use) can open unprecedented opportunities with health, psychologic, political/economic, and physiologic impacts. Wearable fNIR devices impose additional requirements compared to laboratory-based fNIR systems, including size, weight, and motion/ambient artifacts, without sacrificing key performance. Furthermore, to ensure user-friendliness, special attentions to cost, power, connectivity, flexibility to adapt to various applications, and comfort have to be properly considered. This manuscript reviews wearable fNIR in naturalistic conditions, covering reported applications and technologies developed to enable fNIR wearability. We also highlight some of the remaining challenges of current wearable fNIR devices including the limited number of optodes, uncorrected artifacts and noise, and the need for user alignment and manual event recording
239 Positive Role of Green Tea as An Anti-Cancer Biomedical Source in Iran Northern , Ebrahim Alinia-Ahandani*, Zahra Alizadeh-Terepoei and Ani Boghozian
Tea, green gold, is the second famous beverages in the world. Tea was not grown in Iran until the late 1800’s, after an Iranian diplomat, by the name of Kashef Al Saltaneh, smuggled back from India over 3,000 samplings to plant in Iran. In general, green tea contains about 30% (w/w) of catechins in the dry leaves. The major catechins are epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epicatechin (EC), and (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG), which comprise more than 60% of the total catechins. Other green tea conclusion are the flavonols (quercetin, kaempferol, and rutin), caffeine, phenolic acids, the green tea specific amino acid theanine, and flavour compounds such as (Z)-3 hexenols and its esters. Increased consumption of green tea had a potentially preventive effect on breast cancer in a Japanese population. combined green tea composition with other bioactive dietary components may be an appropriate way to improve its effects in cancer prevention. Several studies have shown that the fat-lowering effect of green tea and EGCG is mediated by SREBPs.in this short review around some effects of green tea on cancer prevention and positive effects on body. We hope use and focus on this herb fundamentally in Iran northern as a center of this green gold in healthcare
240 Cell Cycle Dynamics and Endoreplication In the Mosquito Midgut , Krystal Maya Maldonado1, Humberto Lanz Mendoza2* and Fidel de la Cruz Hernandez-Hernandez3*
The mosquitoes are the major transmissors of vector-borne infections, including virus, protozoans and helminths and, during the interaction it is critical for pathogens to accomplish immune evasion actions whereas the mosquito turn on immune mechanisms for its survival. The mosquito midgut is the organ where initial interactions with pathogens happen, and the insect has mechanisms to repair the tissue and to eliminate the invaders. For these tasks’ mosquitoes use different strategies including the specific DNA replication, amplifying specific genes and without cell division in order to have more DNA templates for transcription that allow, in a secondary infection, the fast production of immune proteins in a process known as priming. The study of these processes is necessary for the understanding of the mechanisms during insect-pathogens interactions, and to design future interventions to block mosquito pathogens transmission that could be environment-friendly and not depending on costly chemicals.
241 Nicotine is Insufficient as a Carcinogen, It’s Functions as a Tumor Promoter on Purpose , Jia Ping Wu*
Nicotine constitutes approximately 0.6~3.0% of the dry weight of tobacco. Like anything that enters the body, nicotine is also metabolized. Therefore, any activity that increases your metabolic rate can help speed up the clearance of nicotine. Nicotine also promotes cancer growth, angiogenesis, and neovascularization. Thereby, nicotine impeding apoptosis, promoting tumor growth and activating growth factors. This article provides a brief description of nicotine is unusual in comparison to most drugs, as its concentration profile changes from induced tumor growth to cytotoxic with increasing doses. The concentration of nicotine stimulated cell growth correspond to low concentration was needed, while high concentration was cytotoxic
242 Potential Health Benefits of Thai Seasonal Fruits; Sapodilla and Star Fruit for Elderly People , Jirakrit Leelarungrayub*1, Yothin Pothasak1, Rungtiwa Kuntain1, Jynwara Kaju1 and Ahmed Muhammad Izhar2,3
Nowadays, the proportion of geriatric population has been increased around the world, and likewise has been increased in Thailand. The aged population have high risks of low-immunity and high oxidative stress, which is related to chronic diseases such as; hypertension, stroke, cardiac diseases, diabetics, and cancer. In Thailand, there are many valuable fruits such as; durian, banana, oranges, papaya, and guava, etc. In addition, there are still some seasonal fruits which have interesting useful effects but with less scientific evidences. Sapodilla and Star fruit are rare seasonal fruits that have been claimed to improve the health status with its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in human body. Presently, evidences have revealed that the ripped sapodilla extract possesses the antioxidant capacity with total phenolic, retinoic acid (Vit A), and L-ascorbic acid (Vit C) and scavenging activity on superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide (NO). It could inhibit the tumor necrotic factor-alpha (TNF-α). Whereas, the ripped star fruit (sour-type) extract contains the retinoic acid and L-ascorbic acid which was reported in vitro designed study. Interesting evidences in elderly persons showed that supplementation of 100g of either ripped sapodilla or ripped star fruit twice a day for 4 weeks after meal could improve; total antioxidant capacity, Vit.A, and Vit.C status, the 6-minute walking distance, and reduce the nitric oxide (NO). Moreover, supplementation of ripped star fruit could reduce the TNF-α, Low-density lipoprotein (LDL), while the ripped Sapodilla supplement reduced the cholesterol.as. Therefore, this mini review presents the health benefits of seasonal fruits, sapodilla or star fruit for health status among elderly individuals.
243 Bioconcrete Technology and Neglected Biotoxicity , Galal Fares*
Bioremediation of concrete durability issues becomes a new trend to revise and adopt. Bacteriology becomes an important branch of science in concrete applications. The use of nonpathogenic bacteria spores as microorganisms for biodeposition of calcite in concrete has been widely investigated. These microorganisms play same role as a self-healing agent, which has attracted the attention of several researchers while neglecting the biotoxicity side. Moreover, fewer have pointed at the provisions and precautions that should be applied to avoid “opportunistic pathogenic attacks” on living organisms within the boundaries of microbial concrete structures. The presence of bacteriologist is highly crucial for safe application of bioremediation of concrete properties. Limited applications are suggested.
244 Acidic Pharmaceuticals Simultaneous Removal from Water Sample by Magnetic Ionic Liquid Nanoadsorbent 1-Butyl-3-Aminopropyl Imidazolium Tetrachloroferrate Functionalized Graphene Oxide GO-sBapim) FeCl4 , Farid Abu Shammala1* and Barry Chiswell2
This paper evaluated the removal efficiency of twelve acidic pharmaceuticals by microextraction with 1-butyl-3-aminopropyl imidazolium tetrachloroferrate functionalized graphene oxide GO-(Bapim)FeCl4 nanocomposite. The acidic pharmaceuticals studied were salicylic acid (SYL), clofibric acid (CFA), ibuprofen (IBP), acetaminophen (AAP), gemfibrozil (GFB), fenoprofen (FNP), naproxen (NPX), triclosan (TCS), ketoprofen (KTP), diclofenac (DOF), fenofibrate (FFB), and indomethacin (IDM), which are commonly used as analgesic/anti-inflammatory agents or lipid regulators. The proposed procedure complies with the principles of the green chemistry, since it uses low volumes of easily synthesized MILs-based magnetic extracting phases avoiding the use of toxic solvents. The analytical procedure for the determination of acidic pharmaceuticals in aqueous matrices included solid phase microextraction, liquid chromatographic separation and detection by a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer. Taking into account the main experimental variables involved, the results obtained are accurate and highly reproducible. The low-cost approach is straightforward, environmentally safe and exhibits high enrichment factors and absolute extraction percentages and satisfactory recoveries. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that a MIL-GO is used for analytical purposes in a practical, efficient and environmentally friendly drop-breakup microextraction approach for acidic pharmaceuticals. In the aqueous sample treatment processes, the highest removal rate was observed for ibuprofen and the lowest for acetaminophen, 99%+/-1% and 67%+/-2%, respectively. Whereas, the stability of acidic drugs recovery from municipal sewage were the lowest for acetaminophen and salicylic acid
245 Automatic Generation of Drug Concentration Gradient by a Modified Ink-jet Printer and its Application in Drug Screening , Zongzheng Chen1,3, Jiu Deng2, Zhengzhi Wu1 and Yong Luo*2
Manual preparation of drug concentration gradient is labor-intensive and limits the efficiency of a drug screening to some extent, especially at large scale. In this study, we reported an automatic method to generate drug concentration gradient in 24-well plate. We loaded drug solution in a modified hot ink-jet printer, designed printing pattern in the WORD software, customized the concentration gradient in the WORD software by RGB coding, and finally printed the drug concentration gradient in the 24-well plate. A drug concentration gradient can be automatically generated within 5s in arbitrary pattern. Based on this flexible technology, we developed an ink-jet printer-based drug screening assay. Concentration gradient of 5-fluorouracil, as well as Mcf-7 cells, were printed in the 24-well plate, and the inhibition rate of Mcf-7 cells was measured by MTT method. This was the first time that hot inkjet printing technology was used in drug screening
246 Supplementation of Optimum Nutrient-Dense Formula to Modulate HIV Infection in Resource Limited Settings , Ihab Tewfik1, Abraham Mainaji Amlogu*1,2, Sundus Tewfik3 and Charles Wambebe4
HIV infection attenuates food intake and increases energy requirements through increases in resting energy expenditure. Equally, it triggers nutrient mal-absorption, negative nitrogen balance and metabolic alterations that lead to weight loss and wasting. Substantiating evidences from the literature highlighted the role of nutrient-dense meals in enhancing nutrition status of people living with HIV (PLHIV) and improving some HIV-related outcomes. Despite limited resources, West African countries are renowned with various micro and macronutrients in commonly available food sources which contain antioxidants and relevant essential vitamins and minerals. Such food sources need to be appropriately analyzed vis-a-vis their potentials for use in the management of HIV/AIDS. Hence, nutrition intervention programs that employed nutrient-dense meals -NDMs [e.g. Amtewa meal] were effectively integrated in the management of PLHIV who are on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Prolonged use of NDMs [over 12 weeks] has demonstrated to attenuate and possibly obviate the progression to AIDS.
247 The Effectiveness of Virtual Reality in the Rehabilitation of Balance and Gait in Children with Cerebral Palsy: Mini-Review , Tülay Tarsuslu ÅžimÅŸek*
Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common physical disability in newborn and children. The child’s functioning and development strategies are affected by a variety neuromuscular and musculoskeletal impairments. Gait and postural control disfunctions are common in children with cerebral palsy and depend on the impairments of the neuromuscular and musculoskeletal systems. Balance and gait training are important for most daily activities and helps children recover from balance problems, helps to participation in daily life activities and improvment in quality of life. Treatment programs commonly includes streching, strengthening, positioning, casting, and the facilitation of correct movement and normal postural strategies. In last decades, computer based games (virtual reality training) are used to create interactive play environments in order to achieve specific tasks and treatment goals
248 A Comparison of Traditional Ultrasound with, Sustained Accoustic, Medicine (SAM) , David O Draper* and George Lewis
Therapeutic ultrasound is one of the most common deep heating modalities used by physical therapists, athletic trainers, and occupational therapists [1]. Its thermal effects are treatment of soft tissue injuries [2], relieving a muscle contraction [3], restoration of range of motion [4], an increase in collagen extensibility [5], aiding in collagen alignment and increased wound strength [6,7]. The non-thermal effects of ultrasound include increased histamine release [8], increased phagocytosis [9], increased protein synthesis, [10] tissue regeneration [11,12], wound healing [11], increased fibroblasts and vascular regeneration [12]
249 Rhabdomyolysis After Cocaine Consumption-Case Report , Thiago de Jesus Bacha1,3, Marco Aurélio Almeida de Oliveira1, Alcimar Marques de Araújo Martins1, Marilda de Souza Gonçalves4, Anamika Dhyani2, Emerson Silva Lima1, Rajendranath Ramasawmy1,5 and José Pereira de Moura Neto1,2*
Objective: Rhabdomyolysis, a potentially fatal syndrome, is characterized by degradation of muscular skeletal tissue trigger fatal complications such as acute renal failure. Methods: Clinical evaluation and biochemical measurements were performed on a Brazilian soldier after he was admitted at the emergency department of the Military Hospital of Manaus in August 2014. A 23-year-old soldier reported having consumed about six grams of cocaine. Results: Clinical laboratory measurement of serum showed a significant increase in the levels of indirect markers of muscle lysis. Serum creatine kinase fraction MM (CK) level increased up to 99.500 U/L and creatine kinase MB fraction (CK-MB) up to 6.500U/L. Changes in electrolytes also increased (sodium=1.730mmol/L, potassium=42.1mmol/L, phosphorus =48.3mg/dl, chlorine =1.243mmol/L and magnesium=36.1mg/dl). Changes in kidney functions also occurred (urea =302.6mg/dl and creatinine=11.1mg/dL). The levels of albumin (33.4g/dl) and lactate dehydrogenase LDH (22,545U/L) also increased. Further, qualitative tests for troponin and myoglobin were positive. Intervention: The soldier stayed in the intensive care unit (ICU) for five days. Conclusions: Rhabdomyolysis syndrome was clinically identified due to consumption of cocaine. The soldier showed excellent clinical improvement after hyperhydration and treatment with discharged on the fifth day
250 Use of Regulatory T Cells as a Cellular Therapy for Transplant Rejection/Autoimmunity , Nick D Jones1* and Renad Alhamawi1,2
Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg) are a crucial sub-population of T cells in the control of immunity and the maintenance of immunological tolerance aiding the prevention of autoimmunity. As such Treg have been proposed to be a candidate cell that could be used as cellular therapy to suppress unwanted immune responses. Indeed, there is an expanding literature on the potential use of Treg to induce or re-establish tolerance in both autoimmune diseases such as type I diabetes, arthritis and chronic inflammatory diseases as well as in preventing allograft rejection and graft versus host disease (GVHD
251 The Future of Diagnostic Laboratory Testing in Healthcare , Jawahar (Jay) Kalra1,2*, Zoher Rafid Hamed2 and Patrick Seitzinger
The role of diagnostic laboratory testing in healthcare is evolving. The challenge facing the new era of medicine is the appropriate implementation of new tools and technologies to improve patient care in a cost-effective and sustainable manner. Unprecedented expectations to detect disease earlier and effectively treat all aspects of health and wellbeing create demands for testing which may be premature. Test ordering patterns among physicians are subject to psychological factors such as a desire for certainty and risk aversion, as well as fears of patient dissatisfaction, and litigation. The path towards optimizing the utilization of diagnostic laboratory tests must include strategies to minimize non-contributory testing. Appropriate application and sound clinical reasoning are essential to mitigating overdiagnosis, exponential costs on the healthcare system and unnecessary suffering on the part of the patient. Reducing non-contributory laboratory testing practices would allow for the reallocation of resources toward the protection of imperative practices and the advancement of strategies in preventative and individualized medicine. With thoughtful deliberation and constructive conversations among all stakeholders these challenges, pressures and disruptions have the potential to create innovative strategies to optimize the use of diagnostic laboratory testing in healthcare.
252 Ligamentum Capitis Femoris A Pilot an Experimental Study , Sergey V Arkhipov*, Nikolay V Zagorodny and Dmitry V Skvortsov
Ligamentum capitis femoris (syn. ligamentum teres, ligament of head of femur), connecting the acetabulum and the head of femur. This is one of the least studied anatomical elements of the human body. In order to clarify the functions of the ligamentum capitis femoris, external ligaments and abductor muscle group, we constructed a dynamic model of the hip joint. It was established that this anatomical element is involved in constraining the hip joint adduction and may locking the hip joint in the frontal plane, turning it into an analogue of a third-class lever. When the ligamentum capitis femoris is stretched and the abductor muscle group is tension, a load equal to twice the body weight is evenly distributed between the upper and lower hemispheres of the head of femur. The ligamentum capitis femoris function increases the steadiness of the orthostatic postures and unloads the muscle apparatus of the hip joint.
253 Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils in Aromatherapy Protocols , Yago Queiroz dos Santos1,4*, Gabriella Silva Campos Carelli2,4, Bruno Oliveira de Veras3 and Elizeu Antunes dos Santos2
Aromatherapy is the therapy that employs volatile aromatic elements of the plants, that is, their essential oils. The practice that helps patients to sleep and rest as well as helps on alertness, creativity, among others. The therapeutic massage integrates a set of practices with maneuvers whose goal is to promote health and balance with the body, promoting psychological effects on the skin, visceral pain. This pharmacological components of essential oils are volatile constituents at temperature environment, most of which originate from secondary metabolism produced and stored in their own secretory structures formed in the leaves, flowers, branches, stems or roots of various species usually secreted by glandular trichomes, which have various forms, structures and functions distributed mainly on the surface of the leaves. The identification of essential oil constituents is important for the understanding and prediction of their physiological effects where main studied activities are antimicrobial activity, namely antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral, anxiolytic, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic and antinociceptive effects helpful to develop new clinical aromatherapy protocols.
254 Recent Advances in the Associations of Advanced Glycation End Products (Ages) and Cancer , Qiuyu Wang1*, Congxiao Zhang2 and Nessar Ahmed1
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are reactive metabolites under physiological and pathological conditions. They accumulate in tissues and organs and are involved in the pathogenesis of various diseases including cancer. This review presents recent findings on the roles of AGEs and their receptor (RAGE) in carcinogenesis. The molecular mechanisms of cancer pathogenesis and progression related to AGEs-RAGE interaction are highlighted. The strategies for AGE reduction and inhibition in the potential prevention and treatment of cancers are discussed
255 Study on Prevalence of Ovine Paramphistomiasis in Kutaber Woreda, South Wollo, Amhara Region, Ethiopia , Kindu Wondmnew*, Wossen Temesgen, Mohammed Hussien and Yeshiwork Arega
A study was conducted to identify the current status of paraphisthomum infections in small ruminants in Kutaber. A total of 384 faecal samples from small ruminants were collected and subjected to sedimentation technique. Out of 384 faecal samples inspected, 150 (39.1%) were positive for Paraphisthomum. Prevalence of 36.5%, and 30.8% were observed in good and medium body condition. In adult and young sheep prevalence of 40.9% and 33.3% were identified from faecal samples inspected respectively. The highest prevalence of Paramphistomiasis was observed in Lewcho (50.0%) followed by Beshilo (44.5%) and Elsa (42.1%). The lowest prevalence of Paramphistomiasis was observed in Alansha (19.0%). Based on age groups the highest prevalence rate was 40.9% observed in age category of adult and the lowest prevalence rate 33.3% was observed in young. When body condition was considered as a risk factor for the prevalence of Paramphistomiasis 49.5%, 30.8% and 36.5% was observed in poor, medium and good body condition respectively. The prevalence of paramphistomiasis in male (33.9%), female (41.3%) was recorded. This parasitic disease is distributed in every district and considered as one of the major setbacks to sheep product utilization causing direct and indirect losses
256 Thyroid Carcinosarcoma , Denis Kulbakin*1,2,4, Evgeny Choinzonov2,4, Marat Ðœukhamedov2, Vladimir Perelmuter3, Svetlana Gluschenko3 and Nicolay Vasilyev3
Background. A rare case of diagnosis and treatment of thyroid carcinosarcoma has been presented. Methods and Results. A 58-year- old woman was diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid. Thyroid gland US and MRI examinations showed tumor mass in the right thyroid lobe extending to the tracheal wall and intratracheal component. The patient underwent right-sided neck dissection (level II-VI) and thyroidectomy with resection of the tracheal rings, cricoid cartilage arch and the lower parts of the thyroid cartilage on the right side. Conclusions. The present case of thyroid carcinosarcoma is of interest because the carcinomatous component is a rare squamous cell thyroid carcinoma. Our clinical case confirms the aggressive character of such rare disease as thyroid carcinosarcoma, showing a high potential for regional and distant metastases.
257 Glycocalyx Gone Awry: Pathologic Cell Signaling during Endotheliopathy , Robert P Richter1 and Jillian R Richter2*
The endothelial glycocalyx is a viscous mesh that lines the vascular lumen and serves a variety of functions in health and disease. This gelatinous matrix of proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans is the critical contact point between the circulation and end organs, transmitting physical and biochemical signals through the endothelial surface layer to affect endothelial cell activity that subsequently impacts organ function. In this review we explore the roles of the major structural components of the glycocalyx in mediating cell signaling events during inflammatory-induced endotheliopathy. We also discuss proposed therapeutic strategies to attenuate glycocalyx disruption and promote its regeneration.
258 Synthesis and Analgesic Activity of 5,6-difluoro-2- Methyl-4H-benzo(d) (1,3)-Oxazin-4-one and 3-Amino- 5,6-difluoro-2-Mehtyl-quinzolin 4(3H)-One , PO Osarumwense*
The current study is aimed at the synthesis and Antibacterial evaluation of quinazolinone derivatives. The condensation of Methyl-2-amino- 5,6-diflorobenzoate with acetic anhydride yielded the cyclic compound 2-methyl 5,6-diflorobenzo [d] [1,3]-oxazine-4-one which further produce 3-Amino-2-Methyl 5,6-difloro quinazolin-4(3H)-ones via the reaction with hydrazine hydrate. The compounds synthesized were unequivocally confirmed by means of Infrared, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H and 13C), Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrophotometry and Elemental analysis. The synthesized compounds were screened against various strains of microorganism, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus species, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Serratia Marcensces, and Candida albicans. The compounds 1and 2 showed significant activity as an Anagesic agent.
259 A Case of KiKuchi-Fujimoto Disease/Histiocytic Necrotizing Lymphadenitis in 25 years old African American Female , Jasper X Zheng1, Yingxian Liu2* and Armand Asarian3
Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease, also known as histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis, is a self-limiting condition that primarily affects adult females less than the age of 40. The characteristic clinical presentation of Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease is recurrent fevers, benign lymphadenopathy, and other systemic symptoms. The etiology of this syndrome is still unclear. Pathogenesis, according to clinical presentation and histological changes, suggests an immune response with the involvement of T cells and histiocytes. It has been proposed that Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease progression involves three distinct phases: proliferative, necrotizing, and xanthomatous phase. The histology of the involved lymph node demonstrates paracortical expansion of histiocytes, plasmacytoid dendritic cells, and CD8+ T cells. Moreover, areas of apoptotic necrosis are present in addition to characteristic absence of neutrophils. No specific laboratory tests currently exist that can diagnose Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease directly. Instead, the diagnosis requires histopathological and immunohistochemical examination in order to exclude other diseases with entirely different treatment course. Exclusion of lymphoma and systemic lupus erythematosus is imperative to avoid unnecessary and detrimental treatment. Treatment of Kikuchi disease involves only supportive measures because independent spontaneous resolution of this disease occurs within a 4-month period.
260 Drug Induced Liver Injury and Lactic Acidosis Associated with Chronic Sustained Release Nicotinamide Exposure , Robert Goodnough1*, Alexander Monto2, Yiqi Ruben Luo3, Kara L Lynch3 and Paul D Blanc4
It is frequently difficult to identify an etiology in an individual case of acute liver injury. Xenobiotic exposures, infectious causes, and a broad differential of other potential contributors need to be considered. Pinpointing the specific cause of a patient’s liver injury helps to guide management, especially when xenobiotics are im- plicated, by indicating potential therapeutic interventions and by avoidance of recurrent injury from inadvertent re-challenge with an offending agent. We present a case of acute liver failure present-ing with concomitant metabolic lactic acidosis and hypoglycemia associated with the therapeutic dosing of sustained-release niacin, confirmed by laboratory testing.
261 Fiber, the Ultimate Diet , Hildemar Dos Santos*1 and Natalie Gonzalez2
Based on case studies in clinical settings, increasing the consumption of fiber will produce positive health outcomes. I remember one of my patients that had type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and a BMI over 30. He was taking insulin shots, metformin and a beta-blocker for blood pressure. After a period of two months on a high fiber diet (40 grams of fiber per day), he was able to drop insulin completely, drop to half his medication for diabetes and hypertension, and he lost 14 pounds. The advantage of this plan was that he was not on a diet. In fact, he was eating more than he used to before starting the fiber intervention.
262 Evaluation of Immunostimulatory and Antimicrobial Activities of Probiotic Bacteria Isolates from Commercially Available Yoghurts , Angus N Oli*1, Jennifer O Aguh1, Malachy C Ugwu1, Monday Obaji1 and Ruth A Afunwa2 and Chijioke M Ofomata3
Probiotics provide numerous health benefits that transcend basic nutritional requirements of our daily meal. The focus of this study was to evaluate the immunostimulatory capability of probiotic bacteria isolated from commercially available yoghurts in Awka metropolis. Thirty cans of different branded yoghurts were purchased from local supermarkets and prepared using standard procedures. The samples were transferred into De Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) broth and incubated anaerobically for 24 h. The isolates were identified using biochemical tests. Immunostimulatory activities were evaluated using cyclophosphamide induced immunosuppression and delay hypersensitivity reaction techniques. The antibacterial activity was evaluated using agar diffusion assay. The effects of pH and temperature on the growth of isolated Lactobacillus spp. as well as their ability to tolerate bile salt were assayed. The immunological study showed that the test isolates were able to significantly boost the white blood cell count, lymphocyte count, neutrophil count, eosinophil count and monocyte count after treatment and induced inflammatory response in the laboratory animals used for the study. All isolated lactobacillus spp. has inhibitory effect on E coli, S aureus and P aeruginosa. Bile salts incorporated in the bacteria cultures were effective on bacterial viability. The probiotic bacteria isolated in commercially available yoghurts have health beneficial effects, which include immunostimulatory and antibacterial activities.
263 How to Prevent Burnout in Medical Residents: Literature Review , Yu-Chung Juan1,2 and Chi-Wen Juan3,4*
Background: Healthy settings involve a holistic and multidisciplinary method that integrates actions towards risk factors. In hospital settings, a high level of stress can lead to depression, anxiety, decreased job satisfaction and lower loyalty to the organization. Objective: This study was to perform a systematic literature review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of burnout among medical residents to develop strategies to support residents’ personal and professional development. Methods: The Medline database was searched with burnout and resident search words. Inclusion criteria of articles for review were published in an English-language peer-reviewed journal from January 2010 to October 2018.Total 12 eligible studies were included in literature review. Results: We identified 12 studies including 9796 participants, conducted across the world and covering different specialties which include Oncology, EM, Otolaryngologist, Psychiatry, General surgery, Pediatrics, Neurosurgery and Radiology. All the 12 studies included 11 articles on descriptive cross-sectional studies and 1 article on analysis of variance, longitudinal study. Review results mainly pointed out the significance high prevalence and the need for systematic measures for prevention medical residents’ burnout. Conclusion: These studies revealed high level of burnout among medical residents, whose stresses were mainly from working situation, emotional pressure and demands from patients. Action plan for resident burnout syndrome prevention is to develop a better training program and enhance medical resident well-being.
264 The Effect of Optimizing Pre-Hospital First Aid Process on the Efficacy of Rescue and Treatment for Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome , Liu Zhen*, Qi Xing*, Qi Chunmei#, Zhang Xin, Ma Qing, Lu Ya Nan, Qiao Wei, Ma Yong and Chen Lu
Objective: To explore the effect of optimizing pre-hospital first aid procession the rescue efficacy of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in the construction of chest pain center in general hospital. Methods: A total of 214 patients with ACS admitted to our hospital from 2017 to December 2018 were selected (45 before the establishment of chest pain center and 132 after the establishment of chest pain center). To observe the effect of optimizing pre-hospital first aid process on shortening the time from entry to first balloon dilatation (D-to-B) and from first medical contact to first balloon dilatation (FMC-to-B) of ACS patients and improving the prognosis of STEMI patients. Results: Compared with the operation of chest pain center, D-to-B time (41.82+4.23 vs 90.09+5.26; P >0.05) and FMC-to-B time (81.91 +4.43 vs 143.33 +3.54; P>0.05) were significantly shortened; the incidence of cardiovascular events was significantly reduced (P>0.05), and hospitalization days were significantly shortened. Conclusion: In the pre-hospital first aid process, it is of great significance to optimize 120 departure process, pre-hospital ECG transmission process, referral and reception process improvement in the construction of chest pain center in general hospitals.
265 Is Human Nature Today Different Than Before? , Otto E Rossler* and Frank Kuske
The question comes unexpected. Nevertheless, it has a rationale to it: the existence of a historical anomaly. There exists a published scientific result which is doubted by no one in the scientific literature for the 11 years that it exists -- but no one pays any attention to it even though refraining from doing so goes against human nature as it has existed in the past
266 Nosocomial Infection: Causes Treatment and Management , Safila Naveed*, Aisha Sana, Halima Sadia, Fatima Qamar and Nida Aziz
Hospital acquired infection is also known as nosocomial infection or health care associated infection it is occur when patient admitted in hospital but with other type of infection or at the time of admission in hospital infection is not usually present in patient or it is usually occur in hospital during medical care of patient and this is the basic reason of death in hospitalized patient it can affect the patient emotional stress, decease the quality of life, and increase the patient stay in hospital it can also transmitted to the community when the patient discharge [1].
267 Ethical Dilemmas in Posthumous Assisted Reproduction , Iliadis Ch1, Frantzana A2*, Ouzounakis P3 and Tachtsoglou K4
Introduction: Posthumous assisted reproduction is a method that is being used by more and more people to acquire children. Men donate their genetic material while in life or just before they die, so they can continue their genealogy. Purpose: The purpose of this review is to present ethical dilemmas in posthumous artificial fertilization. Methodology: The material of the study has been recent articles on the subject. They have been mainly found through the electronic database Medline and the Hellenic Academic Libraries Link (HEAL-Link), with the following keywords: ethical dilemmas, artificial fertilization, and posthumous assisted reproduction. Results: Posthumous assisted reproduction now appears as a given reality. Many reservations have been raised regarding the permissibility of posthumous artificial fertilization. The most important thing is that the child born after posthumous artificial fertilization will not have a father. The institution of posthumous assisted reproduction is appropriate only for couples, married or unmarried, and not for single solitary women. The child to be born will be considered as a child born into a marriage while the partner’s spouse’s paternity whose consent to heterologous fertilization had been given, will not be affected. Conclusions: The need for a single legal framework to be applied by all countries is necessary, since to date, each state has established its own laws and rules to deal with issues arising from assisted reproduction.
268 New Presentation of the Acupuncture Law of Five Elements Considering the Shape of the Human NEMF , Maria Kuman*
The law of five elements in ancient acupuncture reflects the order, in which the organs in the body become active. When acupuncture treatments are done this needs to be taken into consideration. This article discusses the Quantum Computer in the Subconscious, which works with the waves of our torus shaped NEMF, and through the waves of NEMF rules and regulates all the organs in the body. Based on this, this article offers a new presentation of the ancient acupuncture law of five elements, which consider the shape of the human nonlinear electromagnetic field (NEMF). The torus shape of the human NEMF and its dynamic was presented as two intersecting pyramids one with top up, the other with top down, in dynamic equilibrium. The upsidedown Yang pyramid represents the five hollow (Yang) organs, which are more active (Yang=active). The upright pyramid represents the five solid (Yin) organs, which are less active (Yin=passive). Then the coupled organs with strong functional dependence are on the vertical lines connecting the bases of the two pyramids and the vertical line connecting the two tops.
269 Left Atrial Enlargement is an Early Signs of Hypertensive Heart Disease , Hanan KG Altalhi1* and Asgad A Abdalgbar1,2
Systemic hypertension often leads to left ventricular hypertrophy, congestive heart failure and death [1]. How to identify the early signs of hypertensive heart is the key to block or reverse the process of heart failure. The aim of this study is to evaluate the predictive value of left atrial (LA) enlargement in the early stage of hypertensive heart disease and to explore the correlation between LA enlargement and heart failure with normal ejection fraction (HFnEF). Method: This is case control study of 52 patients admitted to the hospital, 26 patients with history of hypertension (case subject) and 26 without history of hypertension were included as (Control subject). All participant underwent the standard examination and testing as well as Echocardiography (measurement of left atrial dimension, Ejection fraction, left atrial volume, mitral inflow, Left ventricle mass). Patient with valvular heart disease, atrial fibrillation or coronary disease were excluded. Result: The mean age was 69±18 year in the hypertensive patients and 66±17 year in control group. The LA dimension of hypertensive group (38±5.2) was significantly greater than control group (34.5±3.4); P<0.001) LAV and LAVI were significantly higher in hypertensive group than control group (55.5±15.5 vs 41.7±13.8 , P<0.001 28.5±7.2 vs 22.2 , P<0.001 respectively). LVM and LVMI were significantly higher in hypertensive group than in control group (174±46 vs 150±31 g, P<0.0001, 106 ±24 vs 95±16, P=0.001). Conclusion: We conclude that Echocardiographic LA enlargement may be an early sign of hypertensive heart disease in patient with no other clear cause of left atrial enlargement.
270 Pseudo-Enzymatic Properties of Haptoglobin:Hemoglobin Complexes , Giovanna De Simone, Alessandra di Masi and Paolo Ascenzi*
Hemoglobin (Hb) and free heme are physiologically released into human plasma upon hemolysis of senescent erythrocytes and erythroblasts enucleation, and pathologically because of severe hematologic diseases and blood transfusion. To inhibit the heme-based formation of free radicals, several plasma proteins have been evolved. In particular, haptoglobin (Hp) binds αβ dimers of Hb allowing the Hb removal via the reticuloendothelial system and the CD163 receptor-mediated endocytosis in hepatocytes, Kupffer cells, and tissue macrophages. In turn, the Hp:Hb complexes facilitate heme-based detoxification of NO and peroxynitrite and display NO2 ‒ reductase activity opening new avenues in removing reactive nitrogen species in plasma. The correlation between Hp glycosylation, the stability of the Hp:Hb complexes and pathological conditions (i.e., cancer) has been observed
271 Nutritional Management of Immunological Diseases and Drug-Nutrient Interactions , Shewangzaw Addisu Mekuria*
Background: Balanced nutrition, especially in terms of adequate vitamin, mineral and protein energy intake, enhances the resistance against infections. Nutrients can boost or depressed the immunity depending on the food nutrient and levels of intake. It can cause immunological disorder disease like Allergy, Asthma autoimmune diseases, HIV/AIDS, Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), Celiac, Type I diabetics. A drug- nutrient interaction is the effect of medication on nutrients. Methods: The information was collected from the google scholar and reviewed through Mendeley desktop with the objective of to review nutritional management of immunological diseases and drug-nutrient interactions. Results: The interaction can be a positive and negative effect. One of the effects of this interaction were deficiency lead to vitamin or mineral deficiency. Medication can decrease appetite and sensory organs, nutrient absorption, nutrient production harmful bacteria and loss of nutrient. Conclusion: Nutritional management of immunological disease affected people should be consider and an appropriate or alternative type of food. Drug-nutrient interactions can influence on food intake, nutrient digestion, absorption, and distribution, metabolism to active forms, function, catabolism, and excretion.
272 The Resurgence of Interest in Anti-Cancer Dendritic Cell Vaccines , Robert O Dillman MD*
The ultimate appreciation of dendritic cells (DC) and their role in biology occurred in the fall of 2011 when Ralph Steinman was awarded the Nobel Prize for his seminal work on the discovery, characterization, and biological function of DC [1,2]. The enthusiasm for clinical application of DC as presenters of tumor antigens may have peaked before 2000 following initial positive clinical reports in melanoma and lymphoma [3,4].
273 Pediatric Nursing Triage in Mass Gathering: Education and Training Issues , Farrag S1,2*, Alshmemri M1 and Ragab O3
Deaths of children could occur during mass gathering due to various reasons. Many of these deaths could be prevented if very sick children were identified and appropriate treatment started immediately upon their arrival at the health facility. This study investigates standardized role of the pediatric nurse in Emergency Triage, and the real situation occurring in Makkah local governmental hospitals, where nurses can hardly participate in the assessment, or decision making, and how the guidelines are used in the process. Significance of the study: Researchers have recently found that nurses reported limited knowledge and awareness of the wider emergency and disaster preparedness plans. This clarifies the research gap for pediatric nurses. Aims of the study: (1) is to review all the available studies in order to come up with a clear standardized role of the pediatric nurse in Emergency Triage. (2) to describe the requirements needed by the newly graduated nurses in order to be categorized by Health Authorities as an Emergency Triage Pediatric Nurse. (3) to recommend the integration of Triage competencies in BSC nursing curriculum. Setting: The study was conducted at the Faculty of Nursing, Umm Al Qura University, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A review of the literature on mass gatherings and triage systems, was conducted. Four databases were utilized: (1) OVID (2) PubMed, (3) Cochrane Collection Plus, and (4) Lippincott. The search terms: Triage, Pre-hospital triage, Field triage, Triage nurse, Nursing curriculum, Pediatric nurse, Emergency room clinical competencies. Results: Differences in the application of pediatric triage across local and international hospitals in Mass-Gathering events, are discussed. The lack of standardized role of pediatric nurses in emergency triage is demonstrated both on national and international levels. Conclusion: Pediatric nurses should have a standardized role in emergency triage
274 Embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma of Conjunctival Tissue and Musculus Rectus Medialis in a 14 Years-Old Girl , Stefan Bittmann*, Elisabeth Luchter, Elena Moschüring-Alieva, Gloria Villalon
Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common soft tissue sarcoma in childhood and adolescence and is a tumor of the skeletal muscles. We present a 14 years old girl with an embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (pT1a, N0, M0) of conjunctival tissue treated with systemic polychemotherapy (CWS guidance, SOTISAR register, subgroup C). First complete remission was present in august 2019.
275 The Intake of Aronia Melanocarpa Fruits and Juice has Great Potential for Prevention of Socially Significant Diseases , Margaritka Boncheva*
Socially significant diseases are preceded by changes in metabolism, oxidative stress and changes in the vascular wall of the arteries leading to poor blood supply to the organs, insufficient oxygen to the organs or thrombosis. Prevention of these diseases involves clarifying genetic predispositions and changing lifestyles (diet and physical activity).
276 Nanostructured Electrodes For Biosensing: An Innovative Technology With Huge Potential Applications , Giuseppe Aiello* and Rosalinda Inguanta
anomaterials is a recent technology with a wide landscape of potential applications in several fields. In particular, recent researches have demonstrated their appropriateness for biosensing applications in the clinical diagnosis and prevention of several important pathologies. Recent developments in the application of Carbon-based nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes (CNT) and graphene electrodes have proven their outstanding capabilities of detecting the presence of electroactive compounds in biological fluids, thanks to their excellent electrical conductivity, large surface area and low cost.
277 Drugs Use or Abuse; Pharmacological Considerations , Khalid Aftab*
The most common and essential aspects of patient care when emergencies or urgencies have arisen consist of a thorough primary assessment of the patient and airway treatment. Once this is accomplished the need for drug administration and possible EMS (emergency medical service) assistance is determined. There are no reports of toxicities from degradation products of currently available drugs. How much of potency retain varies with the drug, the lot and the storage conditions, temperature, especially humidity, but many drugs stored under reasonable conditions in their original unopened containers retain ninety percent of their potency for at least three to five years after the expiration date on the label, and sometimes much longer.
278 Prevalence of Staphylococcus Species from Clinical Samples Obtained from Some Hospitals on Kano Metropolis, Nigeria , Sadiya M Ibrahim1, Farouk S Nas2, Kabiru A Garba3 and Muhammad Ali*4
The study was aimed to determine prevalence of Staphylococcus species among patients attending some hospitals in Kano, Northern Nigeria. Three hundred (300) samples from ear swab, high vaginal swab (HVS), wound swab and urine were collected from patients (133 males and 167 females) attending the Hospitals over a period of eight months (October, 2016 to May, 2017). The samples collected inoculated onto the surface of freshly prepared Nutrient agar for colony formation and isolation. Each colony was isolated in a pure form by sub culturing for further studies and identification. The result showed that the distribution of Staphylococcus aureus and other Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus in the clinical samples for the three hospitals, S. aureus was isolated most from wound swab with 51 isolates (33.33%) followed by ear swab with 46 isolates (30.07%) and then H.V.S and urine with 28 isolates accounted for (18.30%) each. CoNS was isolated most from urine sample with 11 isolates (36.67%) followed by H.V.S with 9 isolates (30.00%) then ear swab with 8 isolates (29.51) and wound swab, 2 isolates accounted for (6.67%). Statistical analysis of the result showed significant difference in the prevalence of Staphylococcus species among the samples examined at p<0.05. Staphylococci are one of the etiologic agents of infectious diseases.
279 Study on the Efficacy of Pondguard in Improving Clinical Performance of White Leg Shrimp (Penaeus Vannamei) in an AHPND Bacterial Challenge Model , Haig Yousef Babikian1*, Rajeev Kumar Jha1, Dang Thi Hoang Oanh2 and Truong Quoc Phu2
A bioassay trial was conducted to determine the efficacy of developed product, Pondguard as an anti-Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND) candidate. The Pondguard (Registration no. D 16060285-HBC) is consisting of natural oils, like, lavender oil, Eucalyptus oil and Pine oil. It maintains the immunity level of shrimp, which helps to protect shrimp from infectious diseases. Two doses of Pondguard i.e. 40 ppm and 80 ppm were selected for the trial. The treatment groups tanks were applied Pondguard whereas no application in control tanks throughout the experiment. The shrimp of both treatment and control were challenged by immersion method. The cumulative mortality reached up to 56.7% in positive control whereas 23.3 % in 80 ppm pondguard group and 13.3% in 40 ppm pondguard group at dpi 8 whereas no mortality recorded in negative control. The Relative Percent Survival of 80 ppm group was 64.7% and of 40 ppm group was 76.5%. The trial results show that the developed Pondguard has significant effect against AHPND-Vibrio parahaemolyticus in a controlled condition.
280 Alterations of Hematological and Biochemical Profile of Calves Infected Naturally with Tropical Theileriosis , Abubakar AS1, El Hussein AM1, Abdelsalam MA2, Salih DA1, Samia HA1, Hala Elrayah1 and Sara AM1*
Background: Bovine theileriosis in cattle is a disease caused by protozoan parasite known as Theileria annulata, transmitted by ticks of genus Hyalomma. More than 250 million domestic cattle have been estimated to be at risk. This disease leads to severe losses in production and reproduction of cattle. The present study is performed to investigate the effect of Theileriosis on serum hematological and biochemical profile of calves, as a supportive aid tool for diagnosis of the disease and to figure out any kind of symptomatic treatment to support animal health to reach complete recovery. Materials and Methods: 30 crossbred, 3 months age average Calves were purchased from Keynana company (White Nile state), prior to purchase they were tested for thieleriosis, blood samples were collected and screened by blood smear and confirmed by IFAT, and finally by PCR. Calves were moved to Khartoum state and allocated in a farm recorded positive theileriosis infections previously with noticeable presence of ticks. Samples collected in a period started from January to March 2016 depending on appearance of high body temperature (40ºC), enlargement of lymph nodes and any other sign or symptom related. Samples were tested as described before. Results: Positive samples showed pronounced reduction in Hb, PCV, and RBCs, WBCs count 10.1±0.75, 27.6±2.8, 6.0±2.3 and 2.7±1.2 respectively. While the biochemical profile revealed significant low level of serum total protein, albumin and phosphorus. Whereas liver enzymes elevated significantly, ALT, AST, GGT 53.2±8.9, total bilirubin 4.6±0.08 and direct bilirubin 4.3±0.12. While creatinine, and glucose values, were not significantly different between pre and post infection. Conclusion: Hematological and biochemical profile of calves after theileriosis infection was tremendously influenced, so it could be a considerable tool for tentative diagnosis of tropical theileriosis (Figure 1).
281 The Role of Hyperaldosteronism in the Pathogenesis of Neuroleptic Cardiomyopathy , Volkov V P*
A brief review of the literature deals with the role of aldosterone in the pathogenesis of neuroleptic cardiomyopathy due to the side effects of cardiotoxic antipsychotic drugs. Various physiological and pathophysiological effects of aldosterone, its effect on myocardium and participation in cardiac remodeling during morphogenesis of neuroleptic cardiomyopathy are considered.
282 Antidiabetic Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Carica papaya Leaves in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats , Augustine I Airaodion1*, Emmanuel O Ogbuagu2, John A Ekenjoku2, Uloaku Ogbuagu1 and Victor N Okoroukwu3
The growing number of diabetes coupled with the harsh side effects of some synthetic drugs has led to the increasing search for alternatives which are relatively cheap with minimal side effects. This study sought to investigate the antidiabetic effect of ethanolic extract of Carica papaya leaves in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Thirty adult male albino rats were induced intraperitoneally with alloxan. The rats were grouped into six groups of five animals per group: Group A was not induced with alloxan, Group B animals were induced but not treated, Group C animals were treated with glibenclaimide, Group D, E and F animals were treated with 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg body weight of ethanolic leaf extract of C. papaya respectively. The extracts were administered to the animals orally for 14 days. The animal’s blood sugar levels were assayed using glucometer. The lipid profiles parameters were assayed using standard methods. The animals administered with 200, 400 and 600 mg/Kg B.W of extract showed significant decrease (P<0.05) in blood sugar level compared to the untreated animals. The decrease in the blood glucose level of the animals following the administration of the plant extract suggested that the plant extract possesses antidiabetic effects. The extract of C. papaya produces hypolipidaemic effect and this is evident as there are significant decrease in plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol and an increase in plasma high density lipoprotein-cholesterol in the treated groups compared to the untreated group. This implies that C. papaya leaves could replace glibenclamide in the treatment of diabetes as it has no side effect. The leaves could also be exceedingly helpful in the control of obesity and hypertension
283 Status of Water Used for Drinking and Irrigation in Kano: A Critical Review on Physicochemical and Heavy Metals Concentration , SAA Shawai1*, BB Abubakar2, MS Nahannu3,4 and HS Gaya3
Water is one of the most important natural sources for the sustenance of all living organisms. The importance of water to human’s ranges from domestic, industrial and also irrigational activities. The quality of water is affected by human activities as a result of urbanization, population growth, industrial production, climate change and other factors. Several attempts have been made by researchers in order to ascertain the sources of pollution of water in Kano state. This review provides a clear picture of various water analysis carried out by some researchers from different locations in the state. The water status of rivers, dams, ground water and sachet water used in Kano were presented in this paper. Based on the data considered in this paper, revealed that parameters in sachets and ground water consumed in Kano are within the WHO recommended standards for potable water and ensures the suitability of the water for human consumption. Industrial effluents activities contributed immensely in making the river water sources unfit for human and irrigation purposes. This review recommended that, government should sanction any industry that failed to adhere to environmental regulatory policies. Also, government and non-governmental organization should educate the communities on proper disposal of wastes. Phytoremediation should be use for the removal of pollutants from water and soil especially heavy metals.
284 The Use of Ambrosia Moritima Methanolic Extract as Nephroprotective against Rifampin Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats , Tarig HA Bilal1, Esraa Ramadan1, Idris OF2, Sara A Mohamed*3 and Samia H Abdelrahman3
Background and Objectives: Nephrotoxicity is a progressive loss in kidney function over a period of months or years. Rifampicin (RIF) is the first line drug for the treatment of tuberculosis and can cause nephrotoxicity in human beings and animals. Material and methods: Nephroprotective effect of methanolic extract of, Ambrosia moritima leaves was studied in healthy albino rats (1.25-1.75 kg) of either sex. This plant is a flowering plant in the family Asteraceae, they are distributed in the tropical and subtropical regions. It is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of renal failure, inflammation of kidney and other diseases. The renal toxicity was produced by administration of rifampin at dose rate of 70 mg/kg I/p for 28 days. The plant extract was given by simultaneous oral administration of methanolic extract of Ambrosia moritima leaves at a dose rate of 300 and 600mg/kg for 28 days. Results: It was found that the induced toxicity was inhibited by the administration of the extract. The decreased levels of serum urea, creatinine, sodium (Na) and potassium (K). Histopathological examination revealed protection of the kidney from the marked necrosis of renal tubules that induced by rifampin. Conclusion: Ambrosia moritima methanolic extract has a marked nephroprotective effect depending on the concentration.
285 Calcium Dysregulation and Mitochondrial Dysfunction Form A Vicious Cycle in Parkinson’s Disease , J Tabitha Hees1* and Angelika B Harbauer1,2
Mitochondria are not only the “power houses of the cell” but also function as a major Ca2+ buffer in the cell. Mitochondrial dynamics respond to the level of Ca2+ in the cell in order to maintain a beneficial feedback cycle between Ca2+ buffering and mitochondrial dynamics that allows adaption of mitochondrial to the cellular (sub) environment. Mutations in proteins linked to Parkinson’s disease (PD) are linked to both mitochondrial dysfunction and Ca2+ dysregulation, which can trap the cell in a vicious cycle. The high energetic demands and high Ca2+ of dopaminergic neurons may explain why this cell type is the most vulnerable to mutations in PD related genes.
286 Cerebral Tuberculoma without Clinical Pulmonary Tuberculosis Mimicry as Cerebral Abscess: (A Rare Case Report) , Badrul Munir1*, SB Rianawati2, Catur AS2 and Dotti Inggrianita3
Cerebral tuberculoma is approximately 10-15% of intracranial tuberculosis cases and 1% of all Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) cases. Mostly, Cerebral tuberculoma is always accompanied by pulmonary tuberculosis infection. However, clinical and radiological symptoms of cerebral tuberculoma has mimicry with other brain infections. Gold standard of cerebral tuberculoma is histopathological finding, but it isn’t hard to do so MRI and MRI spectroscopy are used to make sure this diagnosis. In this case we will explore cerebral tuberculoma without clinical pulmonary tuberculosis has mimicry cerebral abses. Case Presentation: 20-years-old woman, complained a progressive left side body weakness accompanied by an intermittent headache for 6 months ago. She had also complained a discharge appeared from both ears for 7 months ago. Patient’s contact history of tuberculosis was doubtful. Hemiparese dextra and smelly yellowish discharge from both ears was found from the examination. Neurological examination: there is no meningeal sign, patient has left hemiparese, the discharge and sputum Gene expert test did not show any sign of MTB. Weber test showed no lateralization and Rinne was negative. Based on contrast head MRI, Multiple lesions in cerebellum, right parietal lobe, and left occipital lobe accompanied by cerebral edema was found, suggestive of cerebral abscess. However, subsequent examination using MR spectroscopy suggested a brain tuberculoma. Oral Anti tuberculosis therapy had shown satisfying result. Conclusion: There are similarities in clinical symptoms and radiological findings between cerebral tuberculoma and cerebral abscess, it is necessary to have MR spectroscopy as a substitution if there are no histopathological examination available
287 Infertility Information System with an approach to Data Architecture: A Systematic Review , Somayeh Sadat Seyedi, Azamossadat Hosseini, Reza Rabiei, Farkhondeh Asadi and Hamid Moghaddasi*
Infertility is one of the major healthcare problems around the world. In order to provide infertile couples with appropriate services, it is essential to have an integrated information system for the management of infertility data. One of the most important aspects of this system is its data architecture so that relevant data can be properly managed and made available to users. The aim of this study was to determine data architecture components in infertility information systems including data sources, organizations involved in infertility care, data exchanges and datasets. In this systematic review the four databases (PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, and Embase) searched. Studies related to each of the various stages of designing, creating, and developing information systems and registries for infertility and assisted reproductive technology were selected. These articles were those published in English between 2007 and 2018. Findings resulting from 44 selected articles were categorized into four groups including data sources, organizations involved in infertility care, data exchanges, and datasets. The most important data sources are databases, paper forms, patient and birth registries, and vital records. Organizations involved in data management include producing and coordinating organizations. The main data exchanges took place between infertility clinics and national infertility databases. Provision of proper services to infertile couples requires a well-designed information system, which collects relevant information from different sources, and makes it available to relevant individuals. Data in this system are used to effectively treat infertility, assess the success rates and safety of assisted reproductive technology, and allocate resources.
288 Primary Intracranial Germinoma: Case Report and Review of Literature , K Messoudi1*, K Oualla1, N Acharfi1, O Zouiten1, I Ouafki1, L Amaadour1, Z Benbrahim1, FZ M’rabet, S Arifi1, Y Dkhissi2, A Amarti3, M Maaroufi3 and N Mellas1
Primary intracranial germinomas (PIGs) are an extremely rare entity with usual location in the pineal and suprasellar regions. Adult cases are rare since they are commonly diagnosed in the second decade of life. Diagnosis is based on specific imaging features in addition to tumor markers, cerebrospinal fluid cytology and stereotactic biopsy. We report a rare case of pineal germinoma diagnosed in adult patient at department by cerebrospinal fluid cytology. The therapeutic strategy was based on neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy. The patient received chemotherapy based on BEP regimen (bleomycine-etoposide-cisplatin) with a clear clinical benefit from the first cycle of chemotherapy by complete resolution of clinical symptoms. The evolution was marked after the third cycle of chemotherapy by severe febrile pancetopenia leading to septic complications and the death of patient. The aim of this work is to describe the rarity of this case, clinical radiological and histological features, in addition to therapeutic management and discuss them in comparison with literature
289 Climate Change, Its Future and Relation to Public Health , Andrei N Tchernitchin*1, Mauricio Ilabaca-Marileo2 and Diana Pey-Tumanoff3
This pre-dictum, prologue in 21st century language, should be a stimulus to change customs, objectives and ethics of our current civilization, in which everything is allowed .... just for a few people: quod licet Jovi, non licet bovi. During its existence, planet Earth has been subjected to enormous catastrophes, such as those caused by an impact of an extremely large meteorite or an explosion of a su- per volcano; after those events, the planet has survived but most of the species become extinct.
290 Improving Antenatal and Postnatal Attendance: Beyond Theory to Practical Solutions , Kizito Uzoma Ndugbu1* and Elsie Chizoba Madukwe2
An antenatal care that seem to thrive on the understanding of the pregnancy state as a potentially dangerous biomedical state, and so goes on to have its mechanisms mainly on surveillance is proving ineffective in developing countries. Despite the many reasons given for poor utilization of ANC, especially in developing countries; which has been the concentration of much research, the main problem appears to be one: the programme seems to be contextually at odds with the situations of pregnant women and their families, especially in low-income areas. This review offers practical ways for a practical solution to begin.
291 272 Plasma Growth Factors in Pain A New Dimension of Treatment , J Alcaraz Rubio*
Pain control has become a medical discipline that costs million dollars to administration in medication, health care and work dis- ability every year. Analgesic units often have difficulty controlling the related pain symptoms in patients, that translates into repeated consultations and hospital admissions with disappointing results for the professionals involved and desperate for the patients who suffer. Without a doubt, the most frequent cause of pain related consultation and functional disability units is related to mechanical low back pain of both traumatic and degenerative origin.
292 Clinical, Hormonal and Metabolic Characterization of Mexican Women who had Gestational Diabetes in the Institute of Security and Social Services of workers of the State of Mexico (Issste) , JC Paredes Palma*1, Carlos Ramirez Velazquez2, Francisco Hernandez Fragoso3, Lorena Balladares Macedo4 and Claudia N Paredes Palma5
Background: Diabetes Mellitus (DM2) has increased its incidence worldwide and in Mexico. The prevalence of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Mexico ranges from 4 to 14%. The risk of postpartum transformation from DMG to DM2 is 40% and in other studies it is described as a 10-fold risk. There is no work that has characterized clinically, metabolically and hormonally Mexican women who have suffered from GDM, to know the differences that exist with other described populations, establish ethnic risk factors and probable treatment strategies. Material and Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 30 Mexican women who during 2018 and 2019 from 18 to 37 years old who were detected during pregnancy with DMG in a Second Level Care Hospital of the ISSSTE, clinical, metabolic characterization was performed and hormonal. Descriptive statistics, correlation of variables with Pearson’s P were developed and Odds Ratio was determined for the development of Eclampsia and Preeclampsia. Results: 30 women who suffered from Gestational Diabetes were detected, the age range fluctuated between 18 and 37 years with an average (P) of 28 years and standard deviation (SD) of 6.43. Most women detected had some degree of overweight or obesity, 26 patients (86.6%). Insulin resistance detected in this population in terms of HOMA was established in 16 patients (53.3%). In 5 (16.1%) patients, fasting impaired glucose was determined and in 1 (3.2%) Prediabetes due to glucose> 140 at 2 hrs, as well as in 1 (3.2%) Diabetes Mellitus. Most of the patients had some type of dyslipidemia 28 (93.3%). The average of the group of patients in the case of Gestational Age at the end of pregnancy was 37.7 with a Standard deviation of 1.25, with a range of 36 to 40 weeks gestation, Conclusion: Most of the population of Mexican women who were studied for gestational diabetes had metabolic abnormalities more frequently than those reported in other populations with a similar prevalence of DM2 conversion reported in other ethnic groups.
293 Tamsulosin and Dementia in Old Age: is There Any Relationship? , Rebecca Renata Lapenda do Monte¹, Karina de Andrade Vidal Costa¹, Arnaldo Santiago Nunes Junior², Amália Cinthia Meneses Rêgo3 and Irami Araújo Filho4*
Tamsulosin is used to treat Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH), prescribed annually to about 12.6 million patients worldwide. It is an alpha- adrenergic antagonist that reduces the tone of the prostate smooth muscle involved in the pathophysiology of BPH. By acting on alpha 1A receptors, predominant in the prostate, tamsulosin also acts on receptors present in the brain. This study consisted of a literature review aimed at disseminating scientific knowledge about the relationship between the use of tamsulosin and the onset of dementia. Pubmed, Scopus, Scielo, Embase, and Web of Science studies involving dementia in patients using tamsulosin in the last five years were selected. The review showed a risk correlation and a higher incidence of dementia in treated patients. The risk ratio, when compared to other medicines, approached 1.20. In conclusion, it was identified the need for clinical trials with higher sampling power to increase relational significance due to the high prevalence of BPH and the extensive use of tamsulosin in elderly patients with the disease.
294 Medical Theory: Why Does Progesterone Not Work After a Traumatic Brain Injury in Humans? , Eduardo de Oliveira Duque Estrada* and Luciano de Melo Pompei
The evidences suggest progesterone has a neuroprotective action in preclinical studies [1], but in some recent clinical studies, this hormone did not benefit people involved in traumatic brain injury. [2,3] So, why progesterone does not work correctly after a traumatic brain injury in humans?
295 Characteristics of Thoracic Trauma in The Enrique Cabrera Hospital. Review of A Five-Year Period , Jorge Agustin Satorre Rocha1*, Olga Caridad Leòn Gonzàlez1, Pedro Rolando López Rodroguez2, Eduardo Garcia Castillo3 and Luis Manuel Danta Fundora3
Introduction. Thoracic trauma is common in today’s society and of great importance Two to the nature of the organs that are located inside the thorax. Goals. Describe the characteristics of the patients admitted with the diagnosis of thoracic trauma. Methods It was made a Descriptive, retrospective and qualitative quantitative study, in which 102 patients were admitted to Enrique Cabrera Hospital with the diagnosis of thoracic trauma in the period from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2018. Data from the medical records of the admitted patients were obtained. Results: Male (77.45%) and ages between 40 and 49 years (25.49%) predominated in the study. Traffic accidents were the most frequent cause of trauma (31.38%), with predominantly thoracic trauma contused (63.73%). The thoracic lesion caused by the most frequent trauma was the pneumothorax (44.11%) and the most frequent extra thoracic lesions associated with the thoracic trauma occurred in the extremities (13.72%), no lesions were associated in 66.75% of the patients. The surgical treatment was the most used being the Minimum Pleurotomy the most used (73.72%). The most frequent complication was wound infections (13.72%), in 58.82%. of the patients there were No complications. 44.12% of the patients remained admitted for an interval of 5 to 10 days, this being the most frequent hospital stay. Conclusions. These results differ in some aspects when compared to other countries, which is given by differences in the economic and social order.
296 Rat Bite in A 55-Days Old Girl Presenting Without Fever: A Case Report , Yara AlGoraini1* and Faisal AlGhamdi2
We report an unusual age presentation of an infant presenting without fever following a rodent rat-bite. The patient was a 55 days old girl who presented with a history of a rodent rat bite. She had been bitten by a rodent rat on her left cheek as well as on the left nostril, which was caught dead by one of the family members. The patient kept in observation and was given anti-tetanus vaccine before discharge with instructions. On day four of discharge from the emergency room, the patient presented afebrile with mild dehydration. She was admitted for hydration and 24 hours of observation then discharged home. Follow up after 3 weeks from discharge by phone with her mother, that she progressed nicely, the bite wound started to heal, and had an uncomplicated course.
297 Flower Microbiology: Old concept but new approach , Ahtesham Ahmad Shad1* and Wajahat Ahmed Shad2
Since the ancient times and till now, flowers have been considered as a significant entity and nature’s gift. Flowers imparted several key roles in art, religion, health and ornamental arena. Like other recent innovative studies, exploring human microbiota especially the gut microbiome the plant microbiota or plant microbiome has also gained a grained vision to unfold the hidden mysteries of biological world. Moreover, symbiosis of plants with the microbes are also an interesting debate nowadays [1,2]. Although it was shown in 1800’s that flowers inhabited with microbes but the ecological relationship between them remained undiscovered [3,4]. Aforementioned already a long time in history, when flowers and other parts of plants studied but the relation of plant in respect to microbe was first investigated by Lorenz Hiltner dated back to 1904 [5]
298 Genital Warts, Etiology, Signs, Treatment and Prevention , Arsalan Khan*
Genital warts, scientifically known as Condylomata acuminate, are the consequences of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), probably one of the most occurring sexually transmitted infections. Human Papilloma Virus is non enveloped dsDNA virus and its predilection site are epithelium of genital organs. It belongs to the viral family Papoviridae, which replicates in the basal layer of genital epithelium. The genital mucosa may be infected anywhere including, penis, scrotum, vulva, vagina, cervix, anus, pubic and perianal area. Four subtypes of HPV 16, 18, 31, and 33, are known to cause cervical cancers, while HPV 6 and 11 cause 90% cases of genital warts. Genital warts may commonly appear as lesions on penis, scrotum, vulva, vagina, cervix, anus, pubic and perianal area. The genital warts may be treated using 0.5% solution of Podophyllin, 25% solution of Podophyllotoxin, Imiquimoid 5% cream, Trichloroacetic acid 60-90% and Podophyllin resin 15%. For the purpose of prevention of the disease vaccines are also available which are parentally administered.
299 Clinical Presentation and Management of Brain Metastasis in a Sample of Iraqi Patients , Mustafa Jarullah Neamah1, Ihssan S Nema2* and Liwa Abdullah Ali1
Brain metastases are neoplasms that originate in tissues outside the brain and spread secondarily to involve the brain [1] This may result either from direct local extension of the primary growth, or from blood born metastases [2]. The intracranial compartment is a common site of metastatic cancer.
300 Clinical Presentation and Management of Brain Metastasis in a Sample of Iraqi Patients , Mustafa Jarullah Neamah1, Ihssan S Nema2* and Liwa Abdullah Ali1
Brain metastases are neoplasms that originate in tissues outside the brain and spread secondarily to involve the brain [1] This may result either from direct local extension of the primary growth, or from blood born metastases [2]. The intracranial compartment is a common site of metastatic cancer. Between 20 and 40% of patients with systemic cancer developed brain metastasis. Such metastasis can be extra axial in nature (e.g. involving the dura and subdural space, or leptomeninges and subarchnoid space), but most commonly they occur within the brain parenchyma [3].
301 Natural Approaches for Reducing Risk Markers of Cardiovascular Diseases Related to Obesity , José Angel Marañón1*, David Munoz Plaza2 and Cristina Lozano3
Calorie imbalance is related to a rising prevalence of obesity. Populations of industrialized countries are becoming more overweight as a result of changes in lifestyle, and obesity may well become the most common health problem of the 21st century. Obesity is a major contributor to the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the developed world, and yet has only recently been afforded the same level of attention as other risk factors of coronary artery disease (CAD).
302 Evaluation of Hexarelin Effects on Epileptic Seizures, Hippocampal Neuronal Damage and Memory Impairment after Pentylenetetrazole-Induced Acute Model in Rat , Yasar Tastemur1, Ekan Gumus2, Ahmet Sevki Taskıran3, Merve Ergul4, Bilal Sahin3, Ahmet Altun
Recent studies have demonstrated that ghrelin receptors have antiepileptic effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ghrelin receptor agonist hexarelin on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures and post-seizure hippocampal damage. In our study, we used 42 male 230-250 g Wistar Albino rats. Animals were divided into seven groups as control, saline (PTZ; 1 ml/kg serum physiologic), positive control (5 mg/kg diazepam), 50 μg/kg, 100 μg/kg, 200 μg/kg and 400 μg/kg hexarelin. 30 min after drugs administration at the indicated doses, PTZ was administered 45 mg/kg to induce an epileptic seizure. The animals were observed for 30 min. Seizure stages (according to the Racine Scale) and first myoclonic jerk times (FMJ). 24 hours after PTZ injection, passive avoidance test was performed, and then brain tissues were removed. After the routine histological process, serial sections from brain tissues were stained with toluidine blue to determine neuronal damage. The hippocampal Cornu Ammonis CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus regions were evaluated histopathologically. Statistical evaluation of the data was performed by one- way ANOVA, and multiple comparisons were determined by the Tukey test. Statistical significance was defined at p<0.05. Obtained data suggest that 200 μg/kg and 400 μg/kg hexarelin decreased seizure stages and increased FMJ compared to PTZ group (p<0,05). In addition, 200 μg/kg and 400 μg/kg hexarelin improved retention time in passive avoidance compared to PTZ group (p<0,05). Furthermore, 200 μg/kg and 400 μg/kg hexarelin reduced neuronal damage in hippocampal CA1, CA3, and DG regions compared to PTZ group (p<0,05). However, all these effects of hexarelin were not observed at 50 μg/kg and 100 μg/kg (p>0,05). In conclusion, we suggest that hexarelin has protective effects on epileptic seizures and neuronal damage after PTZ dose-dependently.
303 Diabetes-Cancer Risk: Hyperglycemia on DNA Damage and Repair , Amy Zhong1, Yumay Chen1,2* and Phang Lang Chen3*
Increased risk of certain cancers has been reported in populations with diabetes mellitus. Ample research supports the notion that diabetic conditions generate excessive amounts of reactive oxygen species, thus resulting in oxidative DNA damage. Recently, several discoveries have shown that cells grown in high glucose conditions also have defective DNA damage response and repair pathways. When considered together, the dual concerns of elevated oxidative DNA damage and aberrant DNA damage response and repair underscore the importance of maintaining tight glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus and cancer.
304 Organ Trafficking as a Criminological Problem , Andrejs Vilks*
The author draws attention to the illegal trade in human organs, which has been increasing in recent times due to increasing demand. Means and methods of searching for organ donors, recruitment, transplantation technologies are improving. The volume of trafficking in human organs, the damage to specific individuals and the profits made illegally are difficult to quantify. Under these circumstances, the value of human life is leveled. Different approaches and methods are applied to the materialized determination of human life and the value of its organs, thus the volume of organs removed, and their prices are evaluated differently. The trafficking of human organs as a criminological problem is becoming more and more important in recognizing human beings as a fundamental value in today’s society
305 Chemical Stability of Pharmaceutical Organic Compounds , Topwe Milongwe Mwene-Mbeja*
According to the reaction conditions, medicines or pharmaceutical organic compounds can be altered via hydrolysis or elimination reactions. They can also degrade through isomerisation, oxidation or polymerization. This review aims to show the reaction mechanisms related to the stability of medicines. In that context, mechanisms are useful in order to explain the formation of products into the chemical reaction medium. When medicines are in an inadequate reaction medium, they disintegrate accordingly. Therefore, it is very important to understand the conditions which modify the stability of medicines so that to identify means to ensure their stability. Indeed, the chemical or physical degradation can alter the therapeutic efficiency of a medicine and it can lead to the production of undesirable products.
306 Social Media Makes Things Possible For Librarians: A Critical Note , Muhammad Anwar*1 and Tang Zhiwei2
The rapid progress and development of social media and its associated tools have made things easy for the library staff and library professionals. Social media is the fastest tool of communication in today’s world, where everyone can reach the other within a click. At the same time, the library professionals are getting familiar with social media and its related tools to apply in their respective libraries. The library professionals are creating a virtual platform using Social media to interact with their users and social media is also helping to reach out to the targeted audiences and customers. Social media is using by librarians to make their library users and also use social media for the marketing of their sources and services. Several factors are influencing the use of social media in the libraries because the library professionals think that social media is the best choice to bring library users nearer. Besides these facts there are massive numbers of challenges and issues are facing by the library professional while using social media in their respective libraries. These hurdles and issues should be resolved for better and reliable use of social media in the libraries. Library professionals use social media to share information with their potential users. This paper has highlighted some of the aspects of social media e.g. usage, factors and issues, challenges in the use of libraries.
307 Disability and Sociology: Anatomy is Not Destiny , Gustavo Martins Piccolo*
This article deals with the need to understand and conceptualize disability beyond biological lineaments. It presents the possibility of sociological understanding of the phenomenon, the historical transformation of the concept of disability, as well as the fruitful possibilities of human development from the full and complete insertion of the disabled into society and work. It concludes by demarcating the historical task of society regarding the transformations of social and economic conditions that surround us today.
308 Clinical Psychology: Chosen Topics , Jesús Dueñas Becerra*
The theory without practice is pure verbalism; practice without mere empiricism theory Father Felix Varela Mr. Juan Donaldo Quintilian Mendoza, assistant professor of the Faculty of Psychology of the University of Havana, is the author of the book Clinical Psychology: selected topics, published by the Scientific-Technical Editorial.
309 What the Next Bioethics law says about us , Jean Philippe Pierron*
What does the next bioethics law say about us? The preparation of the so-called “bioethics” law offers the opportunity to focus on how our society responds to the question of what it is for a human desiring and suffering. It follows what our socio-political practices place under the revolutionary figure of “states-general” of bioethics. It comes to conclude, provisionally since these laws are “revisable”, a rare citizen moment when one thinks about it. The one where everyone, if he wanted to - the hundreds of organized debates did not mobilize millions of people - could come to find information and debate in a democratic framework, aware of the ethical pluralism of conflicting traditions. But also, able to argue, to agree on disagreements.
310 Coulomb’s Law Stand to The World of Elementary Particles in the Way That Newton’s Laws of Classical Mechanics Stand to The Macroscopic World , YinYue Sha*
According to the Classical Electron Orbital Radius and the force equilibrium relation before the disintegration of the neutron, we can calculate the sharp radius of the neutron; According to the density of nucleus and the sharp radius of the neutron, we can calculate the sharp radius of the electron; According to the sharp radius of the electron and the force equilibrium relation that electron with the Critical Photon, we can calculate the sharp electron radius of the Critical Photon; From the density of nucleus, we can obtain the mass of the Critical Photon; From the light velocity, we can obtain the energy of the Critical Photon; From the Planck’s constant, we can obtain the frequency of the Critical Photon; From the light velocity, we can obtain the wavelength of the Critical Photon; We discover that the wavelength of the Critical Photon is in the peak position of the solar spectrum energy radiation. Coulomb’s law stand to the world of elementary particles in the way that Newton’s laws of classical mechanics stand to the macroscopic world.
311 The Adrenergic Mechanism in the Implementation of the Cholinergic Anti-Inflammatory Pathway , Pavel F Zabrodsky*
Experiments on random-bred albino mice showed that application of β2ARs agonist (hexaprenaline sulfate, 1,5 μg/kg, a single dose) and α7nAChRs agonist (GTS-21, 15 mg/kg, a single dose) cause a significant decrease in the mortality of mice from experimental sepsis (i.p., E. coli O157:H7) when it is modeling 2h after using these drugs due to a decrease of the concentration of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 (implementation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway). It has been experimentally established that the adrenergic mechanism (action of β2ARs agonist) is an important component in the implementation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. The combined use of β2ARs and α7nAChR agonists determines their additive effect.
312 Clinical Pharmacists in Chronic care [Part 1] , Abdul Kader Mohiuddin*
Pharmacy practice has changed substantially in recent years. The professionals could contribute directly to patient care in order to reduce morbimortality related to medication use, promoting health and preventing diseases. Healthcare organizations worldwide are under substantial pressure from increasing patient demand. Unfortunately, a cure is not always possible particularly in this era of chronic diseases, and the role of physicians has become limited to controlling and palliating symptoms. The increasing population of patients with long-term conditions are associated with high levels of morbidity, healthcare costs and GP workloads. Clinical pharmacy took over an aspect of medical care that had been partially abandoned by physicians. Overburdened by patient loads and the explosion of new drugs, physicians turned to pharmacists more and more for drug information, especially within institutional settings. Once relegated to counting and pouring, pharmacists headed institutional reviews of drug utilization and served as consultants to all types of health-care facilities. In addition, when clinical pharmacists are active members of the care team, they enhance efficiency by: Providing critical input on medication use and dosing. Working with patients to solve problems with their medications and improve adherence.
313 Early Development of the Icon Molecule for Gene Therapy of Cancer and Macular Degeneration , Alan Garen*
I conceived the Icon strategy for cancer immunotherapy in 1996 after reading a paper showing that Tissue Factor (TF) is expressed on the surface of vascular endothelial cells and tumor cells in invasive breast cancer but not in benign breast cancer [1]. Although it was not tested in this paper, I assumed TF also is not expressed on the surface of vascular endothelial cells in normal tissues and it might provide a specific marker for the tumor vasculature
314 Avoiding Malthus 2.0: Why Food Pessimism Leads Nowhere , Christian Fischer*
Planet Earth’s natural resources, such as land, freshwater, raw materials etc., have to be shared among an increasing number of people (and farm animals). Moreover, human life expectancy has continuously increased. Consequently, more people consume for longer, leading to fears whether there is enough for all of them, now and in particular in the future. One particular concern is abo
315 He4 Marker in Endometrial Cancer: Reality or Fiction? , Baquedano Mainar L*, Espiau Romera A, Alvarez Sarrado L, José Gutiérrez Y, Navarro Sierra J, and Ruiz Conde MA
Purpose of the review: HE4 has been recently studied in endometrial cancer, but no conclusive results have been obtained. The role of the marker to differentiate between benign pathology and cancer and its relationship with factors of poor prognosis in endometrial cancer has been studied in this review. Conclusions: Clinicians could use HE4 marker in women with endometrial cancer to help them in the preoperative decision-making process
316 Harmonizing Core Platforms In The Delivery of Patient-Specific Cell Therapies To Accelerate Patient Access To Life-Changing Treatments , Alex Klarer*
As our knowledge of human biology has grown, the newly found information has been leveraged to devise increasingly complicated treatments. This began with small molecule treatments that impact cell functions and has led to the rapidly maturing biologics space that largely aims to upregulate and downregulate those functions. This, in turn, has led to the emerging field of cell and gene therapy, where the aim is to create, renew, or replace cell functions and directly affect human tissue
317 Physiological Strength and Body Reaction after Training at the Male 2500m Oxygen Deprivation Chamber , Dao Chanh Thuc* and Nguyen Thanh Tu
This study was to verify the influence of environment assumed elevation (FiO = 15.72% with the altitude 2500m) intermittently to change certain physiological functions, biochemical and body composition of male sprinters in this study. Twelve males were randomly divided into 2 groups, a hypoxia (H) group 2500m (n = 6, age: 20 ± 1.789 years, body height: 171.833 ± 5.672 cm, body mass: 62.7 ± 4.545 kg) and a control (C) group (n = 6, age: 21 ± 2.881 years, body height 178.0 ± 3.688 cm, body mass: 68.017 ± 4.5 kg). After the training program the results showed that both groups had significant changes (p <0.05), but the analysis showed that group (H) in the training in hypoxia caused changes significant (p <0.05), better than group (C) (HRmin reduce -9.17bpm, vital capacity (VC) to 0.42 liters, increase in 3000m run (0.94%), VO2max (3.98%), hemoglobin (1.3%), hematocrit (3:47 %), EPO decreased -2.07%).
318 Man: The Profound Change , Almada F1, Fernando C2, Lopes H2, Vicente A*3
A statement: A profound change knocks at the door! People’s reaction - condescending smiles and shout: We’ve all seen it, we all know it! But it is not true. A profound change is in fact at our door, if it has not already begun to enter the house and the spirit, but few have seen it and still less have perceived it. In any case, resistances to change are expected, which in a succinct way, we will say whether they are consciously assumed or not, can be due to: a) the natural fear of innovation and everything that is new. b) to the installed interests and the fear of losing stewardship. c) the incommensurability between paradigms that Kuhn had already talked about.
319 Cost Comparison of Peri-Strips Dry®/Peri-Strips Dry with Veritas® (PSD/PSD-V) Versus Seamguard® in Gastric Staple Line Reinforcement (SLR) , Manuel G Ramirez1, Alex Gandsas2, Barbara Blaylock3, Josh Epstein3 and Manuel A Ramirez4
Background: A recent meta-analysis of staple line complications (SLC) in primary bariatric/metabolic procedures showed significantly lower (p<0.05) SLC rates for bovine pericardium (Peri-Strips Dry/Peri-Strips Dry with Veritas (PSD/PSD-V); Baxter Healthcare, Deerfield, IL) compared to biocompatible glycolide copolymer buttress (Seamguard; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc, Flagstaff, AZ), suture reinforcement (oversewing), and no reinforcement. Objective: The aim of this study is to assess the impact of staple line reinforcement (SLR) choice on costs and clinical outcomes of primary bariatric/ metabolic procedures from the hospital administrator perspective in four countries – the United States (US), Brazil, Colombia, and Mexico. Methods: The cost-consequence model assesses PSD/PSD-V vs. Seamguard, oversewing, or no SLR. Epidemiologic inputs are from the literature. Clinical inputs are from the literature (SLC rates and operating room (OR) time per procedure) or are based on US databases (US SLC rates, product volume per procedure). Product costs are US average sales price. Other cost inputs (complications, OR time and oversewing) are from government sources. All costs are reported in 2018 country currencies. One-way sensitivity analyses using 95% confidence intervals or +/-20% and probabilistic sensitivity analyses (PSA) using Monte Carlo simulation for 5000 iterations evaluate key drivers of costs. Results: Analysis was completed based on hospitals conducting 100 primary bariatric/metabolic procedures annually. Reinforcement of gastric staple lines with PSD/PSD-V vs current approach mix would lead to fewer complications and reduction in surgical time leading to net cost savings. PSD/PSD-V remains a dominant strategy (fewer complications, lower costs) in the PSA. Net annual cost savings would be US$27,537, R$152,399, COL$139.81 million and Mex$1,854,032, for US, Brazil, Colombia and Mexico respectively.
320 High-Risk Patient Identification: A Review of Current Methodologies , Shalini Sivanandam*1 and Bradley N. Doebbeling1,2
Identifying High Cost High Need (HCHN) patients has been increasingly identified as important among healthcare stakeholders since the 1997 Balanced Budget Act prompted the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) to require risk-adjusted payment methodologies. High risk patient identification was originally derived primarily from claims data. This has since evolved to using multiple data sources, including clinical data from electronic health records, self-reported health measures etc. Importantly, the case definition for HCHN patients is evolving and needs further research. Various high risk identifications are used by payers and providers for a range of purposes ranging from targeted outreach for disease management, reducing readmissions, and strategies for greater care coordination through patient centered medical homes and Accountable care organizations (ACOs). However, the great diversity of case definitions, diversity among stakeholders, availability of source data, access to technology and analytical manpower, all complicate the refinement and use of a high-risk patient identification. With the ongoing momentum to leverage big data technologies, several solutions for HCHN patient identification are being developed. It is therefore imperative to understand the current practices and evidence from research prior to adopting a flexible and proactive predictive analytics approach to HCHN patients. The critical need for further research and funding is outlined.
321 Nutrition and Food in the Reproduction of Cattle , Alejandro Córdova-Izquierdo* and Blanca Estela Rodriguez Denis
At the beginning of the 1980s, a series of very profound changes were initiated in the milk cow nutrition approaches, because of the highest levels of production per cow that were reached by the productive systems of the northern hemisphere. Nutrition is defined as the series of processes through which an organism acquires and assimilates food to promote its growth and replace worn or damaged tissues. The nutrients are fundamental for the animals to carry out their different productive functions.
322 Features of the Food Status of Residents of St Petersburg , Dotsenko Vitaliy Boyko*1, Bashmakov VP2 and Mosiychuk LV1
Results of the standardized sociological telephone interview of 1200 people of the population of St. Petersburg (18 years and older) with use of the CATI system are presented. The goal of our study was to characterize the food status (anthropometrical indicators, a diet and a diet, the range of the consumed products and alimentary diseases) of this population. The problem of excess weight is relevant for 45.6% of St. Petersburg residents, from them 24.9% suffer from excess weight, 20.7% – from obesity. The problem of a hypotrophy is not considerable, it exists only in 3.2% of respondents. Women face a problem of obesity slightly more often (23.5% and 17.1% accordingly). Manifestation of a hypotrophy is also a little more often for women (4.9% and 0.9% accordingly). Among youth (74.5%) the share of persons is big for whom BMI corresponds to criteria of norm. In group of socially active inhabitants at mature age 28.6% has excess body weight and 18.7% with obesity. That makes about a half (47.3%) of persons with excess body weight at this age. 63.6% of pensioners suffer from the excess body weight or obesity. This problem is 3.5 times more relevant for them, than for youth, and 1.3 times more relevant, than for socially active persons at mature age. The optimum diet is observed - 67.0% of St. Petersburg residents, from them 42.3% have a meal three times a day, and 24.7% - four times a day. The highest regularity of having a meal is observed among pensioners in the mornings - 85.7%. It is 1.3 times more, than in other age groups.
323 Can Next Generation Sequencing Be the Standard of Care for all Patients With Metastatic Non-Squamous Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer , Francisco J Martinez*
The genetic alterations of most lung cancers are enormous. There are approximately 20,667 genes in the human genome comprised of over 3 billion base pairs. Smokers with lung adenocarcinoma have, on average, 8-10 mutations per 1 million bases (base pairs), which equates to over 50,000 single nucleotides [1]. The current standard of care in the treatment of stage IV non- squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is based on tailoring treatment on just a handful of actionable genetic drivers.
324 Endoscopic Myotomy: Advancements in Foregut Endoscopy , Marc F Catalano1*, Sajjadh MJ Ali1, Todd D Wilson2, Hani Zamil1 and Brooks D Cash1
A number of diseases of the foregut are now being managed endoscopically instead of the traditional surgical methods. This brief review of literature deals with the advancements in endoscopy with reference to endoscopic myotomy.
325 Improving Antenatal and Postnatal Attendance: Beyond Theory to Practical Solutions , Uzoma Kizito Ndugbu*1 and Elsie Chizoba Madukwe2
An antenatal care that seem to thrive on the understanding of the pregnancy state as a potentially dangerous biomedical state, and so goes on to have its mechanisms mainly on surveillance is proving ineffective in developing countries. Despite the many reasons given for poor utilization of ANC, especially in developing countries; which has been the concentration of much research, the main problem appears to be one: the program seems to be contextually at odds with the situations of pregnant women and their families, especially in low-income areas. This review offers practical ways for a practical solution to begin
326 Prediction Based on Random Survival Forest , Shu Jiang*
Random survival forest (RSF) is an ensemble of survival trees where each tree within the forest is grown non-deterministically. RSF is an attractive nonparametric alternative in modeling time-to-event data when the number of covariates is larger than the number of subjects and the relationship between the response and covariates is complex. In this note, we discuss three main aspects in tree construction procedure in a nontechnical manner. Specifically, we review the node splitting rule, ways to construct right-sized trees to avoid overfitting and estimation in terminal nodes once the tree has grown to full size.
327 Paediatric Asthma Management in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: The need for Culturally Sensitive Research and Practice , Abeer Alatawi1*, Pam Smith2, Nicola Ring3 and ColinChandler4
Asthma is the third most common chronic disease in Saudi Arabia, affecting two million people. Asthma is also a leading cause of death among allergic disorders. Uncontrolled asthma may considerably decrease the quality of life for children and their families. Over the years, the Saudi government has included asthma as a major concern in their strategic health plan and has encouraged research in this area. However, paediatric asthma management remains under-researched and needs to be investigated further in the Saudi context. This review summarizes the recent advances in the paediatric asthma management in Saudi Arabia, including the need for culturally sensitive research and practice. The authors discuss the recent context of asthma management in KSA. The authors discuss the need for culturally and ethnically sensitive asthma management research and practice.
328 Congenital Garment Nevus (Giant Nevus) , Salvador Labrador*1, and Jose Manuel Llamazares Medrano2
A 40 year old male from a suburban area of Spain, presented to our Clinic with respiratory symptoms. On examination we observed a dark hypermelanotic lesion on the dorsal and lumbar regions with areas of hypertrichosis on the lateral borders of this ovaloid shaped and dark skin patch. The affected area had a smooth and leathery appearance along with variegated lesions, light brown to black patches or plaques with smaller macules and papules (satellite nevi) in addition. (Figure 1) [1]
329 Epigenetic Markers in Human Diseases , Cristiana Libardi Miranda Furtado*
The human genome project (HGP) provided important information about structure, organization and predicted function of 2.85 billion nucleotides in the DNA sequence, which is the foundation for biomedical research, genetic diagnosis and evolutionary genomics [1]. However, the genetic basis of complex disorders as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, Alzheimer, schizophrenia, autoimmune diseases and cancer, remains unclear. The multifactorial nature of these diseases involves an intricate gene network and environmental influences that reprogram the genome and hinders the knowledge of the mechanisms involved in its pathophysiology.
330 Use of Millimeter Wave FMCW Radar to Capture Gait Parameters , Hajar Abedi*, George Shaker, Jennifer Boger, Plinio Morita and Alexander Wong
Features related to gait can be fundamental metrics of human motion. Gait speed and stride length are increasingly being recognized as a measure a person’s health status; changes in these parameters can indicate changes in health. However, variations in gait characteristics as a result of cognitive or other conditions may go undetected as the effect can be gradual and often goes unnoticed during clinic visits. Technologies that detect changes in the gait of older adults could support detection, evaluation, and monitoring of parameters related to changes in mobility, cognition, and frailty. This, in turn, could be used to support more effective biomedical applications. To do so, we must be able to extract crucial gait parameters with high accuracy while maintaining ease of use for practical implementation. This paper describes the development of a millimeter wave FMCW (frequency modulated continuous wave) radar sensor that can measure walking speed and stride length in range of indoor environments. Since our approach uses non- invasive wireless technologies, people do not need to wear or carry a device on their body. Additionally, due to the fact that there is no camera, feelings
331 Impact of Fertilizer Subsidy Programme on Maize Income in the Northern Region of Ghana , Samuel Safo K Allotey*, Adam Hamza and Hudu Zakaria
This study principally assessed the impact of fertilizer subsidy programme on maize income in the Northern Region. Sample sizes of 400 respondents were interviewed using questionnaires. Secondary data was also collected for the study and the results analyzed. Simple random sampling techniques was used in selecting respondents. The data was analyzed using appropriate descriptive statistics and Propensity Score Matching (PSM). The study revealed that majority of smallholder participated in the fertilizer subsidy programme. High level of participation in the fertilizer subsidy programme among smallholder farmers can be partly due to high poverty level in Northern region of Ghana. In establishing the relationship between smallholder farmers’ participation in fertilizer subsidy programme and maize income. The propensity scores matching results revealed a significant effect between smallholder farmers’ participation in the fertilizer subsidy programme and maize income of participants. The study calls for more investment and expansion of the subsidy Programme to other agricultural inputs such as improve seed, pesticides and insecticides as the subsidy have the ability of increasing smallholder income levels.
332 Protein Complex as Indicator of Seed Recalcitrance , Marina I Azarkovich*
Late stage of seed ripening and storage compounds accumulation is accompanied with maturation drying, seeds become desiccation tolerant, and may survive for a long time in the dry state. These seeds are named orthodox. However, part of species, especially originated from tropics, produces so-called recalcitrant seeds. Recalcitrant seeds do not dry at the end of maturation, they have high moisture content and active metabolism; recalcitrant seeds remain desiccation sensitive. Seed recalcitrance is often found in moist, warm climatic zones, without seasonal changing [1,2]
333 Effects of Augmented Reality (AR) Game on Human Health , Sai L NG* and Ben MA
The Augmented Reality (AR) game, Pokémon GO, has the potential to improve human health on a global scale. This paper reviews the effects of AR game on players’ physical, mental, and social health
334 Selenium Content, Anthelmintic, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Artocarpus Heterophyllus Lam. From Ubangi Ecoregion in Democratic Republic of the Congo , Koto te Nyiwa Ngbolua1*, Emmanuel Lengbiye Moke1, Mbembo-wa-Mbembo Blaise1, Gédéon Ngiala Bongo1, Paulin Mutwale Kapepula2, Nadège Kabamba Ngombe2, Marcellin Messi3, Joséphine N. Mbing3, Dieudonné Emmanuel Pegnyemb3 and Pius Tshimankinda Mpiana4
Helminths are recognized as a one of major animal and human health problem and the gastrointestinal nematodes become resistant to currently available anthelminthic drugs; therefore, there is a foremost problem in treatment of helminths diseases. The main aim of this study was to assess the anthelminthic, antioxidant and antibacterial activities as well as the mineral content of ethanol and organic acid extracts of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam leaves. The phytochemical profile and phenolic contents of leaves were determined by thin layer chromatography and the spectrophotometric methods. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of flavonoids, phenolic acids, coumarins, anthraquinones, anthocyanins, terpenoids, and the absence of alkaloids in this part of plants. Mineral composition carried out by the method of water and nitric acid and analysis by Inductively Coupled Argon Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-EOS) showed the abundance of different elements namely calcium, iron, potassium and selenium in this plant. Ethanolic extract and organic acid fraction exhibited dose-dependent paralysis of Benhamia rosea in the range concentrations from 0.625 mg/mL to 5 mg/mL in comparison with the standard drug Albendazole. ABTS and DPPH assays showed that these extracts can scavenge free radicals connected with their IC50 values ranging from 17.26 ± 1.66 to 152.1 ± 30.20 mg/m L. Oleanolic acid used such as standard and organic acid fraction showed a weaker capacity to scavenge DPPH radical. Bacteriologic analysis showed that E. coli and S. aureus are not sensitive to Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. The findings indicated that the anthelminthic and antioxidant activities of Artocarpus heterophyllus leaves support the potential therapeutic interest of this species and could justify its use in Traditional Medicine
335 Health Psychology and Cardiovascular Disease Research Models , Raúl Martínez Mir*
Health psychology focuses its attention on diseases where the behavior is part of the origin, or the aggravation of them. It gives much importance to the effect that behavior has on the disease and therefore it is a discipline that complements the biomedical model of diseases. Understanding the origin of the disease, the factors that protect it from its appearance (protectors), and the factors that influence its appearance (risk factors) is vital to understand health promotion, prevention and the treatment to be successful
336 Repair CNS Injury by Combination of Olfactory Ensheathing Cells with Biomaterials , D Li1, A Ibrahim1,2, K Minkelyte1, Modinat Olushanu1, B Steven3, P Tabakow4 and Y Li1*
Despite advances in understanding the failure of CNS to regenerate and technological improvements in post-injury rehabilitation, there is still no effective treatment for devastating injuries to the spinal cord. Cell transplantation has demonstrated to be one of the most promising therapeutic strategies to restore neurological functions after spinal cord injury (SCI). Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) are amongst the leading candidates in the field. OECs are specialized glial cells that can be obtained from either olfactory bulb or olfactory mucosa tissue. OECs are effective in anatomical repair and functional restoration in experimental injury models and in clinical application [1-12]
337 Reducing Insulin Administration Errors in Inpatients from a Nursing Perspective: A Literature Review , Jieli LI 1* and Rasika Jayasekara2
It is widely agreed that medication error can not only cause financial, psychological and emotional stress to patients, healthcare professionals, and healthcare providers, but also has the potential to cause severe physical injury and possible death to patients [1]. Over the past century there has been a dramatic increase in researching how to prevent medication error in various healthcare settings, among which the topic of medication administration error remains as the most active area [2,3]. A large and growing body of literature has investigated the root causes of medication administration errors and proposed strategies of reducing these errors accordingly [2-4]
338 Did we Eradicate SARS? Lessons Learned and the Way Forward , Robert Smith*
Permanent reduction to zero of the worldwide incidences of infection caused by a specific agent as a result of deliberate efforts: intervention measures are no longer needed” [1].
339 Why We Need a Trading System for Childbearing Quota? , Hualei Yang1 ,Zheng Shen2* and Wenchao Zhang1
On one side of the world, many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, and South Asia have not escaped from the “Malthusian Trap” yet [1]. Since agricultural production still plays a dominant role and the process of industrialization and urbanization continues to be slow, these areas appear to be a low level of economic development and personal income. Without restriction on fertility, these areas have high fertility rate and face excess population, causing population growth ahead of economic growth. The imbalance between resources and population lead most people to live below the poverty line
340 One Case Report and Literature Review of Alexander’s Disease Caused by a Mutation in the GFAP Gene , Gaohong Wu1, Xueping Zhu*1 and Ping Jiang2
Background: Based on a case of tic as the primary symptom of Alexander disease I type, enhancing understanding clinical manifestations and characteristics of the genotypes and improving the level of diagnosis and treatment of Alexander disease I type. Methods: Combined one with gene diagnosed type I Alexander disease child in October 2018 in admission to neonatal ward of Children’s Hospital of Soochow University, the clinical diagnosis and treatment process of patient and related literature reports were analyzed retrospectively, follow-up was conducted in February 2019, the etiology, clinical manifestations, genotypic characteristics, diagnosis and treatment were discussed. Results: One 20-day-old boy, the main symptom was convulsion, improve related laboratory inspection, finally, GFAP gene detection was passed, (ngqx1801877701-1) chr17: 42989062 showed heterozygous mutation of c.884A>G (p.d295g), It has not been reported at home or abroad, and the child can be diagnosed with Alexander disease I type, moreover, the father of the patient had heterozygous mutation (ngqx1801877802-1) chr17: 42989062 with c.844A>G (p.d295g), after the treatment of symptomatic support, the patient’s condition improved. Conclusion: Alexander disease I type early disease, early diagnosis and under the support in symptomatic treatment, attaches great importance to the late follow-up and rehabilitation training is the key to improve the prognosis.
341 Innate Immune System in Chronic Endometritis , Yu E Dobrokhotova* and E I Borovkova
The innate immune system is one of the two main immunity strategies found in human [1,2]. Unlike adaptive immunity, the innate immune responses are not specific to a particular pathogen and recognize some general groups of proteins and phagocytic cells. The major function of the innate immune system is to maintain the human body homeostasis and genetic identity by protecting the host from the toxins, infectious agents and endogenous cell waste products [3-5]. The critical role in the regulation of the innate immunity belongs to proteins of the Toll-like superfamily that express both intra- and extracellular and induce cytokines and interferons productions [6-8]. This study set out to investigate the innate immunity factors expression in the endometrium of women diagnosed with chronic endometritis.
342 Theory of Stress-Anxiety-Sleep Disorders-Neural Damage Cyclic Chain and the Progression of Parkinson’s Disease , Jorge Garza-Ulloa*
Parkinson’ disease” is a neurologic complex disease that affect the functionality if the brain modifying the neural connectivity due to cell death, that still don’t have cure. All actual medication and procedures available today only help to improve the quality of life of the patients. The main objective of this research paper is to conclude a theory for the relation of “Stress”, “Anxiety” and “Sleep disorders” and an additional factor identify as “neural damage”, and relation between them and others additional factors like genetic disorders with the progression of “Parkinson’s disease”, supported with many published research papers that are currently available, personal interviews with PD patients, caregivers, PD families, neurologists, others peoples involves in their PD health team, and my own experience as a Biomedical Engineering researcher and caregiver for my wife with PD. “The Theory of Stress-Anxiety-Sleep Disorders-Neural Damage cyclic chain and the progression of Parkinson’s disease “, it is explained with concept involved, many reasons to be included in the theory and their relations to previous conclusions/suggestions of many researchers papers already publish, and recommendations to develop good habits in PD patients, with correct attitude and actions to implement the theory to help in the goal of achieve a decrease in the progression of Parkinson’s disease. They are concentrated as “The 7 most important recommendations for PD patients and their caregivers
343 Corrosion Residue Debris Left by Implant Materials to the Patient’s Body , Gulsen Akdogan1* and Mohammad Ghaith Almasry
In the field of biomaterial science, the corrosion of metallic implants in the body cannot be avoided so the selection of biocompatible and corrosion resistant materials is so important, whereas the corrosion can decrease the lifetime of implants. Human body represents a very aggressive corrosive environment to metallic implants. Although some pure or commonly known alloys as implants can be used in combination with the body when used alone, they can cause problems if used in places where material pair is used without observing the electrochemical potential difference between them. As a result, electrochemical corrosion will happen. A Battery formation due to electrochemical potential difference between materials and subsequent electron transfer increases the amount of debris that breaks from metal in the body environment. Debris formation and their effects on the human body are the initial reason for shortening the duration of implant leading to implant failure and of course revision operations.
344 179 Analysis of Privacy Protection Methods for DNA Motif Finding , Yongting Zhang1,2, Minyu Shi1,2, Huanhuan Wang1,2 and Xiang Wu1,2*
DNA motif finding is a repetitive expressive sequence fragment that found in given DNA sequence sets and its precise location is of significance to fully comprehend the regulation mechanism of genetic expression. Motif finding is the key to grasp the mechanism of genetic transcriptional regulation, however, the security and privacy issues of motif finding are so overwhelming that we must to pay more attention to it. In our paper, we simply overviewed the methods for protecting motif finding privacy from three broad perspectives: Controlled access, anonymity method, and ε -differential privacy.
345 Analysis of Privacy Protection Methods for DNA Motif Finding , Yongting Zhang1,2, Minyu Shi1,2, Huanhuan Wang1,2 and Xiang Wu1,2*
DNA motif finding is a repetitive expressive sequence fragment that found in given DNA sequence sets and its precise location is of significance to fully comprehend the regulation mechanism of genetic expression. Motif finding is the key to grasp the mechanism of genetic transcriptional regulation, however, the security and privacy issues of motif finding are so overwhelming that we must to pay more attention to it. In our paper, we simply overviewed the methods for protecting motif finding privacy from three broad perspectives: Controlled access, anonymity method, and ε -differential privacy.
346 Our Experiences in Conducting PBL Session at Universal College of Medical Sciences (UCMS) Bhairahawa Nepal , Piryani Rano Mal*1, Gautam Narayan2, Nitasha Sharma3, Laxmi Shrestha4, Anita Shah5, Rubina Shrestha6 Rita Khanal7
Problem-based learning (PBL) is an educational strategy first introduced in McMaster University Canada fifty years back. In Nepal, it was first introduced in Tribhuvan University (TU) Institute of Medicine (IOM) early 1980s for sometimes. Subsequently, PBL implemented in B P Koirala Institute of Health Sciences (1998), Kathmandu University (KU) Medical School (2001), KU affiliated medical colleges (2011) and Patan Academy of Health Sciences (2010-2011). It has also been experimented in two medical colleges KIST Medical College (2011) and Chitwan Medical College (2015) affiliated to TU-IOM. The PBL as an educational strategy is just mentioned in TU-IOM MBBS curriculum (2008) and BDS curriculum (1999) but not practiced. Universal College of Medical Sciences (UCMS) Bhairahawa, Nepal established in 1998 is affiliated with TU-IOM. UCMS conducted one PBL session for first year MBBS / BDS for six-days June 16-21, 2019. Prior to implementation, one-day “Workshop on PBL for Tutors” was conducted for tutors for understanding PBL process and recognizing the role of tutor in conducting PBL. One PBL package was developed including scenario, 4-triggers and tutor guide. After workshop, implementation plan for session was developed.Students were oriented on first day for one-hour. Tutorials were conducted for two-hours (11.00-13.00) for first five-days with supervised self-directed learning (SDL) for two-hours in afternoon (14.00-16.00) with SDL continued at hostel. During tutorials students encountered patient’s problem comprised of four-triggers; they identified cues, established learning needs and developed learning objectives followed by discussion. Seminar was arranged on last day for four-hours. Feedback from students was obtained on structured questionnaire and students received feedback individually from respective tutor in afternoon of last day. Students presentations in seminar were orderly, logical, and delivered proficiently. Tutors communicated that students were motivated, satisfied, participated actively, they acquired optimal knowledge and their communication, analytical and problem-solving skills enhanced. Students feedback was positive and constructive
347 The Potentials of Rhodes Grass (Chloris Gayana Kunth) as Drought Resistant Perennial Forage Grass in Nigeria , Y Na Allah1 and A Bello2*
Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana Kunth) being one of the improved pasture species in Nigeria has been increasingly cultivated over the last few years in the country due to its high dry matter yield, favourable economics of cultivation, and superiority over other perennial forage grasses. Base on this fact, there is need to understand fully the potentials of the plant. The major objective of this paper is to evaluate the potentials of Rhode grass (Chloris gayana Kunth) in Nigeria.
348 Evaluation of the Association Between Carotid Intemia-Media Thickness and Myocardial Infarction , Asgad A Abdalgbar1,2 and Hanan G K Altalhi¹*
Background: The combined thickness of intima and media of carotid artery is associated with prevalence of cardiovascular disease. We studied the association between the thickness of carotid artery intima and media and the incidence of new myocardial infarction in person without clinical evidence of cardiovascular disease. Patients and Methods: This is case control study of 26 patients admitted to the hospital with acute myocardial infarction (case subject), and 26 patients without acute myocardial infarction (control subjects). All the participant underwent the standard examination and testing, as well as B - Mode ultrasound (US measurements of right and left common carotid artery IMT and internal carotid arteries IMT were made). Diabetic patients and those with peripheral vasculopathy and cerebral vasculopathy were excluded from the study. Result: The mean maximum IMT of the CCA, ICA were significantly higher in study group than among the control group (P =0.05, P = 0.002, respectively). Conclusion: Intima–media thickness of the common carotid and ICA as assessed by ultrasonography was significantly greater in patients with acute myocardial infarction
349 Traditional Knowledge, Sustainability and the Potential Role of Epigenetics , Stuart Walker1* and Peter Lloyd Jones2
In our research we have been talking to people who have been part of a traditional, place-based culture and professions for generations. They live in communities around Morecambe Bay, in North West England; the largest expanse of estuarine sands and intertidal mudflats in the U.K. The people we have talked with have considerable knowledge about this unique natural environment, its wildlife, its changing moods and its particularities. Their knowledge encompasses both historical and contemporary issues
350 Concise Details of RADS , Stuart M Brooks*
Reactive Airways Dysfunction Syndrome (RADS) is an abrupt-onset asthmatic disorder of a non-allergy origin. Its mechanism relies on innate immunity that permits the airways to deal with non-microbiological constituents. The massive exposure causes a severe airway injury with ensuing detachment of damaged and dead epithelial cells. There is the release of Molecules of Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs) by stressed or dying cells. Hematopoietic and bone marrow-derived cells migrate to renew the denuded cellular barrier. Soluble growth factors, interleukins, chemokines, arachidonic acid products, and discharges from airway smooth muscle cells aid epithelial and tissue repair. Metalloproteases and extracellular matrix influence the epithelial-to-mesenchymal matrix. Lung macrophages contribute to the repair and influence airway hyperresponsiveness. Airway wall thickening, subepithelial fibrosis, mucus metaplasia, myofibroblast hyperplasia, muscle cells hyperplasia and hypertrophy, and epithelial hypertrophy are characteristic features of the airway remodeling (136-word count).
351 Experimental Cancer Models , Seher Yılmaz1*, Adem Tokpınar1 and Seda Avnioğlu2
Treatments in the field of cancer are continuously improving. No matter which model is used, using animal models in drug development research has become a necessity. Although cell culture and molecular biology have become prominent in recent years, the responses of metabolism to the drugs used have necessitated the use of an animal model in research. The use of spontaneous or transplanted tumors with chemical carcinogens is common in experimental cancer studies. In recent years, with the introduction of transgenic animal models, scientific and commercial developments are taking place. In this article, we will examine the methods used in experimental cancer models.
352 Developments in CRM197 Glycoconjugates for  Anticancer Vaccines , Kristopher A Kleski2 and Peter R Andreana*1
Glycoconjugate vaccines that utilize cross reactive material 197 (CRM197) as an immunogenic carrier have shown clinical success against bacterial pathogens such as Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Neisseria meningitidis. However, the translation of glycoconjugate vaccine strategies towards cancer has had limited clinical success. Preclinical efforts focused on tumor associated carbohydrate antigen (TACA)-CRM197 conjugates include the Globo H, RM2, Thomsen-nouveau (Tn), Thomsen-Friedenreich (TF), and sialylated Thomsen-nouveau (STn) antigens. These collective efforts have shown robust conjugation chemistry and efficacious immune responses. The immune response towards these CRM197 conjugates produced Gaussian-like distributions as a function of dose, with a maximum response at dosages in the low to medium range. This phenomenon suggests a tolerogenic effect toward the CRM197 immunogen at high doses. An approach to resolve immune tolerance in cancer based glycoconjugate vaccines may be concomitant administration of TACA conjugates. As described by clinical research, the effects of simultaneous administration of antibacterial glycoconjugate vaccines have profound effects on immunological outcome
353 Evaluation of Antifungal Activity of Nine Members of Family Euphorbiaceae of Lahore Region against Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus oryzae & Alternaria solani , Kiran Zahid*
Present research was undertaken to analyze the antifungal potential of nine members of family Euphorbiaceae of Lahore region against three pathogenic fungi i.e. Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus oryzae & Alternaria solani. Methanolic Leaf extracts were used for assessing the phytopathogenic activities of all the nine members of Family Euphorbiaceae via well diffusion method. All the plant extracts have showed significant results against two pathogenic fungi at all the four dose ranges (32.12μg/ml, 62.5μg/ml, 125μg/ml, 250μg/ml) used in the experiment while no results were observed against Alternaria solani. Maximum results were observed at 250 μg/ml, zone of inhibition was found in the following order Euphorbia helioscopia> Ricinus communis> Phyllanthus emblica> Croton tiglium> Putranjiva roxburghii> Euphorbia hirta> Jatropha integerrima > Euphorbia prostrata against Aspergillus niger. Among all the plants used only three species of Euphorbia i.e. E. prostrata, E. splendens and E. hirta have showed remarkable results against R. oryza. Hence conclude all the plant extracts have showed dose dependent activity which means maximum activity was observed at the concentration of 250μg/ml at this concentration E. helioscopia possessed excellent activity against Aspergillus niger while maximum activity against Rhizopus oryzae at 250 μg/ml was observed by E. prostrata. Neither of the plants showed any response against Alternaria solani. This research leads to the discovery of plant extracts which could be a potential source in the treatment of multiple disorders associated with fungal strains such as Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae.
354 Major, Minor and Trace Elements Linum Usitatissimum in Libya , Amera Elfaki Edris1 and Ahmed Ali Mustafa2*
In this study the plant Linum usitatissimum Linn. which belong to linaceae family, it is one of the most ancient crops cultivated in Egypt. It is also cultivated in Libya as an oil seed plant. The results shown high the concentration in K (9422±1.01), Ca (4621±4.73), Na (1901±0.58), Mn (25.59±3.38), Cu (16.93±3.48), in HNO3+HClO4. Ni (7.96±7.29), Pb (21.41±4.76) in HNO3+H2O2. And Mg (3471±3.36), Zn (36.24±2.38), Li (11.43±0.50) in dry ashing. While Not detection in Cr, Co, Cd. The results obtained shown that was a Linum usitatissimum., a good source of food and therapeutic agents which could be of use food and pharmaceutical industries, information about the chemical composition of the oil could then be useful in the classification of this plant.
355 Lychee Honey Accelerates Antibacterial Efficacy of Penicillin and Amoxiclav Against Gram-Positive Bacteria , Nusrat J Vabna1, Nadia Sultana2, Mahi Khan2, Badol Ghosh3, Kashfia Nawrin4, Mohammad M Billah4*
ackground: The world has left very few of its last line agents to fight against the common infectious diseases due to the rapidly growing phenomenon of bacterial resistance. Penicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid are among the antibiotics which have already lost their efficacy against resistant bacteria. Thus, the present study was aimed to rejuvenate these two antibiotics supplemented by Lychee Honey as a natural agent. Methods: The study was performed against four-gram positive bacteria where the standard antibiotics and Lychee honey were applied to assess their individual efficacy. Afterwards, the standards were conjugated with lychee honey to evaluate the boosted potential of the combinations. Zone of inhibition, percentage inhibition, minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were observed in this regard. Results: Data demonstrated that against all four bacteria, lychee honey alone was able to inhibit the bacterial growth to very little extent (56.5% against S. epidermidis) whereas the standards showed mild to medium inhibitory potential (64.8% by Amoxiclav and 60.7% by Penicillin against S. epidermidis). However, the combination of lychee honey with penicillin and amoxiclav separately demonstrated a synergistic action in all tested methods. Conclusion: All findings suggested that lychee honey not only possess inhibitory effect but also facilitates other agents’ action, thereby, generating a scope for research for identifying new potential antibacterial agents.
356 Fermented Brown Rice and Rice Bran with Aspergillus Oryzae as A New Promising Agent for Cancer Prevention , Hideki Mori*
Fermented brown rice and rice bran with Aspergillus (A) oryzae (FBRA) is a food manufactured by fermenting a mixture of brown rice and rice bran with A. oryzae. The fermentation is proved to increase antioxidant phytochemicals. FBRA prevented carcinogen- induced carcinogenesis in 7 animal models. FBRA also acted against spontaneous development of neoplasms in 3 animal models.
357 Nanomedicine: Development and Challenges in Cancer Treatment , Jaidip Jagtap1, Amit Joshi1, Nrusingh C. Biswal2*
A brief review of the literatures on development and challenges associated with success of nanomedicine for cancer therapy is presented. Nanomaterial shape, size and characteristics plays an important role in an effective treatment. The chemotoxicity, non-targeted and non-uniform heating in tumors were the major drawbacks in nanomedicine assisted hyperthermia, however recent developments in nanomaterials possessing multifunctional characteristics enabled better diagnosis and helped in the treatment of cancer.
358 Identification and Molecular Characterization of the Most Common Types of Beta Thalassemia Mutations in Sudanese Patients , Rabab Hassan Elshaikh*1 and Sanaa Elfatih Hussein2
Thalassemia is a common inherited disorder among humans, and they represent a major public health problem in many areas of the world. The spectrum of mutations varies significantly between different geographical regions; only a few common mutations of β-globin cause β-thalassemia in each population. This is a cross-sectional study conducted in Sudan, among 61 known beta thalassemic patients arrived at public health hospitals of Khartoum State, during the period of July 2017 to July 2019. The study was aimed to detect the most common types of mutations in Beta Thalassemic Sudanese patient in Khartoum State. Blood samples from 61 beta thalassemic patients were analyzed to detect the most common types of mutations in Beta Thalassemia using PCR assay. the frequency of adults (>18 years) was 45 (73.8%), and 16 (26.2%) were Children (<18 years)., The frequency of male to female was 27 (44.3%) and 34 (55.7%) respectively. The results obtained were, 25 patients positive and 36 patients were negative to 5 mutations including in the study. The frequency of positive mutations to IVS-I-110 (G→A) were 14 (56%) common one followed by IVS-I-6 (T→C) mutation were positive in 7 patients (28%) and IVS-I-1(G→A) mutation was seen in 4 (16%) patients, whereas 36 (59%) patients show negative for βIVS-I-5 (G→C) and -87 which were not detected in the present study. This preliminary information regarding the mutational pattern is important for establishing prenatal diagnosis programs. The results showed that, IVS-1-110 (G→C) mutations is the most frequent mutation encountered among the beta thalassaemic samples.
359 NMR Study of Mangífera Índica Starch Applied as Food Human , André LBS Bathista*
Mango seed starch was investigated by 1D and 2D solid state nuclear magnetic resonances (NMR). The basic work focuses the understanding changes in the molecular dynamics of this seed starch, after modification effects on its granule by the addition of acetic acid (AA), ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) and a mixture of ammonium hydroxide and acetic acid (NH4OH/AA), using the NMR techniques. From the 2D Exchange NMR spectra, recorded at temperature below Tg, in which the molecular motion is restrict for the glucose chains, after the treatments with the three kinds of diluents, the samples showed an amplitude of molecular motion, even below Tg, which was not observed for the sample in nature, due to the changes in the molecular mobility in the starch granule after the treatments, showing that the modified starches present new molecular mobility, because new interactions and chains ordination has occurred after these processes, these changes were also confirmed by VCT and PUREX results.
360 Marketing of Dried Swim Bladder of Fishes (Vesica Natatorium) in or on Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria , Namso N Frank, Ubokudom E Okon* and Itohowo S Nkebe
This study examined the marketing of dried fishes swim bladder (vesica natatorium) in LGA, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. It examined the socio- economic characteristics of marketers, characterized and documented the preferred fishes, estimated the cost and profitability and analyses the constraints to marketing. Descriptive statistics, characterization and documentation research, budgetary analysis and simple ranking models were used respectively. The research results show that 51.67% of the traders were aged 31-40 years while 80% of them were married, 55% had household size of 4-6 persons and 50% had primary education. 53.33% of them apiece have 5-10 years trading experience with petty trading as their secondary occupation while 55% made a monthly income N21,000-N30,000. Field survey shows that only cartilaginous fishes swim bladders were preferred. Budgetary analysis of Fixed Cost (FC) marketing shows that shop rent was 9.35% of the Total Cost (TC) and 41.60% of the Total Fixed Cost (TFC). It was followed by refrigeration/power. Analysis of variable cost marketing shows that fish price has the highest percentage of both the TC and the Total Variable Cost (TVC) of marketing. The FC and TVC was only 22.47% and 77.53% of the TC respectively. Profitability analysis gave total revenue of ₦3,413,591.00, net profit of ₦889, 001.00 and marketing efficiency of 135.2 for the period. However, it was constrained by lack of storage facilities, poor marketing channels, high cost of drying, price fluctuation, etc. It recommends that the constraints should be addressed for effective and efficient marketing of the product.
361 Useful Generalization of the Inverse Lomax Distribution: Statistical Properties and Application to Lifetime Data , Obubu Maxwell1, Adeleke Akinrinade Kayode2, Ibeakuzie Precious Onyedikachi1, Chinelo Ijeoma Obi-Okpala1, Echebiri Udochukwu Victor3
A four-parameter compound continuous distribution for modeling lifetime data known as the Odd Generalized Exponentiated Inverse Lomax distribution was proposed in this study. Basic Structural properties were derived in minute details. Simulation studies was carried out to investigate the behavior of the proposed distribution, from which the maximum likelihood estimates for the true parameters, including the bias and root mean square error (RMSE) were obtained. The proposed model was applied to the strengths of glass fibres dataset and the result compared to other existing distribution
362 Effect of Vaccination Against Ibr/Bvd on The Reproductive Performances of Brava Dos Açores -A Bovine Lidia Breed, J Pacheco-Lima1, H Silva1, JP Campillo Beneitez2, D Fernandes da Silva2 and F Moreira da Silva1*
From February 2012 to March 2018, 94 females aged more than 24 months were randomly divided in two groups in which 43 were vaccinated and considered the experimental group and 51 were not vaccinated and used as control. For the characterization of the reproductive indexes, reproductive registers made by the animal’s owners as well as data obtained through the sanitary visits and reproductive consulting of our team allow to determine the follow parameters: number of parturitions; the mean age at first calving; calving to calving interval and calving to conception interval. The first service conception rate, heat intervals as well as the percentage of cows pregnant at first pregnancy diagnosis examination was also recorded. Data obtained from all animals clearly demonstrated that all parameters studied were better in the vaccinated group when compared to unvaccinated animals. The results where the benefits were most pronounced were in the calving to calving interval, where values decreased from 889 ± 25 to 471 ± 35 days respectively to unvaccinated and vaccinated females. This great improvement led that the real fertility raised from 28.6% of the unvaccinated group to 71.1% for the vaccinated group.
363 Fuel and Run: Metabolism in Neutrophil Migration, Bojing Shao2*, Huiping Shi1 and Xindi Shan2
Neutrophils are an essential component of the host innate immune system. Migration of neutrophils into inflicted sites composes the primary defense line against pathogens. Recent studies indicate that neutrophils utilize multiple metabolic pathways, instead of only glycolysis. Importantly, neutrophils may preferentially adopt a certain metabolic pathway to adapt to the altered cellular environment or upon various stimuli. In addition, recent studies have shown mitochondrial and TCA cycle are indispensable for neutrophil migration, and here we briefly discuss the regulation of neutrophil migration through cellular metabolism
364 Teaching Basic (Biomedical) Sciences in Nursing Degrees: The Role of Registered Nurses, Fred Saleh*
Background and Aim: Basic (Biomedical) Sciences are essential components of undergraduate and graduate Nursing curricula. Faculty members teaching Basic (Biomedical Sciences) in these curricula do not have nursing background and/or qualifications. The aim of this article is to shed the light on the importance of hiring registered nurses with postgraduate qualification in Basic (Biomedical) Sciences to teach in undergraduate and postgraduate Nursing curricula. Method: A detailed systematic search of the various nursing, health, and biomedical databases was conducted. These included PubMed, EMBASE, Medline, Web of Science, PsycINFO, ERIC, and the Cochrane Library. The time interval for the search was from 1970 until 2019. A combination of Mesh terms was used in our search, including Nursing, Nursing Degree, Nursing Curriculum, Contextual Learning, Experiential Learning, Teaching, Subject Expert, Biomedical Sciences, Basic Sciences, Anatomy, Physiology, Embryology, Pathophysiology, Histology, Pharmacology, Biochemistry, Microbiology, Immunology, Statistics. Results: Our results showed that, except for a few publications describing how some Basic (Biomedical) Science courses are taught in Nursing curricula, there were no publications analyzing the importance of hiring registered nurses with postgraduate qualification in Basic (Biomedical) Sciences to teach in undergraduate and postgraduate Nursing curricula. One publication focused on who teaches science to Nursing students. Conclusion: This area of research is still new and requires collaboration among Nursing schools to demonstrate the importance of hiring faculty members with dual qualification in Nursing and Basic (Biomedical) Sciences.
365 Comparison of Some Variable Selection Techniques in Regression Analysis, Omoruyi Frederick A1, Obubu Maxwell*1, Omeje Ifunanya L1, Echebiri Udochukwu V1, Onyekwere Kelechi C1, Lilian Ngonadi O1 and Hamzat Kayode Idris2
In this research, we analyze critically the performance of four variable selection techniques in the building of a model that best estimate a dependent variable. The variable selection techniques are the direct search on t method, the forward selectio n method, the backward elimination method, and the stepwise regression method. To compare, an economic data of 32 years was collected each on Real Gross Domestic Product, which was the dependent variable used as a measure for economic growth and development, and seven factors which are; Growth Market Capitalization, All-shares index, the Market turn-over, the openness of the Nigerian trade economy, the value of transaction, the total listing of the Nigeria stock exchange, and total new issue. Regressing the Real gross domestic product on the seven factors using the four variable selection techniques, the residual mean square, adjusted R2, and variance inflation factor obtained from the use of each of these techniques which are the criteria for evaluation of best model were compared by ranking them based on the method best satisfying the criteria for evaluation. The result shows that with a mean rank of 1.67 taken across the criteria, the backward elimination method performs best in variable selection based on the sample collected and it supported with the use of the all possible combination method as a control.
366 Effect of SDF and SDF/KI Treatment on Microtensile Bond Strength of Bioactive Materials, Tae Kim1, Kush Patel1 and John C Comisi2*
Purpose: This pilot study was undertaken to determine whether SDF or SDF/KI treatment of dentin surfaces influenced the microtensile bond strength of commercially available bioactive products. Methods: The teeth were then randomly divided into three groups of eight depending on the treatment: Advantage Arrest (SDF), Riva Star (SDF/KI), and Control group (Activa materials with and without bonding agent). Samples prepared and microtensile bond strength determined for each sample group. Results: The results of this study showed a significant statistical difference in microtensile bond strength between the control groups and the Advantage Arrest (SDF) and Riva Star (SDF/KI) treated groups for both restorative materials. Bond strengths further decreased when they applied without the application of a bonding agent. Conclusion: From the results of this study, the null hypothesis that there would be no significant difference in microtensile bond strength when Activa Bioactive products used with SDF or SDF/KI application, was rejected.
367 Beneficial Importance of Protein-rich Diets in the Management of Type 2 Diabetes: Need for a New Look, Perez Quartey*
The primary underlying mechanism of the development of type 2 diabetes is peripheral tissues’ resistance to the metabolic actions of insulin, with obesity as a major contributor. Of importance is liver insulin resistance which provokes uncontrollable, on- going gluconeogenesis as primary contributor of the systemic hyperglycinemia characterized with type 2 diabetes [1]. A secondary contributor is the defective glucose uptake by the skeletal muscles and adipose tissue. The combination of these two factors underlie the pathophysiology of the condition.
368 First Case of Alice in Wonderland-like Seizures in a Mother and her Daughter: A New Sign for a Hereditary Origin?, Stefan Bittmann*, Anne Weissenstein, Elisabeth Luchter, Elena Moschüring Alieva and Gloria Villalon
Alice in Wonderland Syndrome (AIWS) was named after the description of Lewis Carroll in his novel. In1955, John Todd, a psychiatrist described this entity for the first time. Todd described it as “Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland” by Lewis Carroll. The author Carroll suffered from severe migraine attacks. Alice in Wonderland Syndrome is a disorienting condition of seizures affecting the visual perception. AIWS is a neurological form of seizures influencing the brain, thereby causing a disturbed perception. Patients describe visual, auditory and tactile hallucinations and disturbed perceptions. The causes for AIWS are still not known exactly. Cases of migraine, brain tumors, depression episodes, epilepsy, delirium, psychoactive drugs, ischemic stroke, EBV, mycoplasma and malaria infections are correlating with AIWS like seizures. Neuroimaging studies reveal disturbance of brain regions including the temporoparietal junction, the temporal lobe and the occipital lobe as typical localization of the visual pathway. A hereditary form of AIWS-like seizures in 2 familiars (mother and daughter) were not described before and could be a sign for an underlying genetic origin. Moreover, in the daughter, AIWS seizures were only present in relaxed and tired situations and lying position
369 The Implication of Hypoxia and Cancer Stem Cells on Tumor Vasculogenesis, Nermeen Moustafa*
Tumors vasculature and lymphogensis are crucial for growth and metastasis. Tumor vessels are characterized by irregular structure with higher permeability than normal vessels. This irregularity in shape results in micro-regional hypoxia due to inadequate oxygen supply to tumor cells. Triggered by hypoxia and mediated by Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs), both angiogenesis and Vasculogenic Mimicry (VM) were found in many solid tumors including breast cancer, melanoma, Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC).
370 Epidemiology of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease in Floridian Men and Women: 1988-2012, Robert B Hood1, Richard B Early2, Zachary Weber1, Judith A Schwartzbaum1, Sharona B Ross2, Alexander S Rosemurgy II2 and Randall E Harris1,3*
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a rare and fatal prion brain disorder with unknown etiology. In the current study, we characterized the epidemiology of CJD in the population of Florida. Cases of CJD were identified using the principal diagnoses by ICD-9 code among 55 million inpatient hospital discharge records reported to the Florida Center for Health Information and Transparency from 1988 to 2012. We examined basic demographic and clinical characteristics, and trends in the annual incidence for men and women. We identified 390 patients with CJD. Most patients were Caucasian (90.0%) and 51.3% were male. The median age of hospitalization was 67 years (Interquartile range: 14). The overall annual incidence was 0.91 per million (95% Confidence Interval: 0.8-1.0) and the overall rate was slightly higher for men than women (0.94 versus 0.87 per million, respectively). Annual rates were similar for men and women except for the period from 2001 to 2010 when the rates diverged sharply. Among cases, 12.3% died in the hospital and 23.1% were discharged to hospice. CJD cases identified through hospital records in Florida have similar characteristics to previously reported data. Case-control studies are needed to elucidate environmental triggers of this rare condition.
371 Sedation and Twilight Anesthesia Induced by Ascofregata Purin Song, Mattan Schlomi1*, Suzy Myers Joy1 and Risa Shimizu Joy2
Twilight sedation as an alternative to general anesthesia is used when the latter is unnecessary or contraindicated, or when the patient needs to remain responsive to requests from the medical practitioner. Here we report on an ethnomedical case, in which animal vocalizations traditionally used as lullabies were tested for their ability to induce varying states of sedation up to anesthesia and found to effectively induce anesthesia approaching twilight sedation
372 Hepatic Adenomas Challenges to their Diagnosis and Management with Emphasis on the Bordeaux Classification, Beatrice l Madrazo1*, Victor Javier Casillas1, Rosa Patricia Castillo1, Monica Garcia Buitrago2, Emmanuel Thomas3, Leonardo Pisani4 and Juan Francisco Santoscoy4
To discuss the etiology and natural history of HA. b. To detail the importance of the Bordeaux Classification. c. To provide a comprehensive approach to their correct identification based on imaging and pathological features. d. To present the risk factors associate with hepatic carcinogenesis. e. To elaborate on the entity of hepatic adenomatosis. f. To detail on the state-of-the-art management of HA and adenomatosis. g. To emphasize their association to congenital cardiac conditions and other syndromes.
373 Severe Allergic Reaction Caused by Pre-Operative Somatostatin Analog Treatment of Tsh- and Gh- Secreting Pituitary Adenoma: A Case Report, Chuyue Wu1, Feng Gu1*, Xuejing Cong2, Jun Li2 and Xu Li2
TSH-and GH-secreting pituitary adenomas are rare and account for fewer than 1% [1,2]. Nowadays, neurosurgery is still considered to be the first-line therapy for this kind of tumor [3]. In the meanwhile, pre-operative medical therapy with somatostatin analogues (SSA) is increasingly used and considered highly effective in reducing thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and growth hormone (GH) secretion [4]. This report described a rare case of a TSH/GH co-secreting pituitary adenoma, which was initially noted as atrial fibrillation and heart failure. During the period of pre-operative therapy with SSA, the patient was affected by rare side effects, hyperthermia and pancytopenia, which was deemed to be a kind of allergic reaction. Then the patient took a transsphenoidal resection of the tumor. After the surgery, he was treated with radiotherapy, followed by methimazole and dopamine agonists. Finally, his thyroid function fell back to normal, as well as his GH, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and complete blood count (CBC). In summary, this patient had a rare and severe adverse reaction with the treatment of SSA and a serious risk of undergoing surgery due to the cardiac complications. Fortunately, the patient’s disease was finally well controlled through rigorous preoperative preparation, successful neurosurgery and postoperative radiotherapy followed by medical therapy, which should be attributed to the multidisciplinary collaboration.
374 Making a Case for use of Digital Interventions to Manage Adolescent Perinatal Depression in Nigeria, Lola Kola*1,2
Nigeria has a fast-growing young population, and almost 43% of her 200 million people are aged between 0 and 14 years. The national fertility rate for girls age 15-19 years is 122 per thousand birth [1] and like much of the region, adolescent pregnancy is a pressing public health issue in the country. In general, adolescents face several psychological, social and financial challenges in the perinatal period irrespective of if their pregnancies are planned, or unplanned. As such, perinatal depression is higher in this age group than among older pregnant women. African countries have a large treatment gap for mental disorders.
375 Influence of Primary Packaging on Attitudes towards Smoking in RN Macedonia, A Bonevski1, A Naumovska*2 and D Bonevski2
Citizens of Macedonia rank third in the world in terms of the number of cigarettes smoked per capita per year, and the number of smokers has increased over the past 15 years. According to data from the Tobacco Atlas published by the World Health Organization, there are nearly 700,000 smokers in Macedonia who consume 11 tons of cigarettes or 5.5kg of tobacco per capita annually. Macedonian citizens smoke over 2,700 cigarettes a year [1].
376 Assessment of Patients’ Medical Laboratory Request Forms for Compliance in Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos-Nigeria, Olaniru B Olumide1, Alla O Joel2, Michael E Paul1, Nedolisa Angela C3, Oyero Steve K4, Obeta M Uchejeso5*, Isiguzoro Ikechukwu OU1, Iheanacho U Charity2, Ntuhun B Dennis2, Fiyaktu Bwotle Yakubu1, Jugu P Kizito4, Ogunbiyi A Emmanuel3 and Song Elisha2
Background: Medical laboratory request forms are important medium of communication between the physicians and the medical laboratory practitioners. The request form provides demographic information of the patients as well as clinical conditions, clinician, specimen information and the targeted laboratory. Inability of the physician to indicate any of the information mentioned above could pose a negative effect in accurate definitive diagnosis of the patients’ disease which could affect proper treatment or management. Aim of study: The study seeks to assess the level of completeness of patients request forms in Jos University Teaching Hospital. Study volunteers and methods: A retrospective study was carried out on 4,310 in and out Patients request forms as filled by the physician and sent to four laboratory departments of the hospital between the period of January and July 2017 having gotten Ethical clearance from the ethical committee of the teaching hospital. Results: The result of the findings revealed that from the 4310 request forms assessed, patient’ demographic information, recorded 20.9%, 17.2%, 14.9%, 1.3%, 0.9% and 0.0% incomplete rate for age, ward, department, hospital number, sex and name of the patient respectively. Patients’ clinical information revealed 54.7% and 8.0% incomplete rate for patients’ clinical data and provisional diagnosis respectively. For Clinician information, incomplete rate of 54.7%, 17.8% and 8.2% was recorded for signature of the doctor, name of doctor and the consultant respectively. On specimen information, an incomplete rate of 98.2%, 9.0%, 7.6% and 2.9% was observed for time of specimen collection, date, nature of specimen and investigation required respectively. On targeted laboratory, the study recorded an incomplete rate of 8.6%. The result also show that from all the 4310 request form assessed, none is 100% completely filled. Conclusion: This study reveals incomplete filling of medical laboratory request forms in JUTH. There is the need to adhere to International Standard Organization guidelines in filling the laboratory request forms for a better patient care and improvement of quality since most decision are taken by the physician or the nurse depends on medical laboratory results
377 Metabolic Profiling of Borrelia in Ticks and in Whole Blood Samples by Headspace Gas Chromatography - A Case Report, Bruno Kolb1*, E Marion Schneider2, Lorina Riesterer1, Leona Bier1 and Tabea Hein2
The technique of static headspace gas chromatography (HS-GC) was applied to monitor the emission of hydrogen and carbon dioxide from bacterial cultures to detect bacterial contamination in ticks and the transfer to humans, causing Lyme borreliosis. While the standard serological methods to recognize Lyme-disease rely upon the indirect determination of antibodies, the present method enables the direct proof of bacteria both in ticks and in the blood of infected patients, due to the specific hydrogen emission. Moreover, the progress of an applied therapy can be monitored while antibodies, once created, remain in the blood regardless of whether the applied therapy was successfully finished or not. This method was also used to compare the efficacy of chemical and natural antibiotics. The most efficient natural antibiotics found were oil of cloves and garlic extract preparations. It was found that the duration of a successful therapy with chemical and natural antibiotics varied but can be perfectly monitored by the gas chromatographic technique
378 The Possible Role of Anti-Epileptic Drugs (AEDS) in Treating Levodopa Induced Dyskinesia (LID), Mohamed Khateb*
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease with a lifetime risk of 1-2%. It primarily affects the basal ganglia system (BG). Disruption of motor functions is one of the main clinical manifestations of PD. The main treatments of PD are L-dopa and dopamine receptor agonists. However, they are usually accompanied with dyskinesia (L-dopa induced dyskinesia or LID) which is common and very difficult to treat causing a significant decrease in patient’s quality of life. The exact mechanism beyond LID is largely unclear. A leading theory, based on the classical basal ganglia-cortical loop model, claimed that LID might be the result of dis-inhibition of the motor cortex (mainly the supplementary motor cortex or SMA) because of hypoactivity of GPi. At the cellular level, mechanisms involving pulsatile stimulation of dopamine receptors, dysregulation of genes and proteins in neurons resulting in changes in neural discharge patterns between BG and cortex were reported. Here, we are exploring the possible effects of anti-epileptic drugs (AED) in improving LID. AED are widely used agents mainly for controlling seizure disorders. Moreover, they have been used for other neurological and psychiatrial disorders. Part of the AED were investigated in PD patients with LID. Despite the lack of multiple wide prospective double-blind placebo-controlled trials, the current evidences provide possible positive effects in alleviating LID for at least part of AED such as Levetiracetam and others. We believe future clinical as well as pre-clinical research is recommended for properly investigating the effects of other AED in treating LID.
379 Sigmoid Volvulus: A Case Series, Review of the Literature and Current Treatment, Duncan Lyons*
A sigmoid volvulus occurs when a loop of the sigmoid colon twists around the mesentery, often leading to bowel obstruction and constipation. Patients with sigmoid volvulus can either present with insidious or an acute onset of abdominal pain, abdominal distension, nausea and constipation. Imaging is imperative to facilitate a timely sigmoid volvulus and radiologists and emergency physicians have to be aware of the apparent and subtler findings. A small case series is presented on sigmoid volvulus, which failed decompressive sigmoidoscopy and were successfully managed with a modified Paul Mikulicz operation.
380 The Roles of The Professional Nurse During The Vaping Crisis, Larider Ruffin*
The United States of America experienced a major increase in the number of patients affected by the devastating vaping epidemic. Over 2,200 lung injuries have been reported secondary to vaping. This manuscript seeks to guide the professional nurse to capitalize on the trust earned from the public to advocate for a smoke-free environment, educate patients about the dangers of vaping, and triage patients in a timely manner to help break the vaping crisis
381 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor-Mediated Signaling Pathways in Pluripotent Stem Cells, Takashi Yazawa1*, Junsuke Uwada1, Yoshitaka Imamichi2, Daisuke Mikami3, Takahiro Sato4, Rafiqul Islam Khan1,5, Mohammad Sayful Islam1,6 and Takanobu Taniguchi1
Electronic cigarettes (E-cigarettes) are battery-operated devices that transport a nicotine- containing aerosol or vapor by heating the liquid. The liquid usually contains nicotine, propylene glycol or glycerol, Acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) are membrane receptors that bind to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. They are classified into two distinct subtypes, nicotinic AChRs (nAChRs) and muscarinic AChRs (mAChRs). nAChRs belong to the Cys-loop family of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels.
382 Surveillance of the Buruli Ulcer in The Democratic Republic of Congo (Drc): Preliminary Results (2016-2018), Marie José Kabedi Bajani*1, Mintsey N1, Nkunku L1, Lunguya O1, Kimbonza S1, Eddyani M2, Jong B2, Taba K3 and Muyembe JJ1
Context: Buruli ulcer poses a real public health problem, not well known, calling for international mobilization. It is an emerging threat to public health in many rural and inter-tropical regions, and DRC is not immune to this problem. However, improving the visibility of this disease and mobilizing resources are ways to make disease control activities more effective. Objective: To gather information on Buruli ulcer in the different provinces of the DRC. Material and methods: Samples came from different provinces of DRC from patients uspected of Buruli ulcer. Two techniques were performed namely Ziehl-Nelsen and real-time PCR to confirm cases. Data comparison was performed using the Chi-square test. Results: During 3 years of surveillance (2016-2018), 984 samples were recorded, of which 86.1% were swabs. 72 (7.3%) were Ziehl positive and 251 (25.51%) were confirmed by PCR-(p
383 Going Forward with Lymphocytes Immunotherapies for Treatment of Unexplained Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion, Eloisa I Arana1,2 and Pablo M Fernández1,2*
Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA), defined as the occurrence of two or more consecutive miscarriages at less than 22-weeks of gestation [1], is one of the major pregnancy disorders and affects up to 5% of couples of reproductive ages. Although genetic factors, hormonal diseases, anatomical anomalies and antiphospholipid syndrome have been linked with RSA [2,3], 50% of cases still remain unexplained and generate growing interest to unveil potential involved mechanisms, particularly for those that imply immunological pathways.
384 Stressors Among Undergraduate Students at China Agricultural University: Practical Observations from Teaching Experience, David M Henneberry*1, Carolina Lopez Burrola2 and Heydi Calderon Ambelis1
Stress among college students is a factor that many institutions are not well equipped to handle. Yet, the many stressors this group faces pose a stark reality: Coping with high levels of stress at a time that they don’t have the life experience or family support to deal with it. Students entering college are leaving their nuclear family, often getting a roommate, frequently starting a romantic relationship, getting a part time job and dealing with an employer, taking entrance exams, facing exams and quizzes in their classes, piling up a small mountain of student debt and trying to determine their future in a job market that offers diminishing possibilities
385 Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis and Lines of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Circulating in Kinshasa, Marie José Kabedi Bajani1*, Jean Marie Kayembe Tumba2, Patrick Kayembe Kalambay4, Taba Kalulu3, Paulin Mbaya Kalumba1 and Jean Jacques Muyembe Tamfum1
Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis (DR-TB) is a public health problem in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). However, knowledge of Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypes is very important for determining the different lines involved in resistance and allowing better control of the disease. Aim: Determine the frequency of drug-resistant strains and the different lines circulating in the City. Material and methods: The descriptive survey covers all the family contacts of MDR-TB TB patients for whom a positive sputum culture on LJ medium was obtained in the Mycobacteria Laboratory of the University of Kinshasa between 2011 and 2017. The demographic and Epidemiological data concerning patients were collected via a registry notebook. The strains were identified by standard tests and the antibiogram was performed to obtain a chemosensitivity profile. The strains were transferred to IMT Antwerp for the genotyping test (Spoligotyping). Results: Of 240 samples from household contacts of MDR-TB patients, 29 isolates were identified (12.1%). Twenty-three (79%) were strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and 6 (21%) M. africanum. Overall, 16 strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (55.2%) were resistant to at least one anti- tuberculosis drug. Of the 16 drug-resistant strains, 15 (6.3%) were MDR-TB, of which 10 (4.2%) preXDR and 1 (0.4%) XDR-TB. No monoresistance to rifampicin and Isoniazid was detected. The spoligotyping profile obtained shows the presence of 4 main lines namely: AML (43.7%); West Africa (31.3%); Haarlem (12.5%) and Ugandal (12.5%). Conclusion: The results of our study show a very high primary resistance and the presence of multi and ultra-resistant strains in the community. The study also shows that there is considerable genotypic diversity among M. tuberculosis isolates in Kinshasa.
386 Catechins- a natural blessing in Breast cancer treatment, Wajeeha Iffat1 and Sohail Hussain2*
Breast malignant growth is a typical disease in female. There were an expected 1.7 million new cases (25% of all tumors in female) and 0.5 million malignant growth passings (15% of all disease deaths in female) in 2012 [1]. In spite of the fact that there have been incredible advances in the treatment of breast disease, mortality from breast malignant growth is still high and it is the subsequent driving reason for disease related passing among female in the United States [2].
387 Changes in Relative Height of Children in Northeast Asian Countries in Fifty Years Since 1960, Hiroshi Mori*
Economies in Northeast Asia made rapid and steady progress in the past half century, since 1960. Food consumption improved remarkably. Total calorie intakes increased first, followed by steady increments in animal sourced foods. Children became appreciably taller in height. In the mid-2000s, teens in South Korea were the tallest, 3cm taller than their Japanese and Taiwanese peers. In terms of per capita consumption of animal products, S. Korea was apparently the lowest. Genetics, however, fails to explain. A century ago, young men in Korea were 2 cm taller than Japanese but 3 cm shorter than Taiwanese. Since the mid-1970s, S. Koreans have been taking 2-300 kcal/day more overall food calories and twice as much vegetables than both Japanese and Taiwanese.
388 Duodenal Schwannoma: Case Report and Literature Review, K Messoudi1*, L Amaadour1, N Acharfi1, O Zouiten1, I EL Ouafki1, K Oualla1, Z Benbrahim1, S Arifi1, A Mazti2, L Chbani2, A Akammar3, Maaroufi3 and N Mellas1
Schwannomas are rare benign tumors that arise from schwann cells of the nerve sheath. These tumors represent 0.4 to 1% tract of all mesenchymal tumors of gastrointestinal tract. The most common gastrointestinal site is the stomach. Duodenal schwannomas are extremely uncommon and poorly documented. In this case, we report the fatal outcome of a 52-year-old woman with unresectable duodenal schwannoma treated with adriamycin based chemotherapy.
389 Primary Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Cervix: A Case Report and Review of the Literature, Boujarnija R1*, K Oualla1, N Acharfi1, I Ahalli1, Z Benbrahim S1, S Arifi1, A douida2, H ELfatemi2, I Staouni3, Alaoui Lamrani Y3, Ibrahimi A4 and Mellas N1
Neuroendocrine carcinomas of the cervix are rare, and account for only 2% of all cervical cancers. the diagnostic and therapeutic management of these tumors is challenging and is extrapolated from other locations of neuroendocrine tumors. Rare cases of neuroendocrine tumors of the cervix have been reported in the literature and were associated with aggressive behavior and poor prognosis. We report the case of a 62 years old woman, diagnosed with metastatic cervical neuroendocrine carcinoma who received palliative chemotherapy with good control of her disease.
390 Fresh Herbage Marketing at Kwalkwalawa Market during Dry Season in Sokoto, Nigeria, Na Allah Y1*, Bello A2 and Nasiru I1
This study was conducted to document the supply and use of fresh herbage of various types for dry season feeding of animal by livestock farmers in kwalkwalawa, Sokoto, Nigeria. The objective of the study was to study socio-economic characteristic of the fresh herbage sellers and buyers at kwalkwalawa village market, to identify the types, source and mode of transportation of fresh herbage sold at kwalkwalawa village market and describe the patterns of supply and demand of the fresh herbage at the kwalkwalawa village market. The study was conducted at kwalkwalawa village of Dundaye district of wamakko local government area where the herbage market is located. Information of this research was collected using two different questionnaires. A and B questionnaires was administered to sellers and buyers of fresh herbage respectively. A total of 44 respondents were covered with 22 from each sellers and buyers randomly selected at herbage selling point. The study revealed that all of the herbage sellers were from kwalkwalawa and the surrounding village while 73%of the herbage buyers come from kwalkwalawa and surrounding village the remaining 26% come from Sokoto metropolis, all the herbage sellers and buyers were male with their age vary from less than 20 to above 40 years, most of the herbage sellers are single while 81% of the herbage buyers are married, their level of education vary with majority from both side acquired non-formal education. Eighty one percent (81%) of the herbage sellers drive more than N150 while 78% of the herbage buyers spent more than N150 in a day, most of the herbage sellers 86% brought farm weed they all source the herbage from fadama and transport it using head, camel, donkey and motorcycle. Most of the herbage buyers preferred farm weed and bought from 4 to above 40kg, 81% give the herbage as supplementary feed, other source of feed include wheat offal, cowpea husk, legume hay and cereal bran.
391 Monitoring of Some Organophosphorus and Organochlorine Pesticides Residue in Beef Meat from Khartoum State Slaughterhouses, Sara AM*1, Afaf A2, Sahar MA1, Abubakar AS1, Abdelbagi AO2 and Abdalla AM2
Background: Organochlorine and Organophosphorus Pesticides are found in the environment in small concentrations, but they have cumulative characteristics thus become a threat to human health and life. This study is focused on detection and determination of some of these pesticides in bovine muscles, meat in two main slaughterhouses in Khartoum state. Materials and methods: 50 samples were collected in sterile bags, transferred to the lab, samples were extracted within 24 hours of collection using mixture hexane and acetone, followed by partitioning and drying the samples using rotary evaporator at 40ºC. clean up step was achieved using silica gel column previously washed with hexane. Pesticides residues read against standards using GC-FID. Results: seventy-two percentage of samples obtained from slaughterhouse one was positive, while slaughterhouse two showed 87.5% positive samples. Ethiphane is the prevailing pesticide residue in samples obtained from both slaughterhouse facilities, it represented 61.1% and 80.9% respectively. The mean value of the detected levels was 0.147 and 0.27 ppm in order.
392 Hyperglycemia Damages the Endothelial Glycocalyx: Implications for The Blood Brain Barrier, Sandra V Lopez-Quintero*1,2 and David C Spray1
The glycocalyx is a matrix of proteoglycans, glycoproteins, glycosaminoglycans, glycolipids and soluble proteins that coats the endothelial cells, together with the endothelium, the astrocyte end feet and basement membrane, contributes to the blood brain barrier, which prevents large molecules, neurotoxins, inflammatory factors and pathogens into the brain. It has been demonstrated that hyperglycemia results in damage to the glycocalyx through mechanisms that are still being elucidated. This means that the brain may be exposed to harmful agents that can cause multiple diseases. More studies are therefore needed to understand and prevent brain disease due to hyperglycemia
393 Eye - Tracking Could Contribute to The Diagnostics of The Can Syndrome, Jiri Jost, Helena Havlisova, Zuzana Bilkova, Olga Malinovska* and Zuzana Stefankova
Child abuse and neglect (CAN) has a range of negative outcomes. Its diagnostics is difficult. This paper deals with the diagnostic use of eye- tracking. The authors see its potential in objectifying neuropsychiatric findings and in screening of the child population, where it could show with enough reliability to children at risk of CAN.
394 The Drying of Spent Coffee Grounds in a Tray Drier, Emily Haluschak1, Hafizul Hazamuddin1, John P McGee2, Zeyuan Sun1 and Enrico N Martinez1*
Biodiesel has become an important sustainable alternative to petroleum-based diesel. Spent coffee grounds as a starting material to produce biodiesel can be cost effective especially if the grounds are dried before extracting the coffee oil. This work is part of a comprehensive research project to develop a sustainable biodiesel production process and focuses on the drying of spent coffee grounds using a laboratory tray drier. The drying kinetics were studied using two and four samples with controlled geometries at three different air flow rates and temperatures of 28, 30 and 32°C. The experimental data were used to determine the critical transport parameters in the drying process. Effective diffusivities varied from 1.03x10-11 to 8.11x10-10m2/s. The convective mass transfer coefficient was found to vary from 1.25x10-7 to 3.78x10-6m/s, while the heat transfer coefficient varied from eight to 31.2W/m2°C.
395 Heterozygote Autosomal Dominant Mutation of STXBP1-Gene Inducing Encephalopathy with Global Developmental Delay, Atactic Movement Disorder and Focal Seizures in A 2-Years Old Boy, Stefan Bittmann*, Anne Weissenstein, Elisabeth Luchter, Elena Moschüring Alieva, Anne Weissenstein and Gloria Villalon
Heterozygote autosomal dominant mutation of STXBP1-gene induces global developmental delay and atactic movement disorder with focal seizures in a 2-years old boy. To date, only around 200 cases are known in world medical literature. The mutation and the outcome of children with this unusual mutation of STXBP1-gene in a 2 years old young boy in our department was the occasion to make a short comment.
396 Severe Pulmonary Embolism: Should Thrombolysis be Performed if the Clinical Probability is High Enough without an Echo-Heart?, Chebbah Houari1* and A Boudahdir2
Severe Pulmonary Embolism: Should thrombolysis be performed with high clinical probability and where echocardiography is unable to be practiced? Background: Severe pulmonary embolism is considered as an urgent indication of intravenous thrombolysis. Case presentation: Here we describe the case of an obese female patient of 34-year-old in the emergency unit, she had a typical clinical picture and recent history context that were very strongly suspicious of a serious pulmonary embolism, so the patient had undergone a successful intravenous thrombolysis (Quick and obvious recovery of the respiratory state) despite the fact that neither an echo-heart nor a Computed tomography angiography were able to be realized because patient transportation was impossible. Discussion/Conclusion: In this case, the situation (when major complementary exams are unavailable or impossible to perform) adds more difficulties but such a heavy decision of acting thrombolysis or no remains possible. The right appreciation of the clinical context and surrounding factors could lead us to an accurate diagnosis. Computed tomography, Echo-heart, arterial Gasometer, remain major advancements of today’s medicine and should not be ignored if available. Thrombolysis should be done with extra-carefulness and with a very fine evaluation of contraindications.
397 Range Expansion of Insect Vectors due to Climate Change, Raghuram Koganti and Alan Molumby*
The United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [IPCC] has attributed 1 oC of global warming since the Industrial Revolution to anthropogenic causes, 0.5oC of which occurred since the 1970s. The IPCC also projects that the world is likely to be an additional 1.5oC hotter in just a few decades given the current rate of greenhouse gas emissions [1].
398 Additive Manufacturing in Land Vehicle Industry, Ersoy K1*, Yasa E2 and Koç B1
Additive manufacturing has been gaining more importance in the recent years for diverse applications due to its various advantages like mass customization, enabling very complex geometries, weight reduction, lead time and cost advantage for small volume production. Additive manufacturing has become an almost mature technology group in biomedical applications for different materials. However, aerospace and defense industries are still investigating its feasibility for a wide range of applications due to strict and demanding requirements. The land vehicle industry demands mainly small series and cost efficient production of parts to be used in arduous conditions in battlefield. Even more importantly, the short lead time and the possibility to produce at the battle field makes the additive technologies significant for the land vehicle industry. This paper will focus on the road mapping and prioritization of additive technologies for land vehicles taking the boundary conditions and requirements of the land vehicle industry into account and will depict some of the results of the action items driven from additive technology roadmap.
399 The Role of NAD+ in Anti-Aging Therapies, Xuqian Liu1 and Taosheng Huang1,2*
The aging process involves accumulation of DNA damage, mitochondrial defects, progressive tissue degeneration and atrophy, and the development of metabolic dysfunction and weakness. Aging is also accompanied by decreased levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), which can result in cell damage and even shorter life spans. NAD+ acts as an enzyme cofactor in many essential biological pathways and is a substrate for several regulatory proteins. Many studies have suggested that the upregulation of NAD+ precursors can increase levels of NAD+ in tissues or cells to delay aging. Clinical trials have been conducted on the safety and efficacy of NAD+. Here we provide a review of NAD+ metabolism and its role in aging-related therapy.
400 Anxiety disorders, Gabriel da Costa Duriguetto* and Ronaldo Chicre Araujo
In some people anxiety manifests itself in the form of momentary and intermittent seizures, with the onset of various anxious symptoms. Anxiety can be considered a normal reaction to a threat or psychological stress. It plays an important role in survival. When a person faces a dangerous situation, anxiety triggers a fight or flight response and a variety of physical changes take place, such as increased blood supply to the heart and muscles to provide the body with energy and energy. the strength needed to face life-threatening situations such as running away from an aggressive animal or facing an offender A constant symptomatology of generalized anxiety may or may not be present. Generalized anxiety disorder is characterized by the presence of excessive anxiety symptoms.
401 Serious Poisoning by Fungi at Bouaké University Hospital, Koffi N’Guessan R*, Pete Yaïch d c, N DA Koffi Cynthia, Ogodon Bernard and Kouadio Stephanie
The world of mushrooms is varied and very complex. Of the thousands of species present in our forests and countryside, only about thirty would be dangerous for man. The confusion between a toxic fungus and an edible fungus is reminiscent of consumers. We report the case of a collective and serious intoxication by fungi that have caused the death of several patients. Fungus poisoning is responsible for liver, kidney and neurological failures that may be life-threatening. Diagnosis and management should not be delayed.
402 Healthful, Eatable and Vitaminous Plant Species in the Area of Township Visoko, Alma Juko-Mostić1* and Namir Halilovic2, 3
The aim of this research is to determine the significance of medicinal, edible and vitaminous plant species in meadow and forest ecosystems in the area of 232 km², Municipality of Visoko, Bosnia and Herzegovina in September, October and November 2016. The phases of field and laboratory studies were applied as well as the numerical classification methods and ordination of the ecosystem. Studies on the natural potentials of plant species with beneficial properties have shown that families of Asteraceae and Rosaceae occupy the most important places; the most prominent life-form are hemicryptophytes; the most common floristic element is Submediterranean; out of the total number of 261 plant species determined, 148 species have healing properties, 125 are edible and 80 plant species are vitaminous. We conclude that the natural resources of the researched area are not sufficiently used and known. It is necessary to undertake some activities to raise awareness and knowledge about natural potentials.
403 Microgravity Environments: The Physical Exercise in The Space , Dario Furanri*
The human body has a great capacity for adaptation, even in the case of significant changes in environmental conditions; like prolonged microgravity. The force of gravity on the earth produces an acceleration of 1g (g is the symbol that indicates the acceleration due to gravity). The term microgravity indicates a reduced force of gravity and is therefore used to describe conditions in which the force of gravity is less than that on the earth’s surface (less than one g). For example, the gravity force of the moon is only 17% of that of the earth, or 0.17g. The term microgravity is often used to describe conditions in space, because the body may not always be in conditions of weightlessness, i.e. at 0g.
404 Why There Has Been an Increase in Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in Young People Over the Past Decade in the USA: Unrecognized Roles of Alcoholism, Drug Abuse, Illegal Migrants and Hypomagnesemia, Burton M Altura1-7* and Bella T Altura1,3-7
Over the past decade, according to recent CDC mortality statistics, there is a growing number of cardiovascular deaths in the USA among young people (i.e. 16-55 years in age) [1]. This turn of events, among the younger people, is being attributed to obesity, type 2 diabetes, suicide, and bad diets, whereas the elderly population, i.e. those over age 70, appear to be living into their 90’s. Several well- known supposedly, healthy Broadway and Hollywood actors below age 55 (e.g., Luke Perry, Brittany Murphy, Heather O’Rourke, Alex Haley, among others) died of heart attacks/cardiac arrest recently [1]. Among these deaths, in the younger people, there appear to be deaths caused by strokes, although a number have been attributed to congestive heart failure.
405 Breastfeeding and Human Milk Donation. A brief report, Pasqua Anna Quitadamo*, Giuseppina Palumbo and Cristalli Pierpaolo
Breastfeeding has long been recognized as an essential aspect of newborn care and breast milk is unanimously identified as a health opportunity for all newborns. Yet it remains a global challenge since decades of breastfeeding promotion, exclusive breastfeeding rates for the first 6 months of life remain low, around 40% globally [1]. If we refer to premature babies, the point of view has changed in the sense that these newborns are considered to be at high risk of incurring in (short and long term) negative consequences which are well known and described in relation to the absence of breast milk [2-4].
406 Time & Space Among Nomadic People, Patrice F Dassonville1*
According to their way of life, nomadic people have specific relationships with time and space: it follows that they preserve a specific knowledge of nature of great interest for the world heritage of humanity.
407 Preliminary ab initio Calculations on Pt (3D,1S) – O2 Interaction, Karen de la Mora-Zarco and Juan H Pacheco-Sánchez*
Potential energy surfaces (PES) of the 3D(5d96s1) ground state and 1S(3d10) lowest excited state of the Pt-O2 interaction were achieved by using variational and perturbative MRCI and pseudopotential relativistic methodologies in order to obtain distances and energies of adsorption. Platinum atom RECP xenon type was calculated through Gaussian basis set contracted to triple-zeta scheme (3s1p4d)/ (111/1/211), while oxygen atom RECP helium type was calculated through Gaussian basis set contracted to double-zeta scheme (4s4p1d)/ (111/1/211). These calculations have been carried out based on good results obtained for Pt-O and O-O interactions in agreement with experimental data, then we used the same basis sets to calculate Pt+O2 interactions.
408 A Random Walk Model to Evaluate the Post Transcriptional Process in Rett Syndrome , WM de Moura and TRS Moura*
We have proposed a random walk model to model the post-transcription process. We have chosen mature microRNA sequences related to individuals with Rett syndrome. We have analyzed the micro-RNA sequences by transcribing the nucleotides into random fractals. We have reported our results from the exponent, fractal dimension, entropy, and Binder Cumulant. Our analyzes allowed us to report that the system is sensitive to the order of purines and pyrimidines, presenting different measurements from observable physics even for equal purine and pyrimidine proportions
409 A Systematic Review of the Trace Element Concentrations in the Prostate Fluid of Normal Gland, Vladimir Zaichick1* and Sofia Zaichick2
Background: The prostate gland is subject to various disorders. The etiology and pathogenesis of these diseases are not well understood. Moreover, despite technological advancements, the differential diagnostics of prostate disorders has become progressively more complex and controversial. It was suggested that the measurement of Trace Elements (TEs) levels in Expressed Prostatic Fluid (EPF) may be useful as a biomarker. This suggestion promoted more detailed studies of the TEs concentrations in the EPF of healthy subjects
410 Biological Applications of Platinum-Based Nanoclusters, Fanglue Wu*
This mini review briefly discusses the recent development of Pt-based nanoclusters towards biological applications. The ultra-small size plays a key role in the unique properties of Pt-based nanoclusters in these applications including biological imaging, enzyme-like property and cancer treatment. Future directions have also been shortly discussed
411 Is Hookah Smoking a Better Alternative in Reducing Stress?, Mala Thakur*
Growing popularity worldwide, Hookah has become a new trend that many individuals are seeking as an alternative to smoking cigarettes. These waterpipe devices are attracting many individuals, especially the younger generation with its easy accessibility and assorted flavors. Everyday different types of E-cigarettes are becoming available in the market due to the popular demand. Across the world, many individuals are turning to this alternative method of cigarette smoking for a sense of stress relief. In this mini review, the correlation between hookah smoking and its effects on reducing stress were reviewed.
412 Comparative Investigation Of The Effect Of Treatment Methods On Bacterial Population Of Surface Water In Ado Ekiti, Nigeria, Chioma Miracle Ojiako1,2*, Angus Nnamdi Oli1, Jacob O Oluyege2 and Malachy Chigozie Ugwu1
Majority of rural populations do not have access to safe water supplies and depend mainly on untreated surface water such as streams, rivers, etc. This usually leads to the emergence of water borne diseases such as typhoid, dysentery, cholera, etc. Traditional methods of water purification in rural areas involve simple and treatments which majorly aim at the visible impurities from the water. Examples include: Boiling, filtration, Sedimentation, Solar disinfection. There is a high need for more effective and affordable water purification techniques in rural areas, in order to prevent water borne diseases. This study investigated the effects of different methods of water sanitation/treatments on the Bacterial population of Surface water (Stream) in Ado Ekiti, Ekiti state country. Raw water samples were collected from a selected stream in Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State country. The water was processed for the determination of bacterial densities and were subsequently subjected to sanitation using natural methods (Solar heating and Moringa oleifera seed extract) and chemical methods (Calcium hypochlorite and Citric acid) as treatment agents, at various concentration (between 0.5% - 2%).
413 A Study of and a Proposal for Correcting Non Compliance in the Dietary Management of Type 2 Diabetes in a Select Population , Charles H Mc Gowen*, David Vavrinak and Ross Duffett
The purpose of performing this study was to discover through interviews, and thereby objectively establish, the degree of dietary compliance which an inner-city sub-set of type 2 diabetics maintains in conjunction with prescription drug therapy. This was thought necessary in order to ascertain whether or not a proactive and pace setting, programmed approach to afford them healthier and more affordable food choices would improve the outcomes of their hemoglobin A1C monitoring, provide weight reduction and ultimately reduce the severity and number of chronic diabetic complications, i.e. cardiovascular, renal, visual, gastrointestinal, dermatologic and neurological diseases.
414 Synthesis and Characterization of Hybrid Fiber Scaffold for Medical Implants, Abere DV1*, Ojo SA2, Akinwole IE3, Joseph OD1, Uzuh FD1, Adeosun BS3, Awe A3 and Ohwoekevwo JU1
This work synthesized and characterized chitosan-silica based hybrid fiber from cowry shell and rice husk respectively with the aim of studying the behavior of a hybrid polymer-silicate composite via the electrospinning technique to produce nanofibers from natural polymer and agro waste, from which scaffolds can be produced which can be used for culturing and wound healing application in the biomedical field. The samples obtained were subjected to the following analyses: Energy Dispersive X-ray Florescent (ED-XRF), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Thermogravimetic Analysis (TA).
415 Involvement of Oxidative Stress in Type 1 Diabetes, Widad Sobhi1,2* and Abdelhalim Khenchouche1
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is a chronic T-cell mediated autoimmune disease that progressively destroys β-cells in Langerhans islets. T1D develops mainly in children and adolescents. Genetic, immunological and environmental factors are implicated in the mechanisms of β cell death leading to absolute insulin deficiency. ER stress, is also implied in the β cell apoptosis. However, oxidative stress, widely studied for its role in the complications of diabetes, can be pointed out as a most significant factor in the pathogenesis history of T1D. In this review, we present the part of each cited factor in the β cell death with particular attention to the various arguments in favor of the role of early oxidative stress in the development of T1D.
416 Treating Mechanical Dysfunctions of Lower Back through Lumbar Spine Assessment of Structural Diagnosis and Management (SDM): A New Comprehensive Approach of Musculoskeletal Medicine, KM Amran Hossain1, Mohammad Shahadat Hossain2, Sapia Akter3, Mohammad Anwar Hossain4 and Md Obaidul Haque1*
Low back pain and radiculopathies are leading health issues and mainly managed through conservative approaches concentrating on articular and neural structures of lumbar spinal segments. Although more than one-third of the sources causing lumbar pain, radiculopathy or associated impairments may not arise from the lumbar spine, articulations, nerve roots or local structures. Structural Diagnosis and Management is a comprehensive and systematic approach of taking history, examination of arthokinemetic and osteokinemtic motions of lumbar spine, stretching the series of muscles in lumbopelvic and lower extremities with biomechanical rationale, strength test to relative prime, segmental and regional stabilizer, neurological examination to the biomechanical contributor, myotomes and isolated neural structures to generate a diagnosis. The concept is developed by Dr. M Shahadat Hossain with a hypothesis that, disc herniation, degenerative disc disease or other structural and mechanical phenomenon might be treated creating a biomechanical correction by strengthening the week structures and stretching the adherent or spasmodic structures with or without localized release to the adherent neural sensitivity. The concept integrates articular, contractile, inert structural dysfunctions concentrating on spinal, regional and biomechanical connections to ensure assessment and treatment through the appropriate clinical reasoning process.
417 Glioma Molecular Markers: Histology and Imaging Integration , Fatima Mubarak*
The updated version in 2016 of world health organization (WHO)classification of brain tumors included multiple molecular markers in combination with histology and magnetic resonance imaging to reach an integrated diagnosis. A review of the current literature addressing the glioma molecular markers (IDH,1p19q, BRAF 600, RELA etc.,) based on histology and imaging based layered diagnosis is illustrated.
418 Biomedical Applications of Metal Additive Manufacturing: Current State-of-the-Art and Future Perspective, Shonak Bhattacharya1, Jenniffer Bustillos1, Fernando Quevedo Gonzalez2, Jason A Spector3,4, and Atieh Moridi1*
Recent developments in Additive Manufacturing (AM) have provided unprecedented opportunities for emerging metal implant technologies. These technologies can combine unique architectures tailored to patient-specific needs, and potentially absorbable properties that could aid in the healing process. Advanced imaging techniques enable the reconstruction of the affected regions and the design of the implant, while AM can be used to print the patient-specific implant. Metallic metamaterials have been fabricated based on designed lattice structures with precisely controlled porous structures having specific functional and mechanical properties for the desired application. This review summarizes the current state-of-theart and future opportunities for metal AM in biomedical applications.
419 Measurement of Technical Efficiency of Wet Season Rice Production in Northern Thailand: An Application of DEA Malmquist Index, Sathinee Jongdoen1, Wongchai Anupong2 and Ke Chung Peng3*
All Thai farmers grow rice as the main crop. Rice production in Thailand plays an important role as an important economic crop. In this paper, to measure the technical efficiency of wet season rice production. The objectives were to analyze the efficiency by using an application of data envelopment analysis and used a panel data by Malmquist Index to identify the trend in wet season rice productivity’s change in the crop year 2009/2010 – 2018/2019. The study areas located were in the seventeen provinces in the north of Thailand. The empirical results showed that the average Technical Efficiency (TE) score was 0.892, the highest TE score was 0.920 and the lowest TE score was 0.860 respectively. Phetchabun province provided the best efficiency. Contrary, Tak province where had the worst efficiency among all the producing provinces of wet season rice.
420 Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction for Identification of Mitochondrial Cytochrome b Gene of Gazella Dorcas, Reem Rabie Mohammed Salih*, Abd elrahim E Karrar and Imad Eldain E T Aradaib
In this study nested PCR, was developed for rapid detection of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Whole blood in EDTA were collected from 17 Gazella dorcas from Hilat Kuku Zoo, Elkadaru’s farm and Mozamel Elkurdi’s farm in East of the Nile, Khartoum State. The origins of these animals are Dongola, River Nile- Northern Sudan and Butana- Central Sudan. The product was sent for sequencing to Macrogen Company- World Meridian 10F, Gasan-dong, Geumcheon-gu, Seoul, 153-781 Koreas. Nested PCR used DNA extracted from blood samples from Gazella dorcas by using GZ3 and GZ4 primers. The objective using this technique that nested- PCR is sensitive to detect the part of mitochondrial cytochrome- b gene of Gazella dorcas only. The primers were serially diluted (10 to 10-6 ) for sensitivity reaction. In all dilutions, the line was clear. The size of the product was 197 bp.
421 Titanium Implant Devices: Increase Biocompatibility or Decrease Drug Release Rate?, Mariana de Souza Sikora*
Titanium and its alloys are the most used metallic materials for the manufacture of orthopedic and dental prostheses due to their similarities to human bone. Among these properties, the hardness and Young’s modulus stand out, besides being chemically inert and presenting low corrosion potential in biological environments [1]. Its low corrosion rate is due to the formation of a TiO2 layer, also known as a “barrier oxide” responsible for metal passivation.
422 For All they that Take the Sword Shall Perish with the Sword-on the Radiation Hazard of The Use of Shells Containing Depleted Uranium, Okunev VS*
Uranium is characterized by low activity. It is generally accepted that the biological (mainly carcinogenic) danger of using shells containing depleted uranium is associated with the toxicity of uranium dust. However, when a projectile collides with an object at high speed (1.6km/s or more), the half-life of uranium nuclei decreases significantly. In this case, the main biohazard factor is associated with radiation exposure.
423 Ecological-Fishing Monitoring of Lake Fish in The Forested Area, Igor Semenovich Mukhachev*
The article shows the role of the establishment of a method of surveillance-monitoring of ecological processes in Russia’s fisheries lakes and names examples of ecological-fishery variability of lakes in the south of the West Siberian Plain, influenced by climate change dynamics. For this reason, it is recommended that a realistic assessment of the quality of the lake ecosystem used for the cultivation of sigfish, such as the main pastoral aquaculture sites of the Zauralye, be monitored.
424 Use of Simple Binary Co-xCr Alloys (0x30wt.%) for Exploring the Influence of the Chromium Content in Dental Cobalt-Based Alloys on Their Passivation Behavior in a Fusayama Artificial Saliva, Patrice Berthod*, Estelle Kretz and Thierry Schweitzer
More and more Predominantly Base alloys are used instead the expensive dental alloys containing high concentration in noble metals. Among these PB alloys the ones based on cobalt and chromium are rather interesting since they bring high mechanical resistance, and do not risk induce any nickel release in mouth. Their corrosion resistance is due to the presence of chromium the content of which may be optimized. In this work contribution to a better knowledge of the critical Cr content to necessarily exceed for a corrosion resistance high enough is done by exploring the direct relationship between the corrosion behavior and the Cr content, by choosing a particularly aggressive artificial saliva and a series of binary alloys with an increasing Cr content, in order to exclude all other possible parameters susceptible to interfere. The different electrochemical results - free potential follow-up, Stern-Geary results and the cyclic polarization curves - demonstrate that 20wt.%Cr should be enough to allow cobalt-based dental alloys rapidly developing a protective passivation layer and showing a good resistance against corrosion in the buccal milieu. This suggests that the current chromium contents of commercial cobalt-based dental alloys may be lowered down to this threshold value without loss of their good corrosion resistance.
425 Malignant Gastric Schwannoma: A Case Report & Review of Literature, Boujarnija R1*, Acharfi N1, Ouafki I1, Oualla K1, Benbrahim Z1, Arifi S1, Mouaddine A2, EL fatemi H 2, Staouni I3, Alaoui Lamrani Y3, I brahimi A4 and Mellas N1
Gastric schwannomas are unusual and account for only 0.2% of all gastric tumors. Given their rarity and the absence of randomized trials, the diagnostic and therapeutic burden of these tumors remains difficult. Like the latter, and despite multimodal treatment, their prognosis remains unfavorable. We report a new case of malignant gastric schwannoma and through the data of the literature we take stock of the different aspects of this rare entity.
426 New Perspectives in the Treatment of Neurocritical Patient, Luis Alberto Camputaro*
The vision of the Neurocritical patient has certainly changed in recent decades. This has allowed us better results in our patients from survival to the quality-quantity of sequelae. What have been the reasons for this change, from our perspective? 1. We have managed to better categorize the risk from the diagnosis of neurological injury with more and better images (CT Scan, PET Scan, MRI, DSA, Tractography, etc.)
427 Prehospital Use of Ketamine: A Systematic Review, Leonard Ranasinghe*, Jessica Doctor MS and Radhika Gulhar MS
Acute pain and agitation are common presentations that must be addressed in the prehospital setting by paramedics. Opioids are most frequently used to control acute pain but are highly addictive and patients can develop dependence even from short term use. For sedation, many different medications such as benzodiazepines and haloperidol are used, but their delayed onset of action is not desirable and side effects at effective doses (e.g. CNS depression) can be potentially harmful to the patients.
428 Hind-limb Ischemia, Stroke, Vascular Dementia and Erectile Dysfunction: Four Preclinical Models in Rodents for Testing Vasoactive Drugs, Aharon (Ronnie) Levy* and Michael Krakovsky
Four preclinical models in rodents are described for testing the activity of vasoactive drugs or various stem cells: Hind-Limb Ischemia (HLI) in mice, transient Middle Cerebral Arterial Occlusion (t-MCAO) in rats, Vascular Dementia (VD) in rats and Erectile Dysfunction (ED) in rats. Each one of these models has the ability to evaluate the drugs’ activity on blood vessels and with prolonged treatment assess angiogenesis activity. The selection of the model should depend on two major factors - the purpose of the drugs in humans and the differentiation between prophylactic protection versus treatment of an injury
429 Precocious Puberty as a Result of Congenital Hypothyroidism, Petrit Hoxha1, Entela Puca2, Blertina Olldashi3, Agron Ylli4, Edmond Puca5*
Precocious puberty accepted when secondary sexual characteristics developed before the age of 8 in girls and 9 in boys. One of its causes is severe hypothyroidism. Severe hypothyroidism may rarely result in precocious puberty and the pathophysiology of it is uncertain yet. Fortunately, the puberty is reversible with the thyroid hormone administration. The aim of this presentation is to report an interesting case of precocious puberty and hypothyroidism, which is benign and easily treatable.
430 Biomechanical Principles of Multipoint Suture Fixation for Abdominal Wall Reconstruction , John Lindsey and Jorge I de la Torre*
In the United States, approximately 400,000 ventral hernias are repaired every year with an estimated cost of about 3 billion dollars [1]. Ventral hernias are a relatively morbid condition given that an intact abdominal wall is necessary for dynamic activities such as rotation of the torso, respiration, defecation/urination, emesis, and childbirth.
431 Heterotopic Implantation of Fetal Heart in Syngeneic Adult Rats (Comparative Study of Growth Conditions, Limits and Perspectives), CoulicVéry*1, QuéronS1, Najar ES2, Hermanus N2, De PrezC3 and DelréeP4
Background: In spite of the official ending of the moratorium about foetus and foetal material use for scientific purpose, foetal organ transplantation remains weakly investigated though it represents a culture in vivo of developing cells, tissues, organs. The present work aims at exploring technical and developmental aspects of such a study applied to the foetal heart heterotopic implantation.
432 Chinese Herbal Medicine to Alleviate Vasomotor Symptoms in Breast Cancer Survivors: A Study Protocol for a Randomised, Double Blind, Placebo Controlled, Multi Centre, Cross Over Trial, Dianna Porter1*, Xiaoshu Zhu1, Ping Ping Li2, Paul De Souza3, Paul Fahey4 and Alan Bensoussan1
Vasomotor Symptoms (VMS) have been documented as one of the most common and distressing side-effects after breast cancer treatment. Currently there is no standard conventional medical treatment. VMS, which include hot flushes and night sweats, can be the result of: a) treatmentschemotherapy, ovarian ablation, ovarian suppression and/or endocrine therapy with tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors; b) menopause occurring naturally with a breast cancer diagnosis; and/or c) menopause symptoms occurring after cessation of hormone replacement therapy upon breast cancer diagnosis.
433 Does the “Holism theory” Explain the Increase in Antimicrobial Efficacy and the Lack of Acquired or Innate Resistance to 5th Generation Silane Quaternary Compounds?, Andrew Kemp1*, Shalom Hirschman2, Vanessa Hodgkinson3
The “Holism theory” is credited to Aristotle, who said “the whole is greater than the sum of the parts”. From a purist point of view, it is unlikely that he actually said those exact words. Decontamination and disinfection are enormous subjects individually and, can be of mind-boggling complexity. The activity of disinfectants against microorganisms depends on a number of factors, some of which are intrinsic qualities of the organism, others of which are the chemical and external physical environment.
434 Tunneling Nanotube-Mediated Mitochondrial Transfer: A New Approach to Cell Protection, Aydın Bölük1, Ceren Bilgi2, Eda Kutlu1, Dilek Akbaş2 and Tuba Gökdoğan Edgünlü3*
Mitochondria are eukaryotic organelles involved in crucial biochemical processes in cells and owing to their importance in cellular functions; many studies have been conducted to demonstrate the effects of mitochondrial transfer between physically separated cells. Tunneling nanotubes have been denoted as the major route for mitochondrial transfer. Given that mitochondria regulate many cellular processes; perturbation in their internal organization ultimately leads to cellular failure. Interventions by using stem cells have shown that cell injury as a result of mitochondrial dysfunction caused by different insults can be reversed as miscellaneous studies have indicated
435 Indisputable Proof about the Effects of Eye Rubbing on the Cornea, the Lens and the Globe, Edna Joyce Santos*
As we herald the beginning of the new decade, we welcome a lot of innovations in the field of ophthalmology, especially the dawn of digitalization in the healthcare industry. And it is through one of these dynamic technologies, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, which saw prominence during the last two decades, that the myth about eye rubbing not influencing the development of keratoconus has been completely demystified and debunked. Dr. Damien Gatinel, Dr. Giullaume Debellumaniere and Dr. Julian Savatovsky of the Rothschild Foundation Hospital in France showed in You Tube in November 10, 2019 the actual footage of a healthy volunteer rubbing his eye while explicit digital images were being taken and recorded using MRI https://youtu.be/tM4z3MYZeNK.
436 BODIPY Dyes for Biomedical Applications: Recent Advances , Seda Cetindere*
In this brief review, some of the recent advances on the development of 4,4-Difluoro-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene (BODIPY) dyes for biomedical applications is presented. Most of the recent studies were focused on fluorescence imaging and Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) and the results of them lead to new approaches in biomedical science.
437 The Dream as Foetus, Kurt Forrer*
Nanshe, the Babylonian Goddess of dream interpretation is at the same time the Goddess of water and fertility; “her symbol a vessel with water and a fish in it, symbolising her gravid womb”. There is no better support of such a view than a woman’s dream announcing her pregnancy by means of a fish floating in her swimming pool. The symbol for Nanshe testifies to the Babylonian’s perfect understanding of the pathway and function of the dream. Today dreams are generally disregarded, but when a nightmare disturbs us and when in the end we realise that it disappears when it is understood, we see that dreams influence waking life.
438 Intima-Media Thickness Measurement in Children; Techniques and Reference Values, Ramy El Jalbout*
Intima-media thickness (IMT) is a subclinical marker of vascular disease in obese children. There are several techniques for measuring IMT and reference values in children are rare. These references depend on the technique (B mode or radio-frequency ultrasound) and on how IMT is measured (manually, semi-automatic or automatic). IMT varies with age. The IMT values across age in the same pediatric population and according to the different techniques do not exist in the literature. It is therefore not accurate to extrapolate from adult data and it is difficult today to decide whether an IMT value in an obese child is normal or high.
439 Regulation of Oxidative Imbalances in Mitochondria and Endoplasmic Reticulum, Kishu Ranjan1* and Saroj Kumar Amar2,3*
Communications between cell organelles are pivotal to resolve cellular stress and dysregulated signaling. The physiological processes inside the cells generates several byproducts that may impose stress to the cells. Indeed, mitochondrial dysfunction during biochemistry of ATP synthesis generates excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) that may cause cellular aging and disease. The mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) associated respiratory complexes are the major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and imbalance in ROS production results in stress to the cells. The mitochondrial anti-oxidant defense system alleviates the oxidative burden through converting reactive radicals into stable molecules.
440 Bio Polymerization as One of The Stimulation Cause of The Cancer Cell Multiplication, Zurab V Wardosanidze*
A possible mechanism of the occurrence of cancerous tumors in the body is proposed, according to which one of the reasons is the uncontrolled bio polymerization processes under the influence of carcinogens and other factors
441 The Mediterranean Diet: Plant Lectins as Essential Components, Emeritus Ian F Pryme*
In the U.S. News and World Report annual rankings (published in 2020) we note that the Mediterranean diet (Md) has, for the third year in row, been named as the overall best healthy diet. This diet is well-known for its emphasis on a high content of fruits, nuts, vegetables and whole grains. In some meals in this class of diet one can find more than 20 individual components belonging to these groups of foodstuffs. For many years now the Mediterranean way of life has been highly looked upon for health inspiration
442 Transient AV Complete Heart Block: A Rare Complication Following Regadenoson Injection, Umut Gomceli¹*, Manoj Bhandari2, Jonathan N Bella2 and Gayathri Kamalakkannan²
Regadenoson is an A2A adenosine receptor agonist designed to selectively and transiently produce coronary vasodilation. Although regadenoson is a relatively selective A2A receptor agonist, it also has some weak action on the A1 receptor (10-fold lower affinity) which can produce atrioventricular block and bradycardia [1]. Regadenoson was approved by the FDA in 2008 for use as a pharmacologic stress agent during radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging [2]. Well-documented contraindications for regadenoson use are second- or third-degree AV block or sinus node dysfunction without a functioning pacemaker (ASNC guideline reference). As of June 2017, a total of 56 cases of third-degree heart block and 26 cases of sinus arrest associated with regadenoson stress testing were reported via FAERS [3]. The incidence of overall high-grade AV block defined as second and third-degree AV block related to the administration of regadenoson at the dose given during MPI was low (less than 0.5%) and observed much less frequent compared to adenosine [4]. We report a case of 49-year-old woman who was referred to our stress laboratory for nuclear stress imaging with regadenoson and developed atrioventricular complete heart block (AVCHB) after regadenosone injection.
443 Heavy Metals in Barnacles Balanus sp.: From Biomonitoring to Coastal Management, Chee Kong Yap1*, Wing Sam Lo1, Rosimah Nulit1, Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim1, Chee Wah Yap2, Moslem Sharifinia3, Alireza Riyahi Bakhtiari4 and Salman Abdo Al Shami5
This study determined the levels of Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, and Zn in the soft tissues and shells of barnacles (Balanus sp.) collected from the Kuala Juru, Sebatu, Sg. Ayam and Kg. Pasir Puteh, Peninsular Malaysia, obtained in 2008. The metal concentrations (µg/g dry weight) in the soft tissues of Balanus sp. received from four sites in Peninsular Malaysia ranged from 2.93-4.17 for Cd, 20.2-92.5 for Cu, 480-1193 for Fe, 6.40-18.0 for Ni, and 224-414 for Zn. Based on the present data, the trace metal bioavailability’s to the Balanus in all the populations, especially in a known polluted site at Kg. Pasir Puteh is low. Overall, this preliminary baseline data can be used for regular ecological monitoring for the effective management of the coastal area in Malaysia.
444 The Right Little Fingerprint of Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., Andrés J Washington*
In the frequency of NCIC FPC patterns, there is a range in the spectrum. The populous direction is one percent or greater. Anything less than one present is on the other side in the series. We must note the infinite regions of both sides of the confines. When a pattern falls in the million frequency or greater of less than one percent, it is in a category for further scrutiny. In as much as the brain and fingerprints develop simultaneously, we have a comparison between the thought processes of those from each side of the scale between two extreme or opposite points. Individuals on the unpopulous side of the spectrum may display dermal ridge arrangements reflecting a different time in the evolution of fingerprint patterns. As such, their natural thinking may be different from those of the populous direction (Figure 1).
445 New Understanding of Fanconi Anemia Signaling Network upon Studying FANCD2, Kanani Hokutan1,2, Jin-Hee Kim1, Sudong Zhan1, Jun Zhang3 and Peiwen Fei1,2 *
The Fanconi Anemia (FA) pathway is activated upon replication stress and DNA damage. With the accumulated studies, this pathway has emerged as a fundamental signaling network to defend genome stability. The Fanconi Anemia complementation group D2 protein (FANCD2) sits at the center of the pathway, orchestrating many players to prevent our genome from going awry, leading to diseases including cancer. Here, we highlight recent advances in our understanding of FA signaling, emphasizing on a rarely known form of FANCD2, FANCD2-V2.
446 Real-Time Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Intraoperative Liver Surface Based on Structured Light Technique, Long Chen1 and JingLin Li2*
The incidence of liver tumor is increasing year by year, and liver tumor resection is a routine operation for liver lesions. Liver tumor resection is more difficult than general surgery, mainly reflected in the liver itself is easy to deform, vascular density, complex structure and other aspects [1]. If the three-dimensional information of the liver surface can be obtained in real time during the operation, it will be helpful for doctors to observe the cutting status of the liver surface in real time and avoid the possibility of being cut by mistake to a large extent. Clinical studies have shown that failure to accurately locate the focal point of the liver during surgery, to obtain real-time three-dimensional information on the liver surface and to plan the surgical path are the most important reasons for the failure of such surgery [2].
447 Will the Modern Technology ever Catch up with the ‘God’s Formula’ of Dietary Fiber?, Shigeyuki Nakaji*
The history of dietary fiber began back in ancient Europe during Hippocratic era, where function of wheat bran was already known as a laxative. The development of powdering system in France during 18th century has led to a debate between white bread and brown bread. However, this debate was based solely on their nutritional values, and depended on the opinions of food manufacturing companies and certain dietitians, thus the significance of dietary fiber was not well explored.
448 Future of Biotech Equipment/Medical Device Research & Development: A Case for Redemption of the Neglect, Shyamala Thirunavukkarasu*
The global healthcare industry is undergoing a progressive transformation at a rapid pace. Ground breaking innovation across multiple fields including biotechnology, pharmaceutical and medical devices is driving this transformative journey, the main outcome of which is improved patient health and decreased cost burden resulting in enhanced quality of life.
449 Relation of a Pulse Transit Time to the Blood Pressure in Bifurcated Cardiovascular Networks, Alexander S Liberson*
Recent developments in cardiovascular mathematics allow to simulate blood flow in the entire circulatory network or any isolated cardiovascular subsystem. Providing measurements of a Pulse Transit Time (PTT), or the averaged value for the Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV), the patient specific computational model can create personalized transfer functions, converting distal measurements to the set of cardiovascular biomarkers. The latter has a potential to build the feasible foundation for the personalized continuous self-monitoring of cardiovascular health based on portable mobile and wearable applications. Nevertheless, although being of a great interest, an accurate and reliable PTT-based Blood Pressure (BP) estimation barely exists nowadays due to the complexity of a BP regulation in a human body.
450 Assessment of Brain Metabolic Score (BMS) In Vivo Based on Mitochondrial Activity in Neuropathology, Avraham Mayevsky*
The initial and significant event developed in ischemic stroke and other brain pathologies is the sudden decrease in blood flow and oxygen supply, leading to dysfunction of the mitochondria. We review a unique optical approach to evaluate brain mitochondrial function and microcirculatory blood flow, volume and oxygenation in real time in vivo. Four monitored physiological parameters are integrated into a new Brain Metabolic Score (BMS) calculated in real time and is correlated to Brain Oxygen Balance. The technology was used in experimental and clinical situations. Few models of brain monitoring during partial or complete ischemia were developed and used in naive animals or under brain activation protocols.
451 Antihypertensive Peptides in Dairy Products, M Zeki Durak1* and Neslihan Atlıhan Turan2
Dairy products are a fundamental source of protein. Also, they are popular foods for the intake of bioactive peptides with their sensory properties and high consumption. Among various bioactivities, antihypertensive activity has special importance due to high blood pressure, which has become a growing health problem in recent years. Milk proteins are the main precursors for ACE inhibitor peptides. The antihypertensive effect of a few bioactive peptides found in dairy products has been confirmed in vivo, and a few commercial products have shown to reduce blood pressure. This review discusses the studies about the antihypertensive specifically ACE inhibitor peptides found in milk and dairy products as an essential source of bioactive peptides.
452 Targeting the Long Non-Coding RNA LINC00599-205 Splicing by Novel Candidate Drug ABX464 To Produce the Anti-Inflammatory MicroRNA MiR-124 , Laurent Manchon Igmm1*, Audrey Vautrin Abivax2, Aude Garcel Abivax2, Noelie Campos Abivax2 and Jamal Tazi Abivax2
Many nascent long non-coding RNAs have received considerable attention in recent years because of their major regulatory roles in gene expression and signaling pathways at various levels. Indeed long non-coding RNAs undergo the same maturation steps as pre-mRNAs of protein coding genes, but they are less effectively spliced and polyadenylated in comparison to them. Here we focus on a specific human long non-coding RNA and we show the activity of a new candidate drug that potentially affect its splicing and generate an anti-HIV and anti-inflammatory effects driven by upregulation of microRNA biogenesis. To investigate this activity, we combine the use of capture sequencing technology and an ab initio transcript assembly on cells from six healthy individuals. The sequencing depth of capture sequencing permitted us to assembly transcripts exhibiting a complex array of splicing patterns. In essence, we revealed that splicing of the long non-coding RNA is greatly increased by the drug whereas this splicing is less represented in untreated samples.
453 Cross-Sectional survey to ascertain the prevalence of Molar Incisor Hypo-mineralization in the Trinidad and Tobago population, Trudee Hoyte1*, Anne Kowlessar2, Anil Ali3 and David Bearn4
Aim: To determine the prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) in 11 to 12-year olds in the Trinidad and Tobago population and to determine if there is any association with ethnicity and gender. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Materials and Methods: First permanent molars and all permanent incisors were examined in 532 children comprising 317 females (58.1%) and 229 males (41.9%). The sample were 11-12 years olds (mean age 11.9 years) in high schools across Trinidad and Tobago. Examinations were conducted by one examiner.
454 Behavioral Disorders or Parenting Deficit?, Martha A. Delgado-Ochoa*, Carlos Delgado-Hernandez and Luis A. Ocaña-Hernandez
Mexico has been doing important research in neurodevelopment, nutrition and parenting. So, we have put interest in not only diagnosing behavioral disturbances, but also in investigating the environments and the influence of caregivers on the behavior of children. An observational, descriptive and transversal study was made in patients who attended a neuropediatric consultation due to a conductual problem. We performed an exhaustive anamnesis, applied a DSM IV / 5 based questionnaire on symptoms and asked if there was a parenting structure at home. Is there any reason to believe that we are over diagnosing behavioral problems and underestimating comorbidities or child rearing problems? The results showed that almost half of the included patients did not meet criteria for a neurobiological or neurodevelopmental disorder, therefore it is the group of patients who are at risk of being over diagnosed and probably the behavioral problem is influenced by an unfavorable environment or lack of positive stimuli.
455 Key Success Factors for Successful Implementation of AI Based Segmentation Algorithms in Clinical Radiology Practice, Benoit Charmettant1 and Nathalie Lassau1, 2*
With the rise of large amounts of patient’s clinical and imaging data, the development of artificial intelligence tools based on machine learning and deep learning capable of performing several tasks such as image classification or regression, organ segmentation or feature extraction, has soared over the past few years [1]. These developments create many opportunities for radiologists and are likely to impact their routine practice in the long run by providing tools that will improve the accuracy and efficiency of diagnosis and prognosis.
456 DRESS Syndrome-An Unusual Presentation with Pancytopenia after Salazopyrin Treatment, Adi Zoref-Lorenz1,2, Michal Slavin-Kish1,2, Itai Kalisky1,2, Elad Guber1,2, Eyal Robinson1,2, Gideon Charach1,2 and Mark Kheifets1,2*
Background: Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is a rare and potentially life-threatening adverse drug reaction. This syndrome is most frequently caused by various drugs such as allopurinol, Salazopyrin, antiepileptics (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenytoin, and phenobarbital), and antibiotics (sulfamethoxazole, dapsone, minocycline, and vancomycin). Treatment usually includes discontinuation of the offending drug and initiation of high-dose steroids with a prolonged taper.
457 Giant Cell Arteritis in Association with Posterior Circulation Strokes: Report of Two Cases with Normal Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate, Joel C Morgenlander MD1* and Sarah Neuhaus MD2
Stroke can be a serious, potentially fatal complication of giant cell arteritis (GCA). GCA and its relationship with ischemic stroke has been extensively studied and clinically investigated; however, a reliable biomarker or clinical manifestation has not yet been identified to detect those patients who are at increased risk of developing brain infarction. In this case series, GCA as the primary etiology of posterior circulation stroke is discussed in two patients with headache and stroke as initial presenting symptoms. Because of unremitting headache without a specific etiology recognized, GCA was considered. Both patients had temporal artery biopsy (TAB) proven GCA, despite normal erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). We make the case to support obtaining TAB in populations at risk for GCA, regardless of inflammatory markers, if headache is a prominent presenting symptom at the time of stroke.
458 Natural Products Against the Zika Virus, Claudio C Cirne-Santos *, Caroline De S Barros and Izabel Christina N P Paixão
The Zika virus belongs to the family Flaviviridae, which includes the well-known viruses associated with dengue, yellow fever, Nile fever in addition to the Japanese encephalitis virus. The discovery dates back to 1947 in Uganda, Africa, from an enzootic cycle between primates and wild Aedes aegypti, culminating in infections in humans [1]. In addition, sexual transmission of the infection may be a major concern in the spread of Zika [2].
459 Rabbit Production in Semi Arid Zone of Sokoto State , Salihu Abdullahi Abubakar1 and Abdulrahman Bello2*
The paper was compelled to educate student and farmers in the area of Rabbit Production. The paper tries to summarize so many literatures in order to easy the act of learning rabbit production in relation to the regional weather of Sokoto state. There have been series of studies and papers on rabbit production but not even a single study has been carried out on the management of rabbit production by peasant farmer in relation to the weather condition in Sokoto south local government of Sokoto state
460 Antimicrobial Activities of Irvingia gabonensis Leaf and Cyperus esculentus Extracts on Some Selected Isolates, Arikekpar Ibemologi*and Alade Tolu lope
Bacterial resistance to antibacterial drugs in the treatment of some bacterial infections have become a menace that is causing untold health challenges to patients. The antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of tiger nut (Cyperus Esculentus) and Bush mango (Irvingia Gabonensis) against candida albicans, Echerichia coli, Pseudomonas sp, Salmonella sp and Staphylococcus aureus was evaluated using agar-well diffusion, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (M.I.C) and Minimum Bacteriocidal Concentrations (M.B.C) methods. Echerichia coli had the highest total colony count of 1.3 X 1011 Colony forming unit/ml(Cfu/ml) followed by Pseudomonas sp (8.8 X 1010Cfu/ml) and Staphylococcus aureus (6.7 X 1010) at 1.0E-09 dilution, but in the 1.0E-10 dilution, Pseudomonas sp was highest with 9.7 X 1011Cfu/ml followed by E. coli (9.0 X 1011Cfu/ml).
461 Rapid Seizure Classification Using Feature Extraction and Channel Selection, Athar A Ein Shoka1, Mohamed M Dessouky1*, AS El-Sherbeny2 and Ayman El-Sayed1
The Seizure is an abnormal electrical activity in the brain; it can be diagnosed by a neurologist and could be classified using recorded data. Medical data, such as EEG signal usually contain many features and attributes that are not important for the classification process. Dimension reduction is an important step to reduce irrelevant information. Features extraction is one algorithm for dimension reduction step. Another one is the channel selection algorithm. These algorithms speed up the process of classification and improve accuracy. This paper proposes an approach based on extracting EEG features, channel selection to reduce the computation capacity, and trained model used for classification. Variance parameter is used for channels selection, by taking the maximum three ones. Eleven features are extracted from the selected channels and averaged to be the input for the classifier. Six classifiers are used to select the most accurate one. Ensemble classifier was the more accurate one to classify all seizure cases correctly as it is got 100% sensitivity for continuous testing and 97.6% for the random testing set.
462 Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression in Brain Injury Cases, Bander Khalid Al-rais*
Background: The activity of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS) is increased as a response to several insults to central nervous system causing brain injury. Objectives: To investigate iNOS expression in cadavers who died as result of traumatic brain injury (TBI), brain hemorrhage and brain congestion. Methodology: Indirect immunohistochemistry was performed on 80 cases of brain injury (autopsies), as well 23 normal brain cases as a control group. The cases were stained for iNOS and interpreted in terms of staining intensity from 0 to indicate negative, 1 weak, 2 moderate and 3 to indicate strong staining reactions.
463 Sodium Glucose Co-Transporters 2 Inhibitors are Useful Addition for Treatment of Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction, Nasser Mikhail*
Background: Recent well-designed trials have shown that sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors decrease heart failure hospitalization (HFH) in patients with or without type 2 diabetes. Methods: Review of literature (English, French, Spanish) from January 1990 to January 21, 2020. Key words included heart failure, sodiumglucose co-transporter 2, SGLT2 inhibitors, safety, randomized trials, and meta-analysis. Expert opinions and guidelines are also reviewed. Results: The use of SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes was associated with significant relative reduction in HFH by 27-35%. The latter reduction is most likely a class effect and is consistent in patients with various degrees of cardiovascular (CV) risk at baseline.
464 The Diagnosis and Treatment of a Rare Case of Supraclavicular Neuropathy Following Thoracic Decompression Surgery, Nicholas K Donohue1 and Hong Wu*2
The supraclavicular nerve is rarely of clinical significance for many medical providers and even less so for most pain physicians. The following is a case of supraclavicular neuropathy following thoracic outlet decompression to treat Paget–Schroetter syndrome, a venous thrombosis etiology of thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS). A 38-year-old female was referred to our pain management clinic by her vascular surgeon for a new onset of severe right-sided superior chest wall and peri-clavicular pain that began after surgery to address her TOS. She described constant tingling, burning, and numbness which was distinct from the painless swelling and mottling of her right arm prior to her TOS diagnosis. Narcotics and muscle relaxants had provided minimal relief for these new post-operative symptoms.
465 The Current Situation of Gynecologic Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Surgery in a Chinese Teaching Hospital, Xiang Tang*, Xianghui Su, Xiaolong Jin, Yali Zhu, Qiong Xu, Chunfang Cai and Zhuohui Zhong
As one type of the laparoscopic surgery, the laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) surgery has been developed in an attempt to further reduce the morbidity and scarring associated with surgical intervention [1,2]. Single-site Gynecologic Surgery is widely carried out all over the world during the recent years. More and more gynecological endoscopic surgeries use this single-site technology, especially transumbilical single-port. In china, the number of LESS has increased dramatically from 2017. Our hospital started to carry on this technology from September 2017.
466 Time Kill Kinetics Study of Commonly Used Disinfectants against Biofilm forming Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia-Nigeria, Agbo Ejiofor C1,2, Achi OK2 , Nwachukwu E2, Obeta M Uchejeso3*, Obiora E Okechukwu1, Maduka K Maduabuchi4, Oraekeyi Nkiruka P5 and Lote-Nwaru IE5
Background: Noncritical surfaces in hospital environment can serve as reservoirs of pathogenic bacteria. Among these pathogens, biofilms forming Pseudomonas species are among the leading cause of nosocomial infections frequently involved in hospital environment. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic and biofilm forming pathogen, is the cause of a wide range of hospital acquired infections and can survive for several days on inanimate objects and surfaces in clinical settings. These survival properties most likely play a significant role in its infection dissemination and antibiotic resistance in the hospital environment where hospital cleaners frequently use disinfectants to clean without recourse to concentration or frequency of the cleaning.
467 Virtual Reality and Its Effectiveness on Motor Development and Rehabilitation in Children with Disorders, Brent Brooke1, Tao Zhang1*, Joonyoung Lee1, Xiangli Gu2 and Ana West1
Recent advancements in Virtual Reality (VR) technology has opened a wide array of its practical uses in rehabilitation, physical activity, and motor skill acquisition among children. During VR simulations, participants practice specific movements and movement patterns, in a computersimulated environment that emulates the real world. However, to date, limited suggestions about the effectiveness and feasibility of VR technology in children with disorders have been informed. This mini review aimed to identify the most effective VR systems being used in pediatric rehabilitation and examine the effects of VR on physical activity and motor competence of children with disorders over time. Recent VR studies and literature reviews were examined in order to identify these effects.
468 Condensation of Malonic Diethyl Ester with Acrylamide, Gagik Torosyan*, Nelli Hovhannisyan and Dezi Hovhannisyan
The purposeful synthesis of polyfunctional organic substances is an important task in organic chemistry, as well as for solving practical problems in technologies of fine organic chemistry and biochemistry. Here presents the results of studies on the synthesis of polyfunctional substances as possible ligand based on with malonic acid diethyl ester. The condensation of malonic acid diethyl ether with acrylamide in phase transfer catalysis conditions leads to new derivative of malonic acid-1,1-dicarbethoxy-3-carbamoilpropane. The formation of mentioned compound has been followed by the method of UV spectrometry. The complexatation of the received substance investigated in relation to iron ions also.
469 Recent Advances in Stem Cell Therapy for Parkinson’s Disease, Sidra Asif1, Ayesha Hameed1, Safia Iswat1, Usama Khalid Choudry2* and Iram Aamir Siddiqa3
The pathologic hallmark behind Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the loss of dopaminergic neurons from the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and accumulation of lewy bodies (mis-folded proteins). Clinically, in PD the patient encounter with both motor and non-motor symptoms, motor symptoms caused by loss of dopaminergic neurons from the substantia nigra, presented with tremor, bradykinesia and muscle rigidity along with impaired gait, and posture. Recent researches have enlightened the role of different type of stem cell and their clinical application. Stem cell therapy has shown promising effects on the lifestyle and behavioral changes in patients with Parkinson’s disease. In this review article we will be discussing about the recent advancements in stem cell therapy for Parkinson’s disease
470 Innovative Thinking for Rare Diseases Drug Development, Shein-Chung Chow*
For rare disease drug development, one of the major challenges is that there are only limited subject available for clinical trials. FDA (2019), however, indicated that the Agency does not have intention to create a statutory standard for rare diseases drug development. In this case, some out-of-the-box innovative thinking are necessary for obtaining substantial evidence for approval of rare disease drug product. The out-of-the-box innovative thinking include (i) probability monitoring procedure for sample size requirement, (ii) the concept of demonstrating not-ineffectiveness rather than demonstrating effectiveness, (iii) borrowing real-world data (RWD) in support of regulatory approval of rare diseases drug products, and (iv) the use of complex innovative design to shorten the process of drug development. Along this line, Chow and Huang (2020) proposed an innovative approach for rare diseases drug development by first demonstrating not-ineffectiveness with limited subjects available and then utilizing (borrowing) real-world data to rule out the probability of inconclusiveness for demonstration of effectiveness under a two-stage adaptive seamless trial design. The proposed innovative approach cannot only overcome the problem of small patient population for rare diseases, but also achieve the same standard for evaluation of drug products with common conditions.
471 Tumor Budding in Oral Cavity Cancer, Fernando Candanedo Gonzalez*, Orlando Emmanuel Falcon Antonio, Juan de Dios Bolaños De la Torre and Armando Gamboa Dominguez
Tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) is the most common carcinoma in the oral cavity with a tendency to rapid invasion and local spread and high recurrence rate. The detection of TSCC at an early stage (T1/T2N0M0) does not always predict a good prognosis. Therefore, it is important to identify prognostic markers that can be evaluated in biopsies. Tumor budding (TB) histologically represent the epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) and specifically in TSCC, TB correlates with hidden lymph node metastases and poor prognosis. The objetive of this review is to summarize the evidence supporting the implementation of TB in the TSCC as a predictive biological marker of poor prognosis.
472 Surgical Oncology: Sixth South Russian Rostov on Don October 2019, Horvath T*
Four dimensions of surgical oncology are characterized: premalignancy, surgical stage of the disease, locally advanced, and metastatic disease. The unity of knowledge and surgical action are underlined
473 Prescribers’ Use of Electronic Prescribing Inquiry Tools in Puerto Rico, José J Hernández-Muñoz1*, Caroline M Mejías De Jesús2, Carlos R Ocasio Del Valle2, Jorge A Vargas Venero2, and Martty Martínez- Fraticelli3
Objectives: To evaluate the use of Electronic Prescribing (E-Prescribing) tools by prescribers generating inquiries to a major Pharmacy Benefit Manager (PBM) in Puerto Rico. A secondary objective is to determine providers’ knowledge of E-Prescribing tools. Methods: This is a retrospective study of E-Prescribing pharmacy claims received by PharmPix. The data collected included the use of E-Prescribing tools, which contain eligibility and medication history verification. The secondary objective was completed with a 15-item questionnaire that collected the prescribers’ perception of E-Prescribing systems and tools.
474 Celecoxib Decreases Gcf Prostaglandin E2 Levels in Chronic Periodontitis Patients, Athena S Papas*, Anastasia Panos, Petros D Damoulis and Paul C Stark
Background: Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is a common hip disorder affecting adolescents during the period of growth spurt. They typically present with hip pain with or without difficulty in bearing weight and severity is based on the degree of slip radiologically. Moderate to severe slips can be treated with open reduction and realignment osteotomies. Objective: To determine the pattern of presentation of patients with moderate to severe SCFE, treatment offered and outcome. Methodology: Retrospective Case series of patients presenting over a 10-year period and severity determined radiologically. All patients were treated with open reduction and realignment osteotomies (Fish, Subtrochanteric). Patients were followed up and monitored for complications
475 Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis – A 10-year Review of Cases Treated by Open Reduction and Realignment Osteotomy, Onuoha KM*, Bassey AE, Akinola B, Ekwe KK, Ogedegbe FE, Adedapo A and Onuoha CEO
Background: Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is a common hip disorder affecting adolescents during the period of growth spurt. They typically present with hip pain with or without difficulty in bearing weight and severity is based on the degree of slip radiologically. Moderate to severe slips can be treated with open reduction and realignment osteotomies. Objective: To determine the pattern of presentation of patients with moderate to severe SCFE, treatment offered and outcome.
476 A New Approach to Analyzing the Development of Domain-Specific Knowledge Among Undergraduate Medical Students Using Learning Scores, Jochen Roeper1*, Olga Zlatkin-Troitschanskaia2*, Verena Klose1, Marie-Theres Nagel2 and Jasmin Schlax2
Medicine is one of the domains in higher education with the highest demands [1]. The importance of acquiring domain-specific knowledge to understand the scientific rationales of practical work in medicine is considered vital [2], about the specific responsibilities associated with medical professions. Teachers in medicine are faced with specific instructional challenges, for instance, being required to teach and examine several hundred students with heterogeneous educational backgrounds and study preconditions [3]. Consequently, in medical education practice, Multiple-Choice (MC) tests are often used in examinations because of their high level of efficiency and practicability, and despite their well-known disadvantages such as construct-irrelevant bias and low levels of explanatory power [4-5]. In particular, the extent to which teaching contributes to the development of domain-specific knowledge cannot be measured by simple post-testing with MC tests and analyzing test sum scores only [6-7].
477 Sylvian Aqueductal Web/ Diaphragm-A Case Report and Short Review of Imaging Techniques, Chithra Ram* and Richard Sherry
Aqueductal Web/Diaphragm (AW/D) causing Aqueductal stenosis is a known but uncommon entity [1]. Appropriate diagnosis helps in prompt and adequate patient care. We present a case report of a 48 YOF who was evaluated for acute mental status changes with severe headaches. Regular CT images demonstrated obstructive hydrocephalus at the level of the Sylvian aqueduct. When an additional 10 minutes was spent on post processing using CT 3D Multiple Plane Reconstruction (MPR) function on a McKesson PACS radiology station, it showed an AW/D as the cause of obstructive hydrocephalus. As the patient was confused and couldn’t hold still, conventional MRI with 3D CISS se-quince contained motion artifact, but still confirmed the finding.
478 Autism Spectrum Disorder and Co-morbidities: A Closer Look at Pathogenesis and Clinical Implications, Xue-Jun Kong*
The overlap in clinical manifestation of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and its psychiatric co-morbidities, including Schizophrenia (SCZ), are frequently overlooked. In this review, we enumerated the genetic markers, signs of inflammation and gut-microbiome-brain signatures, and excitation/inhibition imbalances shared by ASD and SCZ. We also summarized advancements in early detection as a result of the predictive value of certain biomarkers and in the development of evidence-based emerging treatments for ASD and co-morbidities.
479 DSM 5: Controversial Acceptance and Ongoing Challenges, Shinu Kuriakose*
Mental health disorders effect almost 25% of Americans in a given year and is the leading cause of disability. These disorders can cause substantial detrimental changes in society due to lack of proper screening principles and comprehensive care. Disparities in health, education, employment, wealth and socio-economic standings are quite apparent in the psychiatric population. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association has published a book, which organized mental health pathologies into distinct groups to further standardize the way these illnesses can be categorized. The latest version of this manual, the DSM 5, was published in 2013 and it includes specific changes compared to the DSM IV. There continues to be still criticism aimed at the DSM 5 due its focus on symptomology instead of biological underpinnings of mental illness. Ultimately, the DSM 5 is an effort to further standardize diagnosis of mental illness among all populations with further reduction in mental health disparities.
480 Frontiers in Human Mycobiome in Health and Disease , Hui Zhan and Tao Zuo*
The humans are colonized by abundant and diverse fungi, collectively referred to as mycobiome which has garnered much less attention to date than the colonizing bacterial microbiome. The advancement of next-generation high throughput sequencing technologies have expanded our knowledge substantially in human microbiome and gradually in human mycobiome in association with health and disease [1,2]. Different fungal taxa were identified in the intestines, oral cavity, skin, vagina and lungs, varying across body sites [3], and also over time and with diet, environment and diseases [4,5]. In human gut, Aspergillus, Candida, Debaryomyces, Malassezia, Penicillium, Pichia, Saccharomyces, Cladosporium, Clavispora, Cyberlindnera, and Galactomyces are the most prevalent fungal genera [6-8]. Particularly, the species Candida albicans colonizes the oropharynx, genital, and gastrointestinal mucosa of 30-70% of healthy individuals [9].
481 Liriodenine and its Therapeutic Potential, José del Carmen Rejón Orantes* and Karina Janeth Gómez Vázquez
Liriodenine is an alcaloid BIQ isolated for the first time from the Liriodendron tulupifera [1] and subsequently from Rutaceae, Magnoliaceae, Monimiaceae, Menispermaceae, Annonaceae families, etc. [2] (Figure 1). Liriodenine is an alcaloid that has a wide range of biological activities, including antimicrobial, anticancer, cardiovascular effects and affinity for some receptors, is a promising potential drug candidate for the treatment of multiple ailments.
482 Importance of Lowered Ionized Magnesium Concentrations in Elderly Hypertensives, K Kisters1,2*, F Wroblewski1,2, A Deutsch2, L Kisters2, U Gröber2 and T Westhoff3
In recent publications a magnesium deficiency in elderly is up to 50%, depending on co-morbidity, drugs and nutritional status [1,2]. On the other hand, it is well known that a magnesium insufficiency is a pathogenic factor in the development of primary hypertension [2-11]. In this context calcium magnesium antagonism, sodium magnesium antiport, disturbed vitamin D metabolism or disturbed magnesium channels (TRPM 6 and 7) are of special interest [1-7]. For these reasons magnesium metabolism was of interest in elderly hypertensives. Ionized magnesium is the active form and was measured additionally. Up to now it is not clear whether there is a correlation between plasma or serum magnesium concentrations and ionized magnesium content
483 Generic Medicines, Lambrini Kourkouta1*, Christos Iliadis2, Aikaterini Frantzana3 and Petros Ouzounakis4
Introduction: Generally, a drug is any chemical substance capable of affecting the functioning of the organism of each living being or microorganism when penetrates the living organism. Purpose: The purpose of this review study focuses on the characteristics, properties and contribution of generic drugs to modern therapeutics. Methodology: The study material consisted of articles on the topic found in Greek and international databases such as: Google Scholar, Med net, PubMed, Medline and the Hellenic Academic Libraries Association (HEAL-Link). The exclusion criterion for the articles was the language, except for Greek and English.
484 A DFT Study for Eliminating a Water Pollutant by Using an Adsorbent , Juan Horacio Pacheco Sánchez* and Rosario Suárez Reyes
A pollutant on the water is an azoic dye molecule (adsorbate) within its corresponding ˉO3 S active site, and it can be relieved from water using chitosan copolymer molecule (adsorbent) within its active site, which is an ion NH3 + of ammonia from amino group protonated. After DFT geometry optimization, the reactivity between these two active sites in acidic aqueous solutions can become either neutral acid form or two products (sulfur dioxide SO2 and H2 NOH). We infer the kind of adsorption established on the neutral acid form molecule.
485 Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation: Transseptal Approach Using a Femoral Veno- Arterial Loop, Bertin Murielle1*, Aboukofa Mohamed1, Omer El Hag2, Zuhair Yousif2 and Taleb Majwal2
After successful introduction of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) in 2002, TAVI has become an increasingly accepted therapy for the treatment of severe aortic stenosis in patients judged to be at high risk for open heart surgery. We describe anterograde transseptal access for TAVI in a patient where transfemoral access alone was impossible to achieve due to a heavily calcified stenotic aortic valve. It is an interesting and alternative approach to achieve TAVI.
486 Is it time to conduct a clinical trial on lavender oil inhalation for treating anxiety and insomnia among elderly patients?, Hermush Vered*1,2 and Ore Liora3
Background: Studies show that older people often suffer from anxiety disorders in general and from generalized anxiety disorder in particular. In turn, such disorders could lead to additional distress, physical disabilities, and the increased risk of dying. First-line medications include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors. However, while they may lead to positive improvement in levels of anxiety and acrophobia, they are not without serious physical and mental negative side effects. Objectives: To examine the efficacy of lavender oil inhalation for treating anxiety disorders among the elderly
487 The Cooperative Movement in Kenya: Women Only Cooperatives Their Potential for Women’s Empowerment and Enhancement of Gender-Just Peace, Mildred Jenifer Lodiaga*
This paper is based on a review of secondary sources from academic articles. It describes how women owned and managed cooperatives hold potentials to empower women and to transform gender relations and as a path to achieving gender-just peace goal. Peace and social well-being are embedded within the cooperative movement’s core values and principles. The paper suggests how cooperatives can and do effectively promote economic and social inclusion, a factor that can enhance elimination of friction among different social groups. This is because cooperative societies bring together various classes of people regardless of their socio- economic status as their agenda would be one only-“to share ideas, suggest and implement viable practices that are likely to bring development and uplift economic and social status of members”.
488 Adenylate Energy Charge-New Tool for Determining Metalworking Fluid Microbial Population’s Sublethal Response to Microbicide Treatment, Frederick J Passman1*, Peter Küenzi2 and Jordan Schmidt3
Adenylate energy charge (AEC) is computed from the ratios of three energy molecules found in all living cells: adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and adenosine monophosphate (AMP). Previous studies have shown that when microbicide treatments resulting in ATP concentration decreases of
489 Compulsive Consumers: Mindfulness in Social Skills Training, Agnes Altmann1* and Mellina Terres2
The state of consciousness that involves attention to experiences, moment by moment, in a receptive and non-judgmental manner is characterized as mindfulness or mindfulness. The mindfulness construct has been extensively researched, mainly in clinical studies and more recently in its impact on social habits and consumerism. So, how can mindfulness contribute to changing exacerbated consumption habits? This study presents a reflection on the state and practice of mindfulness through a bibliographic review in recent articles, related to the context of consumption and the social environment. In this way, we understand the society in which consumer relations are in an accelerated process, while they aim at progress, they face a narcissistic moment, in search of constant satisfaction, generating an individualist reflex.
490 The Therapeutic Potential of Phytomedicines from Brazilian Cerrado Herbs against Neurodegenerative Diseases, Douglas Vieira Thomaz*
This short commentary is intended to briefly discuss the latest advances reported in literature about the use of native herbs from Brazilian Cerrado biome against neurodegenerative diseases. Henceforth, literature was surveyed concerning Cerrado`s rich biodiversity and the implications of the highly variable constitution of secondary metabolites of the plants of this region. Nonetheless, Cerrado herbs showcase remarkable antioxidant activity, as stated in literature, which is also associated to anticholinesterase properties, what implicates that some plants of this biome might find use in the therapeutics of neurodegenerative diseases.
491 Mechanism of Drug Resistance in Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, Ayanwale O Abraham*1, Adabara U Nasiru1, Adeniyi K Abdulazeez2, Oyewole O Seun3 and David W Ogonna4
Mycobacterium tuberculosis the causative agent of tuberculosis has many intrinsic features which enable it to evade the activity of antibiotics. Many studies have been carried out to understand the mechanisms of drug resistance by this organism. An attempt was made in this write up to elucidate the various mechanism of drug resistance in M. tuberculosis, including its innate impermeable cell wall and mutation of specific genes. Drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis is not a product of a single homogeneous genetic unit. Rather it is as a result of frequent mutation in various genes which encode for resistance to antibiotics. Also, the slow metabolism during a prolonged dormant stage greatly enhances it resistance to drug, the waxy impermeable cell wall with the presence of numerous efflux pump are essential for withstanding the potency of antibiotics. Having an adequate knowledge on the molecular mechanisms of drug resistance in M. tuberculosis may be helpful in exploring new targets for drug development.
492 Representing and Connecting the Biomedical Science through the Applied Ontology Discipline, Mauricio B Almeida1*, Livia M D Teixeira2, and Jeanne L Emygdio3
Several obstacles remain for Biomedicine in reusing, disseminating and sharing specialized knowledge for information systems. The Biomedical literature is inherently ambiguous, systems developers suffer from some idiosyncrasy and solipsism, and there is not an unique standard, to mention just a few issues. The lack of integration among information systems, the so-called problem of interoperability, prevents Biomedical scientists to meet the best levels of collaboration to advance biomedical science. Ontologies have been adopted in the biomedical field as tool to address the massive volume of data produced each day during the last 30 or 20 years. In this paper, we emphasize the pursuit for solutions not only through technological resources, since we believe that any effort should include well-stablished principles for modeling provided by the discipline of Applied Ontology.
493 Representing and Connecting the Biomedical Science through the Applied Ontology Discipline, Mauricio B Almeida1*, Livia M D Teixeira2, and Jeanne L Emygdio3
Several obstacles remain for Biomedicine in reusing, disseminating and sharing specialized knowledge for information systems. The Biomedical literature is inherently ambiguous, systems developers suffer from some idiosyncrasy and solipsism, and there is not an unique standard, to mention just a few issues. The lack of integration among information systems, the so-called problem of interoperability, prevents Biomedical scientists to meet the best levels of collaboration to advance biomedical science. Ontologies have been adopted in the biomedical field as tool to address the massive volume of data produced each day during the last 30 or 20 years. In this paper, we emphasize the pursuit for solutions not only through technological resources, since we believe that any effort should include well-stablished principles for modeling provided by the discipline of Applied Ontology.
494 Epidemiological Profile of Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Auzelivia Pastora Rego Medeiros Falcão1, Carlos Henrique de Almeida Cipriano2, Guilherme Castro de Queiroz2, Nikolas do Vale Pedreira2, Amália Cinhtia Meneses Rêgo3 and Irami AraújoFilho3*
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common cause of cancer in the world, with more than 740,000 cases/year. Hepatocellular carcinoma is related to chronic liver diseases (hepatitis B, C, cirrhosis). Treatment of HCC is variable and may or may not be successful. After treatment, the patient is followed up to prevent and diagnose recurrences. This observational, retrospective and cross-sectional study was carried out at Hospital Universitário Onofre Lopes-HUOL, State of Rio Grande do Norte/Brazil. The epidemiological profile of HCC patients followed up at the Liver Study Center (LSC)-Reference Center in Hepatology was analyzed. Data were obtained from the analysis of medical records from 1995 to 2018, after approval by the Institutional Research Ethics Committee of the 79 patients with confirmed HCC, a male prevalence of 68% was observed; 56% of cases affected patients over 60 years of age, and in 49% of patients, HCC was diagnosed exclusively by imaging method. Concomitant cirrhosis was observed in 63% of the cases studied. During the 13 years analyzed, the loss of follow-up was 64%, which impacted the quality of care provided to patients at the service. Only 13% of patients had access to surgical treatment for HCC, and 53% of cases had less than one year of evolution. The creation of a specialized HCC service would reduce the rates of late diagnosis, loss of follow-up, waiting time for treatment with a positive impact on the prognosis, and increase in survival rates.
495 Adaptive Structures, Robotics and Bio medics: A Perspective., Concilio Antonio1* and Carrino Luigi2
Recently, some attention of the Aerospace Engineering field has moved towards smart or adaptive structures, and among them systems able to bear loads while deforming their shape or changing their geometrical configuration (morphing). Many issues must still be faced and completely overcome in order to practically implement such a kind of architectures, as illustrated in some representative textbooks [1-3]. The main of them, however, stands just in the foreword: creating structures that shall withstand external force with minimal deformation while having the capability to change their outline.
496 Sharpshooter (40%Profenofos and 4% Cypermethrin)-Induced Oxidative Stress Response in African Catfish Clarias Gariepinus, Nwamba Helen O1, Achikanu Cosmas E2* and Ujah II2
This study was aimed to determine the effect of exposure of juvenile fish Clarias gariepinus (250 ± 1.2 g) to sub lethal doses (0.014 mg/L and 0.036 mg/L) of sharpshooter on the oxidative stress indices; lipid peroxidation (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities over a period of 15 days exposure in three replicates. The colorimetric analysis of the samples collected on day 1, 5, 10 and 15 for LPO, SOD and CAT showed different effects with time and concentration. The LPO at 0.014mg/L and 0.036mg/L were (8.69±4.002b2 - 8.390±4.426b2) and (7.275±6.567b2 - 7.275±2.00b2) showing increase with increasing concentration of pesticide compared with the control (3.030±0.00b2-1.515±2.142b2) respectively. The SOD activity increased (0.317±0.129b2-0.433±0.055b2) at 0.036 mg/L with time of exposure and decreased with concentration compared with control (0.491±0.006b2-0.053±0.005b2) respectively. CAT activity over the exposure time of 15 days showed a non - significant decrease from 0.16±0.000b2-0.013±0.00b2 at 0.014 mg/L and 0.014±0.000b2–0.011±0.00b2 at 0.036 mg/L of sharpshooter respectively compared with control (0.013±0.000b2). At days 5 and 10, sub lethal concentration of sharpshooter (0.036 mg/L) gave significant increase in LPO and decrease in SOD and CAT compared with the control respectively
497 China’s ‘Money Boys’ and HIV for the Greater Good: The Queer Body and Necropolitics, Eileen Yuk-ha Tsang*
The struggles of China’s money boys-who are men who sell sex to other men-illustrate how the multi-layered stigma they experience acts as a form of necropolitical power and an instrument of the state’s biological citizenship. One unintended side effect of this state power in China is the subsequent reluctance by medical professionals to care for gay men who are living with HIV. Data elicited from self-described money boys and physicians who specialize in the treatment of HIV provides evidence that the necro power of stigma is routinely exercised upon the bodies of gay sex workers. Through the exercise and imposition of state sanctioned stigma, China’s health system excludes gay sex workers through biopolitical surveillance measures as part of a wider necropolitical project that creates death instead of promoting the conditions that might preserve life. Public health priorities demand that the cultured scripts of gendered Chinese citizenship must reevaluate the marking of the body of the money boy as a non-entity, a non-human and a living ‘dead body.’
498 Hospice Care for End of Life Client in the Culture of Mountain and Beach of Papuan, Agussalim1* and Masdiana2
Background: In the culture of Indonesia as the country’s East, when a patient in a terminal condition in the verdict and discussed with her family, they tend to bring patients back home and out of the hospital by force to their care at home. The method: This type of research is descriptive qualitative approach phenomenology study i.e. Research generates data in the form of descriptive words written or oral from informants and behavior that can be observed. The Result: In depth interview with a participant found that for the entire territory of Papua has not found the preparation of palliative patients handling in particular is especially done in palliative care clinic and also in the community
499 Non-Conformities that Hinder Health Institution to be Accredited: Integrative Review, Elaine Dias Noveli, Danieli Parreira da Silva, Rejane Hebert, Suellen da Rocha Lage Moraes, Francisco Jose Koller, Larissa Marcondes, Josemar Batista and Bruna Eloise Lenhani*
Objective: To identify, in the literature, which are the non-conformities that lead a health institution not to be accredited. Method: This is an integrative review, carried out at the Virtual Health Library, using the following descriptors: Hospital Accreditation and Quality Management, with the Boolean operator AND, in the month of October 2019. Results: The search returned 38 studies, but 10 articles were analyzed; the others were repeated, did not address the goal, and did not meet the inclusion criteria. An article was international and the others, Brazilian. The major non-conformities were related to adoption of patient safety; absence of a sector on quality health and training of employees.
500 Hemoglobin SC Disease: Phenotypic Variability and Therapeutic Options, Bindu K Sathi*
Mutation in the Beta Globin Gene (HBB) leads to the formation of Hemoglobin S (HbS) and Hemoglobin C (HbC). Co-inheritance of HbS and HbC causes hemoglobin SC disease, a form of hemolytic anemia with a myriad of clinical manifestations. Valine replaces glutamic acid in the 6th position (Glu 6Val) to form HbS and Lysine replaces glutamic acid (Glu6Lys) in HbC. The interaction of HbC with HbS increases the propensity of red blood cells to sickle leading to microvascular occlusion and down-stream end organ complications.
501 Management of Type II Diabetes using MetforminLoaded Microparticulate Gastroretentive Delivery Systems, Sara Salatin1, 2* and Mitra Jelvehgari1*
Metformin is an oral anti-hyperglycemic derivative extensively used for the treatment of type II diabetes. Following oral administration, metformin exhibits an incomplete absorption and therefore repeated administrations of high doses of this drug are required for successful therapy due to its short biological half-life. For this, development of novel drug delivery systems for metformin might be useful to decrease the dosing frequency, to enhance its bioavailability, to reduce gastrointestinal adverse effects, and to be helpful for effective use of metformin in diabetes treatment. In this review, we present microparticulate gastroretentive delivery systems developed to enhance the oral bioavailability of metformin
502 Emerging Trends in T-cell based Vaccines, Shikha Tarang1* and Varun Kesherwani2
Since Edward Jenner’s first use of cowpox pustules against smallpox to the present use of subunit vaccines, vaccinology has seen a paradigm shift. The transition from time-intensive microbiological approaches to the current machine learningbased prediction algorithms for epitope identification have enabled the development of faster, cost-effective and efficient vaccines. However, to outrace the newer and deadlier emerging pathogens, our approach to vaccination needs to be constantly modified. As we mark the final year of the Decade of Vaccines and its product Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP), we emphasize the significance of T- cell responses to achieve a successful vaccination
503 Outcomes after Endoscopic Dacryocystorhinostomy in the Pediatric Population, Henry P Barham1,2*, Christian A Hall1,2, Harry E Zylicz1,2, Mohamed A Taha2,3, Margaret B Westbrook1,2, Colin J Shortess1,2, Megan M Stevenson1,2, Brittany A Zito1,2 and Blake A Booth4
Introduction: A growing body of evidence demonstrates that endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (eDCR) techniques provide comparable results to conventional external techniques in the adult population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate safety and outcomes of powered endoscopic DCR for the management of nasolacrimal duct obstruction in the pediatric population.
504 Determination of Relationship Between Ponseti Method of Clubfoot Management and Age of Treatment Onset, Tochukwu Nze Ugorji*, Ada Jovita Daniel, Kachisicho Theresa Anoliefo, Darlington Chimaobi Onyido and Dowell Oluchukwu Mbanu-Jackson
Background: Clubfoot, also called Congenital Tallipes Equinovarus (CTEV) is a congenital abnormality of the foot. The deformities involved could be unilateral or bilateral. Ponseti intervention, developed by Ignacio Ponseti is a manipulative technique that corrects congenital clubfoot without invasive surgery. Aim: The aim of this study is to quantitatively and qualitatively analyze the effectiveness of Ponseti intervention among children of different ages that presented for clubfoot treatment to ascertain the ideal age to begin treatment of clubfoot.
505 Metrological Aspects to Identify and Quantify Cancer Malignancies, Esther Castro Galván*, Mauricio Maldonado and Melina Pérez Urquiza
Cancer research is currently one of the most challenging topics in the health area, notwithstanding the implementation of Network research groups, like PAN-Cancer and Cancer Core Europe, that provide a powerful knowledge base. Cancer marker information made available by these networks is making it possible to develop “macro visions” that will enable the achievement of better prognoses. The availability of big data produced by sequencing techniques requires new kinds of infrastructures in the field of bioinformatics, which are being used by these networks to manage information produced around the World. Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML), affects children and adult individuals, with a higher mortality rate among members of the adult group.
506 Low-Level Laser Therapy: The Importance of An Individualized Treatment Approach for Pain Management, Elizabeth Angelevski DC*
Pain, especially in its chronic form, is a complex process which can deeply affect an individual’s life. The definition of pain, according to the International Association for the Study of Pain, is “an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage…” [1]. There are two major types of pain, nociceptive and neuropathic. Nociceptive pain is caused by the activation of specific pain receptors in response to noxious stimuli, while neuropathic pain reflects nervous system damage and/or dysfunction [2].
507 Tetracyclic Condensed Pyrimidines. New Derivatives of the Benzo [4’,5’] Imidazo [2’,1’:6,1] Pyrido [2,3-D] Pyrimidines , Harutyunyan AA1,2*, Ghukasyan GT1, Safaryan MS1,2, Grigoryan AS2, and Danagulyan GG1,2
The biological activity of polycyclic heteroaromatic compounds is due to their ability to interact with DNA, being associated with small and large grooves or intercalation between adjacent bases in a double helix, the interaction mechanism of the latter being considered as the main one. In both cases, the secondary structure of DNA is distorted and its functioning is disrupted, and therefore the connections with this mechanism of action are considered as the most promising in developing new-generation drugs for the treatment of tumor diseases and viral and bacterial .
508 Contrasting Organizational Transformations in NonHealth and Healthcare - Implications for Digital Health, Mohan Tanniru*
What is digital health? The term is used frequently, and it can refer to different aspects of healthcare transformation. One way to bring clarity to this concept is to understand the nature of the transformation it supports in other organizations and relate it back to healthcare.
509 Measures on Reducing the Recurrence of Colorectal Polyps, Fan Chen*
A large number previous studies have confirmed that, the generation of colorectal cancer follows the sequential pattern from adenoma to colorectal cancer, so colorectal polyps, especially adenomatous colorectal polyps, are regarded as precancerous lesions of colorectal cancer, and the timely detection and removal of colorectal polyps has become an important means to prevent the occurrence of colorectal cancer. However, many studies at home and abroad suggest that there is a high recurrence rate after colorectal polypectomy, which brings inconvenience to patients’ lives and health risks, Therefore, in addition to regular endoscopic follow-up, We had better cooperate with some anti recurrence measures, as described below
510 H2Oslim®, the water-soluble polysaccharides from Agaricus bisporus, significantly reduces body weight and improves lipid parameters in overweight humans in a randomized double-blind vs placebo study, Gemma Clemente-Ramos*, Cristina Benítez-Gil, Gemma Lopez Diaz-Cano and Eva EsquinasTrenas
In vitro tests demonstrated that the water-soluble polysaccharides from Agaricus bisporus is capable of trapping fat through a cationic polymer trapping net in contact with water. The fat trapping capability of this cationic net could favorably impact on blood lipid levels and diminishing cardiovascular risk factors. The aim of the study was to understand the effects of H2Oslim®, on body weight and associated metabolic parameters in overweight human volunteers. The study participants comprised of 100 healthy, overweight volunteers (defined as BMI 25-30 kg/m2) randomly divided into two groups. The groups received on a daily basis, either 400 mg of H2Oslim® or matching placebo in a double blinded. Participants were evaluated at baseline, 4, 8 and 12 weeks of the study. Significant improvements in body weight, waist circumference as well as plasma total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, were observed in the H2Oslim® group (H-group) compared with the placebo group (P-group). The results here reported revealed that the supplementation of H2Oslim® seems a useful tool in dealing with obesity and hyperlipidemia
511 Is Cholesterol the Key Factor for Autism?, Clifford Lingwood*
It is hard to reconcile the many genetic and environmental risk factors for ASD [1,2] to a single mechanism. However, modulation of transmembrane signaling by cholesterol and/or glycosphingolipids (GSLs), both enriched in lipid rafts, and their interlinked metabolism [3], could provide the basis of such an all-encompassing axis. Membrane cholesterol is important in neuronal development. 25% of the body’s cholesterol is in myelin. Most GSLs are also in brain, particularly gangliosides, as the name implies. Surprisingly, the neural distribution of cholesterol (and GSLs) remains poorly defined. Abnormal cholesterol metabolism/transport is associated with many neuropathies [4] -Alzheimer’s [5], Parkinson’s [6], epilepsy [7] and lysosomal storage diseaneuropathies [8,9]. GSL biosynthesis is central in neuronal development [10], particularly myelination [11], and is also aberrant in neurological disease [9,12- 13].
512 Is there any Benefit for the Brain Metastasis with Cystic Components Rather than Sold Component only in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer in terms of Clinical Outcome?, Koun Jeong1, Geun Young Yang1 and Young Zoon Kim*2
Background: Brain metastases (BM) is an important factor in shortening the lives of patients with lung cancer. It is not rare that the physician encounters the brain metastases with cystic components. We analyzed the efficacy and prognosis of different therapeutic schedules in BM of NSCLC patients with cystic component. Methods: A retrospective study of patients with pathologically confirmed stage IV non-small cell lung cancer was conducted. All patients were with cystic BMs. We analyzed the clinical characteristics of these patients and the efficacy of targeted drugs and chemotherapy regimens.
513 Roll-To-Roll Printing of Wearable Sensors and Devices for Personalized Health Monitoring, Mehdi Riza and Xian Du*
Personalized Health Monitoring (PHM) is a growing field in the medical community that is intended to address the needs of patients requiring regular monitoring of biodata from a distance. Successful efforts have been made in recent years to solve this problem using wearable electronic sensors/devices. The most effective designs utilize flexible electronics: sensor arrays mounted on polymer substrates that can be wrapped on the skin. While immensely useful due to their inherent advantages in conformability, comfort, and lightweight structures, the challenge lies in finding effective ways to manufacture these devices on a mass scale. Roll-to-Roll (R2R) printing promises high-throughput, high-fidelity fabrication via multiple different methods of imprinting conductive patterns on the substrate. This review examines the applications of these different methods and some of the results that have been demonstrated thus far
514 Histopathologic study of Liver Tissue from Wistar Albinos Rats Treated with Methanolic Extract of Leptadenia Hastata’s Roots, Mama Sy Diallo1*, Fatoumatah Ba2, Chérif Mouhamed Dial3, Cheikh Diop2, Oumar faye1 and Mamadou Fall2
Introduction: In Senegal, phytotherapy is an important part of traditional medicine and it is important to report the cases with lethal dose in experimental models. Leptadenia Hastata (L. hastata) is a plant that is widely used in Senegalese pharmacopeia and in the rest of the African continent. The aim of the present study was to investigate histopathological changes in liver and kidney after administration of Roots of L. hastata in Wistar Albinos rat, following a protocol of sub-acute toxicity.
515 Neonatal Birth Injuries: An Orthopedic Clinic Presentation, Onuoha KM1*, Omotola OE2, Orimolade EA2, Sotunsa JO3, Alade OA3 and Owolabi IJ3
Birth trauma is defined as injury sustained by the neonate during the process of labour and delivery. The incidence in the united states is 29 per 1000 births [1]. With the improvement in obstetric care and reduction in perinatal mortality and birth asphyxia, there is a rising trend in the incidence of birth trauma [2]. Some birth injuries occurred more frequently than others. While minor ones usually heal without major intervention, the major ones are often referred. Certain factors such as birth weight, parity, prolonged labour, mode of delivery, fetal presentation and facility where baby was delivered are possible etiologic factors. The aim of this study is to determine the pattern of neonatal birth injuries presenting in a typical orthopedic clinic in a Nigerian hospital and the possible associated factors.
516 In Vitro Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Potential Evaluations of Methanolic Extract of Acalypha hispida Burm.f. (Euphorbiaceae), Akif Md Thousif and Md Shahidul Islam*
The principal goal of this research study is to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of traditional Bangladeshi medicinal extracts and to examine these activities in relation to their antioxidant content. Acalypha hispida Burm.f. (Euphorbiaceae) is a medicinal plant of Bangladesh and Indian subcontinent, which is widely used as folk medicine for the treatment of many diseases. The aim in the present study was to screen the phytochemical profile and pharmacological activities of methanolic extract of Acalypha hispida leaves. Because each part of Acalypha hispida Burm.f. has different constituents, the pharmacological effects of the plant vary according to the part of the plant evaluated. To investigate pharmacological activities DPPH scavenging assay and HRBC membrane stabilization methods were done for antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential respectively.
517 Can Benign Increased Intracranial Pressure cause Unilateral Papilledema? – A Case Report, Mohammed Attia*
Benign Increased Intracranial Pressure: also called Idiopathic intracranial hypertension or Pseudotumor Cerebri is a condition in which there is elevation of cerebrospinal fluid pressure with unknown aetiology (so, idiopathic). This disorder usually affects women in childbearing period. With this disorder, there is No diagnosed exact pathology causing this problem. There are also no abnormalities in CSF pathways within the ventricles. Neuro-radiological diagnostic studies are also normal except those denoting high cerebrospinal fluid pressure. Also, there is no evidence of other secondary causes of increased intracranial pressure can be detected. We present a case of benign increased intracranial pressure in a young obese female presented with Unilateral papilledema and sudden unilateral deterioration of vision.
518 Bilateral Breast Metastasis of Atypical Pulmonal Carcinoid, Pavlišta D*
The breast is an uncommon site of metastasis. We report a case of bilateral metastasis of atypical pulmonal carcinoid in the breast. Review of the literature has demonstrated only a few cases of carcinoid metastatis in a single breast, but not bilateral. In spite of the rarity of this finding, the differential diagnosis between primary and metastatic carcinoid or malignant tumor of the breast at all, should be considered in view of the different management of these two settings. Immunohistology has proved a very helpful method in this field. Accurate diagnosis of breast metastasis is important to avoid unnecessary treatment.
519 Evaluation of Root Noduletingrhizobial Strains for Fababean Crop at Kulumsa, Southeastern Highlands of Ethiopia, Almaz Admasu*, Kassu Tadesse and Anbesse Debebe
The response of fababean to seed inoculation with ninestrains of Rhizobium leguminosarum along with recommended phosphorous from TSP fertilizer was examined in field experiments at a total of five sites from 2013 to 2015 at Kulumsa in the southeastern highlands of Ethiopia. Full (18– 46 kg N–P2O5 ha-1) and half doses nitrogen and phosphorous from inorganic source (DAP), and no input at all were also included in the treatments. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications. The result of 2013 trial showed seed inoculation with root noduleting rhizobium strains significantly improved the productivity of fababean. The highest grain yields of fababean were obtained from seed inoculations withstrainsEAL-110, FB-Murd, 1035 and 1018 along with recommended phosphorous from TSP.
520 Iron Chelation, Hydroxyl and DPPH Radical Scavenging Efficacies of Cobalt (II)- 2- Guanidinobenzimidazole Complex, Waseem Hassan*1, Mehreen Zafar1, Hamsa Noreen1,3, Hazrat Bilal2, Mohammad Ibrahim2 and Nauman Ali1
The guanidine and imidazole derived moieties have gained significant attention in nucleophilic organocatalysis, anion recognition, coordination and pharmaceutical chemistry. The present study was designed to understand the biochemical efficacy of the Cobalt (II)- 2- Guanidinobenzimidazole [Co (II)-2GBI] complex. For the purpose, we measured the Fe (II) chelation efficacy of the stated complex. Co (II)-2GBI exhibited significantly (p< 0.005) higher potential at 10, 20 & 40 uM as compared with the standard, EDTA. Infact, 95% chelation was recorded at 50 ug/mL. One of the products of Fenton reaction is hydroxyl radical. Significant hydroxyl radical scavenging potential was noted. Infact 61% activity was the highest recorded at 50μg/mL. It was further confirmed by DPPH scavenging potential, where the complex inhibited 85 % (DPPH) at 50 μg/mL. The IC50 values of the complex are 25.01, 29 and 40.63µg/mL against, Fe (II) chelation, DPPH and hydroxyl quenching assay. The presence of nitrogen containing moieties in complex may contribute towards the broad antioxidant potential. However, further molecular studies are needed to decode the exact biochemical mechanism of action.
521 Disrupting Medical Education, Fauzia Nausheen*
In order to develop interest of medical students of new age in medical education, the institutions incorporate recent advanced technology by creating innovative curriculum. These institutions strive to develop in class teaching methodologies for student’s attendance and engagement in spite of the media availability of connective knowledge through Massive Online Courses (MOOCs) [1,2]. The teaching is trending towards non-traditional, mobilebased, social media influenced curricula and schools are trying their best to get effective outcomes out of these non-traditional curricula. Also, there is an effort put in by the medical education to develop an empathy in future doctors trained by simulations, robots and augmented reality.
522 The Use of Collagen Hydrolysates and Native Collagen in Osteoarthritis, M Cristina de Almagro*
Osteoarthritis is a chronic degenerative disease that dampens the quality of life of those who suffer it. Conventional treatments are palliative, they are targeted to reduce joint pain. However, more efforts are needed to find new therapies that are able to positively affect or at least stop the course of this degenerative disease. Amongst the different therapeutic options that are being studied, collagen emerges as a good candidate due to its safety and preclinical and clinical evidence. Two different approaches have been taken for collagen: collagen hydrolysates and native collagen
523 Urothelial Squamous Cell Carcinoma: The Importance of Prevention, Jeromy Fallot1, Carla Fernandez2, Michel Campech3, Jean François Paitel4 and Clarisse R Mazzola1,5*
Introduction: Squamous cell carcinomas of the urothelium are rare entities with a very bad prognosis. Quite few data are available on this type of cancer outside of bilharziosis endemic countries. Methods: We reviewed all the cases that were diagnosed in our university hospital from 2011 to 2016 using the pathology department records. 22 cases were identified following their ADICAP code (UV E5T0-E7T9). We removed from our study population, all the patients for whom the ADICAP code were wrong, Patients treated outside our university hospital were also excluded (2 patients).
524 Detection of Canine Parvovirus in Dogs by Means Polymerase Chain Reaction, Navarro C1*, Cáceres A1 and Gaggero A2
Worldwide, the infection with canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) is one of the main causes of hemorrhagic enteritis in dogs and having a diagnostic technique that is highly sensitive is essential for veterinarians, dog owners and breeders. In this work, a protocol was implemented that uses the conventional Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) to detect a CPV-2 DNA fragment from feces of dogs with clinical signology corresponding to canine parvovirus. In total, 12 stool samples that were positive with conventional PCR were collected and analyzed, which was confirmed by sequencing the fragments obtained and contrasted with the sequences of the different variants of CPV-2 described in the GenBank database
525 The Clinical Versatility of Next-Generation Sequencing in Colorectal Cancer, Kevin J Hancock MD1*, Willie Hsu PhD2 and V Suzanne Klimberg MD PhD1,3
Next-Generation Sequencing is an evolving technology employed in the field of cancer biology. This mini review is intended as a brief overview of NGS for the clinical utility in colorectal cancer. The pathogenesis and treatment of colorectal cancer will continue to evolve as NGS is applied to more patient samples, correlating tumor biology and outcomes
526 Stuff we Should Not Be Doing: A Look at Better Ways to Determine the Appropriate Tests to Offer and How to Best Minimize Errors. Antibiotic Stewardship and Laboratory Stewardship, How can they Help, Robert L Sautter*
Laboratory testing is dependent upon Preanalytical, analytical and postanalytical test phases. In the laboratory we are focused upon the analytical phase and often ignore the preanalytical and postanalytical portion of testing. This is a drastic error, even though both the pre and post phases are more difficult to control, they account for many errors and for delays in caregivers reacting to test results. Seventy percent of laboratory errors are associated with pre-analytical errors. Much work has been done to speed the results of laboratory testing in the analytical phase, however if the results are not available to care givers soon after they are posted in the laboratory information system, then the effort expended to speed the testing will be wasted. When possible, electronic results sent directly to the care giver will aid in care, i.e. Theradoc system. Also, if test results can be in the medical record when the caregiver can review them or rounds with patients, it will speed appropriate care.
527 Molecular basis of Antigenic Reassortment of Influenza Virus, Mohammed Helmy Faris Shalayel*
Frequent pandemic alerts were raised by the World Health Organization in response to newly emerging influenza strains. This minireview highlights the dynamic alterations in the viral adaptability resulted from antigenic drift and reassortment that enable flu virus to escape recognition by the host immune system and neutralization by antibodies produced in preceding infections or vaccinations.
528 Telemedicine and Stroke Care Services: Experience from Italian Hospitals, Mariangela Panebianco1*, Domenico Restivo2, Pavone Antonino2, Patrizia Perrone3, and Chiara Zavanone4
Introduction: According to the American Telemedicine Association, “Telemedicine” is the exchange of medical information from one site to another using electronic communication, such as telephone, internet, or videoconference. The application of telemedicine for care of acute strokes, called “Telestroke”, was a natural progression from general telemedicine, because of shortage of vascular neurologists and recent advances in technology. The use of telestroke across the United States and Canada occurred in the late 1990s and early 2000s, but in Italy it comes later. It is one of the most frequently used and rapidly expanding applications of telemedicine, delivering much-needed stroke expertise to hospitals and patients
529 Ivosidenib Overview, Leila Abdullayeva*
stract Mutations of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1, observed in 7-14% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia, have been associated with unfavorable prognosis. Ivosidenib (AG-120) is an oral, reversible small-molecule inhibitor of mutated IDH1 enzyme. This review provides a brief summary of ivosidenib monotherapy for patients with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia.
530 A Mini-review of the 2019 Novel Coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, David Rutenberg* and Yumeng Zhang
A novel coronavirus has recently emerged in December 2019 out of Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China. The virus can cause disease, termed coronavirus virus disease 2019, or COVID-19. Its presentation is similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome, known as SARS, because of the disease manifesting as mild-to-severe respiratory symptoms. Animals sold out of a seafood market in Wuhan are thought to have transmitted the virus. Since its discovery, it has infected more than 78,000 people and spread to at least 30 other countries. The majority of cases are in China, but cases are increasing in multiple countries throughout the world, including the United States.
531 Evaluation of Serum Nitric Oxide Levels and Some Biochemical Parameters in Patients with Liver Cirrhosis, Hemn Jameel Majeed, Parween Abdulsamad Ismail* and Lutfia Muhammad Hassan
Background: Liver Cirrhosis occurs as a result of necrosis of hepatic cells followed by fibrosis and formation of nodule. It is associated with changes in various biochemical parameters and various clinical manifestations in the patients. The objective of the current study to assessment the level of nitric oxide and some biochemical parameters in patients with liver Cirrhosis disease. Methods: A total of 37 cases diagnosed clinically and biochemically as Cirrhosis disease and 35 age-matched controls were enrolled in the study. Biochemical analyses were carried out which included estimation the level of serum Nitric oxide, albumin, Aspartate Transaminase (AST), Alanine Transaminase (ALT), γ-Glutamyl Transpeptidase (GGT), Adenosine Deaminase (ADA) and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP).
532 Genosensor Study for Fetal Cell-Free DNA Detection, Umut Kökbaş1*, Abdullah Tuli2 and Levent Kayrin1
β-Thalassemia is one of the most monogenic autosomal recessive disorder characterized by defective production of the hemoglobins β-chain. Definition of the β-globin genotype is necessary for genetic counselling in the carriers, and for predicting prognosis and management options in the patients with thalassemia. Genetic analysis of β-thalassemias routinely relies on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and gel electrophoresis. The aim of this study is to develop a new procedure, a nanopolymer-based Lab-on-a-chip based biosensor for the real-time multiplex analysis of β thalassemia mutations from Cell-Free DNA. In this study, biospecific interaction analysis (BIA) employing quartz-cristal microbalance (QCM) and biosensor technologies was applied to the analysis of multiple mutations of the human β-globin gene. To this aim, large target polymerase chain reaction products were immobilized on genosensor electrode and then probes detecting IVSI-110 β-thalassemia mutations were sequentially injected.
533 The Further of Unpowered Exoskeleton Assist Robot in Rehabilitation, Lei Jiang1*, Zhenjing Li1,2, Yang Liu1, Yujuan Song1,2, and Christoph Korallus1
Exoskeleton assist robot is widely used in rehabilitation medicine, it has an irreplaceable function in patient disability functional recovery, and in studies too. Most exoskeleton robot are powered by electric, hydraulic or pneumatic, as a power source, meanwhile, the presence of high quality, high cost, inconvenient to use and other issues are also not easy to solve. At the same time, energy and battery life issues are also important factors affecting the development of exoskeleton-assisted robots [1]. However, unpowered exoskeleton assist robot needs no additional power, it does not need energy equipment or other unnatural external forces to drive, except the user’s energy provided to storage and release [2]. C
534 A Leg Purpura Revealing an Infectious Endocarditis, Oukarfi Sara*, Douhi Zakia, Rasso Asmae, Elloudi Sara, Baybay Hanane and Mernissi FZ
Infectious endocarditis (IE) is a rare infection of one or more cardiac valves, by a microorganism, most often bacterial, more rarely by intracellular germs or yeasts, it is a sepsis grafted on a preexisting heart disease or in a healthy subject. It is suspected in a patient with heart symptoms with fever [1]. IE is a rare disease with a poor prognosis. Dermatological lesions are infrequent and neglected by non-dermatologist practitioners. We report a case of IE revealed by a purpura in the legs. 
535 Medical Education: Nutrition Curriculum Reformation and Lifestyle Medicine- Today’s Need, Jadon Neuendorf1, Hina Mohsin2, Sable Neuendorf1 and Mohsin Yakub2*
As social and scientific authorities on health and wellbeing, physicians are expected to practice evidence-based medicine. Despite this respect and responsibility, physicians are consistently facing challenges in addressing the extensive body of evidence that proves the power of lifestyle modifications on disease prevention and treatment. Some of these challenges stem from the lack of education and training during medical school.
536 Methadone Intoxication and Death is a New Disaster, MD Paitoon Narongchai*
Methadone was synthesized in Germany from 1937 to 1939 [1,2] and approved in the United States in 1947. [1] Methadone is the most effectiveness which is used in OMT programs [2] and was on the World Health Organization’s (WHO) List of Essential Medicines [1,3-6]. Methadone treatment programs has been recommended 80 mg daily dose and 0.4 mg/L blood concentration which is very good. [6-8] The effects of methadone were 8 to 36 hours [1,3]. The EDDP or 2-ethylidene-1, 5-dimethyl-3, 3-diphenylpyrrolidine, the principle metabolite of methadone, is one of evidence to diagnose the cause of death.
537 The Evolution of DNA Extraction Methods, Mariyam Dairawan1 and Preetha J Shetty2*
Since the first DNA extraction performed by Friedrich Miescher in 1869, scientists have made extraordinary progress in designing extraction methods that are more reliable, easier and faster to perform, more cost-effective and produce a higher yield. The classic liquid-liquid DNA extraction method involves the use of organic and inorganic reagents such as phenol-chloroform which pose a toxic threat to humans. Many newer techniques are now based on physical extraction, which has significantly contributed to developing simpler methods for DNA handling, such as extraction using magnetic beads and cellulose-based filter paper. With the advent of gene-editing and personalized medicine, there has been an increase in the demand for reliable and efficient DNA isolation methods that can yield adequate quantities of high-quality DNA with minimal impurities. The current review addresses the evolution of different DNA extraction techniques from solvent-based methods to physical extraction methods each with its varying set of advantages and limitations. 
538 A New Perspective on Laboratory Proficiency Testing, Perez Quartey*
Accreditation bodies and Regulatory agencies require the participation of clinical laboratories in periodic External Quality Assurance (EQA) programs as a means of providing an objective evidence of the quality of testing of patients’ specimens [1,2]. The overall purpose of EQA is for identification of shortfalls in the total testing system of the laboratories for improvement and maintenance of quality. In addition to elucidating competencies of testing personnel, participation in periodic inter-laboratory comparability and proficiency testing programs may reveal gradual or sudden changes in performance of the testing system that a laboratory may be unaware of. Participation in an inter-laboratory comparability and proficiency testing programs can therefore help to verify the reliability and quality of testing as a means of improvement and maintenance of quality assurance.
539 Correlation between In-vitro and In-vivo Studies based on Pharmacokinetic Considerations, Aharon (Ronnie) Levy* and Perri Rozenberg Hasson
Whenever in-vitro experiments precede the in-vivo studies of a new drug, an effort is being made to transform the generated data into parameters (mainly dosing regimen) that can optimize the in-life stage and reduce the number of animals that might be required. The present manuscript suggests a method for such a transformation, using general pharmacokinetic principles and, if required, assisted by data from the literature.
540 Targeting Cancer Through Autophagy With Β-Elemene and Puerarin, Pengyu Su1, Bashir Ahmad2,3*, Hayat Ullah4, Badshah Hussain5, Shah Zeb Khan6, Mohammad Sohail Ahmad4, Jamshid Khan5, Manzoor Ahmad7
Cancer remains the second foremost cause of mortality around the world; therefore immediate development of highly effective and safe therapy is important. Different therapies are used for cancer treatment, but natural products (NPs) are considered more effective and less toxic. β-elemene (ELE) and Puerarin are the important NPs for the treatment of different cancers. Recently, its anticancer mechanisms through autophagy have been reported, therefore we summarized its molecular mechanisms. This review may serve as the basis for the future research on these NPs against cancer through autophagy. 
541 The Reality of The New Corona Virus (N Co V-2019) Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention , Walaa Fikry Elbossaty*
Corona virus is one of the fiercest viruses that infect the upper respiratory tract and lead to death. Coronavirus infection severity ranges from the common cold to pneumonia. Corona virus spread recently, as it was in the past transmitted from animal to animal, then the virus evolved to transfer from animal to animal, and recently the virus moved from human to human. The World Health Organization has taken important guideline rules to keep people from infection with the virus and in the case of infection, reduce symptoms and prevent disease progression, and then keep people from rising mortality. And there is no need for the terrible panic that emerged recently from the risk of infection with the virus, as it can be controlled through following healthy habits in terms of washing hands, and eating vegetables and fruits rich in vitamins that help raise the immune system. 
542 Free Science from Dogma. or: How the “Pseudogene” Hampered Scientific Progress , Peter Borger1* and Boris Schmidtgall1
That science and ideologically chosen terminology don’t go very well together is the tacit message of a recent article in Nature, which critisized the pseudogene concept [1]. The article argues that the old idea that pseudogenes are functionless is wrong. There is now ample evidence, and more is rapidly accumulating that pseudogenes fulfill a whole series of extremely important biological functions. They play a role in the production of proteins that are important for the embryonic development of living beings. They control the production of proteins by causing small changes in the structure of DNA. What was originally thought of as pseudogenes turn out to be the genes specifying non-coding RNAs, which regulate the activity and production of proteins from thousands of genes.
543 The Impact of Epstein Barr-Virus on Therapeutic Options of Lymphoma, Ahed J Alkhatib1,2*, Marwa Yousry Mohamed3 and Ghormallah Abdullah AlGhamdi4
This review study aimed to investigate the impacts of having Epstein Bar-Virus (EBV) positivity on therapeutic options of lymphomas. About one third of lymphomas are positive for EBV. Anyhow, existing therapeutic options are almost similar for treating lymphomas as either positive or negative for EBV. Future trends are thought to differ based on more better understanding of biology of EBV and to target such mechanisms that counteract or interfere with its pathogenesis including activation of apoptotic pathways or activating immunosuppression mechanisms.
544 Threat Related Attention and Coping with Lower Limb Amputation, A. Gilad MD1, E Keltz MD2, D Shamai-Leshem MA3, Y Bar-Haim PhD3, Y Keren2* MD and E Fruchter MD4,5**
Background: It is fairly common practice for adult patients to undergo amputation of a lower limb as a complication of diabetes mellitus neuropathy. Coping with such a dramatic and potentially lethal event is crucial for future physical and mental health. There is no reliable method for evaluating coping differences amongst patients. Our aim was to examine a potential tailor-made evaluation tool based on attention differences.
545 The Role of Laboratory Procedures in The Quality of Hospital Care, Adnan Baddour*
Each diagnostic investigation (biochemical and laboratory procedures) have a set of characteristics that provide the knowledge to make decisions about the patient status (with or without dieses under investigation). Characteristics of biochemical and laboratory procedures provide physician with knowledge about: the sensitivity of biochemical and laboratory procedures determines the probability that result of the lab investigations will be abnormal (no healthy patient), And, specificity of biochemical and laboratory procedures determines, the probability that the result will be normal ( the patient without dieses).
546 The Beneficial Effects of Regular Physical Activity Intradialysis, Lillana P Alemán* and Héctor Pérez G
Since 1980´s Goldberg demonstrate de benefits of exercise for hemodialysis patients as an adjuvant therapy improving metabolical state [1] and beginning a trend among hemodialysis units initially as an outpatient activity and later during dialyisis. Along time it has been demonstrated in randomized clinical trials the multiple beneficial effects of physical activity, attenuating the catabolic effects associated to hemodialysis and Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) and improving general wellbeing among this population; it is a well-known fact that patients undergoing dialysis experiment a significant reduction in muscular mass, similar to elderly patients in whom muscular tissue is replaced by fat tissue; this muscular mass wasting correlates with lower functionality as shown by McIntyre in 2006.
547 Rural Clinic Productivity, David Belson
Rural hospitals face difficult financial times with rising costs and increasing demand from a low income and poorly insured population base. Many have gone bankrupt and closed in recent years although they are critical to their communities. Like much of healthcare, they are increasingly dependent on outpatient clinic services since specialty inpatient services are often limited in rural locations. In 2019 and 2020 I conducted a survey of hospital outpatient clinics focusing on productivity of their operations at over a dozen California Critical Access Hospitals (CAH)
548 Structural Characterization and Cytotoxic Activity of New Metal Complexes of Benzohydrazide Oxime Ligand , Abdou Saad El Tabl1*, Moshira Mohamed Abd El Wahed2, Seham Abd El Rafea El Saied1 and Shaimaa Mohamed Faheem1
New binary metal (I)/(II) complexes derived from benzohydrazide oxime ligand were prepared. Physicochemical studies (IR, UV-Vis, Mass,1HNMR, Magnetic Moment, Thermal analysis, conductivity, ESR) revealed that, the ligand coordinates to the metal ion in a neutral bidentate or neutral hexadentate mode through nitrogen atoms of amino and oxime groups and oxygen atom of the amide group. All metal complexes are nonelectrolytic in nature as suggested by molar conductance measurements. The complexes are adopted to be a linear as Ag (I) complex or tetragonal distorted octahedral geometry around the metal ions
549 Using Nanomedicine to Drive Advances in Cancer Immunotherapy: A Mini Review, Ghizlane Choukrani1,2, Jimena Álvarez Freile1,2, Edwin Bremer2 and Lars Dähne1*
Immunotherapy has shown remarkable clinical success and holds tremendous promise for enhancing cancer treatment Outcome. However, therapeutic complete responses are limited to a subset of patients selected cancers and treatment outcome can trigger severe toxicity due to systemic activation of the immune system. Here, we discuss the opportunities to overcome these drawbacks by combining immunotherapy with nanomedicine using tailor-made nanoparticles (NPs) to increase cancer selectivity and minimize toxicity. Further, we provide directions on requirements and discuss advantageous characteristics of using calcium carbonate as core component of such NPs
550 Experience Design for Kids: Phygital Product for Augmented Pedagogy, Benedetta Terenzi1* and Francesca Pucciarini2
The paper aims to highlight the active role that some tools have assumed within the playful activity of today’s children. It is intended to underline, how the connection of the digital world with the world of toys allows to expand the games from traditional ways to create new possibilities of play and active learning for an augmented pedagogy.
551 Optimizing Vitamin D Status Improves Outcomes in Critical Ill and Injured Patients, Omar K Danner1*, Erin Danielle Danner2 and Leslie Ray Matthews1
In 2008, Giovanucci et al. [1] showed that men with low vitamin D levels suffered 2.42 times more myocardial infarctions than those with normal vitamin D status [1]. Alternatively, a sufficient amount of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, [25(OH)D], appears to improve the risk of almost every disease of aging. Dobnig et al. [2] similarly demonstrated people with an inadequate vitamin D status have twice the likelihood of death over seven years [2,3]. Vitamin D sufficiency, define as serum 25(OH)D levels of 30ng/ mL (75nmol/L) and above, improves various health outcomes, including bone mineral density, fractures, and colorectal cancer, based on analysis of observational studies [4]
552 A Review of the Incidence and Management of NewOnset Atrial Fibrillation Post Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation, Supna Saxena1* and Daryoush Javidi2
Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI) is an established treatment option for patients with aortic stenosis who are considered highrisk for surgical valve replacement. New-onset atrial fibrillation (NOAF) is a serious adverse event post TAVI that is predictive of poor outcomes and whose pathophysiology remains unclear. The incidence of NOAF post-TAVI has a reportedly broad range depending on the study but has been correlated to procedure approach, choice of valve, and the use of general anesthesia. While surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) has traditionally been the preferred treatment for aortic stenosis, recent studies have demonstrated the benefits of expanding TAVI into a larger patient population. Additionally, the management of NOAF post-TAVI remains highly variable. This review paper aims to summarize the incidence of NOAF and to outline management strategies.
553 COVID-19: Virus or Viral Conspiracy Theories?, Ghada M Abaido* Aseel A Takshe
A novel coronavirus called SARS-CoV2 has attracted considerable attention in the past three months, unlike its sisters the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), and the disease it causes has been termed “coronavirus disease 2019” (COVID-19). The mortality rate of COVID-19, however, is lesser than that of SARS and MERS. Then why does COVID-19 seem to be a scarier pandemic than any before? Is it a serious virus outbreak or a sort of violence that has perpetrated across communities? The outbreak of the virus itself feels like it’s happening in your own home. This article attempts to understand the reasons for the widespread attention received by COVID-19. To do so, it briefly presents what is known so far about the SARS-CoV2 virus. After that, it explores whether the media has played a role in the widespread and perhaps exaggerated attention directed at COVID-19. At the dawn of 2020, several pneumonia cases were reported in the city of Wuhan, China, that were caused by a novel coronavirus.
554 Sorghum: An Important Source of Bioactive Compounds, Cabrera-Ramírez AH1, Gaytán-Martínez M2* and Morales-Sánchez E1
Sorghum is the fifth most-produced cereal worldwide, where the USA, China, and Mexico were the largest producers in 2017 [1]. Sorghum has nutritional characteristics such as protein contents up to 12%, lipids 4.7%, ashes 2%, and carbohydrates 80%, depending on the variety [2,3]. Recently, it has been proven that sorghum could be considered as gluten-free food since regardless of the variety, it has a maximum of 5ppm, which allows its consumption in celiac people [4-6]. Several studies have shown the sorghum as a valuable source of bioactive compounds, where its lipid profile, phenolic compounds, and fiber content (soluble, insoluble, resistant starch, and β-glucans) stand out
555 Effects of a Youth Diabetes Prevention Program on Health-Related Outcomes in Overweight Male Adolescents, Shu-Ming Chen1, Wei-Chia Lin2, Huey-Shyan Lin3 and Chiung-Jung (Jo) WU*4,5,6
Background: The prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents increases risks of developing type 2 diabetes. A diabetes education program based on dieting, exercise and psychosocial supporting is effective for weight reductions. However, little information is found about the effect of such intervention program specifically designed for adolescents.
556 Term Pregnancy after Unilateral Uterine Artery Embolization for Aggressive Uterine Arteriovenous Malformation, Javorka Vladimir1, Malik Miroslav1, Mizickova Magdalena1 and Korbel Miroslav2*
Uterine Arteriovenous Malformation (AVM) is a potentially life-threatening condition. Uterine Artery Embolization (UAE) is a treatment method of choice for women who wish to preserve fertility. Pregnancies after UAE are at risk of perinatological complication. We described a management of uterine AVM with unilateral uterine artery embolization followed by a successful term pregnancy
557 Primary Progenitor Muscle Cells for Regenerative Medicine: Standardization of Therapeutic Protocols and Optimized In Vivo Murine Model for Volumetric Muscle Loss , Alexis Laurent1, Nathalie Hirt-Burri1, Clotilde Amiot1, Corinne Scaletta1, Lee Ann Applegate1 and Anthony S. de Buys Roessingh2*
Skeletal muscle tissue engineering constitutes an emerging therapeutic repair strategy aiming for structural and functional restoration following traumatic injury, deep burns, congenital malformation or surgical tumor removal. As for similar musculoskeletal acute and degenerative affections, allogenic progenitor cell therapy represents a promising clinical approach to synergistically supplement traditional surgical care. Preliminary studies have established the adequation of primary human fetal muscle progenitors (hFMPs) for applications in regenerative medicine. Such therapeutic cell sources combined with bioresorbable scaffolds optimally integrate in murine muscle injury models without causing immune rejection. The present work aimed at functional recovery assessment following standardized application of hFMPs in an optimized murine skeletal muscle wound model. Cryopreserved hFMPs were initiated and culture-expanded before seeding in equine collagen scaffolds
558 The Outcomes of Extended Field Radiotherapy in Patients with Para-aortic Lymph Node Metastases of Uterine Cancer, Biedka Marta1,2*, Janusz Winiecki2,3, Tomasz Nowikiewicz4,5 and Adrianna Makarewicz2
Endometrial cancers with FIGO IIIC metastases to the para-aortic lymph node occur in a small percentage of patients, but these patients have a poor prognosis applies to
559 Facing the Challenges of Pharmaceutical Research Using Whispering Gallery Modes-Based Biosensors, Jimena Álvarez Freile1,2, Ghizlane Choukrani1,2, Edwin Bremer2 and Lars Dähne1*
During the last decade, different Whispering Gallery Modes-based biosensors (WGMS) have been proposed as bioanalytical platforms. These systems allow for a label-free real-time monitoring of a wide range of molecules, including DNA, proteins and polymers. With the advancement of new technologies and the increasing complexity of novel biotherapeutics, the development of versatile tools is of great relevance to meet the needs of the pharmaceutical research. Throughout this review, the role of WGMS in the drug development process and their ability to face the current challenges and limitations in this field will be discussed.
560 Iron Tablets or Gallstones? Iron Overdose in Situs Inversus, Jasmin Gosen BA1, Chelsea Hayman BS2, Steven Offerman3 and Leonard Ranasinghe4*
A 38 year-old male with a history of psychiatric illness and methamphetamine abuse presented to the emergency department (ED) reporting intentionally taking cyclobenzaprine, alprazolam, and iron tablets. He could not provide history regarding exact dosages or time of ingestion. An abdominal x-ray showed multiple radio-opacities in the right upper quadrant. (Panel A) The location and exact nature of these opacities was initially unclear. A chest x-ray suggested situs inversus. (Panel B) The foreign bodies were then found to be iron tablets located in the stomach. Whole bowel irrigation (WBI) with polyethylene glycol was instituted to decontaminate the gastrointestinal tract
561 The Potential of Medical Consent Contracts Using Visuals , Nin Kirkham and Camilla B Andersen*
The ethical and legal requirement to gain informed consent from patients for medical procedures and for biomedical research faces challenges with respect to the transparency problem. The requirement to be transparent by using plain, non-technical language in their Patient Informed Consent Forms (PICFs) is clear but, in practice, hard to achieve. Problems of clear and transparent communication continue to provide a stumbling block to the ethical practice of medicine, law, and biomedical research. Research from the UWA Comic Contracting project indicates that visual/ graphic contracts are significantly better received by users in terms of their comprehension, engagement with the contract, and their perception of the other party. On this basis, we thus suggest that such developments might productively be applied to consent forms in medical and biomedical contexts in order to aid transparency and clarify communication of complicated concepts and language.
562 Elderly after a Disaster: Not Only Victims but also Resilient People , Danielle Maltais*
During the last 20 years, It was possible to see that the most of the inventoried studies concerning senior citizens in the field of disasters, deal with the frequency of psychological problems like post-traumatic stress, anxiety or depression arising after being expose to a disaster [1-6]. Other research looks at the relationship between perceived and received social support and the post-disaster health of senior citizens [2,7,8]. A limited number of researchers deal with the resiliency process of which senior citizens are a part of during disruptive events as well as the positive and negative impacts on personal values and beliefs of senior citizens [9].
563 Effect of Constant Rate Infusion of Xylazine & Xylazine Morphine Combination on Sedation, Analgesia and Ataxia in Horses, Amal Hammad*, Shaaban Gadallah, Ahmed Sharshar and Tarik Misk
In standing horses, notable sedation and analgesia may be attained by using α2 -agonists/opioids combinations relative to α2 -agonists alone. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of a constant rate infusion (CRI) of xylazine (XYL) alone or in combination with morphine (XYL/ MOR) on sedation, analgesia and ataxia in horses. Five adult healthy horses were assigned to receive two sedative protocols at one week interval as follows, XYL (0.55 mg/kg of xylazine IV directly followed by xylazine CRI of 1.08 mg/kg/hour followed later by saline bolus and a CRI of saline) and XYL/MOR (0.55 mg/kg of xylazine IV directly followed by xylazine CRI of 0.66mg/kg/hour followed later by morphine 0.15 mg/kg, IV and morphine CRI of 0.1 mg/kg/hour).
564 Are We Solving the Redundancy of Human Motor Control Properly?, Hyungeun Song*
One of the traditional questions in the biomechanics field is identifying human motor control laws. The human motor control system consists of complex biological neural networks and muscles. Yet, it is phenomenal to observe how our motor control can achieve efficient, stable, and robust motion control [1-4]. These intriguing observational results indicate that our central nervous system (CNS) manages to control multiple muscles, which have extremely non-linear dynamics, to drive a multiple linkage structure of the skeletal system to meet biomechanical requirements using limited computational power of CNS and imperfect neural feedback with time delay of peripheral information [5].
565 Real World Data on Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Stage II Colorectal Cancer: Risk Factors and Benefits, Jaime González-Montero1,2*, Guillermo Valenzuela3, Luis Villanueva1, Mónica Ahumada1,2 and Olga Barajas1,2
Adjuvant chemotherapy (ACh) benefits in stage II colorectal cancer (CRC) is still unclear. Risk factors (RF) as perineural (PNI) or lymphovascular (LVI) infiltrate in biopsy, T4 or less than 12 lymph nodes (LN) resected during surgery has associated with recurrence. We retrospectively evaluated Ach benefits in stage II CRC patients. This retrospective analysis collected information of CRC patients who were treated at University of Chile Clinical Hospital between 2011-2018 and had histological diagnosis of T3-4N0 colon adenocarcinoma. Clinical, surgical, histological variables, and RF were recorded. Disease-free survival (DFS) was compared in patients who underwent ACh with patients who were observed. Of 91 patients, 51% received Ach and 49% observation. Median age was 60± 13 years. ACh were FOLFOX, CAPOX, capecitabine or FU/LV in 70%, 17%, 11%, and 2% of patients, respectively. DFS was 45 and 36 months in ACh and observation groups (p=0,277). RF were present in 62%, and of these 73% received ACh and 27% observation. There were no association of T4 stage, PNI and/or LVI with improve DFS and response to ACh. Recurrence was presented in 12,6% of patients and 75% of this presented one or more RF. In this retrospective cohort, ACh did not improve DFS compared to observation only. In our study, 25% of recurrences are in patients without RF, therefore it is necessary to improve strategies to predict recurrences and response to ACh. Further studies should evaluate other elements to optimize the decision to administer ACh in these patients, such as microsatellite instability and circulating DNA
566 Cardiac Thrombus Does Not Increase Post-Alteplase Microbembolic Events: Machine Learning and Propensity Score Augmented Cohort Analysis of 434 Ischemic Stroke Patients with Bayesian Simulated Analysis of 100,000 Patients, Danielle Stone1*, Dominique Monlezun2*, James Stone1*, Humayun Naqvi1, Amanda JagolinoCole3 and Francisco Fuentes1
Stroke kills more patients globally than any other disease outside of ischemic heart disease, with prompt systemic thrombolysis being the standard of care for the majority of strokes (acute ischemic stroke [AIS]) [1]. Its benefit over risk ratio is so notable that recent randomized trials were conducted to determine if the treatment window could be extended. Yet, there is a concern for embolic complications for patients who receive tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in the setting of cardiac thrombi [2], with an estimated nearly 500,000 stroke patients annually with cardiac thrombus who may be at risk for such post-tPA complications [3,4]. But there are no adequately powered (let alone randomized) studies assessing post-thrombolysis embolization in patients with cardiac thrombus and AIS [5].
567 Strengths and Shortcomings of Short-Segment Pedicle Instrumentation for the Treatment Thoracolumbar Burst Fractures, Abdusattarov Khurshid*, Khujanazarov Ilkhom, Alimov Ijod and Alihodjaeva Gulnara
The incidence of thoracolumbar fracture has increased globally, most of these fractures occur at the thoracolumbar junction (Th11-L2). The traumatic thoracolumbar burst fractures of the spine represent 50% of all thoracolumbar injuries, they associated with increased mortality, major morbidity, and cost for hospital care. To date, the AOSpine thoracolumbar spine injury severity system is widely adopted to the clinical practice; according to this classification the burst fractures are categorized to the incomplete burst fractures- AOSpine type A3, whereas the complete burst fractures- AOSpine type A4. To date, in management of thoracolumbar fractures remains a several controversial challenges. Therefore, the aim of this review to consider some recent publications to analyze the pros and cons of up-to-dated surgical approaches and techniques, which are implemented for the treatment of thoracolumbar burst fractures.
568 Drugs (sometimes) Work, Craig Williams*
Prescription drug use continues to rise in the U.S. As more people take more drugs and health care costs climb towards $4 trillion per year, it is worth examining the data behind a couple commonly recommended therapies.
569 SARS-CoV-2-Infection in Children and Newborn: Less Severe Than in Adults?, Stefan Bittmann*, Elisabeth Luchter, Anne Weissenstein and Gloria Villalon
SARS-CoV-2 Corona virus infection has been reported in December 2019 in Wuhan, China [1-4]. SARS-CoV-2 virus was first described in 2003. Globally, the WHO classified the outbreak as pandemic situation with worldwide rapid spreading in March 2020.
570 Use of a Customized Device for Correction of Antebrachial Angular Deformity in a Dog, C Iván Serra1,2*, Luis Doménech3, Julio Soriano3, Aida Fages2, Víctor Moratalla4 and Carme Soler1,2
Angular deformity is a common condition in dogs that can cause serious malformations and is a challenge for surgeons to correct. A 15-monthold male Saint Bernard was evaluated due toright foreleg lameness. Orthopedic examination revealed a valgus deformity with external rotation and anteversion of the forelimb. Carpal examination revealedthe decreased range of motion with slight disturbances in carpal flexion. Radiography of both forelimbs showed angular deviation because of possible premature physeal closure of the distal ulnar growth plate.Surgical intervention was selected to correct the angular deformity.
571 Antimicrobial Resistance: How Healthcare Professionals and the General Public can make a Difference, Rendani I Manenzhe*
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has been reported in all regions throughout the world and it still remains a global threat to public health. This problem is also compounded by the limited antimicrobial drugs (antibiotics or antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antimalarials and anthelmintics) under development. Among all antimicrobials, antibiotics tend to be the most frequently prescribed drugs in primary healthcare. Antibiotics which have previously been referred as miracle drugs have revolutionized medicine and saved millions of lives from infectious diseases. For decades, antibiotics have played a pivotal role in treating bacterial infections such as pneumonia, meningitis, diarrhea, and tuberculosis. However, resistance to all classes of antibiotic has emerged compromising the ability of these drugs to treat lifethreatening infections
572 A Comprehensive Look at Environmental Factors Affecting Chronic Health in Coal-Dependent Appalachian Communities, Susan Meacham1*, Cody Goessl2, Katie Kennedy3, Rachel Mullins4, Kate Slaymaker5, Emily Carbaugh4, Jack Davis5, Jordan Hiegel6, Emilee Young6, Stephanie Campbell7, Reuel Edson8 and Dalia Meisha8
Health disparity and poverty are prevalent in central Appalachian communities. Literature on health in rural communities is sparse, yet a prolific group of researchers associated coal production with high prevalence rates of chronic conditions. The aim of this research was to provide a fair, comprehensive and thorough assessment of health in rural, coal dependent communities. A three-phase study was developed with the objective of identifying demographic, geographic, economic, and social determinants of health contributing to high rates of common chronic health conditions in regions of southern Virginia. A systematic data collection tool designed for objective evaluation allowed for assessment of published literature on coal, health, and Appalachia. Analysis of mortality records from the Virginia Department of Health generated chronic disease prevalence. For the third phase, a more granular, targeted approach employed a cross-sectional study to capture de-identified electronic medical record information.
573 Covid-19-The Role of Children and Search for Effective Treatment Options with Promising view to Angiotensin II Inhibitors, Stefan Bittmann*, Elisabeth Luchter, Elena Moschüring-Alieva and Gloria Villalon
Globally, 462.684 cases of COVID-19 infections have been reported since December 2019, including 20834 deaths (WHO, situation report, date 26/03/2020). 2401 deaths worldwide were found in the last 24 hours (25/3-26/3/2020). These numbers indicate the aggressive and devastating potential of SARS-CoV-2. The first teenager aged 16 died in Paris a few days ago, thus the first COVID 19 positive patient died in France in this age. She had a very short history of dry cough leading to hospitalization and death of around 2 days. In newborns and children no fatal cases are published so far with a moderate course of the disease. According to incomplete statistics, as on February 7, 2020, 285 children with SARS-COV-2 pneumonia and 10 newborns were reported to have been diagnosed in China
574 Streptococcus Pluranimalium Infective Endocarditis Complicated by New Onset Heart Failure, Sean Sutphen1, Melissa Gregory3 and Teresa R Johnson1,2*
Bacterial or infectious endocarditis (IE) is a relatively rare infection, but is associated with significant incidence of mortality. While IE most often results from infection of one or more heart valves by Staphylococcus or Streptococcus spp., other less virulent bacteria can be the etiologic agent and generally produce more indolent disease. Here we report the occurrence of native valve endocarditis due to infection with the emerging bacterium Streptococcus pluranimalium. Review of available literature indicates this is the fifth reported case globally of endocarditis following S. pluranimalium bacteremia and the first case associated with the complication of new onset heart failure.
575 Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Signaling in Fibrosis: An Ophthalmic Perspective, Matthew McDonald*
Fibrosis is a common condition, transcending all areas of medicine. Its pathophysiology has eluded researchers for decades with no universal cure. The cellular processes which underpin these conditions begin with cellular proliferation, followed by migration, epithelial to mesenchymal transformation, and extracellular matrix contraction. This short review highlights the complexities in the signaling cascade of the key event in fibrosis: epithelial to mesenchymal transition with particular emphasis on the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF).
576 Comparison of Non-Commercial Risk Based Monitoring Tools by Their Application on Clinical Trial Protocols, Firas Fneish1*, Dnyanesh Limaye2, Vanessa Struever2, Frank Schaarschmidt1 and Gerhard Fortwengel2
Clinical trial monitoring involves intensive on-site monitoring visits at clinical trial sites and exhaustive source data verification (monitoring) of clinical trial data [1]. Clinical researchers have questioned the validity and necessity for traditional monitoring methods [2], which have been under investigation due to their ineffectiveness in improving the quality of clinical trial data or in protecting trial participants [3]. Implementing a risk based monitoring (RBM) system is suggested by the ICH’s newly adapted guidelines to improve overall quality management [3]. The RBM involves the identification of any risk that might have an effect on areas routinely subject during monitoring activities.
577 Using Electromyography to Examine the Efficacy of Reflexive Performance ResetTM Procedures on the Biceps Femoris Muscle: A Pilot Study, Marc Bonis* and Najah Mousa
Purpose: This pilot study examined the efficacy of Reflexive Performance Reset (RPR) procedures using electromyography (EMG) techniques. Design: Thirty participants (16 males and 14 females, aged = 30+10.8 yrs) were connected to EMG equipment at the biceps femoris muscle and asked to fully step up and down on a step without support at a specific cadence. The participants were then introduced to an intervention consisting of diaphragmatic breathing and then undergoing a RPR reset. The participants then repeated the same physical activity that they performed prior to the intervention. The test and retest data were then compared.
578 Epilepsy in the X-linked Syndromic Intellectual Disability, Christianson Type Resulted from c.584+1 G>T SLC9A6 Variant, Justyna Paprocka1*, Agnieszka Charzewska2, Dorota Hoffman-Zacharska2, Ewa Emich-Widera1 and Aleksandra Jezela-Stanek3
Christianson syndrome (CS) is an X-linked intellectual disorder caused by mutations in the SLC9A6 gene (Xq26 locus, XLD inheritance). It is characterized by specific facial and behavioral features, postnatal microcephaly, absent speech, truncal ataxia and epilepsy. We present a history of a 2, 5-year-old boy diagnosed with refractory epilepsy with polymorphic seizures (tonic-clonic, myoclonic, atypical absence and atonic seizures), diagnosed at the age of 15 months. The causative genetic variant (c.584+1 G>T) has been reported to date only in one family, thus with our paper we aimed to delineate the genotype-phenotype correlation in CS.
579 The Applications of Artificial Intelligence in Biomedical Imaging, Hasaan Hayat1,2,3 and Ping Wang1,2*
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is paving the forefront of research in the biomedical sciences and related disciplines. This computationally advanced tool is evolving every day, with new algorithms and methods surfacing to aid in complex, deep analysis of datasets in the lab and clinic. Here, we aim to explore the current state of AI, specifically in regards to the canonical and novel machine learning algorithms developed thus far, and explicate how these methods are implemented in biomedical imaging for scientific advantage.
580 Gastric Adenocarcinoma: A Case Report, Brian França dos Santos*, Beatriz da Costa Machado Barbosa, Yasmin Faria da Cruz Barreto, Ítalo Venetillo dos Reis, Thaiane Paladino Cardoso dos Santos, Bruna Satie Utiyama, Marco Antônio Alves Azizi, Eduardo Jorge C da Silva, Julio Guilherme Silva, Carlos Eduardo Cardoso, Luciana Moises Camilo, Mauricio de Sant’ anna Junior, Adalgiza Mafra Moreno and Marco Antônio Orsini Neves
Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors, being the leading cause of reported deaths in some countries. and the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the world. The most common histological type is gastric adenocarcinoma that corresponds for approximately 95% of the case [1]. The most well-known risk components for gastric cancer include biological, sociodemographic, lifestyle habits, environmental factors, drug use, family history and pre-existing disease. A large body of evidence supports a causal role of Helicobacter pylori in the majority of gastric malignancies and infections.
581 A Comparative Study on Global Genetic Diversity and Population Genetic Analysis of Orf Virus Isolates from Outbreaks and it’s Implications for the Vaccine Development, Saeed Nazeri1*, Sajad Pezeshki Najafabadi1, Homayoon Mahravani2, Elaheh Aali1, Arezou Karimpour1, Mahdiyeh Sarmadi1, Mehdi Hasanvand1, Mohamad Hasanvand1, Leila Hoseini1, and Mehdi Zeinalipour1
Saeed Nazeri1*, Sajad Pezeshki Najafabadi1, Homayoon Mahravani2, Elaheh Aali1, Arezou Karimpour1, Mahdiyeh Sarmadi1, Mehdi Hasanvand1, Mohamad Hasanvand1, Leila Hoseini1, and Mehdi Zeinalipour1
582 Tumor in the Pancreatic Head: A Case Report, Brian França dos Santos*, Beatriz da Costa Machado Barbosa, Yasmin Faria da Cruz Barreto, Ítalo Venetillo dos Reis, Thaiane Paladino Cardoso dos Santos, Bruna Satie Utiyama, Marco Antônio Alves Azizi, Eduardo Jorge C da Silva, Julio Guilherme Silva, Carlos Eduardo Cardoso, Luciana Moises Camilo, Mauricio de Sant’ anna Junior, Adalgiza Mafra Moreno and Marco Antônio Orsini Neves
The Pancreatic adenocarcinoma affects the pancreatic head in 60 to 70% of cases, most cases with cholestasis, increased blood levels of direct bilirubin (a breakdown product of hemoglobin) with the clinic at the moment of the diagnosis [1]. Pancreatic cancer is usually diagnosed in subjects older than 40 years-old and its prevalence peaks at the age of 70 years-old. Surgical resection represents the only therapeutic alternative with a better chance of cure [2]. Pancreatic cancer has a high mortality rate due to late diagnosis and aggressive behavior
583 A SARS-CoV-2 Prophylactic and Treatment; A Counter Argument Against The Sole Use of Chloroquine , Markus Depfenhart1*, Gottfried Lemperle2, Markus Meyer3, Marina Rautenbach4, Dario Bertossi5 and Danielle de Villiers6
A better knowledge of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and its underlying pathobiology is accumulating every day. Of huge importance now is to provide a fast, cost effective, safe, and immediately available pharmaceutical solution to curb the rapid global spread of SARS-CoV-2. This Opinion discusses the demands for such an ideal drug and taking into account an aspect of viral mechanisms of infection. An effective prophylactic medication to prevent viral entry has to contain, at least, either a TMPRSS2 inhibitor or a competitive virus ACE2 binding inhibitor. Using bromhexine at a dosage that selectively inhibits TMPRSS2 and, in so doing, inhibits TMPRSS2-specific viral entry is likely to be effective against SARS-CoV-2. We propose the use of bromhexine as a prophylactic and treatment. We encourage the scientific community to assess bromhexine clinically as a prophylactic and curative treatment. If proven to be effective, this would allow a rapid, accessible and cost-effective application worldwide
584 Banking Progenitor Cells for Hippiatric Regenerative Medicine: Optimized Establishment of Safe and Consistent Cell Sources for Standardized Veterinary Therapeutic Protocols, Alexis Laurent1, Salim E Darwiche2,3, Nathalie Hirt-Burri1, Corinne Scaletta1, Murielle Michetti1, Philippe Laurent4, Wassim Raffoul1, Anthony S de Buys Roessingh5* and Lee Ann Applegate1,2,6
Acute musculoskeletal injuries in large animals such as horses or camels often result in productivity losses and euthanasia in racing, esthetic or stock animal industries. Bioengineered products for tissue reconstruction and wound healing may supplement traditional veterinary surgical care synergistically. Banked primary fetal progenitor cells can potentially be used towards structural and functional therapeutic restoration in condensed timeframes. Extensive clinical experience exists in our University Hospital working with dermal progenitor fibroblasts for managing burns, donor site grafts and ulcers. By extrapolation, the present study assessed suitability of equine fetal progenitor cell sources for biotechnological processing, robust cell banking and application in tissue engineering strategies for hippiatric regenerative medicine. Diverse fetal equine musculoskeletal tissues were obtained and processed under defined frameworks and protocols for standardized and optimized tiered cell bank establishment and characterization. Consistency, safety and cyto-compatibility of progeny cells with therapeutic delivery systems were assessed
585 Brain Computed Tomography Findings in Stroke Patients in Port Harcourt: A Retrospective HospitalBased Study, Kenneth Ikechukwu Ijeh-Tarila1, Nengi Alaizgha2, Awajimijan Nathaniel Mbaba2, Michael Promise Ogolodom3*, Boma Orupabo-Oyan4, Ernest Nwazor5, Ebbi Donald Robinson2, Rufus Abam2, Olukumi Yetunde Ijeruh2 and Victor Kelechi Nwodo6
Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine stroke cases in our population to properly characterize them, exclude stroke mimics and document the patterns in this environment using Computed Tomography (CT)
586 Edible Macroalgae: Beneficial Resource of Iodine, Jelena Milinovic*, Paulina Mata, Mário Diniz and João Paulo Noronha
Iodine is an essential element required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones. Its deficiency is correlated to goiter, while in excess can cause autoimmune thyroiditis. Worldwide exists a deficiency in iodine, and recommended daily intake should be 150μg for adults. One of the most naturally available and abundant resources of iodine is macroalgae, which may contain it in several orders different concentrations, depends primarily on species. To accomplish the recommended daily intake of iodine, it is important to know the exact concentration of iodine in macroalgae, dried and/ or processed.
587 HE4 Levels for Detecting Recurrence in Ovarian Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis, Yi Guo, Ying-xing Zhu and Ping Ma*
Introduction: The role of human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) in detecting recurrence in ovarian cancer patients has been investigated in several studies, but the results have been inconsistent. A meta-analysis was conducted to systematically evaluate the performance of HE4 in detecting ovarian cancer recurrence
588 Essential Oils, an Answer to the Dilemma of Multiply Resistant Bacteria?, Beth Bygall1, Rebecca A Baker2, Ronald Bashore1, Linda L Weihbrecht3 and Robert L Sautter4*
Antibiotic resistance is an increasing worldwide phenomenon. Recently, there has been an interest in using essential oils (EO) both in and out of the hospital. Most current research concentrates on the antimicrobial activity of Tea tree. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the activity of 10 EO, (Tea tree, Thyme, Lavender, German chamomile, Peppermint, Palma rosa, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus citriodora, Lemongrass and Rose) against multiply resistant organisms. Twenty five strains of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), ten strains of vancomycin resistant Enterococcus sp. (VRE), and 5 strains of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) or Amp C resistant gram negative rods were tested. An aromatogram (Bauer- Kirby [KB]), killing curve, and synergy tests were performed against the isolates. Organisms were classified as multiply resistant using NCCLS approved methods. The bacteria were obtained from the Pinnacle Health microbiology repository. The ten EO were tested in three phases.
589 Historical and Current Conditions Including COVID-19 Requiring Anti-Pathogenic Surveillance and Proper Immunogenic Support, Leonard Sonnenschein1*, Robert Weinberg2, H Thomas Cotter3, Lawrence A Salvo4, Tiberious Etyang5, Kevin Paul Bethel6 and Ruth E Frischer7
Everyone on the planet will eventually be exposed to COVID-19. The question of who will get ill, who will die and who will survive will depend more on appropriate preparations than on a vaccine. In addition, this current pandemic threat may pose a harbinger of what is yet to come. The key is to strengthen our immunological support and surveillance. In this way, we will have greater capacity to address future variant viral strains. This brief communication explores some of the historical, societal and economic sequelae resulting from pandemics. It will also embark upon some promising stabilizing treatments
590 Alliesthesia. Up-date of the Word and Concept, Michel Cabanac1*, Laurent Brondel2 and Arnaud Cabanac3
The current dictionary definition for alliesthesia is the hedonic modification of a sensation. The stimuli used to establish this initial definition was skin temperature and sweet tastes. However, accrued experimental evidence shows that changes in hedonicity place also in sensations, and then in other cognitive processes, mental experiences, and in all decision making. These accumulated data render obsolete the previous definition. We propose the following new one: Alliesthesia refers to a modified outcome of the hedonic dimension of any mental process, from sensation to mental performance, and decision making leading to physiological comfort and happiness. Positive alliesthesia is the rise in pleasure or joy or a decrease in displeasure or pain, while negative alliesthesia is the opposite.
591 Nanoparticles in Dentistry: Evidence and Future, Sydney B Gordon and Luciana M Shaddox*
Currently, the medical field is using nanoparticle technology as a therapy treatment for drug delivery on a cellular level. Nanoparticles are between 1-100 nanometers (nm) and due to is size, penetrate deep into tissue and may delivery drugs crossing epithelial barriers [1]. They can possess anti-inflammatory characteristics and have been known to decrease inflammatory marker levels in animals in vivo [2]. Currently, the field of dentistry is using nanoparticles for implantation, drug delivery for caries treatment, and preventative
592 Nigeria is the Next Destination of COVID-19 (Coronavirus) Patients Across the Globe, But the Strategic Plan for Medical Laboratories is in the Pipeline, Obeta M Uchejeso1*, Ejinaka R Obiora1 and Ofor I Bassey2
Nigeria had the index case of COVID-19 on 27th February, 2020 as announced by the Federal Ministry of Health (FMoH) [1]. It is very important to recall that the corona virus disease emanated from Hunan Seafood Market in Wuhan China as reported by the Chinese Health Authority about the mysterious cases of pneumonia on December 31, 2019 [2,3]. The index case of COVID-19 and second positive patient has been confirmed negative with the unrelenting efforts of the health professionals in Nigeria
593 A Note on Prebiotics Strategy to Cope with Current Health Challenges in Human Beings, Nayla Munawar1*, Munir A Anwar2, Asma Yaqoob3 and Komal Ghauri2
The current widely used practices of processed food have resulted in elimination of healthy microflora from human gut leading several health issues like chronic constipation, irritable bowel syndrome, colon cancer, obesity, heart diseases and high cholesterol etc. Amongst others, prebiotic approaches have been developed to promote the growth of beneficial bacteria in the gut to treat gut related disorders and improve human health. Importance of prebiotics in maintaining gut microbial diversity, need of novel prebiotics having varied functional properties and their production strategies for commercial applications have been highlighted in this article
594 Method of Obtaining Casein from Skim Milk using Oligochitosans, LR Alieva1*, IA Evdokimov1, AD Lodygin1, BE Tikhonov3, NV Sushinskaia2 and VP Kurchenko2
The interaction of milk proteins and oligochitosansis based on formation of electrostatic complex between negatively charged casein micelles and positively charged polysaccharide groups. At low concentrations of oligochitosans, partial interaction with milk proteins occurs. Maximum protein coagulation (90 %) is achieved in equivalence zone at the concentration of oligochitosans: 45.3 kDa-0.88×10-4 M; 25.4 kDa-1.57×10-4 M; 7.7 kDa – 5.19×10-4 M; 1.5 kDa-26.67×10-4 M. In these concentrations, taking into account the molecular weight and degree of deacetylation of oligochitosans, the total content of protonated amino groups is equal 2.4×10-4 M. When t protein content in skimmed milk is 3.0 % - 3.2%, oligochitosans of any molecular weight and degree of deacetylation can be used for casein coagulation, important that the final concentration of amino groups should be 2.4×10-4 M. It was determined that the use of the studied samples of oligochitosan allows to obtain coacervate where 1g of oligochitosan binds 6.0 - 6.2g of milk proteins
595 Targeting Cancer through PI3K/AKT/mTOR Pathway with Selected Natural Products (β-Elemene, Puerarin and Gypenosides), Pengyu Su1, Bashir Ahmad2,3*, Manzoor Ahmad7, Jamshed Khan5, Fazal Wahid4, Hayat Ullah4, Badshah Husain5, Shah Zeb Khan6
The second foremost cause of mortality around the world is cancer; therefore correct therapy for its treatment is important. A number of therapies are in practice for the treatment of cancer, but the highly effective and less toxic treatments for cancer are natural products (NPs). These NPs cure the cancer through regulation of different pathways; such are PI3K/AKT/mTOR, NF-kB, autophagy, MEK-ERK, inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis. A group of natural product is sesquiterpene lactone (SLs) among which β-elemene (ELE) and Puerarin (Pue) are well known due to its anticancer activities. Other NPs, Gypenosides (Gyp) also possessed potent anticancer effect. Although these NPs have possess potential effect against cancer, but its anti-cancer mechanism through PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway are need to be summarized. Therefore, we summarize it and hope this review will provide a baseline for further research on these compounds via PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway
596 Can Glucose-Insulin-Potassium Prevent Skeletal Muscle Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury?, Daniel B Buchalter, David J Kirby, Kenneth A Egol, Philipp Leucht and Sanjit R Konda*
Extremity injuries cost an estimated $80 billion a year [1] and exsanguination is a key factor in fatalities following both civilian and military trauma [2,3]. Tourniquets, the primary prevention against extremity exsanguination, and an often used tool in emergent and elective surgeries, are not benign [4]-skeletal muscle apoptosis and necrosis following tourniquet use are common and can lead to limb paralysis, amputation, and even death if rhabdomyolysis and kidney failure occur [5-7]. While muscle does not respond well to ischemia, reperfusion is what causes the most significant damage following tourniquet use in what has been termed the ischemiareperfusion injury [8,9].
597 Laboratory Mice Euthanasia: Speed Death and Animal Welfare, Cleiton Felizardo de Brito1, Alexsandre Andrade Evangelista1, Renata Machado Felippe2, Cynthia Cascabulho2, Viviane Muniz Fragoso2 and Gabriel Melo de Oliveira1
The euthanasia is one of the most studied, debated and controversial topics in the laboratory animal science area. All over the world, the ideal way to perform euthanasia in laboratory animals is sought, seeking, in summary, three main points, animal welfare during the procedure; minimal influence on the animals biological system, not to interfere with test results and accessibility and low cost. In Brazil, after the validity of Law No 11.794-2008, that regulated the use of animals for didactic and scientific purposes, structuring the Animal Experimentation Control Council (CONCEA). In its resolutions, CONCEA standardized the application of accepted euthanasia methods, mainly overdose of injectable anesthetics and restricted use of carbon dioxide (CO2 ). The aim of our study was to evaluate within the rules of CONCEA and using non-invasive and invasive parameters which would be the best euthanasia promoter in adult Swiss Webster male mice. We compared the use of CO2 (suggested a substitution in the in sufflation valve) Isoflurane saturation, a combination of induction in an environment saturated with isoflurane and progressive CO2 in sufflation and application of the association Ketamin and Xilazin, in overdose. Our results, clearly, demonstrate that the most humane method of inducing the death of the animal is that which is the fastest (Speed Death); does not promote pain, discomfort or distress in the animal; minimally influences the biological systems of the animals and has a low acquisition cost. From our results it was possible to suggest that the combination of isoflurane (5%) and CO2 (1 L/min) is the most efficient methodology for performing euthanasia in mice.
598 Bionic Eye from the Point of View of Functional Magnetic Resonance and Electrophysiological Examination – Review, Lestak Jan1*, Fus Martin1, Rozsival Pavel2, Karel Ivan1,2, Brozkova Marketa2, Almesmari Basma2 and Jiraskova Nada2
The aim of the study was to show not only a possible visual replacement in patients with loss of sight, but also to discuss its efficiency. The study is focused on the issue of transmission of electrical voltage changes in the visual pathway under physiological and pathological conditions. In particular, it points to the feedback autoregulatory damage, not only of the primarily altered cellular structures, but also of all other structures localised both horizontally and vertically. Based on the results of the functional magnetic resonance imaging and electrophysiological methods, it demonstrates the pathology of the entire visual pathway in three important eye diseases: pigmentary retinal dystrophy, age-related macular degeneration, and glaucoma. The study also provides an overview of possible systems used to replace loss of vision, ranging from epiretinal, subretinal, suprachoroidal implants to stimulation of the optic nerve, lateral geniculate nucleus and visual cortex. Regarding the pathophysiology of neurotransmission, it is assumed that recovery of sight using these systems is not possible
599 The Coronavirus Transmission by Wastewater and Biosolids Reuse for Agricultural Usages: A Literature Review, Ahmad Sabzali*
One of the important alternative water source of water is treated effluent from wastewater treatment plant that may be used in the agricultural sectors. Reused wastewater depending on the treatment method may contain various contaminants, including microbial contaminants. In most countries, fecal coliforms are used as a good indicator of microbial contamination control and viral contamination is not analyzed. In this study, the probability of COVID-19 outbreaks with reusing treated effluent from wastewater treatment plant was evaluated. According to this study, irrigation of the agricultural products with treated effluents or spreading biosolids on farm lands may be one of the ways of transmission of the COVID-19 disease.
600 Ankyloglossia: Still a Matter of Controversy, Matin Torabinia1,2, Sun-Joo Jang1,2, Simon Dunham1,2, Steven Rosenblatt3 and Bobak Mosadegh1,2*
Symptomatic Ankyloglossia (a.k.a. tongue-tie) is defined as a short or anterior lingual frenulum that interferes with normal tongue mobility. Recently, there has been a renewed interest amongst healthcare providers regarding the importance of ankyloglossia in clinical practice and its role in breastfeeding difficulties. Despite the attempts of prior studies, there is no consensus on the optimal way to diagnose and manage ankyloglossia.
601 Bing Neel Syndrome: Real Life Data and A Review of the Literature, Ostergaard S1*, Munksgaard L1 and Pedersen LM2
Bing-Neel syndrome is a rare complication of Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia defined by the infiltration of malignant lymphoplasmacytic cells into the central nervous system. We present the results of a retrospective study aimed at describing real life data of 12 patients with Bing-Neel syndrome. Our findings are compared with data in the literature. Our study provides additional insights on the characteristics and outcomes of patients with the Bing-Neel syndrome.
602 Covid-19 (SARS-CoV-2) VS Sars-CoV; Summary of all things that healthcare providers should know, Shiva Raeisi Dehkordi, Seyed Ali Hossein Zahraei*, Zahra Golafshan and Sepideh Ahmadipour
The corona viruses are members of a family of enveloped viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm of animal host cells. They are distinguished by the presence of a single-stranded plus-sense RNA genome about 30 kb in length that has a 5′ cap structure and 3′ polyadenylation tract. Upon infection of an appropriate host cell, the 5′-most open reading frame (ORF) of the viral genome is translated into a large polyprotein that is cleaved by viralencoded proteases to release several nonstructural proteins, including an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (Rep) and an adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) helicase (Hel).
603 The spectrum of Thyroid function Abnormalities and associated Biochemical factors in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease in Cameroon, Philomene Keunmoe1, Marie Patrice Halle2,4, Jules Clement Assob Nguedia3*, Abdel Jelil Njouendou3, John Fonyuy Tengen3 and Marcelin Ngowe Ngowe4
Background: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) can lead to thyroid function disorders. The extent to which this relationship exists among Cameroonian CKD patients is not known. The aim of this study, was to determine the spectrum of thyroid dysfunction (TD) and their associated factors among CKD patients in Cameroon.
604 New Promising Horizons for the Antitumor Activity of Onconase, Giovanni Gotte*
Cancers represent, together with cardiovascular diseases, the most important cause of death in the industrialized countries. Fortunately, many cancer types have been successfully counteracted by following different strategies, comprising chemio- and/or radio-therapies, new drugs design and immuno-therapy. The success of these therapies, however, often depends on early diagnosis, that is very difficult to get for some tumors, especially the ones affecting internal organs, such as lung, ovary, liver, pancreas.
605 Sensitivity and Specificity of the Automated Squeeze Test (Gaenslen’s Maneuver) For Identifying Metacarpophalangeal Synovitis By Magnetic Resonance Imaging, David Vega-Morales1*, Jorge Antonio Esquivel1, Mario Alberto Garza-Elizondo1, María del Carmen Larios-Forte1, Dionicio Ángel Galarza Delgado2, Lorena Pérez-Barbosa2 and Brenda Roxana Vázquez-Fuentes1
Objective: To determine the diagnostic performance of the automated squeeze test (AST) on the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints to detect the presence of synovitis, edema or erosions by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by using the rheumatoid arthritis magnetic resonance imaging score (RAMRIS) in first-degree relatives (FDR) of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) patients with hand arthralgia and RA patients.
606 Absent Thoracic Rib, Najia Al Hojaili1*, Sami Najjar1, Attia Al Zahrani2, Alaa Najjar3, Dr. Liyla Al Abassi4, Zahraa Al Salami5, Hatim Al Omari6, Amal Zubani7, Liza Sallam8 and Kalid Al Zahrani9
Congenital absence of the ribs is relatively rare, and absence of the superior anterior ribs has not yet been Documented [1,2]. we report a full-term Chinese male infant born with the absence of the superior anterior 2nd and 4th ribs on the left side without notable dyspnea. Asymptomatic single rib absence is managed conservatively but for absence of multiple ribs, surgical repair is required, in our unit reported again Preterm 34 weeks with absent 2nd, 3rd and 4th left thoracic ribs without dysmorphic feature admitted in the NICU with respiratory distress, the congenital arrest in the development of the ribs is more frequent than the arrest of formation or the complete absence of the ribs.
607 Enhancement of Bone Canal Drilling Process and Equipments: The Impact of Technology and Knowledge Transfer from Oil Well Drilling Techniques, Teodoriu C1*, Amani M² and Bello O1
Bone fracture or bone loss can happen as a result of automobile and motorcycle accidents, falls from a height, sports injuries, aging population and other diseases, for which surgical procedures to support the bone with the help of a metallic rod is applied using a specific procedure called bone drilling. The bone-drilling process necessitates an accurate and efficient surgical drill bit to minimize thermal damage or additional impairment to the bone. The success of this process is dependent upon the eminence of the drilling procedure, drilling equipment and hands -on experience of the specialists performing the operation while minimizing associated injury to the surrounding tissue, or the significant rise of temperature to the neighboring bone and periosteum due to the conversion of friction energy to the thermal energy
608 A SARS-like Coronavirus was Expected, but nothing was done to be Prepared, Peter Borger*
It was common knowledge that some strain of coronavirussooner or later-was going to cause a pandemic. It was known since the SARS-CoV-outbreak in 2003. In 2013 and 2015, the world was informed that a variant of SARS-CoV in bats was emerging as a threat for humans. Why was no action taken by our governments and the World Health Organization (WHO)? The Corona crisis was not only conceivable and foreseeable, but the world could have been prepared. We could have had medication and we could have had a vaccine long ago. That is, when there had been visionary medicalpolitical global leadership.
609 Optimal Nutrients delivery and Possible Inoculation in Pro-Health Tomato Cultivation, Iwona Rybakowska*
Tomatoes are one of the more commonly consumed and important for human vegetables [1,2]. The use of organic fertilizers or a strictly limited amount of chemical fertilizers gives us the opportunity to grow a healthy tomato, which tastes better than over-fertilized crops. We must also remember that there are many constrains to tomato production like even whitefly Bemisia tabaci [3,4]. Chemical control have been widely used to utilize Beminisia Tabaci but their over use has developed resistance to some insecticides which has reduced their efficacy [4,5], while increasing the doses used. The biocontrol by use of microorganisms represents a potentially attractive alternative approach [2,6].
610 Age-Related Features of Detectability of Xenobiotic Enzyme Gene Polymorphism in Pregnant Women with Fetal Growth Restriction Syndrome, Mavlyanova NN1*, Najmutdinova DK1 and Boboev KT2
Fetal growth restriction syndrome (FGRS) is a clinical syndrome caused by morphological and functional changes in the placenta and penetrant by limit of the growth and development of the fetus, its hypoxia, that arise as a result of the combined reaction of the fetus and placenta to various disorders of the pregnant woman. This syndrome is based on pathological changes in the fetal and or uterin-placental complexes with a derangement of the compensatory-adaptive mechanisms at the molecular, cellular and tissue levels.
611 Opportunities to Enhance the Pyrolysis of Biomass in The Production of Hydroxyapatite and Chemicals, Juan Proano-Aviles*
The pyrolysis of calcium orthophosphates produces hydroxyapatite and chemicals. Additionally, pyrolysis proposes paths to manage animalderived waste streams. As it happens in the pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass, operating variables like reactor temperature, reaction atmosphere, feedstock, and particle size affect the final product from animal-biomass. This review summarizes the characteristics of multiple pyrolysis methods to produce hydroxyapatite and chemicals. Finally, this short paper recommends opportunities to enhance the results by changing pyrolysis process variables, learning from lignocellulosic and animal-derived biomass experiences alike.
612 The Effect of Α-Tocopherol 400 IU on Malondialdehid (MDA) Plasma and Speed Performance in Run 3000 Metres Junior Athlete, Deviandri R*
Free radicals receive great attention among practitioners because of oxidative reactions that will disrupt the process of muscle metabolism. Vitamin E (α-tocopherol) has an important role in the conversion of free radicals to less reactive forms. Vitamin E supplementation in humans reduces oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and muscle soreness after exercise so it is considered as anti oxidant and performance booster.
613 Case Report: Measles in a 23-Day-Old Newborn, Jacqueline Stephanie Fernandes do Nascimento1, Janie Kelly Fernandes do Nascimento2, Marco Antônio Alves Aziz3, Dóris Augusta Caldas Rebello3, Maria Angélica Barcellos Svaiter3, Carlos Henrique Melo Reis4, Carlos Eduardo Cardoso5, Guilherme Gomes Azizi6, Brian França dos Santos3, Mariana Barcellos Svaiter3, Adalgiza Mafra Moreno3, Marco Antonio Araújo Leite7, Nilson Gomes8 and Marco Antônio Orsini Neves9
For many years Measles has been shown to be one of the main reasons for childhood mortality and morbidity, especially in the age group below 1 year old. Although rare, there are reports in the literature that corroborate infections in newborns. This article aimed to evaluate and expose, through a case report, the clinical course of Measles diagnosed in a 23-day-old newborn, in addition to describing, through a bibliographic search, the history of the triple viral vaccine and recommended indications for the use of polyvalent immunoglobulin. It is concluded that Measles is considered rare in newborns, although it is possible to affect them in cases of susceptible mothers, and therefore further studies are needed in favor of clinical knowledge of the disease course in this age group.
614 Cefpodoxime with Antacid, Metal Complexation and Investigation of Antimicrobial Activity, In-Vitro Investigation, Farhana Hoque and Md Shahidul Islam*
Cefpodoxime is utilized to care for infections reasoned by bacteria, containing respiratory infections, skin infections in addition to urinary tract infection. The principal purpose of present follow a line of investigation was to explore in vitro communications of Cefpodoxime with crucial metal salt furthermore antacid to settle on the bioavailability in view of antimicrobial movement of Cefpodoxime following drug metal communications at the pH 7.4. Cefpodoxime is one of the cephalosporin drugs so as to is exercised to treat numerous different sorts of infections originated by bacteria.
615 A Positive-Confidence based approach to Classifying Imbalanced data: A Case Study on Hepatitis, Vinita Jansari* and Russel Pears
Mining Imbalanced data is a challenge especially with clinical datasets where it is essential to obtain maximum possible prediction accuracy on the minority (diseased class which is the category of greatest interest) without impacting negatively on predictions on the majority class. A false positive that wrongly signals the presence of disease has as much importance as a false negative diagnosis in such scenarios.
616 Chinese Student’s Proneness to Acculturative Stress in a Dual Degree Program, Carolina Lopez Burrola* and David M Henneberry*
In this article, the acculturative stress issues that Chinese students can encounter in a dual degree program will be presented. The objective is to create awareness of what international students go through during their college years and attempt to address the possible issues. Temporary complications can be encountered by students from other countries who decide to complete a degree in an American school [1]. However, students can work on their areas of strengths and weaknesses to overcome these challenges. This article will suggest ways to manage these difficulties and ways to avoid acculturative stress
617 Applications of Titania Atomic Layer Deposition in the Biomedical Field and Recent Updates, Mina Shahmohammadi1, Bin Yang2* and Christos G Takoudis1,3*
Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) is a promising technique to precisely deposit nanometer-thick films on inorganic and organic substrates. ALD is known for the deposition of uniform, conformal, and pinhole-free thin films with a controllable thickness with sequential and self-limiting gaseous reactions on the substrate surface of interest. ALD thin films have a wide range of applications, from semiconductor industries to medical devices. In many studies, ALD thin films are used to modify the biomaterial surface properties for particular biomedical applications. Here, polymethyl methacrylate, titanium-based alloys, and collagen were chosen as substrates for this review; thanks to their biocompatibility, these substrates have several applications in the dental, medical, and biomedical fields. The ALD of Titanium (IV) oxide (TiO2 ) films has been selected for this review as a biocompatible material which has attracted increasing attention in biomedical applications. Selected publications focusing on the modification of the surface of these biomaterials with TiO2 ALD are discussed
618 Breast Imaging Findings among Asymptomatic Women who Underwent Screening Mammographic Examination in Port Harcourt, South-South, Nigeria, Awajimijan Nathaniel Mbaba1, Michael Promise Ogolodom2*, Olukumi Yetunde Ijeruh1, Nengi Alazigha1, Rufus Abam1, Angel-Mary Chukwunyelu Anakwue3, Ebbi Donald Robinson1 and Beatrice Ukamaka Maduka3
Background: Screening mammography contributes significantly to the reduction of breast cancer-related morbidity and mortality through early detection and treatment. Breast cancer death is rising in Nigeria and over 70% of breast cancer patients present with advanced stages when no known remedy can annul disease advancement. This study was designed to document the findings of screening mammography of asymptomatic women to emphasize the role of screening mammography in early detection of breast cancer so as to encourage our women to embrace preventive care.
619 Comparison of the Metabolic Process of Bone Mineral Density of Females during the Life Cycle using Allometric Scaling Techniques, M Bonis1*, M Loftin2 and M Sothern3
The purpose of the study was to determine the best body composition predictor for BMD from 4 different age groups of women, compare the groups’ bone mineral density (BMD), and examine these groups using allometric scaling techniques.
620 Determining the Role of Food-Related Values and Food-Related Lifestyle in Influencing Food-Related Behavior of Guilford County Residents, Terrence Thomas1* , Ayodele Olofinsao2 and Kurt Taylor3
Guilford County is a food insecure county with 24 census tracts regarded as a food desert. Seventeen of these tracts are in Greensboro and seven in High point. The medical cost of combating diseases arising from unhealthy eating associated with food insecurity (practically food desert areas) is high. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of food-related values on the food-related lifestyle and food-related behavior of Guilford County residents. Data was collected by trained enumerators from a random sample of 350 respondents (82 food desert.268 non-food desert) via a telephone survey.
621 Assessing Healthy Eating Attitudes and Behaviors of Caregivers at a Pediatric Clinic in Southwest Virginia , Jordan Hiegel1, Emilee Young1, Mayra Manchego1, Areeka Memon1, Suhani Patel1, Susan Meacham2*, Sofia Abraham Hardee3, Christina Kozar4 and Ancy Abraham4
Context: Virginia has the nation’s highest rate of obese children two to four years old enrolled in the federally supported Women, Infants and Children Nutrition program. Southwest Virginia consistently has higher rates of childhood obesity compared to the rest of the state. The researchers proposed that a discordance exists between caregivers’/parents’ knowledge, attitudes and behaviors related to childhood nutrition.
622 Comparative Analysis between Thromboelastography and Routine Coagulation Test in Liver Disease, Haimei MA1*, Pengfei Ji1, Hua Zhou2, Yunjing Ma1, Weiwei Shang1, Fangfang Shi1 and Yinan Yang1
Background: Thromboelasto Graphy (TEG) is a continuous, real-time and holistic method to analyze the coagulation and fibrinolytic function of whole blood. We evaluated the feasibility and accuracy of TEG in monitoring the coagulation function of liver diseases by comparing the routine coagulation examination results and TEG in liver disease patients
623 Ecotoxicology of altered fractal organization in cells, François Gagné*
The continuous release of existing and new/exotic chemicals in the biosphere raises concerns for the sustainability of ecosystems. Ecotoxicology is broadly defined as the study of impacts of environmental contaminants to ecosystems (population and community) and organisms. This discipline is relatively new and is confronted to the daunting task of the understanding of toxicity of chemicals and their mixtures in various species of the food chain from bacteria, yeast, cyano/bacteria, algae, the diverse group of invertebrates (worms, micro crustacean, mollusks) and vertebrates. The continuous progression of our technology contributes to the production of new and exotic chemicals that could find their way in various ecosystems with unknown long-term impacts.
624 Regulation of thermogenesis in Brown and Beige Adipose Tissues, Xinwei Li1*, Yue Chen2, Hongxia Liu1, Yuanyuan Tong1 and Chaoyong He*1
Obesity and related metabolic syndromes are among the top public health issues worldwide. The current strategy is mainly based on controlling food intake, unable to achieve the optimal treatment effect. How to augment energy expenditure becomes a new focus. White adipose tissue (WAT) is a classic energy storage depot, whereas brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates energy through thermogenesis. Browning of WAT facilitates the transformation from WAT into beige adipose tissue acquiring modest thermogenic activity. Enhancement of thermogenic function of both BAT and beige adipose tissue highlights a novel perspective to dissipate excess stored energy and reduce lipid deposition. In this review, we systematically summarize the current regulatory mechanisms of thermogenesis revealed in BAT and beige adipose tissue, including the thermogenic function of mitochondria, the crosstalk between macrophages and adipocytes, endoplasmic reticulum stress as well as proteasome activity. Additionally, we discuss the underlying signaling network to regulate relevant gene expression involved in these four aspects so as to provide a better understanding for therapeutic strategy design to treat obesity and related metabolic diseases.
625 Prevention of Broncho Pulmonary Dysplasia: Accuracy of Surfactant Dosage for Preterm Infants at Birth Based on Their Average Weights, Claire Crewe1 and Naveen K Athiraman2*
Introduction: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is defined as oxygen dependence at 36 weeks. Some pharmacological strategies used to decrease rates BPD include antenatal steroids, surfactant at birth and use of caffeine. In many neonatal units, surfactant is administered at birth in the delivery room in order to improve compliance of lungs and minimise lung injury as well as optimise ventilation. Knowledge on average weights at different gestational ages would be useful to deliver closer to accurate dose of surfactant, at birth.
626 Immune Privilege of Primary Fetal Progenitor Cells: Optimized Safety Profile of Consistent Cell Sources for Cutaneous and Musculoskeletal Regenerative Medicine, Alexis Laurent1, Nathalie Hirt-Burri1, Corinne Scaletta1, Lee Ann Applegate1,2,3 and Anthony S de Buys Roessingh4*
Numerous heterogenous biological tissues and cell types may be valorized and processed for therapeutic material generation and product development in regenerative medicine applications. Autologous, allogenic or xenogenic cell therapies may generally be considered for transplantation, whereas the immunogenicity of the implanted final products is key in determining treatment parameters. Banked primary fetal progenitor cells constitute highly interesting candidates for allogenic cell therapy approaches, as among numerous other technical advantages, such cell types are devoid of the propensity towards recipient immune response eliciting. Selection of specific gestational ages for fetal organ donation procurement enables the eventual obtention of cultured progeny cell populations consistently retaining specific subsets of MHC antigens, allowing for evasion or modulation of recipient immune systems, as attested by transplantation of fetal progenitor cells in allogenic and xenogenic frameworks in Switzerland. The present study briefly summarizes the molecular, preclinical and clinical evidence supporting the immune-privileged status of primary fetal progenitor cells and the contribution thereof to the high therapeutic value of such cellular substrates for regenerative medicine applications.
627 Stimulating Legume Production for a More Sustainable and Nutritious Agriculture, Andrés R Schwember*
Legume crops are highly valued because of their high grain content of protein and essential amino acids, and other outstanding nutritional properties. The consumption of legumes prevents chronic diseases such as diabetes, obesity, heart ailments and cancer. Also, they are related to sustainable agricultural systems, considering their capacity to associate with atmospheric nitrogen (N) fixing bacteria (Rhizobia), which diminishes the use of synthetic N-fertilizer. In addition, rotating crops with legumes increase the soil quality, and they need less water relative to other sources of proteins. The future of legumes requires the improvement of agronomic practices and breeding new varieties that can cope with the current scenario of climate change, as well as the creation of more nutritional and healthier new legume-based food products.
628 Change Management in ICU, Evangelia Michail Michailidou*
Background: Change management is called any strategic action or activity that aims to exploit efficient and ancillary methods that contribute to a smooth and efficient transition of an ICU Department from an existing to a new desired state.
629 Hand Washing and Personal Hygiene among Nigerians in the face of COVID-19 (Coronavirus), Obeta M Uchejeso* and Ejinaka R Obiora
WHO [1] has developed hand hygiene and personal hygiene [2] for healthcare workers and general public towards disease prevention and control [3]. Hand hygiene is a very important aspect of personal hygiene to all - Health care workers (HCWs) patients, patients’ relatives thereby preventing healthcareassociated infections (HAIs) [4], Nosocomial infections and the spread of emerging infectious diseases such as novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) that is spreading since 8 December 2019 [5] with symptoms such as: feeling short of breath, having a cough that gets more severe over time, and a low-grade fever that gradually increases in temperature.
630 Advocating the use of social media for health education in consideration of the SARS CoV-2 pandemic, Atulya Saxena1*, Zhraa A Alhaboby2 and Anoop Saxena3
The outbreak of the severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), began in December 2019 in Wuhan, China [1]. It’s progression towards the pandemic by March 2020 [1] and beyond saw variable responses from a number of health agencies and governments that often put to question their motives and health knowledge. From the mention of herd immunity [2] to the suggestion of injecting bleach [3], world leaders demonstrated a lack of knowledge on their own right and worse, an inefficient use of eminent health professionals by their side [4].
631 Impact of Minimal Invasive Robotic Surgery on Recovery From Postoperative Ileus and Postoperative Gastrointestinal Tract Dysfunction, Elvio Mazzotta, Egina Chriseida Villalobos-Hernandez, Alan Harzman and Fievos L Christofi*
Postoperative gastrointestinal tract (GIT) dysfunction (POGD) and postoperative ileus (POI) are common symptoms resulting from small or large bowel surgery associated with extended hospitalizations, increase risk of infections and billions of dollars in health care costs. Open surgery is associated with higher gut surgical trauma / manipulation and worse outcomes compared to minimal invasive surgery. Robotic Surgery may offer added benefit to Colon Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (CERAS) protocols but do not solve the problem. Ultimately, a better understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of POI and POGD can lead to prophylaxis and enhanced recovery after surgery. The impact of High Pressure Pneumoperitoneum and gut surgical manipulation on GIT dysfunction deserve further investigation.
632 Overall Clinical Outcome of Stereotactic Guided Burrhole-Drainage Versus Craniotomy with Removal of Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage, Jeong Won Park1, Geun Young Yang1, Gyuseo Jung2 and Young Zoon Kim2*
Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical efficacy and safety of stereotactic guided burrhole-drainage (STBD) and craniotomy for the treatment of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage(S-ICH).
633 Molecular Chirality as an Integral Biomarker of Lactation, Nutrition and Cognitive Development Express-Review, Victor V Dyakin1* and Eva V Posner2
It becomes an axiom that all living organisms are composed predominantly of L-amino acids (L-AAs) and D-sugars. However, in many biomedical studies, there is a significant discrepancy between the amount of available information regarding D-AAs biology and a degree of pragmatic implementation. It is applying to the fields of nutrition and lactation. The mutual interaction of internal and environmental sources of D-AAs in an organism, including the food, microorganisms, is influenced by the spontaneous and enzymatic racemization. The interacting sources of D-AAs are recognized as an essential determinant in the embryonic/infant development, the lifestyle of an adult an organism, and aging. Progress in the analytical methods of chiral discrimination is promising to revolutionize the field of neuroscience, neurodegeneration, psychology, drug production, and the food industry, which should be reflected in the field of lactation. However, the attention to the D/L AAs balance in the area of breastfeeding is overlooked until the present. In short, our aim is predicting the importance of the serine racemase (SerRs) enzymes in human breast milk production and digestion.
634 Caring for Older Adults During Covid-19 Pandemic, Pamela Zimbeck1 and Sandeep Pagali2*
SARS-Coronavirus-2 is leaving an indelible impression on the face of the world with a MASK. This invisible enemy has invaded our lives and robbed us of aspects of our lives that we thought were untouchable. Death, isolation, sickness, and fear now lurk in halls, homes and hearts. While we hope that many will recover from this viral infection, questions about how to do the right thing and even what is the right thing permeate our thoughts constantly. The scientific community and governments update management strategies frequently based on evolving data, all the time hoping for the best outcome. Suddenly, an organized and structured daily routine is filled with confusion and frustration.
635 Interprofessional Collaboration Experiences of Student Physical Therapists and their Clinical Instructors in Orthopedic versus Neurologic Rehabilitation Settings, Rylie Kohls, Sascha Smith, Heather Braden* and Teresa Huckaby
Objective: To assess the differences in how student physical therapists (SPTs) and their clinical instructors (CIs) utilize and recognize interprofessional collaboration (IPC) in the neurologic and orthopedic physical therapy settings.
636 A Case of Recurrent Fever with Chest and Abdominal Pain -A Rare Presentation of Autoinflammatory Disease, Shuixiang Deng MD1#*, Xiaoyan Yu MD1#, Jun Shen AD1, Umut Ocak AD2 and Ye Gong AD1
Background: Monogenic autoinflammatory diseases (AID) which are characterized by genetic protein abnormalities involved in innate immunity.
637 Cell-Material Interaction - Spreading Course Correlates with Surface Charge, Martina Gruening1, Sven Neuber2, Katja Fricke3, Christiane A. Helm2 and Barbara Nebe1,4*
To design appropriate materials for tissue engineering, a profound understanding of the cell-material interaction is essential. We are of the opinion that the zeta (ζ) potential has a decisive role in the cell behaviour, outshining wettability. Here we present a comparative analysis of the MG63 osteoblastic cell spreading behaviour on negatively and positively charged surfaces in the hydrophilic range. The results indicate a correlation of the cells’ spreading area with the surface charge. Thus, the ζ-potential should be considered as a key parameter for cell interactions at the biomaterial interface.
638 Acute Pancreatitis due to Phytobezoar Case Report and Mini-Review of Literature, Kayhan Ozdemir1, Fatih Altintoprak2*, Mustafa Yener Uzunoglu1, Tarik Harmantepe1 and Emre Gonullu1
The term “bezoar” defines undigested food particles accumulation anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract. Clinical findings vary according to the localization of bezoar in the gastrointestinal tract. Acute pancreatitis induced by duodenal bezoar is a rare condition. In this article, we present a case of phytobezoar that obstructed the duodenum and presented with acute pancreatitis clinic with the mini-review of the literature
639 Under Air Bi-Blade Vitrectomy: Perfectioning Vitreous Base Shaving, Emilio Pedrotti1, Erika Bonacci1, Arianna De Rossi1*, Alessandra De Gregorio2, Chiara Chierego1, Jacopo Bonetto3, Marco Anastasi1 and Giorgio Marchini1
Complete vitreous removal is mandatory for successful vitreoretinal surgery performed for any indication: retinal detachment, macular hole [1], epiretinal membrane [2], and vitreous hemorrhage [3]. Accuracy in vitreous removal is indeed crucial to avoid tractional forces in the vitreous cavity that could lead to rhegmatogenous detachment or recurrence [4]. Many techniques have been developed to perform vitrectomy phases and several surgical instruments and vitreous substitutes have been introduced to optimize the vitreous removal and retina stabilization to reduce complications. One of the pivotal tools in vitreoretinal surgery is the vitrectome. This device allows effective removal of the hyaloid and vitreous base, core vitrectomy and membranes cutting. The key features of vitreous cutters are the blade design, the duty cycle, the cutting speed, and the tip-to-port distance. They were modified by technological developments in order to increase accuracy and reduce retinal traction [5]. Another important aid is given by unconventional vitreous substitutes, such as perfluorocarbonperfused [6], silicone oil [7] and air [8,9], that have been previously described. Surgeons can opt for their preferred combination according to personal experience and habits to guarantee higher precision, safety and efficacy. Particularly
640 Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Deficiency with Cerebral Vasculitis, Navya Joseph1*, Peter Abasolo2, Rhonda Wright3 and Geetanjali Rathore3
7-year-old boy presented with acute weakness following a gastrointestinal illness. Exam was notable for flaccid quadriparesis, hyporeflexia without encephalopathy. He received IVIG for presumed Guillain Barre syndrome. Initial CSF analysis and MRI Brain/spine were unremarkable except high CSF lactate of 2.9. A week later, he became less responsive, had autonomic fluctuations, lost gag reflex, and got intubated. Repeat MRI Brain showed new bilateral (L>R) cortical, subcortical and brainstem lesions as seen in Figures 1A, 1B & 1C. Serial MRI brain showed fast developing multiple lesions involving the white and gray brain matter with areas of restricted diffusion. Repeat CSF analysis including encephalopathy/ multiple sclerosis panel were unremarkable.
641 A Research on Daily Life Activities and Geriatric Depression Levels of the Elderly in Successful Aging, Fahri Özsungur1* and Oya Hazer2
Technology has gained an important momentum with innovations in the rapid change of today’s world. Data processing (1956), management information system (1965), decision support system (1976), participatory approach (1978), office automation (1980), final user calculation (1981), prototype approach (1982), strategic system planning (1984), information systems that developed as a phenomenological approach (1985) started to be applied in the production sector after 1965 [1
642 Newborn Head Trauma and Nursing , Şadiye Dur*
Traumas are one of the most important health problems of childhood and the most common cause of child deaths between 1-15 years of age. Head trauma appears to be the most common cause of death and permanent disability in childhood [1]. Approximately 200 000 children per year are hospitalized due to head trauma and 4000 children die within a few hours after trauma [2]. While trauma constitutes 15% of adult deaths, this rate approaches 50% in childhood [3].
643 Coronavirus ( COVID-19); Review from A Nigerian Perspective, Nkereuwem S Etukudoh1, Ejinaka R Obiora2, Olowu F Adeyemi3, Obeta M Uchejeso4*, Adebowale O Margaret4 and Udoudoh M Paulinus5
Coronavirus is no longer a new virus in virology. The novel coronavirus called COVID-19 considering its powerful pathogenicity and transmissibility as confirmed to be more infectious than severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-COV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-COV). The method employed in this study is a review of research articles, news and updates on coronavirus (COVID-19) in the area of Nigerian situation, medical laboratory testing and management of the pandemic, based on the political economy of the virus. The recommendations are provided for the Federal School of Medical Laboratory Technology (Science), Jos as an institution and Nigeria through Federal Ministry of Health. The institution contributes to the control of the pandemic through provision of hygiene products while expanding her diagnostic services to include COVID-19 diagnosis.
644 LCPT in tacrolimus fast-metabolizing pancreas recipients compared to high-dose prolonged release tacrolimus versus non-fast metabolizers: a singlecenter experience, Claudia Bösmüller*, Felix Krendl, Franka Messner, Silvia Gasteiger, Valeria Berchtold, Annemarie Weissenbacher, Katrin Kienzl-Wagner, Thomas Resch, Stefan Scheidl, Rupert Oberhuber, Benno Cardini, Manuel Maglione, Dietmar Öfner, Christian Margreiter and Stefan Schneeberger
We compared conversion to LCPT vs high-dose prolonged release (PR) tacrolimus (Tac) in Tac fast- versus non-fast-metabolizing patients. A total of 45 pancreatic graft recipients (43 combined kidney-pancreas, two pancreas transplants alone) were retrospectively analyzed. Immunosuppression consisted of a lymphocyte-depleting agent, Tac + MMF + steroids. In response to subtherapeutic Tac levels despite incremental increase in PR-Tac dosage, 15 patients were converted to LCPT (median day 10.9; range day 5-21), after being identified as Tac fast metabolizers (Group 1) from the ratio of concentration/dosage (c/d)
645 A review of Adverse Effects of Targeted Temperature Management for Post-Cardiac Arrest Patients, Steven Wright1, Samantha Peralta1 and Leonard Ranasinghe2*
Targeted Temperature Management has been the standard of care in post cardiac arrest since 2005. Despite significant advancements since its infancy, and a multitude of studies, discrepancies still exist as to its efficacy. By understanding the associated adverse effects, we can begin to delineate incongruencies to guide future research in order to progress towards a more uniform “high-quality” Targeted Temperature Management. Both anticonvulsant and antiarrhythmic therapy may provide an avenue towards improving Targeted Temperature Management
646 Advanced Applications of Biomaterials Based on Alginic Acid, Lagopati N and Pavlatou EA*
Alginic acid, also known as algin or alginate, is a natural carbohydrate, which is derived from marine brown algae, as well as some microorganisms. It can be used in various applications. In particular, alginate has shown great potential in the areas of wound healing, drug delivery, in vitro cell culture, and tissue engineering, allowing the categorization of it as a promising biomaterial, or a basic component of other biomaterials. The unique characteristics of alginic acid, such as the biocompatibility, the mild required gelation conditions, the low toxicity, the relative low cost and the simple modifications, allow the development of alginate hydrogels, and alginate derivatives with enhanced properties. The aim of this review, is to present an overview of the properties of alginate, shedding light on the current and potential applications and suggesting new perspectives for future studies.
647 New Optical Tools for Spectral Diagnostics of Liquid Solutions, Ferdenant A Mkrtchyan* and Vladimir F Krapivin
Three new optical devices has been design and constructed for the operative diagnostics of medical, biological and water solutions using state-of-the–art technology of optical inverse tasks solution in wavelength range from 350nm to 780nm. The structures of optical devices have the elements for the assessment of optical properties of liqueds and software for the concentration evaluation of chemicals in the solutions. One of the functions optical devices is recognition of solutions to define their classes using a database of spectral standards. The using optical devices in the expedition conditions in the hard-to-reach regions when there no exists chemical laboratory for operative analysis can be unique possibility to know a solution quality. One of such situations is mission to Mars. This paper represents results of optical diagnostics of the water objects in South Vietnam and Siberia when the water quality of these objects is assessed and their optical spectral images are formed. Measurement procedure is described to be as the instruction for each of three optical devices operation.
648 Evidence based study of Hypoglycemic Potential of Bitter Melon Peptide, Yu-Cheng Lin1 and Pang-Kuei Hsu2*
Momordica charantia (M. charantia), commonly referred to as bitter melon was received much attention for its anti-diabetic properties in recent years. The aim of this review was to discuss the bioactive peptides in bitter melon through their in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies for diabetes. Research showed that bitter melon peptides acted as the α-amylase or α-glycosidase inhibitor delayed the absorption of glucose from carbohydrates. Another noteworthy mechanism was the glucose intake regulation by insulin-like activities to enhanced insulin receptor kinase activity which activated IR signaling transduction pathway, resulted the translocation of glucose transporter 4, and uptake of glucose to cells. The remarkable effect of bitter melon peptide (mcIRBP-19) in patients with diabetes was also reported in the clinical study. This study summarized the scientific evidence of bitter melon peptides in regulating blood sugar levels through bioactive mechanisms. The bioactive peptides from bitter melon might open up new opportunities for the management of diabetes.
649 Is Bevacizumab a Direct Cause of Osteonecrosis of the Jaw like Bisphosphonate?, Morita Y*, Kashiwagi T, Takayama S, Nishimoto A, Imai T and Uzawa N
In 2014, the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons (AAOMS) published a revised position paper on osteonecrosis of the jaw in which cases caused by drugs other than bone resorption inhibitors, such as bevacizumab (an angiogenesis inhibitor), were labeled medicationrelated osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ). Bevacizumab (Avastin) binds to endothelial growth factor (VEGF) preventing its attachment to receptors located on the surface of endothelial cells, thus inhibiting angiogenesis. Although the first case of ONJ caused by bevacizumab was described in 2008, clinical cases of ONJ have since been described in which the use of bevacizumab is the only clear risk factor. This mini-review aims to summarize ONJ associated with bevacizumab, which was first recognized by the AAOMS in 2014.
650 Impact of SARS-CoV-2 On St-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI), Fatemeh-Sadat Mahdavi, Armin Khavandegar and Parham Mardi*
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Corona Virus-2 (SARS-CoV 2) pandemic originated from Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and rapidly spread throughout the globe [1]. Currently, SARS-CoV 2 has resulted in an enormous number of deaths worldwide [2,3]. Based on the WHO report on 28 April 2020, almost 3 million confirmed cases of COVID-19 have been identified, and nearly 7% of them have died due to disease and its complications [4]. Regarding the catastrophic impact of COVID-19 on human well-being, investigation of its manifestations, complications, and appropriate treatment has become the most concerning issue in the World Health Organization recently.
651 Potential Role of ACE2 Inhibition in COVID-19 Severity, George Santarpia*
In addition to being the entry point for SARS-CoV-2, ACE2 may play a role in the disease progression of severe COVID-19 cases. The five pre-existing conditions that currently lead to the highest COVID-19 mortality rates have also been linked to altered ACE2 activity and the related renin-angiotensin system. Since there are multiple ways in which SARS-CoV-2 could be inhibiting ACE2, it is very possible that ACE2 inhibition is the reason for this connection. Due to the connection between ARDS, a common cause of death in COVID-19 patients, and ACE2, it is also possible that this can lead to COVID-19 severity in some cases.
652 Potential Role of ACE2 Inhibition in COVID-19 Severity, George Santarpia*
In addition to being the entry point for SARS-CoV-2, ACE2 may play a role in the disease progression of severe COVID-19 cases. The five pre-existing conditions that currently lead to the highest COVID-19 mortality rates have also been linked to altered ACE2 activity and the related renin-angiotensin system. Since there are multiple ways in which SARS-CoV-2 could be inhibiting ACE2, it is very possible that ACE2 inhibition is the reason for this connection. Due to the connection between ARDS, a common cause of death in COVID-19 patients, and ACE2, it is also possible that this can lead to COVID-19 severity in some cases.
653 The Need of Early Detection of Positive COVID-19 Patients in the Community by Viral Tests (e.g. RT-PCR Tests) and Antibody Tests (Serological Tests) to Stop the Spread , Ahsan Ali Siddiqui*
Background and Objective: The Aim of this article is to tell the Importance of early testing for COVID-19 novel corona virus of the suspected communities. The earlier to find out the Positive results of the COVID-19 novel corona virus more robust preventions against COVID-19 could be implemented.
654 Nivolumab Induced Autoimmune Like Gastritis: A case report, A Mohamad Mubder1, Laura Bach2, Neha Varshney3 and Bhaskar Banerjee2
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICPI) such as ipilimumab (anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) antibody) and nivolumab (antiprogrammed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) antibodies) are novel chemotherapeutic agents used in multiple advanced metastatic malignancies. They are well known for their immune-related adverse events [1]. Although diarrhea and enterocolitis have been documented as gastrointestinal side effects of ICPI, gastritis has been rarely reported as a side effect of ICPI. Here, we present a case of a 65-years old female with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma who developed autoimmune like gastritis after treatment with Nivolumab [2]
655 Nivolumab Induced Autoimmune Like Gastritis: A case report, A Mohamad Mubder1, Laura Bach2, Neha Varshney3 and Bhaskar Banerjee2
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICPI) such as ipilimumab (anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) antibody) and nivolumab (antiprogrammed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) antibodies) are novel chemotherapeutic agents used in multiple advanced metastatic malignancies. They are well known for their immune-related adverse events [1]. Although diarrhea and enterocolitis have been documented as gastrointestinal side effects of ICPI, gastritis has been rarely reported as a side effect of ICPI. Here, we present a case of a 65-years old female with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma who developed autoimmune like gastritis after treatment with Nivolumab [2]
656 COVID-19: Initiating the Expansion of Telemedicine in Neurosurgery, Kristopher A Lyon MD1,2, Xiaoming Qi MD1, Ethan A Benardete MD PhD1,2, Alan B Stevens PhD2,3,4 and Jason H Huang MD1,2*
Objective: As COVID-19 spreads around the world, so does telemedicine across many medical specialties including neurosurgery. Given the unique patient population in neurosurgery, arising opportunities for integration and expansion of telemedicine into neurosurgery practice come with challenges for both the patient and the provider
657 National Assisted Reproductive Technology Registers: Questions and Answers, Iavor K Vladimirov*, DesislavaTacheva and Martin Vladimirov
We analyzed some parameters, affecting the success rates of in vitro procedures taken from the national registers of Japan, China, and the USA. We compare birth rates for frozen embryo transfer (FET) and fresh ET after IVF / ICSI procedures, and we believe one of the reasons for the higher FET success rate is the “therapeutic” effect on embryos following the freezing / thawing procedure. This phenomenon has been described in our “Theory about the Embryo Cryo-Treatment”. We believe that cryopreservation helps to partially eliminate the negative impact of air pollution caused by the pollution of the environment on the development and implantation of embryos.
658 Well-Treated GDM doesn’t Worsen Obstetric Outcomes in Obese Women, D’Anna R*1, Ruggeri C1, Corrado F1 and Di Benedetto A2
Aim: To compare obstetric outcomes in obese women with and without Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) Methods: This is a single-centre retrospective study carried out on the obese pregnant women’s charts in a 5-year period. After an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test for GDM screening, obese women who developed GDM were carefully treated by the same diabetologist. The outcome measures considered were caesarean section rate in emergency, pre-term birth, gestational hypertension and large for gestational age babies.
659 Probiotics as Potential Therapeutics for Colorectal Cancer, Myung Jun Chung*, Byung Chull An, Yongku Ryu, Sunwoong Hong and Daebeom Kwon
Much health benefits by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been observed via in-vivo trials. LAB’s health benefits are described such as improving of intestinal microbial balance between probiotics and harmful bacteria, protecting of pathogen infection and modulating of host’s immunity in gut. Colorectal cancer (CRC) located in intestine and its development leads to invade or spread to other parts of the body result in death. Recent many publications about LAB have demonstrated the immense potential as alternative bio-therapeutics. Actually, LAB have been reported to be the safe bio-therapeutic with positive effects against various cancer types including CRC. In this review, we discuss the evidences of beneficial effects of LAB application and its molecular mechanisms.
660 Influence of Organismal Aging in Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy, Arsalan Shabbir, Gen Suzuki and Techung Lee*
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from several tissue sources have been investigated in clinical trials for multiple disorders, and mixed results from these trials have been documented [1], indicating that critical variables that can affect the therapeutic outcome remain to be defined. Organismal aging represents a potential impediment to stem cell therapy. Aged tissue often exhibits telomere shortening, increased Wnt signaling, and fibrosis [2,3], and may thus be more refractory to stem cell therapy. Accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) components, which invariably causes thickened lamina in aged tissue, can potentially impede the actions of the many growth/trophic factors secreted by the transplanted MSCs. Indeed, the aged heart often exhibits significant functional deteriorations contributed in part by cardiac stem cell senescence and lower capacity for angiogenesis [4]
661 Peculiarities of Production and Technical Production and Technical Exploitation of the Use of Technology in the Agrotechservice Enterprise, Samad Yousifov*
Summary: The purpose of the article is to improve the production and technical exploitation of the machine-tractor fleet and the efficient use of machinery in the service area with the use of application of resuscitation techniques. The methodology and methods: Used are the theoretical and methodological basis of the research work of our country and foreign scientists on the technical maintenance of agricultural production, the organization and effective functioning of the institutions implementing it. Here a number of methods of analysis of mass service theory and graph theory are used.
662 Out of Adversity comes Innovation, How is Saudi Arabia Achieving a Low Case Fatality Rate during the Coronavirus Pandemic?, Anhar Hamza*
In the Coronavirus pandemic, desperate times called for desperate measures and this is how Saudi Arabia maintained a low case fatality rate. Early public awareness programs and border closure led to a reduction in the rate of infection especially in those at high risk of mortality from the disease. At a clinical level, adoption of virtual clinics for routine outpatient care allowed the country to focus its efforts on the provision of COVID-19 care in specially adapted isolation centers. On a psychological level, the health care providers were well looked after which led to the provision of effective patient care.
663 The Effect of Otoprotective Substances Against Cisplatin Exposure: A Literature Review, José Luis Treviño Gonzalez*, Josefina Alejandra Morales-Del Ángel, Mario Jesús Villegas González, Luis Ángel Garza Montelongo and Mauricio Moreyra Villarreal
Introduction: Progressive and irreversible hearing loss is the most frequent side effect in patients using platinum therapy for head and neck malignancies. Previous studies on cisplatin-induced ototoxicity have shown that accumulation of reactive oxygen species leads to oxidative stress and subsequent intracellular reactions, eventually leading to cell-death. The aim of this study is to review recent evidence about the use of different substances and their otoprotective effect in humans or animals exposed to cisplatin therapy.
664 Current Role of Minimally Invasive Surgical Techniques in the Diagnosis and Management of Endometriosis-A Clinical Review, Hany Wisa1*, Aiman Aref1 and A I Hasib Ahmed1,2
Background: Endometriosis is a very common gynaecological condition associated with chronic pelvic pain and a negative impact on fertility. Various medical and surgical methods have been described to treat endometriosis with varying degrees of success. Aim: This review examines the evidence behind the current practice of minimal invasive surgery in the diagnosis and management of this condition
665 Rhythmic Mechanical Body Stimulation Improves Physical and Mental Wellbeing and Alters States of Consciousness, Thilo Hinterberger* and Nike Walter
Objectives: There is quite a debate about frequencies around 8 Hz playing a role in the human brain but also in micro-vibrations in muscles of the body. There are also claims about a positive bodily and mental influence of various kinds of vibrating whole-body stimulations. We have studied the effects of such a rhythmic whole-body stimulation on a subjective level.
666 Changes in the Content of Nucleic Acids in Brain Neurons under Various Modes of Low Radiation Exposure, Ushakov IB*, Fedorov VP, Komarevtsev VN and Dyachkov AA
Nucleic acids are the most important radiation target of cells. However, despite the huge number of researches on the problem, their dynamics in the brain neurons throughout the entire period of post radiation remains unexplored. In this regard, the aim of this research was to study the state of nucleic acids in the brain neurons of rats after irradiation at doses of 0.1 to 1 Gy over their entire life span. The experiment was performed in compliance with the rules of bioethics on 390 white male mongrel rats at the age of 4 months. by the beginning of the study, weighing 210±10 g, which were irradiated with gamma quanta (Co-60) with an energy of 1.2 MeV once and fractionated (in equal portions for 5 days) at total doses of 0.1; 0.2; 0.5 and 1.0 Gy with a dose rate of 0.5 Gy/h and 0.5 Gy with a dose rate of 0.5; 1.0; 2.5 and 6.6 Gy/h.
667 Recent Developments in Microfluidic Platforms for Immunological Testing , Argus M Sun1* and John F Wong2
Microfluidic systems for organoid culture are Lab-on-a-Chip systems that have been pervasive in engineering liver, heart, lung, bone and muscle, but immune organs are somewhat underdeveloped in this field. With the need for new biopharmaceuticals such as immune modulators and vaccines, the need for effective and efficient preclinical testing should increase in parallel. This mini-review seeks to introduce new developments in microfluidic immune models, including thymic microfluidic organoids, and multisensor integration between multiple immune organoid system networks also termed Body-on-a-Chip.
668 Investigation into the Cytoprotective Potential of Ethanol Extract of DenettiaTripetalain Wistar Rat, Mfem CC1, Seriki SA2*, Ewona B3 and Okeke JC4
Pepper fruit (Dennettia tripetala) is well known for its wide range of medicinal values which include bowel cleansing, facilitation of digestion and absorption of cholesterol, anti-cancerous effect, anti-microbial effect among many others. But not much has been reported on its cytoprotective effect on the gastric mucosa in spite its widespread use. The current study therefore focuses on evaluating the cytoprotective effect of the extract in wistar rats. Fifteen (15) rats weighing 160-180g were randomly assigned into three groups of five rats each. Group 1 (control), group 2 (low dose group) and group 3(high dose group). Group 1 received 0.5ml of normal saline while Groups 2 and group 3 (experimental groups) received respective doses of 0.00085ml/g body weight and 0.0017ml/g body weight of the extract. The administration was twice a day and lasted for 28 days. All the animals were allowed free access to normal rat chow and water. At the end of the experimental days, the animals were weighed after they were starved overnight. They were anaesthetized with 25% urethane (0.6ml/100g body weight).
669 The Colloid Vibration Potential Effect from Silica Suspensions Using Electroacoustic Spectroscopy, Jafar I Khan1,2* and Mi Wang2*
Electroacoustic techniques are vital tools in order to characterize colloidal suspensions. When an acoustic wave is applied to a source of colloidal suspension, a vibration potential is generated as a result of the interaction. This particular responded potential is termed Colloid Vibration Potential (CVP) and is detected as an AC electrical signal. We address the physicochemical properties upon measuring the CVP for Silica Dioxide (SiO2 ) colloidal particles with three different concentrations of 0.5, 1 and 5% by wt., and a Particle Size Distribution (PSD) ranging from 35, 70, 100, 165 and 190nm. Our experimental technique has relatively eased access to the colloidal source and in addition provides an improved signal to noise ratio with implementation of a fully external detector to sense the generated responded signal. Current study provides relatively consistent measurements at three different excitation frequencies 0.5, 1 and 2MHz. Specifically, the high concentration (5%) of all samples with different particle size distribution enhanced the CVP signal magnitude, facilitating the highest value of 0.0378mA obtained for 100nm at 0.5MHz. The CVP increases initially as a function of the PSD but descends at a particle size > 100nm. Finally, for the case of the excitation frequency the CVP magnitude yields highest value at 0.5MHz.
670 Antibiotic Resistance Genes: Boon or Bane?, Rahul M Gami1 and Vivek M Patel2*
Bacteria are very dynamic organisms in nature and possesses exclusive ability to uptake foreign DNA and replicate them. This unique ability works in their favor to survive environmental changes and evolution. For instance, bacteria can uptake DNA that makes human insulin which can be useful to treat type I Diabetes. This very reason makes bacteria the most popular organism, that is widely used in research for amplifying desired gene and the process is called bacterial transformation. Bacterial transformation was first reported in 1928 by Griffith [1] in Streptococcus pneumoniae where some bacteria take up foreign genetic material from environment by horizontal gene transfer (HGT).
671 Current and Future Challenges In Drug Therapeutics for Sars-Cov-2 Infection in Covid-19 Pandemic, Nitin Saksena*
Pneumonia of unknown cause detected in Wuhan; China was first reported to the WHO Country Office in China on December 31 2019. Later, the causative agent of which was identified to be Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). On March 11, 2020, the pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 was termed as COVID-19 by the World Health Organization (WHO), with the disease touching practically every country in the world. The SARSCoV-2 infection is, although characterized by flu-like symptoms, the fast progression is attributed to the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) [1] or myocarditis [2]. Many other manifestations of the disease have been described in different patient groups across different countries.
672 Natural Products (Apigenin, Curcumin and Emodin) Cure Lung Cancer, Bashir Ahmad2,3*, Pengyu Su1, Shah Zeb Khan6, Fazal Wahid4, Hayat Ullah4, Manzoor Ahmad7, Badshah Hussain5, Jamshed Khan5, Syed Rafiq Hussain Shah2 and Shahab Uddin4
Lung cancer is the most common malignancy worldwide with over 1.8 million new cases diagnosed each year. As overall survival is only 15% for five years, therefore the appropriate therapy is compulsory for its treatment. A number of therapies are in practice for its treatment, but natural products (NPs) are considered safe and effective. Among these NPs, Apigenin, Curcumin and Emodin are reported for the treatment of lung cancer; therefore we summarized the studies of these NPs against lung cancer. This review will provide an outline for further research on these compounds against lung cancer.
673 Novel Strategies to Tackle Ras-Related Cancer: An Opinion Based on Two Recent Reviews, Emilio Duverna and Paul D Adams*
In this communication, we provide a brief overview of two recent reviews by [1,2] which highlight the importance of the continued need for the development of small molecule inhibitors to modulate abnormal signaling processes stimulated by the Ras GTPases. If not properly regulated, these signaling processes can result in Ras-stimulated hyperactivity that can lead to diseases such as cancer. However, to date, strategies to target inhibition of these proteins still remains a daunting challenge. Therefore, these proteins remain important targets for drug discovery efforts to control Ras-stimulated abnormal cell signaling.
674 The Porcine Experimental Model for Oocyte Cryopreservation by Vitrification , Fahiel Casillas1* and Miguel Betancourt2
Pigs have anatomical-physiological similarities with the human in several aspects, mainly in the reproduction function, which is of great interest in this review. However, in oocytes, there are differences between both species, impacting the vitrification success. For example, porcine oocytes have higher intracellular lipid content than women oocytes, affecting cryoprotectant permeability and increasing ice crystal formation. Despite these differences, the porcine model has been important for the development of assisted reproduction technologies in humans, as well as in the genetic improvement of livestock.
675 Application of Bootstrap Resampling Technique to Obtain Confidence Interval for Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) Screening Age, Ijomah, Maxwell Azubuike*, Chris-Chinedu, Joy Nonso
bstract Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing is one of the most commonly used screening tools to detect clinically significant prostate cancers at a stage when intervention reduces morbidity and mortality. However age-specific reference ranges have not been generally favored because their use may delay the detection of prostate cancer in many men and as such may lead to harm in terms of overdiagnosis and overtreatment. The widespread use of PSA has proven controversial as the evidence for benefit as a screening test in asymptomatic men is still subject to debate. In this article, we applied bootstrap resampling technique to obtain the confidence interval for PSA screening age among prostate cancer patients in Nigeria. The bootstrap analysis is a useful technique for investigating variations among selected models in samples drawn at random with replacement, its distribution is used to estimate more robust empirical confidence intervals and is useful when the usual modeling methods based on assumptions about sampling distributions are untrustworthy or unavailable. The study is particularly relevant in light of the recent controversy about prostate cancer screening
676 Antibiotics for Early Onset Sepsis in Newborn Infants, Shabih Manzar*
Excessive, uncontrolled use of antibiotic not only disrupt the neonatal microbiome but also lead to the development of antibiotic resistance [1]. Strict stewardship is therefore should be followed when caring for newborn with suspected early onset sepsis. In addition to the clinical assessment and laboratory analysis, we found the early onset sepsis (EOS) calculator, an online tool, extremely helpful [2]. Here we present the outline of three neonatal cases that highlights on the clinical utility of the EOS calculator.
677 The Impact of COVID-19 on Preclerkship Teaching, Hina Mohsin1,2, Dina Saba2, Fauzia Nausheen1,3, Mohsin Yakub1*
Almost every system is impacted due to COVID-19 pandemic. The clinical aspect of the medical education system is also paying an unavoidable price. Here is an insight into the rapid transition in pre clerkship teaching from onsite to the online environment. This sudden shift in teaching away from the classroom was not a choicerather a need, for which the learners and educators were not well prepared. At the beginning of this transition some believed that this impromptu move to virtual learning, without planning, would result in chaos. However, few see this as an opportunity to introduce a hybrid curriculum in pre-clerkship years, with extra benefits for the learners which include but not limited to content control, sequencing, pace, time management, and the control to tailor them to meet their personal learning objectives [1].
678 Evaluation of The Pressure Ulcers after Using Barrier Cream in Intensive Care Unit, Banu Otlar Can*
A pressure ulcer (PU) is specified by National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel (NPUAP) as localized cutaneous or subcutaneous tissue damage that occurs on bone protrusions whether alone or in combination with shear stress [1]. Clinicians often use a four-grade system as defined by NPUAP for consistency in diagnosing and treatment; Grade 1 non-blanchable erythema with intact skin, Grade 2 partial skin loss of the dermis, Grade 3 full thickness skin loss with exposed dermis and Grade 4 deep tissue loss and injury exposure of bone, tendon and muscle [1].
679 Bandwidth Breakdown in Students and Faculty in the United States due to the COVID-19 Pandemic and Protests for Social Justice, Charlotte Brasic Royeen*
The presence of the COVID-19 Pandemic [1] coupled with the more recent concomitant outbreak of protests for social justice after the murder of George Floyd [2] across major cities in the United States and internationally, has created a confluence of pressures affecting students and faculty in university settings. Not only have students and faculty had to cope with massive transformation of educational offerings to online versus onsite formats [3], but also they have had to further struggle with personal health risks regarding exposure to COVID-19, loss of family members, colleagues or classmates due to the COVID-19 pandemic, while continuing to navigate teaching and learning at high university standards [4].
680 Successful Treatment of a Critical ill Newborn with COVID-19 Pneumonia after Cesarean Section, Fuyong Jiao1, Chongchen Zhou3, Yibo Cheng3, Shuying Luo3, Lei Ma1, Xinggang Zhen3, Yingjun Feng3, Min Li3, Stefan Bittmann2*
We report about a 5 day old newborn with critically pneumonia SARS-CoV-2 after cesarean section infected by a family cluster infection. A male newborn was admitted 22 days after delivery due to “intermittent fever for 17 days”. That means that on the fifth day after delivery, due to Cesarean section, the newborn began to fever. In short, history of pregnancy and delivery modus was G1P1, 22 days ago (31 Jan 2020). The newborn was delivered in 38 + 5 weeks gestation by c-section
681 First Retrospective Analysis of 448 Pediatric Cases of Kawasaki Disease of Two Cohorts from China and Russia, MD Bakradze1,2, AS Polyakova1, V.K. Tatochenko1, AA Gusev1, VV Chernikov1, OV Komarova1, AG Timofeeva1, AP Fisenko1, Wang Juyan3, Cheng Yibing4, Feng Yingjun4, Zhang Sheng3, He Gaitao3, Li Xiaohong3, Stefan Bittmann5, Jiao Fuyong3*
Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute multisystemic vasculitis of unknown etiology that occurs in infants and children. Diagnosis is based on clinical criteria that include fever, exanthema, conjunctivitis, changes in the extremities, erythema of oral mucosa and lips and cervical lymphadenopathy. We investigated the clinical signs and therapy efficacy of patients with KD who admitted to our department. We reviewed 22 patients in Russia, with an age range of 2,5 months to 12 years. Moreover, 426 cases of children with KD admitted to the Children’s Hospital of Shaanxi Provincial People’s Hospital (China) from December 2013 to March 2018 were selected and compared. In case of hospitalization within 10 days of fever we reviewed incomplete KD in 5 patients (25%). In 3 patients KD was finally diagnosed either after antibiotics had been ineffective or when other symptoms of KD emerged, in 70% of cases the diagnosis of KD was undoubted. There was also no doubt of diagnosis in all patients admitted to our department after 10 days of fever. 77% of patients recovered after one dose (2 g/kg) of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and in 23% of cases it was necessary to insert the second dose. Clinicians should consider the KD diagnosis in young children with persistent inexplicable fever to start IVIG treatment within 10 days to prevent development of coronary aneurysms
682 The Impact of Corona Virus on Management of Ectopic Pregnancy, Nazila Shokri1, Yekta Parsa1 and Atefeh Moridi2*
Since January 2020, the novel virus of corona virus families, COVID-19, has been infecting people and many countries are still in the acceleration phase of this pandemic. COVID-19 is an RNA virus, respiratory pathogen that affects upper and lower respiratory system. SARS-cov2 RNA has also been detected in blood and stool specimens of people diagnosed with COVID-19, but there is not enough data on how does the virus transfers to these specimens. Due to the theoretical aerosolization risks and highly contagious human to human form of the illness, most surgeons have limited their surgeries and changed their policy for patient management [1-3].
683 The Response of the Hellenic 3D-Printing Community over the COVID-19 Pandemics: The Success Story of the Hellenic Mediterranean University, Nectarios Vidakis1, Markos Petousis1*, Emmanouel Velidakis1 and Lazaros Tzounis2
By the February of 2020, humanity has to come across with a global health emergency. The corona virus, formally defined as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been declared a pandemic from the World Health Organization (WHO). No one could imagine how the disease’s spread could affect the people’s life over the following months. The uncontrolled outbreak of COVID-19 caused a lack of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)-Medical Devices in hospitals worldwide
684 Sympathetic Nerve Control of Blood Pressure Response during Exercise in Peripheral Artery Disease and Current Application of Experimental Disease Models, Lu Qin and Jianhua Li*
In patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD), the blood supply directed to the lower limbs is reduced. This results in severe limb ischemia and thereby intermittent claudicating which is characterized by pain in lower limbs that occurs with walking and is relieved by rest. Of note, PAD can extremely affect the quality of living of patients and increase high risk of coronary and cerebral vascular accidents. However, effective treatments of PAD are still challenging in clinics. A number of reports have demonstrated the beneficial effects of supervised exercise on symptoms of PAD patients. This review will summarize results obtained from recent human and animal studies, which include the abnormalities in sympathetic control of blood pressure response during exercise in PAD, and rationality of animal models used for study human PAD. Nonetheless, additional in-depth studies are necessary to better explore the underlying mechanisms of the exaggerated responses of sympathetic nerve and blood pressure in PAD at molecular and cellular levels.
685 Who will Heal the Healers?, Farwa Rizvi1* and Rabab Rizvi2
COVID-19 pandemic has changed life as we know it. The world has been witnessing an unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic wreaking havoc for the past few months. This viral pandemic has caused fear and massive concern globally and has affected the mental health of not only the general public [1], but also the healthcare workers. Healthcare personnel including doctors, nurses and paramedical staff working in the front lines are amongst the most vulnerable. These healthcare workers are the unsung heroes fighting this war in the front lines against COVID-19 pandemic.
686 Fact-finding Survey of GS1 Data Bar Labeling of Ethical Drugs in Hospital Pharmacy Departments, Mikio Murata1*, Eri Takeishi1, Hiroshi Kanno2 and Masahiro Sumi1
In Japan, JAN codes were used for the packaging of ethical drugs, but in September 2006, the MHLW issued “Guidelines for implementation of bar-code labeling of ethical drugs” for mechanical checking of drugs using GS1 Data Bar to prevent mix-ups and to ensure the traceability of ethical drugs. In Japan, tablets and capsules of ethical drugs are mostly delivered to patients, particularly outpatients, in PTP or SP. In the present survey, the printing conditions of GS1 DataBar on PTP or SP of oral tablets and capsules, and on the containers and labels of external preparations were investigated.
687 Cell as a Living System, Martin Vlček*
Results of model work on human systems are also used to understand the cell system. The principle of the living system is extended by a more or less suspected structure of dark matter. Dark matter as a rather astronomical term is interpreted as a fundamental part of the structure of living systems. Its function is connected with the materialization and control of the concept of existence.
688 Pulmonary Gangrene due to a Septic Emboli in a Young Female, S Grewal1*, Hannah Knox1, Henry Kim2, Jericho Hallare2, Shirley Kim2, Timothy Law2, Leonard Ranasinghe3 and Sameir Alhadi4
Rationale: A rare case of necrotizing pneumonia secondary to septic DVT and use of ECMO and lung transplant in refractory respiratory failure. Objectives: To evaluate the role of ECMO and lung transplant in necrotizing pneumonia. Methods: We present a case report of a young female with Methicillin resistant necrotizing pneumonia, secondary to a septic deep venous thrombosis.
689 Awareness and Treatment of Cancer-Related Depression, Ruoyan Qin and Lingshuang Liu*
Cancer is one of the main causes of death and the incidence rate is increasing. Depression is one of the most common negative psychological states of patients. Cancer-related depression (CRD) refers to the emotional pathological reaction of patients who lose their personal mental normality due to diagnosis, treatments and comorbidities [1]. It is reported that the incidence of CRD is 3.7% -58 % [2].
690 The Relationship Between Fasting During The Ramadan Month and Acute Renal Colic Admissions Rate to The Emergency Department, Kamil Malshy*, Omri Nativ, Shadi Badaan, Yaron Ofer, Azik Hoffman, Ariel Zisman, Gilad E. Amiel and Michael Mullerad
Objectives: Dehydration is a risk factor for the development of urinary stones. Ramadan fasting restricts from consuming food and fluids for over 15 hours a day for 28 consecutive days. Our study aim was to assess whether fasting during Ramadan increases the number of Renal Colic (RC) Emergency Department (ED) visits. Methods: We reviewed the medical records of patients who applied to the ED with RC during the Ramadan period between years 2016 to 2018. We divided the population into Muslim and non-Muslim patients and compared them with patients who applied to the ED two weeks before and after the Ramadan period (control).
691 Revisiting Smell and Taste Dysfunctions during COVID-19 Pandemic in Hong Kong , Ryan HW Cho1, Zion WH To1, Zenon WC Yeung1, Eugene YK Tso2, Kitty SC Fung3, Sandy KY Chau4, Erica YL Leung5, Thomas SC Hui1, Steven WC Tsang5, KN Kung2, Eudora YD Chow3, Victor Abdullah1, C Andrew van Hasselt6, Michael CF Tong6* and Peter KM Ku1,6*
Background: This cross-sectional cohort study in Hong Kong aimed to revisit smell and taste symptoms in COVID-19 in Chinese population which were previously underreported in China. Methods: 120 symptomatic patients underwent testing for SARS-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) were recruited. The clinical data of confirmed COVID-19 (n=60) and control subjects (n=60) were collected, including severity of smell and taste impairment and the cycle threshold (Ct) values from a SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay of specimens
692 Alice in Wonderland Syndrome: The First Case of Arbitrary, Reproducible, Early Childhood AIWS-like Visual Sensations in a Meditation Setting, Bittmann S*, Moschüring-Alieva E, Luchter E, Weissenstein A, Bittmann L and Villalon G
Alice in the wonderland syndrome (AIWS) was named after the description by Lewis Carroll in his novel. It was in 1955 when John Todd, a psychiatrist, this entity described for the first time. Todd described it as “Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland” of Lewis Carroll. The author Carroll suffered from heavy migraine attacks. The Alicein-Wonderland-Syndrome is a bewildering state of attacks which affect the visual perception. AIWS is a neurological form of attacks which concern the brain and cause a perception disturbance. The patients describe visual, auditive and tactile hallucinations and perception disturbances.
693 Profile of Some Trace Elements in Selected Traditional Medicines used for Various Aliments in Ebonyi State, Nigeria, Ikeagwulonu Richard Chinaza1,6, Nkereuwem Sunday Etukudoh2, Ejinaka Obiora Reginald3, Ibanga Imoh Etim4, Obeta Mark Uchejeso4*, Uro-Chukwu Henry Chukwuemeka5 and Odeh Elizabeth Chibuzor6
Background: Traditional medicines have been in use before conventional drugs in Nigeria and Ebonyi State in particular. The use has been on the increase of recent no matter the levels of education and exposure due to the efficacy. They are sometimes considered as dietary supplements once they are found to be rich in one or more elements. The knowledge on concentrations of these trace elements is important for determining the effectiveness of the plants in treating various ailments so as to understand their pharmacological actions.
694 Peritoneal Dialysis in the Elderly: Modality of Choice During COVID-19 Pandemic, N Ozlem Harmankaya¹* and Hakan Kaptanogullari²
At the time of the COVID-19 pandemic, the elderly is one of the vulnerable patient groups for whom treatment at home would be most beneficial. Adding to this the fact that elderly people are under stay-at-home orders in a considerable number of countries as of now, the need for home dialysis becomes even more pronounced. The number of older patients with end-stage kidney disease undergoing renal replacement therapy is increasing worldwide. Elderly patients with additional comorbidities are now surviving long enough to be started on dialysis
695 Time to Revisit Endpoint Selection in Clinical Trials, Shein-Chung Chow1* and Patty J Lee2
In clinical trials, power calculation is often performed based on a single primary endpoint to determine sample size required for achieving study objective with a desired power at a pre-specified level of significance. In practice, power calculation based on a single primary endpoint has been criticized. First, how to select the single primary endpoint among a group of primary endpoints? Second, a single primary endpoint may not be sufficient to adequately inform complex cohorts, the disease status and/or treatment effect of the test treatment under investigation. Third, different study endpoints with different data types (e.g., continuous versus binary response) may result in different sample sizes. In addition, with a given sample size, some (single) endpoints may achieve the study objective while others fail to do so. In this opinion article, a conceptual innovation is the development of a therapeutic index that fully utilizes information from all relevant study endpoints proposed.
696 Translation of Gas Spectroscopy into the Clinic, a Promising Tool for Non-Invasive Diagnostics in Respiratory Health Care of Neonates , Andrea Pacheco1,2*, Eugene Dempsey3 and Stefan Andersson-Engels1,2
Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS) is the leading cause of death among preterm infants worldwide. The latest improvements made in tackling RDS are focused on less invasive surfactant therapy and non-invasive ventilation. As a consequence of the more advanced and intensive respiratory support, there is an increase in the prevalence of infants with chronic lung disease. The current first line techniques used to monitor at risk infants with respiratory distress are pulse oximetry, chest radiography (X-ray) and blood gas analysis with X-ray imaging being the main diagnostic tool used. However, ionized radiation can be harmful for the infant and exposure should be kept to the minimum requirement.
697 Definition of a Novel Imaging Quality Measure for the Evaluation of Emergency Department Patients with Suspected Pulmonary Embolism: Use of AI NLP to Validate and Automate It, Vladimir I Valtchinov1,2,5*, Ivan K Ip1,3, Ramin Khorasani1,2, Laila Cochon1,2, Bingxue K Zhai2, Ronilda Lacson1, Shawn N Murphy5,6 and Ali S Raja1,4
CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) utilization rates for patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE) in the Emergency Department (ED) have increased steadily with associated radiation exposure, costs and overdiagnosis. A quality measure is needed to precisely assess efficiency of CTPA utilization, normalized to numbers of patients presenting with suspected PE and based on patient signs and symptoms. This study used Artificial Intelligence approaches such as ontology-driven natural language processing (NLP) to develop, automate, and validate SPE (“Suspected Pulmonary Embolism [PE]”), a measure determining CTPA utilization in ED patients with suspected PE. This retrospective study was conducted 4/1/2013-3/31/2014 in a Level-1 ED. A NLP engine processed “Chief Complaint” sections of ED documentation, identifying patients with PEsuggestive symptoms based on four Concept Unique Identifiers (CUIs: shortness of breath, chest pain, pleuritic chest pain, anterior pleuritic chest pain). SPE was defined as proportion of ED visits for patients with potential PE undergoing CTPA. Manual reviews determined specificity, sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV).
698 Rickettsiosis: A Case Series on Different Clinical Presentation in Children, Maria Candelino, Paola Di Filippo*, Debora Mariarita d’Angelo, Daniela David, Francesco Sansone, Carmela Salladini, Rita Greco, Nadia Rossi and Francesco Chiarelli
Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF) is an acute febrile, zoonotic disease caused by Rickettsia conorii. This is transmitted to humans by the brown dogtick Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Although therapy is easy and unexpensive, the different clinical presentation, the lack tick bite in the history or the frequent absence of skin manifestations, often make diagnosis difficult. We here reported four clinical cases of MSF, occurred in a region of central Italy (Abruzzo) with different clinical characteristics, but common epidemiological and anamnestic characteristics.
699 The Incidence of Sarcopenia is Low Among Israeli Liver Transplantation Patients and Associated with Lower Survival Estimates, Yael Milgrom1*, Samir Abu Gazala2, Abed Khalaileh2, Reem Gawi2 and Rifaat Safadi1
Purpose: Sarcopenic patients have reduced musculoskeletal capacity and have poorer post- surgical outcomes. High rates of sarcopenia have been reported among Western liver transplantation candidates. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of sarcopenia in an Israeli liver transplant program and assess its effect on post-transplant outcomes.
700 Managing Crohn’s Disease in The Older Adult: A Case Study Approach, Andrea Jennings Dr.PH., RN*
Crohn’s Disease is a chronic bowel disease that can affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract. Both genetics and environmental factors may contribute to a diagnosis of Crohn’s Disease. This case study highlights how older adults with Crohn’s Disease may face different challenges compared to younger populations. A multidisciplinary healthcare team is needed to initiate a plan of care for this vulnerable population. With ongoing evaluation of the plan of care, positive health outcomes may be likely to occur for older adults with Crohn’s Disease.
701 Substance Identification in Anti-Doping Control-Some Issues , Mats Larsson*
When an athlete is accused of an anti-doping rule violation according to the World Anti-Doping Code (WADC), usually the only evidence available to the ruling body is the presence of a prohibited substance, metabolite or marker in the athlete’s sample, as determined by a laboratory accredited by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). The laboratory enjoys a presumption, which means that if the analysis has been conducted according to WADA’s International Standard for Laboratories and technical documents, it cannot be challenged by the athlete. It speaks for itself that given the enormous consequences for an athlete to be found guilty of an antidoping violation, and the singular importance attributed to the laboratory, the analysis procedure and the underpinning science must be impeccable
702 Encapsulation – A Perspective Improving Functional Properties of Flour-Based Confectionary, Sanja Oručević Žuljević* and Asima Akagić
ntroduction Flour-based confectionary is the most popular confectionary and have an important position in food technology in general. Those products present the most often consumed confectionary products and their growth in EU market has been increasing per capita consumption [1] owing to their sweet taste and nice aroma and flavor, easy accessibility–ready to use and well-established habits [2], lower production costs, convenience and long shelf life [3]. D
703 Capillary Blood Sampling Procedure in Pediatric Population, Malinowski M*
Capillary blood sampling is an essential method of blood collection performed by nurses of all skill levels to obtain samples for routine laboratory tests in neonates. Newborn screening tests require small, but adequate amounts of blood. Accuracy of their results depends, however, on proper sample collection technique. Heel sticks are the most commonly performed invasive procedures in neonatal intensive care units. Clinical guidelines recommend drawing blood from an infant’s heel from a very precise site to avoid trauma, pain and tissue damage in infants.
704 The Epidemiology of COVID-19 Novel Corona Virus in Incidence and the Distribution of the Disease across the World, Ahsan Ali Siddiqui*
Background and Objective: This Article focuses on providing details about the origin of the COVID-19 and the distribution among the community. Which part of community in Age, Gender, race and with chronic illness are more vulnerable to get COVID-19. COVID-19 Corona virus attacks on Lungs, Heart and other viscera of the body till a person died. The study focuses on two things which Articles are in favor of immediate Governmental actions against the Pandemic COVID-19, Which Articles discusses the Preventive measures about the COVID-19?
705 COVID-19 Pandemic and Medical Education in a Developing Country, Ahmed M Abbas1,2*, Islam Hussein Hassan2,3, Reem Sayad2,3, Mark Mohsen Kamel2,4, Fatma A Omar2,4, Lobna Ahmed2,4, Amera S Salem2,3, Shimaa H Elsamman2,4, Alshaima Refai2,4, Andro T Fawzy2,3, Mario S Shawky2,4, Ahmed Saeed Mostafa2,4, Ebrahim A Yousof2,4, Shimaa Salah Ali2,4, Asmaa AbouBakr2,4, Nermeen Bahaa2,3, Sherry Michael2,4, Marco Ghobrial5, Mai E AbuElmagd2,4, Mostafa H Abdelsalam2,4, Alaa A Abdelmonsef2,6, Ghada R Fathalla2,6, Walaa R Fathalla2,4, Islam M Ebrahim2,3, Abdelrahman G Ramadan2,3, Alaa Rashad Ali2,4, Menna Allah Nashaat2,4, Heba Allah Nashaat2,4, Marina Farah Fawzy2,4, Shimaa Selim2,4, Safaa Ahmed2,4, Yasmin Ismail2,4, Yasser M Abd Elaal2,4, Hanan F Fouly2,4, Naglaa Mohamed2,4, Randa Wanees Ahmed2,4, Sara Magdy2,4, Amera Imam2,4, Nourhan Mahmoud2,4, Zeinab Y Zaki2,4, Salma A Samy2,4, Shrouk Gad2,4, Aya Shaban2,4, Mohamed Ashraf Salah2,4, Mohamed M Abdelkarem2,4, Areej A Khamees2,3, Aya Abdelnasser2,4, Samar Mamdouh Mostafa2,4, Alaa Bazeed Dardeer2,4, Ahmed S Sedik2,4, Hossam Aldein Samir2,4, Mahmoud M Saad2,4, Zakria Y Elessemy2,4, Karim O Sleem2,4, Mohammed H Abdelhafez2,4, Eshak N Youssef2,4, Zeinab M Bakr2,4, Micheal Mohab Nady2,7, Mohamed Salah Abdo2,3, Mohamed O Omar2,3, Mahmoud Kamel2,4, Hajer Y Moustafa2,3, Hala Hashem2,3, Hagar A Elotifiy2,3, Areej A Abdelaziz2,3, Tarek M Essa2,3, Fatma A El-Saaid Monib2,3, Nehal Gamal Omar2,3, Moaiad Eldin A Mohamed2,3, Andrew Nasseh Hafeez2,3, Esraa Atif Hassan2,4, Ahlam O Ali2,4, AlBatool M AlMahdy2,4, Alya O Mohamed2,4, Shorouk M Adel2,4, Sarah Khaled Fahmi2,3, Abeer Abdel-Fattah2,4, Mariam Salah Moris2,8 and Safaa K Fathy2,4
ort Communication In March 2020, the World Health Organization considered coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) as a worldwide pandemic [1]. This leads to serious effects on medical education in medical schools. Medical students are potentially susceptible to COVID-19 owing to their contact with in-patients during the clinical teaching classes and their common rotation between the hospital depart ments [2]. Closure of medical schools and continuing the educational process from home for both staff and students became urgent to ensure social distancing.
706 Mobile Apps and Memes in the Era of COVID-19 Pandemic; Could this Make Quarantine More Acceptable?, Ahmed M Abbas1,2, Ebrahim Yousof2,3, Mahmoud Kamel2,3, Shimaa Selim2,3, Safaa Ahmed2,3 and Yasmin Ismail2,3
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic forces the entire world countries to impose a curfew and closes most of the social organizations; that creates a lot of leisure time and the increasing need to fill this space inside the home. Additionally, it increases the need for achieving daily home tasks. Therefore, mobile apps find their way to control most of the people’s life from food delivery up to educational lectures and business meetings. That phenomenon provides a lot of benefits; It not only encourages fighting infection but also helps to reduce economic affection from curfew and continuation of working flow. Another significant advantage is that after the end of this pandemic if we replace the traditional way that causes a lot of pollution with these apps, it will be good for the environment, which earns a lot these days from curfew that clearly decreased level of the pollution.
707 Challenges in Current Management of Valvular Heart Disease. Thinking Outside the Box, Locorotondo G*, Diana G*, Crea F** and Massetti M**
Management of valvular heart disease (VHD) is a continuously evolving process: since a prosthetic mechanical valve was firstly implanted in humans, technical advancements in diagnosis and treatment of VHD have taught us that we should always keep the well-proven and be open-minded to something new. According to current guidelines, management of VHD is mainly based on an intricate puzzle, relying on fine diagnosis, accurate prognostic stratification and tailored treatment. Despite all efforts, some gaps in knowledge still exist concerning appropriate patient selection and correct timing of treatment, which sometimes leads us to consider the need of “thinking outside the box” in current clinical practice.
708 Stationary Phase Physiology Tell-Tales the Regulation of Bioactive Metabolite Production in Bacteria, Matsobane G Tlou1* and Mampolelo M Photolo2
Bacteria exist in a variety of physiological types, environmental habitats and niches of occurrence. In these environments, bacteria are predominantly found in the stationary growth-phase (SGP) due to oligotrophic conditions, biotic and physico-chemical stress [1]. The physiological and biochemical properties of bacteria reflect their “environmental-fitness” or adaptability to the environmental habitats i.e. extreme barophilic bacteria isolated from the deep-sea [2], a thermophilic isolate from an ultra-deep South African gold mine [3], metalophillic species from a domestic showerhead biofilm [4] plant/animal symbiotic bacteria [5,6]. The ability to survive and proliferate under such conditions depends on the physiological regulation of SGP and consequently
709 Stationary Phase Physiology Tell-Tales the Regulation of Bioactive Metabolite Production in Bacteria, Matsobane G Tlou1* and Mampolelo M Photolo2
Bacteria exist in a variety of physiological types, environmental habitats and niches of occurrence. In these environments, bacteria are predominantly found in the stationary growth-phase (SGP) due to oligotrophic conditions, biotic and physico-chemical stress [1]. The physiological and biochemical properties of bacteria reflect their “environmental-fitness” or adaptability to the environmental habitats i.e. extreme barophilic bacteria isolated from the deep-sea [2], a thermophilic isolate from an ultra-deep South African gold mine [3], metalophillic species from a domestic showerhead biofilm [4] plant/animal symbiotic bacteria [5,6]. The ability to survive and proliferate under such conditions depends on the physiological regulation of SGP and consequently
710 A Personalized Music Intervention (PMI) To Decrease BPSDS in Patients with Dementia on A Geriatric Dementia Unit: Promoting Patient Centred Care and Quality of Life, Wally J Bartfay1*, Terry Wu2, Emma Bartfay1, Karen Zavitz1, Julie Earle3, Sheri Hosbourgh3, Andra Duff-Woskosky3, Theodore Konstantinidis1, Jacob Martin2 and Delana Theiventhiran1
Objectives: Dementia is a progressive and neurodegenerative disorder of the brain and associated mental processes. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the benefits of personalized music interventions (PMI) on managing behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) on a geriatric dementia unit (GDU)
711 Clinical Versatility of the Functional Lumen Imaging Probe in Pediatric Gastrointestinal Procedures, Jacqueline M Barsamian1, Armen Gharibans2,3, Alain J Benitez4 and Hayat M Mousa1*
The functional lumen imaging probe (FLIP) is a novel device with great utility as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool for a variety of gastrointestinal conditions. While its use is well documented within the adult population, very few articles have described the use of the FLIP in the pediatric population. We summarize current literature describing the use of the FLIP in the pediatric population as well as our experiences with the FLIP for the past five years in patients with achalasia, esophageal dysphagia, and/or eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) at two pediatric centers.
712 Covid-19 and Its Gastrointestinal Implications, Brian França dos Santos¹, ³*, Daubernai Bonoso Monteiro Neto² and Lucrécia Helena Loureiro³
Introduction: Since the 2019 Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) outbreak in December 2019, several digestive symptoms have been frequently reported in patients infected with the virus. In this study, we aimed to report the case of a patient with COVID-19 with digestive symptoms.
713 A Cautionary Note for COVID-19 Survivors: Potential Long-term Risk for Alzheimer’s Disease , Yuxiang Sun*
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused great loss of human lives, massive burdens on health care systems, and enormous damage to economies worldwide. COVID-19, caused by coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV-2), not only severely damages the respiratory system, but also affects a wide range of organs such as pancreas, kidneys, liver and brain [1]. Since we are still in the midst of the pandemic, the current focus has been primarily on treating the life-threatening symptoms and reducing mortality. However, it is also important to note that emerging evidence shows that many COVID-19 survivors have lingering symptoms of recurrent cough, chronic fatigue, depression, memory loss, etc. for months after the initial infection. This is a very troubling phenomenon, but so far it has gotten little attention. It is clear that SARS-CoV-2 can infect people all ages. While it causes higher mortality in the elderly and people with underlying health issues, recent data in the US and Europe show that an increasing number of young people become ill from the virus, many are healthy individuals in their 20s and 30s. Some young patients are so sick to require hospitalization; some even need ventilators and life support
714 Advanced Laboratory Investigations Conducted at Medical Research Unit Laboratory, MHWT, Uttara Model Town, Dhaka, Bangladesh, ASM Giasuddin1*, KA Jhuma2 and AMM Haq3
Among the medical sciences, Diagnostic Immunology has become a versatile branch due to availability of monoclonal antibody (MCA)-based advanced techniques such as radioimmunoassay (RIA), enzyme immunoassay (EIA), fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS), Nephelometry, Immunochromatographic technique (ICT), Immunofluorescence technique (IFT), etc. Laboratory diagnosis and follow-up of immunologically -mediated as well as other diseases are made now-a-days with high precision and accuracy with the application of these advanced techniques. Diagnostic immunology was reorganized and more versatile investigations were introduced at the Medical College for Women & Hospital (MCW&H) laboratory, Uttara, Dhaka in August 2002. The idea was to provide high quality laboratory services for specialized diagnostic immunology tests in a cost effective way. In 2005 Medical Research Unit (MRU) had been set up in at MCW&H building to conduct high quality clinical and biomedical research and provide further specialized biochemical and immunological laboratory tests at affordable costs. Many diagnostic tests were introduced and carried out regularly at MRU (Diagnostic) Laboratory to confirm and pin-point the clinical (provisional) diagnosis of human diseases. The analysis of the results of some advanced laboratory investigations and also the immunodiagnostic tests in various antibody classes for TORCH/ ToRCH infections conducted at MRU Laboratory have been presented in the present article and discussed accordingly
715 Uncommon brain metastases from endometrial adenocarcinoma, 2 Case reports, Yuan Frank Shan*, Buqing Liang, Frank Harris and Jason H Huang
Brain tumor accounts for only about 1% of human body neoplasms, among those brain tumors, metastatic tumors take up a significant percentage, probably due to the advance treatment which makes patients’ survival longer than before. Brain metastases, in North America, usually come from lung cancers, breast cancers and malignant melanomas, probably due to their relatively closer locations to the brain by anatomy. Long-distance metastases from organs below diaphragm/intra-abdominal organs are uncommon, except for renal cell carcinoma, which most often metastasizes to the cerebellum. Here we report 2 cases of endometrial carcinomas metastasized to the brain.
716 Left Ventricle Apical Fibroelastoma: A Rare Finding, Mohsin Khan*, Ijaz Malik, Arshad Jahangir, David Kress and Tanvir Bajwa
Primary cardiac tumors are rare and are reported with a frequency of 0.02-0.1% in autopsy series [1]. Fibroelastoma is the third most common benign neoplasm of the heart after myxoma and lipoma, accounting for
717 Safety of Sofosbuvir and Daclatasvir in Patients having Ischemic Heart Disease for Treatment of HCV Compensated Cirrhosis, Ahmed Rezq1*, Mahmoud Hazem2, Nerin Okasha3, Ashraf Zaky3 and Mohamed Aly4
Various biomarkers were used to evaluate the progression and prognosis of atherosclerosis. Safety of new therapeutic modalities of HCV needs more systematic studies. 80 patients were enrolled in our study to demonstrate the safety margin of the the new treatment of HCV in the form of Sofosbuvir and Daclatasvir in patients with coronary artery disease. CIMT, as well as different biomarkers that predict progression of atherosclerosis were analyzed at the beginning of therapy and after receiving the final dose.
718 PCSK9 Deficiency Modulates Glucose Homeostasis and Insulin Secretion Via Pancreatic Ldl Receptors And Cholesterol Accumulation, Jing He1,2, Yan Liu1,2, Kai Li1,2, Xin Fan1,2, Rong Li1,2, Michael A Hill3,4 and Jianbo Wu1,2*
Intracellular lipid accumulation contributes to β-cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes. How PCSK9 interacts with lipid metabolism to alter insulin availability/resistance is not well studied. Genetic deficiency of PCSK9 mice was fed a high fat (HFD; 45% Kcal from fat) for 14 weeks, and the metabolic phenotype including glucose, insulin, GTT, ITT, and cholesterol was examined. In addition, the expression of PCSK9 and LDLR was were examined by RT-qPCR, and immunohistochemistry. We provide data supporting a role for PCSK9 in pancreatic islets. In HFD mice, PCSK9 deletion led to impaired glucose tolerance and decreased insulin secretion. Pancreatic islets of HFD PCSK9-/ mice showed impaired insulin production and increased LDLR mRNA. Cholesterol was higher in islets of both HFD-fed WT and PCSK9 KO mice compared to low-fat diet controls. Glucose intolerance in PCSK9 deficiency was reversed when the LDLR was also lacking. Further, islets isolated from PCSK-/-LDR-/- mice showed improved insulin secretion. Our findings support a tissue-specific role for PCSK9 in pancreatic cholesterol homeostasis such that PCSK deficiency may accentuate LDLR-dependent β-cell dysfunction
719 Fetal Cervical Teratomas: Etiology, diagnosis, and Treatment Options, Florian Recker*
Cervical teratomas are rare fetal tumors with a frequency of 1 in 20,000 to 1 in 40,000 live births, with a female-to-male ratio of 3:1 [1]. In a series of 1,253 teratomas of different types [2,3], only 6 (0.47%) were classified as epignathus [4]. Histologically, they are benign tumours formed by the three germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm). While the majority of fetal teratomas manifest themselves in the coccyx region, cervical teratomas represent only about 6% of congenital teratomas. Moreover, there are some cases in the literature where cervical teratomas showed a malignant tendency. Thus Thurkow et al. [6] reported an extremely rare case of malignant teratoma of the neck,
720 Modified Polypropylene Nonwoven Textile for Filter Facial Masks, Radka Kopecká*, Jiří Příhoda and Ladislav Pospíšil
Coronavirus (COVID-19) the most frequently spreads from human-to-human through respiratory droplets. Due to the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, the research of protective equipment, especially facial masks, increased significantly. The filtering materials of facial masks are typically nonwoven textile. These materials, initially using natural fibers, came into greater importance with the introduction of synthetic thermoplastics, particularly polypropylene (PP), which creates the basic material for nonwoven textile for facial masks production.
721 Molecular Characterization of Multi Drug Resistance Escherichia coli isolated among Diabetes Mellitus Patients in Dongla State, Sudan, Husham M Taha Aloob1*, Samia S Mohamed Ismail2, Abdelhakam H Ali3
Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by Escherichia coli have become a significant worldwide public health concern and is a common infectious disease in which level of antimicrobial resistance are alarming worldwide.
722 Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Based Imaging Using 89Zr-Labeled Monoclonal Antibody (J591), Michael Sun MD1, Muhammad Obaid Niaz MD2, Myrto Skafida MD3, Adlai Nelson BS4 and Muhammad Junaid Niaz MD4*
Accurate and comprehensive imaging is vital for the subsequent management and treatment of prostate cancer. Conventional imaging modalities are of limited effectiveness in staging and re-staging disease. Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is the most validated molecular target in prostate cancer, as it is specific and overexpressed in malignant cells. Therefore, PSMA positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is becoming more commonly used for both primary and metastatic prostate cancer. One conjugate involves the radionuclide 89Zirconium (Zr) paired with the monoclonal antibody J591 directed toward PSMA, which we review in this article. A pilot study investigating 89Zr-J591 PET in primary disease showed that the dominant nodule was identified in 8 out of 11 cases. Subsequent studies involving 89Zr-J591 PET in metastatic disease found that the conjugate was safe and more effective than computed tomography (CT) and bone scan at detecting osseous lesions. 491 lesions were identified by 89Zr-J591 PET, compared to 339 by traditional bone scan. In 22 biopsy-validated bone lesions, 21 were identified by 89Zr-J591 PET. However, performance was poorer for soft tissue lesions, as CT identified more cancerous lymph nodes overall; this trend remained when scope was narrowed to biopsy-validated lymph nodes. 89Zr-J591 PET had high specificity and positive predictive value. Challenges of 89Zr-J591 PET include high uptake in liver and kidney and 8-day delay in imaging following radiotracer administration, owing to delayed clearance. These challenges are mitigated by the development of DF-IAB2M, a smaller derivative of J591. A pilot study involving 89Zr conjugated to DF-IAB2M has shown promising results, and further studies are ongoing.
723 Membrane Distillation: A Niche Application for Wastewater, Ahmed Abdel-Karim*
bstract The sought-after efficient treatment of wastewater has become an essential purpose. in this context, Membrane Distillation (MD), which is a thermal-based membrane technology, has the ability to treat wide range of wastewater streams such as industrial wastewater, seawater, brine water from other processes, and oil-gas field produced water. MD membranes are basically hydrophobic in nature so they are susceptible to fast wetting and severe fouling. In this mini review recent efforts in using MD for treating wastewater treatment will be mentioned briefly, along with novel membranes with special anti-wetting features to overcome the trade-off between permeability and selectivity
724 Capillary blood sampling in adults, Serafin A*
Capillary blood sampling is a medical procedure used for early detection of some diseases before their symptoms appear or serious complications arise and for routine checking the health status of patients. In adult patients, a blood sample is obtained by simple pricking of a finger. The technique has been used for decades and it is progressively used worldwide because it is a quick, easy, cheap, and widely available method to check and control a patient’s status of health
725 A Golden Opportunity and Call for Action for Whole of Family Lifestyle Change to Significantly Reduce the Risk of Development of Severe COVID-19, Gary M Leong*
To say COVID-19 has turned every country on its head, causing unprecedented public health, economic and societal pressure, is a colossal understatement. With no known therapies or a preventative vaccine, the novel Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) strain is responsible globally to date for over three hundred thousand deaths and >4 million infected individuals and a global economic and social shutdown [1]. The lack of an effective preventative vaccine highlights the importance in understanding what modifiable lifestyle factor(s) that predispose any one individual to the development of severe COVID-19 disease, including the risk of mechanical ventilation and death.
726 COVID-19: Physical Inactivity and Diabetes, Luis Tomás Ródenas Cuenca*
The disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 has become a pandemic due to its rapid spread and transmissibility. Among the most vulnerable patients are older adults and those with chronic diseases, such as high blood pressure and diabetes mellitus. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in Mexico is 10.3%, a considerable figure if we take into account that these are people who know they have the disease. Therefore, the objective of the article is to present an overview and an analysis regarding the epidemiology and consequences of physical inactivity and sedentarism, the main effects of isolation, the benefits of exercise well prescribed in diabetic persons under the current COVID-19 pandemic.
727 The Time has come turn on the Cutaneous Nerve System to manage Pain , Rob Sillevis*1 and Francisco Selva2
Pain remains one the main reasons why people seek medical care. Most of the nociception leading to pain is typically generated in either the musculoskeletal system or the viscera. As the brain receives nociceptive information it will create an awareness of a noxious stimuli and respond accordingly [1]. The interconnection within the functioning of the brain, the immune system, and the health of the skin has been identified within the functioning of the brain, the immune system, and the health of the skin. Cutaneous sensory stimuli are transduced in the periphery by specialized organs or free nerve endings [2].
728 Traction Force Mapping of Tractional Retinal Detachments with Optical Coherence Tomography, Brent Deibert MD*1, Pengfei Dong PhD2, Courtney Hellman MD1 and Linxa Gu PhD2
Background: The aim of this study is to better understand the mechanical response of the retina to the tractional forces that result in a tractional retinal detachment (TRD) by creating a traction force map using a computational model.
729 A Brief Note of Nitrocellulose Membrane Applied for Biomedical Immobilization and Diagnosis, Ruochen Sun1, Song Gao2, Zhichao Feng2, Pingan Liu1,3*and Hui Qi1
Nitrocellulose (NC), obtained after nitration reaction, has a similar configuration with cellulose, so it is also named as cellulose nitrate [1]. As a fibre-like energetic material, NC is not limited in its original form and applications. One secondary product of NC is the NC membrane, which was described as the paper-like and microporous matrix [2]. The excellent signal-to-noise ratio [3], biocompatibility and stability of porous NC membrane substrates enable many relative biomedical applications, such as filtering [4,5], molecular immobilization and immuno-diagnosis. In this article, we are focused on these biomedical achievements of NC membrane.
730 Nitrocellulose (NC), obtained after nitration reaction, has a similar configuration with cellulose, so it is also named as cellulose nitrate [1]. As a fibre-like energetic material, NC is not limited in its original form and applications. One secondary product of NC is the NC membrane, which was described as the paper-like and microporous matrix [2]. The excellent signal-to-noise ratio [3], biocompatibility and stability of porous NC membrane substrates enable many relative biomedical applications, such as filtering [4,5], molecular immobilization and immuno-diagnosis. In this article, we are focused on these biomedical achievements of NC membrane., Do Kyun David Kim*
Although the world has experienced similar pandemics in relatively recent years, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), the uncontrollable spread of COVID-19 demonstrated a seriously low level of preparation for a pandemic, regardless of the country. This indicates a very low level of risk awareness on pandemics in all sectors of society from individuals to organizations to the government. With the case of the United States, the unpreparedness and low risk perception to pandemics resulted in millions of infections and hundreds of thousands of deaths, which keeps increasing even a half year after the COVID-19 pandemic became global in early 2020. No one can warrant when we can obtain effective vaccines or treatments for COVID-19
731 Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Based Imaging Using 89Zr-Labeled Monoclonal Antibody (J591), Michael Sun1, Muhammad Obaid Niaz2, Myrto Skafida3, Adlai Nelson BS4 and Muhammad Junaid Niaz4*
Accurate and comprehensive imaging is vital for the subsequent management and treatment of prostate cancer. Conventional imaging modalities are of limited effectiveness in staging and re-staging disease. Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is the most validated molecular target in prostate cancer, as it is specific and overexpressed in malignant cells. Therefore, PSMA positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is becoming more commonly used for both primary and metastatic prostate cancer. One conjugate involves the radionuclide 89Zirconium (Zr) paired with the monoclonal antibody J591 directed toward PSMA, which we review in this article. A pilot study investigating 89Zr-J591 PET in primary disease showed that the dominant nodule was identified in 8 out of 11 cases. Subsequent studies involving 89Zr-J591 PET in metastatic disease found that the conjugate was safe and more effective than computed tomography (CT) and bone scan at detecting osseous lesions. 491 lesions were identified by 89Zr-J591 PET, compared to 339 by traditional bone scan. In 22 biopsy-validated bone lesions, 21 were identified by 89Zr-J591 PET. However, performance was poorer for soft tissue lesions, as CT identified more cancerous lymph nodes overall; this trend remained when scope was narrowed to biopsy-validated lymph nodes. 89Zr-J591 PET had high specificity and positive predictive value. Challenges of 89Zr-J591 PET include high uptake in liver and kidney and 8-day delay in imaging following radiotracer administration, owing to delayed clearance. These challenges are mitigated by the development of DF-IAB2M, a smaller derivative of J591. A pilot study involving 89Zr conjugated to DF-IAB2M has shown promising results, and further studies are ongoing
732 Status and Eradication of Polio in Pakistan, Savaira Jabbar1, Muhammad Rizwan Hamid*1,3, Hafiz Husnain Nawaz1*, Sadia Zahid1, Muhammad Sajid2 and Su Pin3
Poliomyelitis is a highly endemic and fetal disease, which mainly act on children under five years of age initial to irreversible paralysis and possibly death. For decades, both private and government organizations have been putting trials through their partnership to eradicate polio entirely from the different parts of the globe and as a result of those trials are left with only three countries which are now polio endemic. Since Pakistan is one of those three countries which still remain polio endemic along with Nigeria and Afghanistan. Therefore, it is important to deal with this issue and work on the remedy to control the situations of such harmful disease
733 Equation for Estimating Predialysis Total Body Water in Patients under Chronic Hemodialysis, Magdalena Castro1, 2*, Cinthya Urquidi3 and Rodrigo Orozco1
Introduction: In Chile in 2018 there were 22,310 patients under chronic hemodialysis (CHD) (1,260/1,000,000 inhabitants), with an annual increase of 2,152 patients/year and a global mortality of 10.9%. First cause of death is cardiovascular (CV) disease with 32.8%. Control of total body water (TBW) helps prevent CV damage. It is necessary to know TBW to program the ultra filtration rate at the beginning of HD. Methods for estimating TBW are invasive, complex and expensive, except for multi frequency electrical Bioimpedanciometry (BCM®).However, this device has certain limitations as the 20-40 minute preparation before HD and the restriction it has in some patients. Several equations have been proposed to estimate TBW but are difficult to calculate and neither of them are local. The aim of this study was to create a total body water equation (TBWE) to estimate TBW concordant with TBW by BCM®, easy and fast to use before each CHD session
734 Bringing Clinics and Hospitals Up-to-speed Amidst COVID-19 Pandemic: Complementing Targeted Point of Care with Pooled Testing Strategy, Rashid A Chotani1-4, Syed S. Ashraf3, Terry Clark5, Charlie Mize6, Shakeel M Thakurdas7, Khurram Nasir8 and Faisal H Cheema7,9,10*
The battle against COVID-19 has required extraordinary measures that have adversely affected the US economy and many aspects of American life. Healthcare systems across the world have taken a heavy toll and have had to cancel clinics and elective procedures; open more beds, convert operating rooms into intensive care beds to accommodate COVID-19 patients. Such diversion of resources and delay in medical attention for other health problems has resulted in an increase in non-COVID-19 related mortality throughout the world. In this article we lay out our proposals for a quick reopening of our hospitals and clinics for elective surgeries and other procedures that cannot be handled via telemedicine. The crux of our proposals is a smart COVID-19 screening mechanism that employs several different testing strategies such as point-of-care (POC) rapid antibody test kits, pooled testing and RT-PCR, in a complementary way so as to increase efficiency and feasibility. There is no doubt that for our healthcare system to work and survive, it must not only meet the unprecedented demands generated by COVID-19, but also be able to treat other illnesses and injuries at or close to its pre-pandemic leve
735 Thyrotoxic Periodic Paralysis Presenting with Hypokalemia: A Case Report, Zohair Al Aseri*
Background: Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP), a serious complication of hyperthyroidism, is a common etiology of secondary hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HPP). In this study, we present a case report of a patient who presented to our ED with weakness and hypokalemia and was found to have severe hyperthyroidism.
736 Encephalopathy Due to Urea Cycle Disorder Post Gastric Bypass Surgery, Toufic Saber1, Rabih Braidy2, Saleem Abdel Baki3, Said Farhat4, Alex Malek5, Imad EL Hajj5 and Mansour El Khoury5
Obesity is implicated in multiple comorbidities. Moreover, obesity is on the high rise in most of the developed countries due to change of lifestyle and diet habits. Hyper-ammonia causing encephalopathy is rarely seen post-bariatric surgery. We report a 44 years old female with encephalopathy of non-hepatic origin post gastric bypass surgery. This condition was managed successfully with lactulose and low protein diet.
737 K-Ras Plasma Membrane Interactions: A Tractable Therapeutic Target, Karen M Henkels1 and Kwang-jin Cho1*
Ras proteins are small GTPases that function like a molecular switch regulating cell proliferation, survival and differentiation at the plasma membrane (PM). Of the three major Ras isoforms, constitutively active mutations in K-Ras are frequently found in human cancers. Despite its critical role in tumorigenesis, no anti-K-Ras therapies are currently available in clinic. One strategy for blocking oncogenic K-Ras activity is to disrupt K-Ras interaction with the PM since K-Ras must primarily interact with the PM for its biological activity. This review will provide insights into recently reported molecular mechanisms that regulate K-Ras from the PM, which can be targeted to disrupt oncogenic K-Ras signaling
738 PCSK9 Deficiency Modulates Glucose Homeostasis and Insulin Secretion Via Pancreatic Ldl Receptors And Cholesterol Accumulation , Jing He1,2, Yan Liu1,2, Kai Li1,2, Xin Fan1,2, Rong Li1,2, Michael A Hill3,4 and Jianbo Wu1,2*
Intracellular lipid accumulation contributes to β-cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes. How PCSK9 interacts with lipid metabolism to alter insulin availability/resistance is not well studied. Genetic deficiency of PCSK9 mice was fed a high fat (HFD; 45% Kcal from fat) for 14 weeks, and the metabolic phenotype including glucose, insulin, GTT, ITT, and cholesterol was examined. In addition, the expression of PCSK9 and LDLR was were examined by RT-qPCR, and immunohistochemistry. We provide data supporting a role for PCSK9 in pancreatic islets. In HFD mice, PCSK9 deletion led to impaired glucose tolerance and decreased insulin secretion. Pancreatic islets of HFD PCSK9-/ mice showed impaired insulin production and increased LDLR mRNA. Cholesterol was higher in islets of both HFD-fed WT and PCSK9 KO mice compared to low-fat diet controls. Glucose intolerance in PCSK9 deficiency was reversed when the LDLR was also lacking. Further, islets isolated from PCSK-/-LDR-/- mice showed improved insulin secretion. Our findings support a tissue-specific role for PCSK9 in pancreatic cholesterol homeostasis such that PCSK deficiency may accentuate LDLR-dependent β-cell dysfunction.
739 Fetal Cervical Teratomas: Etiology, diagnosis, and Treatment Options, Florian Recker*
Cervical teratomas are rare fetal tumors with a frequency of 1 in 20,000 to 1 in 40,000 live births, with a female-to-male ratio of 3:1 [1]. In a series of 1,253 teratomas of different types [2,3], only 6 (0.47%) were classified as epignathus [4]. Histologically, they are benign tumours formed by the three germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm). While the majority of fetal teratomas manifest themselves in the coccyx region, cervical teratomas represent only about 6% of congenital teratomas. Moreover, there are some cases in the literature where cervical teratomas showed a malignant tendency. Thus Thurkow et al. [6] reported an extremely rare case of malignant teratoma of the neck, with mature and immature metastatic lesions in the lungs, in an immature fetus [5]. Further, Bauman and Nerlich reported a metastazing cervical teratoma of the fetus [6].
740 Modified Polypropylene Nonwoven Textile for Filter Facial Masks, Radka Kopecká*, Jiří Příhoda and Ladislav Pospíšil
Coronavirus (COVID-19) the most frequently spreads from human-to-human through respiratory droplets. Due to the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, the research of protective equipment, especially facial masks, increased significantly. The filtering materials of facial masks are typically nonwoven textile. These materials, initially using natural fibers, came into greater importance with the introduction of synthetic thermoplastics, particularly polypropylene (PP), which creates the basic material for nonwoven textile for facial masks production. PP is non-toxic, hydrophobic material, resistant to steam sterilization, with a good ability to be fiberized. Unfortunately, it is also relatively sensitive to microbial attacks, such as bacteria,
741 Molecular Characterization of Multi Drug Resistance Escherichia coli isolated among Diabetes Mellitus Patients in Dongla State, Sudan, Husham M Taha Aloob1*, Samia S Mohamed Ismail2, Abdelhakam H Ali3
Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by Escherichia coli have become a significant worldwide public health concern and is a common infectious disease in which level of antimicrobial resistance are alarming worldwide.
742 Molecular Characterization of Multi Drug Resistance Escherichia coli isolated among Diabetes Mellitus Patients in Dongla State, Sudan, Husham M Taha Aloob1*, Samia S Mohamed Ismail2, Abdelhakam H Ali3
Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by Escherichia coli have become a significant worldwide public health concern and is a common infectious disease in which level of antimicrobial resistance are alarming worldwide.
743 Molecular Characterization of Multi Drug Resistance Escherichia coli isolated among Diabetes Mellitus Patients in Dongla State, Sudan, Husham M Taha Aloob1*, Samia S Mohamed Ismail2, Abdelhakam H Ali3
Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by Escherichia coli have become a significant worldwide public health concern and is a common infectious disease in which level of antimicrobial resistance are alarming worldwide.
744 Molecular Characterization of Multi Drug Resistance Escherichia coli isolated among Diabetes Mellitus Patients in Dongla State, Sudan, Husham M Taha Aloob1*, Samia S Mohamed Ismail2, Abdelhakam H Ali3
Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by Escherichia coli have become a significant worldwide public health concern and is a common infectious disease in which level of antimicrobial resistance are alarming worldwide.
745 Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Based Imaging Using 89Zr-Labeled Monoclonal Antibody (J591), Michael Sun MD1, Muhammad Obaid Niaz MD2, Myrto Skafida MD3, Adlai Nelson BS4 and Muhammad Junaid Niaz MD4*
Accurate and comprehensive imaging is vital for the subsequent management and treatment of prostate cancer. Conventional imaging modalities are of limited effectiveness in staging and re-staging disease. Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is the most validated molecular target in prostate cancer, as it is specific and overexpressed in malignant cells. Therefore, PSMA positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is becoming more commonly used for both primary and metastatic prostate cancer. One conjugate involves the radionuclide 89Zirconium (Zr) paired with the monoclonal antibody J591 directed toward PSMA, which we review in this article. A pilot study investigating 89Zr-J591 PET in primary disease showed that the dominant nodule was identified in 8 out of 11 cases. Subsequent studies involving 89Zr-J591 PET in metastatic disease found that the conjugate was safe and more effective than computed tomography (CT) and bone scan at detecting osseous lesions. 491 lesions were identified by 89Zr-J591 PET, compared to 339 by traditional bone scan. In 22 biopsy-validated bone lesions, 21 were identified by 89Zr-J591 PET. However, performance was poorer for soft tissue lesions, as CT identified more cancerous lymph nodes overall; this trend remained when scope was narrowed to biopsy-validated lymph nodes. 89Zr-J591 PET had high specificity and positive predictive value. Challenges of 89Zr-J591 PET include high uptake in liver and kidney and 8-day delay in imaging following radiotracer administration, owing to delayed clearance. These challenges are mitigated by the development of DF-IAB2M, a smaller derivative of J591. A pilot study involving 89Zr conjugated to DF-IAB2M has shown promising results, and further studies are ongoing.
746 Membrane Distillation: A Niche Application for Wastewater, Ahmed Abdel-Karim*
The sought-after efficient treatment of wastewater has become an essential purpose. in this context, Membrane Distillation (MD), which is a thermal-based membrane technology, has the ability to treat wide range of wastewater streams such as industrial wastewater, seawater, brine water from other processes, and oil-gas field produced water. MD membranes are basically hydrophobic in nature so they are susceptible to fast wetting and severe fouling. In this mini review recent efforts in using MD for treating wastewater treatment will be mentioned briefly, along with novel membranes with special anti-wetting features to overcome the trade-off between permeability and selectivity
747 Capillary blood sampling in adults, Serafin A*
Capillary blood sampling is a medical procedure used for early detection of some diseases before their symptoms appear or serious complications arise and for routine checking the health status of patients. In adult patients, a blood sample is obtained by simple pricking of a finger. The technique has been used for decades and it is progressively used worldwide because it is a quick, easy, cheap, and widely available method to check and control a patient’s status of health.
748 A Golden Opportunity and Call for Action for Whole of Family Lifestyle Change to Significantly Reduce the Risk of Development of Severe COVID-19, Gary M Leong*
To say COVID-19 has turned every country on its head, causing unprecedented public health, economic and societal pressure, is a colossal understatement. With no known therapies or a preventative vaccine, the novel Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) strain is responsible globally to date for over three hundred thousand deaths and >4 million infected individuals and a global economic and social shutdown [1]. The lack of an effective preventative vaccine highlights the importance in understanding what modifiable lifestyle factor(s) that predispose any one individual to the development of severe COVID-19 disease, including the risk of mechanical ventilation and death.
749 A Golden Opportunity and Call for Action for Whole of Family Lifestyle Change to Significantly Reduce the Risk of Development of Severe COVID-19, Gary M Leong*
To say COVID-19 has turned every country on its head, causing unprecedented public health, economic and societal pressure, is a colossal understatement. With no known therapies or a preventative vaccine, the novel Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) strain is responsible globally to date for over three hundred thousand deaths and >4 million infected individuals and a global economic and social shutdown [1]. The lack of an effective preventative vaccine highlights the importance in understanding what modifiable lifestyle factor(s) that predispose any one individual to the development of severe COVID-19 disease, including the risk of mechanical ventilation and death.
750 COVID-19: Physical Inactivity and Diabetes, Luis Tomás Ródenas Cuenca*
The disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 has become a pandemic due to its rapid spread and transmissibility. Among the most vulnerable patients are older adults and those with chronic diseases, such as high blood pressure and diabetes mellitus. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in Mexico is 10.3%, a considerable figure if we take into account that these are people who know they have the disease. Therefore, the objective of the article is to present an overview and an analysis regarding the epidemiology and consequences of physical inactivity and sedentarism, the main effects of isolation, the benefits of exercise well prescribed in diabetic persons under the current COVID-19 pandemic.
751 The Time has come turn on the Cutaneous Nerve System to manage Pain, Rob Sillevis*1 and Francisco Selva2
Pain remains one the main reasons why people seek medical care. Most of the nociception leading to pain is typically generated in either the musculoskeletal system or the viscera. As the brain receives nociceptive information it will create an awareness of a noxious stimuli and respond accordingly [1]. The interconnection within the functioning of the brain, the immune system, and the health of the skin has been identified within the functioning of the brain, the immune system, and the health of the skin. Cutaneous sensory stimuli are transduced in the periphery by specialized organs or free nerve endings [2]. Primary afferent sensory neurons are long cells, often traversing distances of over 1m in humans. Nociceptive and tactile stimulation can have profound neuroendocrine effects. Nociceptive information enters the central nervous system in an organized segmentally related fashion and can produce both peripheral and central sensitization.
752 Traction Force Mapping of Tractional Retinal Detachments with Optical Coherence Tomography, Brent Deibert MD*1, Pengfei Dong PhD2, Courtney Hellman MD1 and Linxa Gu PhD2
Background: The aim of this study is to better understand the mechanical response of the retina to the tractional forces that result in a tractional retinal detachment (TRD) by creating a traction force map using a computational model
753 A Brief Note of Nitrocellulose Membrane Applied for Biomedical Immobilization and Diagnosis, Ruochen Sun1, Song Gao2, Zhichao Feng2, Pingan Liu1,3*and Hui Qi1
Nitrocellulose (NC), obtained after nitration reaction, has a similar configuration with cellulose, so it is also named as cellulose nitrate [1]. As a fibre-like energetic material, NC is not limited in its original form and applications. One secondary product of NC is the NC membrane, which was described as the paper-like and microporous matrix [2]. The excellent signal-to-noise ratio [3], biocompatibility and stability of porous NC membrane substrates enable many relative biomedical applications, such as filtering [4,5], molecular immobilization and immuno-diagnosis. In this article, we are focused on these biomedical achievements of NC membrane.
754 Communicating Effectively with the Public During a Pandemic: Lessons From the COVID-19 Pandemic and Preparation for Future Pandemics, Do Kyun David Kim*
Although the world has experienced similar pandemics in relatively recent years, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), the uncontrollable spread of COVID-19 demonstrated a seriously low level of preparation for a pandemic, regardless of the country. This indicates a very low level of risk awareness on pandemics in all sectors of society from individuals to organizations to the government. With the case of the United States, the unpreparedness and low risk perception to pandemics resulted in millions of infections and hundreds of thousands of deaths, which keeps increasing even a half year after the COVID-19 pandemic became global in early 2020. No one can warrant when we can obtain effective vaccines or treatments for COVID-19.
755 Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Based Imaging Using 89Zr-Labeled Monoclonal Antibody (J591), Michael Sun1, Muhammad Obaid Niaz2, Myrto Skafida3, Adlai Nelson BS4 and Muhammad Junaid Niaz4*
Accurate and comprehensive imaging is vital for the subsequent management and treatment of prostate cancer. Conventional imaging modalities are of limited effectiveness in staging and re-staging disease. Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is the most validated molecular target in prostate cancer, as it is specific and overexpressed in malignant cells. Therefore, PSMA positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is becoming more commonly used for both primary and metastatic prostate cancer. One conjugate involves the radionuclide 89Zirconium (Zr) paired with the monoclonal antibody J591 directed toward PSMA, which we review in this article. A pilot study investigating 89Zr-J591 PET in primary disease showed that the dominant nodule was identified in 8 out of 11 cases. Subsequent studies involving 89Zr-J591 PET in metastatic disease found that the conjugate was safe and more effective than computed tomography (CT) and bone scan at detecting osseous lesions. 491 lesions were identified by 89Zr-J591 PET, compared to 339 by traditional bone scan. In 22 biopsy-validated bone lesions, 21 were identified by 89Zr-J591 PET. However, performance was poorer for soft tissue lesions, as CT identified more cancerous lymph nodes overall; this trend remained when scope was narrowed to biopsy-validated lymph nodes. 89Zr-J591 PET had high specificity and positive predictive value. Challenges of 89Zr-J591 PET include high uptake in liver and kidney and 8-day delay in imaging following radiotracer administration, owing to delayed clearance. These challenges are mitigated by the development of DF-IAB2M, a smaller derivative of J591. A pilot study involving 89Zr conjugated to DF-IAB2M has shown promising results, and further studies are ongoing.
756 Status and Eradication of Polio in Pakistan, Savaira Jabbar1, Muhammad Rizwan Hamid*1,3, Hafiz Husnain Nawaz1*, Sadia Zahid1, Muhammad Sajid2 and Su Pin3
Poliomyelitis is a highly endemic and fetal disease, which mainly act on children under five years of age initial to irreversible paralysis and possibly death. For decades, both private and government organizations have been putting trials through their partnership to eradicate polio entirely from the different parts of the globe and as a result of those trials are left with only three countries which are now polio endemic. Since Pakistan is one of those three countries which still remain polio endemic along with Nigeria and Afghanistan. Therefore, it is important to deal with this issue and work on the remedy to control the situations of such harmful disease.
757 Equation for Estimating Predialysis Total Body Water in Patients under Chronic Hemodialysis, Magdalena Castro1, 2*, Cinthya Urquidi3 and Rodrigo Orozco1
Introduction: In Chile in 2018 there were 22,310 patients under chronic hemodialysis (CHD) (1,260/1,000,000 inhabitants), with an annual increase of 2,152 patients/year and a global mortality of 10.9%. First cause of death is cardiovascular (CV) disease with 32.8%. Control of total body water (TBW) helps prevent CV damage. It is necessary to know TBW to program the ultra filtration rate at the beginning of HD. Methods for estimating TBW are invasive, complex and expensive, except for multi frequency electrical Bioimpedanciometry (BCM®).However, this device has certain limitations as the 20-40 minute preparation before HD and the restriction it has in some patients. Several equations have been proposed to estimate TBW but are difficult to calculate and neither of them are local. The aim of this study was to create a total body water equation (TBWE) to estimate TBW concordant with TBW by BCM®, easy and fast to use before each CHD session.
758 Bringing Clinics and Hospitals Up-to-speed Amidst COVID-19 Pandemic: Complementing Targeted Point of Care with Pooled Testing Strategy, Rashid A Chotani1-4, Syed S. Ashraf3, Terry Clark5, Charlie Mize6, Shakeel M Thakurdas7, Khurram Nasir8 and Faisal H Cheema7,9,10*
The battle against COVID-19 has required extraordinary measures that have adversely affected the US economy and many aspects of American life. Healthcare systems across the world have taken a heavy toll and have had to cancel clinics and elective procedures; open more beds, convert operating rooms into intensive care beds to accommodate COVID-19 patients. Such diversion of resources and delay in medical attention for other health problems has resulted in an increase in non-COVID-19 related mortality throughout the world. In this article we lay out our proposals for a quick reopening of our hospitals and clinics for elective surgeries and other procedures that cannot be handled via telemedicine. The crux of our proposals is a smart COVID-19 screening mechanism that employs several different testing strategies such as point-of-care (POC) rapid antibody test kits, pooled testing and RT-PCR, in a complementary way so as to increase efficiency and feasibility. There is no doubt that for our healthcare system to work and survive, it must not only meet the unprecedented demands generated by COVID-19, but also be able to treat other illnesses and injuries at or close to its pre-pandemic level.
759 Thyrotoxic Periodic Paralysis Presenting with Hypokalemia: A Case Report, Zohair Al Aseri*
Background: Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP), a serious complication of hyperthyroidism, is a common etiology of secondary hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HPP). In this study, we present a case report of a patient who presented to our ED with weakness and hypokalemia and was found to have severe hyperthyroidism.
760 Encephalopathy Due to Urea Cycle Disorder Post Gastric Bypass Surgery, Toufic Saber1, Rabih Braidy2, Saleem Abdel Baki3, Said Farhat4, Alex Malek5, Imad EL Hajj5 and Mansour El Khoury5
Obesity is implicated in multiple comorbidities. Moreover, obesity is on the high rise in most of the developed countries due to change of lifestyle and diet habits. Hyper-ammonia causing encephalopathy is rarely seen post-bariatric surgery. We report a 44 years old female with encephalopathy of non-hepatic origin post gastric bypass surgery. This condition was managed successfully with lactulose and low protein diet.
761 K-Ras Plasma Membrane Interactions: A Tractable Therapeutic Target, Karen M Henkels1 and Kwang-jin Cho1*
Ras proteins are small GTPases that function like a molecular switch regulating cell proliferation, survival and differentiation at the plasma membrane (PM). Of the three major Ras isoforms, constitutively active mutations in K-Ras are frequently found in human cancers. Despite its critical role in tumorigenesis, no anti-K-Ras therapies are currently available in clinic. One strategy for blocking oncogenic K-Ras activity is to disrupt K-Ras interaction with the PM since K-Ras must primarily interact with the PM for its biological activity. This review will provide insights into recently reported molecular mechanisms that regulate K-Ras from the PM, which can be targeted to disrupt oncogenic K-Ras signaling
762 Malignant Duodenal Obstruction Caused by Urothelial Carcinoma, Dylan Johnson1*, Ankita Mishra1, Kai Huang1, Chukwuyem Obia2, Subhasis Misra1
A 79-year-old male presented with several weeks of abdominal pain associated with nausea and vomiting. He was found to have an obstruction of the duodenum and hepatobiliary system that was highly suggestive of malignancy. A thorough evaluation revealed no indication of metastatic disease. The patient elected to undergo a palliative, if not potentially curative, Whipple procedure. After a successful operation, the final report from pathology was highly unexcepted. The patient’s duodenal obstruction had been caused by metastatic urothelial carcinoma within the pancreas. Metastatic disease to the pancreas is an exceptionally rare occurrence, more so when considering occult primary tumors of urogenital origin. This is the first description of a patient presenting with duodenal obstruction caused by urothelial carcinoma metastasizing to the pancreas. The following case highlights the aggressive nature of this disease while offering insights into the management and outcomes that were involved in this rare clinical scenario
763 Bidirectional Relationship between COVID-19 and Diabetes, Ahmed M Abbas1,2*, Reem Sayad2,3, Fatma A Omar2,4 and Lobna Ahmed2,4
In December 2019, novel coronavirus 2019 has appeared in china, eventually spread to other countries. Many studies on COVID-19 have reported its strong relationship with Diabetes Mellitus (DM). It is discovered that not only diabetes is a key risk factor for developing severe COVID-19, but also the virus might trigger DM in some cases. The aim of this review to show the bidirectional relationship between COVID-19 and DM.
764 Use of Convalescent Plasma for COVID-19 in Pregnancy Lessons from other Viruses, Ahmed M Abbas1,2*, Andro T Fawzy2,3, Safaa K Fathy2,4, Areej A Abdelazeez2,3, Tarek M Essa2,3, Omar A Ahmed5 and Asmaa S Shaltout6
Since the appearance of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), scientists and physicians work together to find any solution to the current pandemic. Up till now, there is neither definite curative treatment nor vaccine to this infection. Pregnant women are a vulnerable category of population. In normal situation, they need special care. This care must be needed now to protect them and their fetuses. In this review, we highlighted the use of Convalescent Blood Plasma (CBP) in the treatment of pregnant women with COVID-19 infection. It is not new for us to use CBP in the treatment of viral infections as we used before in the treatment of SARS, MERS and other members of coronaviruses family and showed great results in the cure of the patients.
765 Examination of Aging in the Treatment of AbdominoPelvic Disorders Using the Lormand-Walsh Program, Marc Bonis*, Lormand J and Walsh C
Purpose: Examine the effects of aging in the treatment of abdomino-pelvic disorders using the Lormand-Walsh Program (LWP). Subjects: Forty-one women (Age = 43.2 + 9.5 yrs), twenty under 40 yrs old (37.1 + 4.6 yrs) and twenty-one 40 yrs and older (49.1 + 9.4 yrs). Methods: Subjects were assessed. The LWP was applied. Subjects were retested. Results: IBM SPSS Version 24 Repeated Measures ANOVA analyses indicated significant statistical improvement and efficacy using the LWP in all 9 assessments. One-Way ANOVA analyses between the two age groups revealed no statistical significance except for the PFDI-20 bladder component test scores, F (1,40) = 7.4, p = 0.01; however, after the LWP intervention the two age groups of the PFDI-20 bladder component re-test scores no longer revealed statistically significant differences, F (1,40) = 1.2, p = 0.29.
766 Children’s Exposure to emerging Bisphenols other than Bisphenol A: It’s time for more biomonitoring studies, Fiorella Lucarini1 and Davide Staedler1,2*
There is a great deal of evidence which has raised the need for various governmental organizations to regulate the use of bisphenol A (BPA) as plasticizer [1-4]. Indeed, BPA has shown endocrine disruptor effects, associated with a wide range of health outcomes [5,6]. Furthermore, biomonitoring investigations have frequently detected the presence of BPA in human urine, serum and breast milk; therefore, the exposure to this substance has been reported to be widespread [7-9].
767 Antithyroid Arthritis Syndrome, Qing Liu and Qiping Shi*
Antithyroid arthritis syndrome is a rare adverse effect with a series of symptoms of fever, arthralgia, myalgia and arthritis. We report a case of a patient with hyper-thyroidism, who presented with Antithyroid arthritis syndrome after being treated with methiamazole and describe the diagnosis, treatments, follow-up of the case. Our aim is to increase awareness of this uncommon but life-threatening adverse effect when diagnosing patients who develop arthritis after being treated with Antithyroid in clinical practice.
768 Sepiolite Enhances Biomineralization Activity of The Cementoblasts, Sema S Hakki1,2*, Serife Buket Bozkurt2,3, Esma Yenel4 and Mahmut Kus5
Aim: The inductive potentials of graft materials are important for regenerative therapies. Thus, this study was conducted using cementoblasts (OCCM-30) tooth root lining cells to determine whether sepiolite affected proliferation, mRNA expressions of genes associated with cementum/bone and biomineralization.
769 Are Off-Label Prescriptions of ACE Inhibitors a Promising Therapy for COVID-19?, Eugene J Koprowski*
New research published in a leading academic journal shows promise for potentially treating the SARS/COVID-19 virus by targeting angiotensin converting enzymes (ACE). Why don’t we speed up the process of therapeutic discovery by exploring whether off-label prescriptions of ACE inhibitors already approved by regulators work in clinic in treating COVID?
770 Medicinal Plants and Technology for Obtaining Medicinal Forms from Their Raw Materials, Salimova Noila Yunusovna*
The article contains information on the procedure for harvesting the raw materials of medicinal plants, the main active substances contained in them, as well as the technology of preparation of various forms of drugs
771 Coronavirus Pandemic What Are We Doing, Jose Carlos Herrera Garcia*
Since the discovery of the new pneumonia due to coronavirus in wuhan and spreading throughout the world, it has made us reflect on the state of the human being in this world, the lethality of this virus has shown us how fragile we are in the face of biological challenges, this a pandemic with more than 600,000 deaths describes the need to think about the life we lead and the way we lead it, to be on multiple treatments and to see the mortality of patients with respiratory distress who go to the emergency services in each corner of the world is to see how the pathophysiology of the virus reminds us of clot formation and rupture of the capillary alveolar membrane capable of producing severe hypoxemia that lead the patient to a state of multisystemic shock or cytokine storm that increase patient mortality
772 Beliefs and Practices During Antenatal and Postnatal Period Among the Host Communities in Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh, Md. Khobair Hossain1*, Md. Nazrul Islam1, Md. Khaled Saifullah1, Faisal Arif2, Md. Fozla Rabbi1, Md. Ashaduzzaman1, Md. Tareque Ali Sarkar2, Tapas Kumar Das3, Muhammad Hedayet Hussain3, Md. Ahasan Habib2, MS. Nargis Akter Shorifa2, Md. Abdurrahim2
Bangladesh, one of the affected countries with refugee, faces the challenge to provide health care especially maternal care to the host communities. This paper presents maternal care related thoughts and practices in the host communities in Ukhia of Cox’s Bazar. We collected data using mixed method approach including a cross-sectional survey and semi-structure interviews. Using a probability sample, we selected mothers with infants (n=588) living in the host communities of Ukhia sub-district. We also conducted forty-two in-depth semi-structured interviews among the currently pregnant women who had also previously given births (n =21); and recently delivered women (n = 21).
773 Ameliorative Effects of Dried and Germinated Fenugreek Seeds on Kidney Failure Induced by Gentamicin in Male Mice, Marwa M Darwish1*, Shebl Shaalan1, Mahmoud A Amer1 and Sherin R Hamad2
Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic widely used against Gram-negative microorganisms. Nephrotoxicity is the main limitation to its therapeutic efficacy. The aim of work was to investigate the role of dried and germinated fenugreek seeds as a potent antioxidant against the nephrotoxicity and oxidative stress in the kidney. Male Swiss albino mice were divided into a) The animals were injected intraperitoneally with distilled water. b) The animals were intraperitoneally injected with gentamicin. c) The animals were orally received fenugreek (Trigonella foenum -graecum) d) The animals were orally received germinated fenugreek. e) The animals were intraperitoneally injected with gentamicin simultaneously with fenugreek (Trigonella foenum -graecum). f) The animals were intraperitoneally injected with gentamicin simultaneously with germinated fenugreek.
774 Performance of Commercially Antibody-based assays for Covid-19 Detection, Maedeh Kojouri*
The ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic caused by novel coronavirus has become a threat to international public health. To tackle this pandemic reliable and rapid immunodiagnostic strategies are required. This study will briefly review the antibody diagnosis methods and recent clinical studies in this regard. The sensitivity and specificity after two weeks are considered to examine the late stages response of the disease.
775 ED Acuity in Patients with Respiratory Complaint During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Single-center Experience, Michael Anthony Abala1, Simranjeet Benipal1, Andrew Shen2, Jose Puglisi1, and Leonard Ranasinghe1*
Introduction: In response to the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, “shelter-in-place” (SIP) orders were implemented across the country to control the spread of this respiratory infection and decrease the burden on hospitals in the United States. Our objective was to assess changes in emergency department (ED) volume and acuity in patients with a respiratory complaint in a single center in Los Angeles county, California during the pandemic with respect to the SIP order.
776 Deciphering Interactive Associations of Antiviral and Electron-Shuttling Characteristics of Flavonoid Compounds for Antiviral Drug Development, Yun-Chen Wu, Chung-Chuan Hsueh and Bor-Yann Chen*
In face of the 2020 coronavirus COVID-19 pandemic, exploration of feasible medicines and effective medication is of course a top-priority issue to save lives worldwide. This study focused on antiviral properties of flavonoids to decipher synergistic interactions with electron-shuttling characteristics for possible herbal medication in clinical treatment. In fact, the numbers and relative positions of hydroxyl groups all strongly influenced antioxidant activities of flavonoid compounds. In particular, ortho-polyhydroxy benzene-bearing aromatics seemed to trigger antiviral characteristics to be expressed. Prior studies mentioned that ortho and para-polyhydroxy benzene-bearing aromatic structure could exhibit reversible and stable electron-shuttling characteristics. This comparative study suggested the rationale of initiatives for seeking possible methods and strategy of natural medicines with antiviral properties.
777 Using Health Coaching to Improve Glycemic Control in African-American Diabetics: An Integrative Review, Larider Ruffin*, Brenda Lee Douglass, Cecilia Boyd, Shawn Denning and Tara Crowell
Background: Diabetes continues to affect our population. As a complex disease, diabetes requires multifactorial risk-reduction strategies for appropriate glycemic control. While type II diabetes remains a global epidemic capable of being traced back to rapid increases in physical inactivity and obesity, type I diabetes is characterized by autoimmune destruction of beta cells in the pancreas. Diabetes is currently the 3rd leading cause of death in the US and the 7th leading cause of death worldwide.
778 Comments on Nomenclature of COVID-19, Li Liu1* and Yumin Huang-Link2
Scientists and medical doctors have been contributing largely to identify novel coronavirus 2 as the cause of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-COV-2) which emerged in large numbers of infected people in Wuhan City since Dec. 2019 [1- 3]. Scientists quickly sequenced SARS-COV-2 and shared their knowledge with the world [3,4]. Searching for vaccine and specific therapy is the ongoing global public health concern to prevent future spreading [5]. The new research, clinical and epidemiological data on SARS-COV-2 are continuing to explode. We need to make consensus on nomenclature in SARS-COV-2 studies correctly and precisely
779 The Role of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) in Prevention of COVID-19 Novel Corona Virus and Fatalities occur due to Non-availability of the PPE, Ahsan Ali Siddiqui*
Background and Objective: The Main Aim of the Article is to highlight the Importance of the Personal protective equipment (PPE) in prevention of COVID-19 novel corona virus. During current Pandemic of COVID-19 we found out that most of the Developed and Civilized countries lack basic availability of Personal protective equipment (PPE) for their Health care workers and Public
780 Clinical Significance of Urinary Tract Infection among Newborns with Hyperbilirubinemia, Erhan Aygün1*, Sinan Tüfekci2
Aim: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common infection in neonates and can presents with unexplained neonatal jaundice and hyperbilirubinemia. We aimed to assess the significance of such symptoms in neonates with UTI. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study newborn including 102 neonates whose clinical and biological data were collected from medical records. UTI was defined as positive urine culture (any growth in suprapubic aspiration, >10,000 by urethral catheterization or >10,000 in bag collection of a single organism) associated with pyuria and bacteriuria. Data were analyzed with Stata 12.0
781 Comparative Efficacy of Aerosolized Particle Filtration by Non-Invasive Ventilation Modalities: Simulation of SARS-CoV-19 Transmission, Steven Harry Cataldo*, Brian Penn Harvey and Michael James Pedro
Introduction: Patients with COVID-19 with severe respiratory disease may require non-invasive ventilation (NIV) devices, and selection should consider the greatest ability to reduce coronavirus-sized particles aerosolization. The objective of this study was to characterize the aerosolization of coronavirus-sized particles using different oxygen delivery systems.
782 The Latest Understanding of Molecular Genetics, Diagnosis and Treatment of Childhood Malignant Glioma, Harman Saman1*, Shahab Uddin Khan2, Syed Raza3 and Kakil Rasul4
Despite the histological resemblance of pediatric high-grade gliomas (PHGG) to their adult counterparts, they characterised by significant intra-tumor and inter-tumor heterogeneity and have distinct biological differences. Unlike the advances in the treatment of other malignancies, the clinical outcome of PHGG remains poor due to lack of significant progress in their current treatment protocols which typically comprise of surgery followed by radiotherapy and temozolomide. However, as our knowledge of the molecular biology of PHGG increases, novel approaches, such as molecular-based therapies have become new avenues that are required to be tested further in clinical trials. This review will critically appraise the latest advances in the understanding of the genetic dysregulations of PHGG and their role in disease pathogenesis, progression, and potential role in designing individualized molecular-based therapy with the view of improving patient’s survival and quality of life.
783 Preventing Progression to Senile Dementia in Community-Dwelling Citizens of a Small Japanese Village, Kuniaki Otsuka*1,2, Germaine Cornelissen2, Yutaka Kubo3, Tomoko Kikuchi3,4, Gaku Yamanaka3 and Shougo Murakami5
Objectives: To determine whether cognitive decline in the elderly can be predicted by conducting a psychological assessment. Study Design: Cohort longitudinal observational study. A community-based comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) study for Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) was started in March 2015 in Uraus (Hokkaido, Japan). The Tokyo Cognitive Assessment for Mild Cognitive Impairment (ToCAMCI) was administered and cut-off points of 17/18 and 24/25 used to classify 95 elderly citizens in 3 groups. After a 2-year follow-up, the KaplanMeier method was used to test whether the ToCA-MCI score could predict progression to senile dementia.
784 Novel Mechanisms and Targets in Renal Cell Carcinoma Progression, Mark E Dockrell1,2*, Robert G Price1,3 and Christer Hogstrand3
The consensus of The European Renal Cancer Roundtable meeting held in Brussels in 2019 was that the most pressing challenge is improved early detection. Each year sees around 400 000 new cases of kidney cancer worldwide. The 10 countries with the highest rates of kidney cancer are all in Europe; from Belarus to Iceland. Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) accounts for 80% of all kidney cancers. RCC are reported as a diverse group such as clear cell (-70% of the total) and of proximal tubule origin as well as papillary (~10%) and chromophobe (~5%), the latter 2 of distal tubule origin with a large number of gene mutations [1].
785 The Relationship between Methicillin Resistance and Biofilm Composition in Staphylococcus Aureus, Wienclaw Trevor M and Berges Bradford K*
Staphylococcus aureus (SA) is a common commensal bacterium and opportunistic pathogen in humans. Antibiotic-resistant SA strains, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), have become increasingly prevalent in recent years. Another aspect of SA that makes it a successful pathogen is its ability to form biofilms. SA biofilms aid in the invasion of host tissues, and biofilms can form on the surfaces of implanted medical devices, leading to serious, persistent, and sometimes life-threatening infections. Biofilms also prevent effective antibiotic treatment and promote evasion of the host immune response. The biofilms formed by MRSA and by methicillin-susceptible SA (MSSA) are typically quite different, with MSSA biofilms usually composed of polysaccharides and MRSA biofilms typically composed of extracellular proteins and DNA. Interestingly, transfer of the mecA gene (confers resistance to methicillin) alone to a MSSA strain can result in a profound change in biofilm composition to reflect a MRSA biofilm phenotype. The mechanism for this switch in biofilm phenotypes is still an area of active investigation and may yield insights into how to combat this important human pathogen.
786 Lingual Nerve Microsurgical Repair: A Case Report and Literature Review, Mendonca UBTD1*, Barbosa VF1, Soffientini JG1, Cozer K1 and Cardoso MM2
Injury to the lingual nerve (LN), a peripheral branch of the trigeminal nerve, can result from a wide variety of oral and maxillofacial surgical procedures. The lingual nerve, along with the inferior alveolar nerve, is one of the most commonly injured nerves during oral surgery. Numerous procedures are thought to cause lingual nerve damage, including third molar extraction, tumour excision, salivary gland excision, dental implant placement, laryngoscopy and general dental manipulation, such as local anaesthesia injection [1].
787 Effect of Sr, Zn, and Ce Substitution on the Properties of Bioactive Glasses, Irina Atkinson*
As well as improving the life of people of all ages, a rise in the life expectancy of people has led to an increased demand for new restoring and augmentation materials that have applications in therapies for bone pathologies. Bioactive Glasses (BGs) have revolutionized the field of biomaterials as they have been generally accepted to be able to promote both hard and soft living tissues regeneration and self-repair. This brief review will discuss the effect of metallic ions substitution on the properties of bioactive glasses for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications.
788 Early Amiodarone Use in A Patient With COVID-19 Pneumonia, Khaled Jamoor1, Mohamad Raad2, Najia Huda3 and Waddah Maskoun4*
Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) has caused a global pandemic since its emergence in late 2019. Most cases cause a mild self-limiting disease, but it can also lead to a variety of organ failure and most notably respiratory failure. To date there is no clinically proven treatment for COVID-19 infection. Amiodarone was shown to have in-vitro activity against Filovirus species with potential antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2. The current case describes the clinical response after starting amiodarone in critically ill COVID-19 patient with multi organ failure. Here we present a case of a 66-years old male who developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) secondary to COVID-19 infection requiring mechanical ventilation, renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy, and significant encephalopathy He was started on amiodarone to control his atrial fibrillation and we noticed significant drop in his oxygen requirements afterwards resulting in early liberation from the ventilator. Our patient had a measurable clinical improvement after starting amiodarone and he was liberated from the ventilator within less than 48 hours which is atypical for COVID-19 induced ARDS. We here present our observation in an attempt to explore the potential role of amiodarone in management of COVID-19 infection especially if introduced early in the course of the disease.
789 Reproductive Health Services for Women During COVID-19 Pandemic, Farwa Rizvi1* and Rabab Rizvi2
Millions of women across the world risk losing access to essential reproductive health services during the prevalent COVID-19 pandemic. The global and national level healthcare contexts are rapidly changing, and strongly influencing the sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and rights of adolescent girls and women [1]. Sustainable SRH services are of paramount importance in this current pandemic scenario. The SRH rights include an individual’s overall well-being for the SRH and reproductive body and considered imperative for the personal, social and economic growth [2].
790 A Case Study of Pharmacovigilance in Nigeria: Challenges and Solutions, Kingsley Akarowhe*
Pharmacovigilance is concern with the monitoring and examining of drugs to prevent its adverse effect on patients in a given nation. In spite, of the intensive efforts made by the Nigeria government to improve pharmacovigilance little seems to be achieved. This may be due to the challenges faced by the national pharmacovigilance centre (NPC) which range from lack of skilled manpower, lack of sufficient funding among others. Due to these underlining facts, Nigeria government, citizens and health stakeholders often map-out modalities for ensuring effective and efficient pharmacovigilance, but much result have not been achieved as anticipated. It is a consonance with the forgoing that the researcher carried out an investigative approach into the challenges facing pharmacovigilance in Nigeria with solution insight for the challenges. It was recommended among others that, the Nigeria Government should ensure that only qualified persons especially pharmacologist are employed in National Pharmacovigilance Centre (NPC).
791 Language Processing in Toddlers with Permanent Congenital Sensorineural Hearing Impairment: A Preliminary Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) Study , Prasanna Karunanayaka1,2*, Rommy Elyan1, Sara Robertson3, Marguerite Care4, John Greinwald5,6 and Scott K Holland2,4,5
stract Objective: To evaluate the utility of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in toddlers under sedation (with permanent congenital sensorineural hearing impairment) who are candidates for Cochlear Implantation (CI). Methods: Infants with normal hearing (NH) and with bilateral (severe to profound) sensorineural hearing impairment (HI) participated in a clinically indicated fMRI study under sedation. All subjects were 9-24 months of age. NH subjects were recruited from the clinical MRI schedule for non-hearing related scan procedures.
792 Targeting Cancer Through NF-KB Pathway with Selected Natural Products (β-Elemene, Puerarin and Gypenosides), Bashir Ahmad2*, Pengyu Su1, Syed Rafiq Hussain Shah2, Shah Zeb Khan5, Badshah Hussain4, Fazal Wahid3, Hayat Ullah3, Shahab Uddin3, Manzoor Ahmad6 and Nasiha Begum3
Cancer is the second leading cause of mortality around the world; therefore, its immediate treatment is very necessary. Natural products (NPs) are considered more effective and less toxic among all therapies. The vital sources of these natural products are medicinal plants. Various studies have reported that the NPs cure cancer through modulation of the NF-kB pathway. Among the NPs, β-Elemene (ELE), Puerarin (Pue) and Gypenosides (Pue) possess potent anti-tumor effect via regulation of NF-kB pathway; therefore we summarize the available studies to provide a baseline for further research on these NPs.
793 Dark matter, Martin Vlček*
Dark matter (DM) is a structure that materializes, reflects satisfaction in normal matter (NM), and its motivation is to maximize that satisfaction. It thus works against the background of the normal matter (NM) we observed and, whenever possible, it acts on this matter in order to increase satisfaction. Dark matter is nothing mysterious, occurring only against the background of astronomical systems. It has as many levels and forms as we observe and to a certain level we know in NM. E.g. in a democratic society it is parliament, in animals it is cerebrospinal fluid. DM is a system function performed by various group
794 Impacts of COVID-19 and Nationwide Lockdown on River Ecosystems in Nepal, Deep Narayan Shah1, Ram Devi Tachamo Shah2*, Deepak Rijal3 and Subodh Sharma2
Since January 2020, the novel virus of corona virus families, COVID-19, has been infecting people across the globe and today 213 countries have confirmed positive cases [1]. COVID-19 has caused a global pandemic with profound impacts on human life, environment, and freshwater biodiversity [2-4]. Corona virus was first diagnosed in Wuhan city of China early this year. World Health Organization (WHO) declared the outbreak as public health emergency of international concern on 30th January 2020 and then announced a new name for this disease as COVID-19 on 11thFebruary 2020 [4]. On 11th March 2020 declared it as pandemic. In Nepal, a first case was reported on 23rd January in 31 years old Nepalese who returned from Wuhan city on9thJanuary 2020.
795 Primary Transglottic Mucosal Melanoma of the Larynx, a Very Rare Entity, Lei Zhou1, Maoli Duan2,3 and Xinsheng Huang1*
Primary glottic mucosal malignant melanoma of the larynx is a very rare entity with less than 20 cases reported in the literature. The most frequently reported subsite is the supraglottic larynx. The vocal cord as a subsite for primary malignant melanoma is very rare. The present case is a primary transglottic malignant melanoma involving right vocal cord. Mucosal malignant melanoma in the head and neck are historically very aggressive in nature and known for poor outcomes and survival. Most mucosal melanomas described in the literature have been superficial spreading or ulcerative in nature, unlike the present case, in which polypoidal growth was seen with partial dark pigment. Due to the rarity of this entity, every reported case adds to the understanding of its diagnosis and treatment
796 Experience with The Iliac Tuberosity Screws, Walid Attia*
Various lumbo-pelvic fixation techniques found iliac screw to be the most superior method for protecting sacral screw breakage and spinopelvic construct failures [1]. Iliac screws can be inserted anywhere along the ilium, independent of other points of fixation and subsequently attached to a long construct through connectors [2].
797 Factors Affecting the Decision of Using Machinery for Harvesting Products of Rice Farmers in Chiang Rai Province, Sathinee Jongdoen1, Wongchai Anupong2 and Peng Ke-Chung*3
This research aims to study the behavior of rice farmers affecting the mechanization of harvesting and analyze the factors that influence the decision to use the machinery to harvest rice products in Huai Sak, Chiang Rai Province. The selected group is considered as 100 samples. The sample group used in this study is rice farmers and agricultural machinery are used to harvest rice products in the area. The samples and data were collected using questionnaires. The results show that most respondents have their own land. The physical characteristics of the rice fields are mostly flat land, which is necessary for the use of agricultural machinery. Kubota is the most popular brand of rice combine harvester. In addition, most respondents do not have agricultural machinery to harvest their own rice. Therefore, there are services from those who have agricultural machinery to harvest the rice which is more expensive than before. The farmers who responded agreed that the factors affecting the decision to use rice combine harvester were the efficiency of the machinery, personal, people around and neighbors who have a high level of importance, market, social, culture are important at a high level.
798 Metformin Versus Insulin for Pregnancy Outcomes in Gestational Diabetes: a Meta-Analysis, Fuchuan Wang*, Wei Yi, Jing Li, Li Li, Yuhong Hu, Dong Fu and Libin Sun1
Background: The number of studies describing the use of metformin in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is increasing, and metformin is considered an acceptable and economic alternative to insulin in many countries. Because metformin can pass through the placenta, it is necessary to continuously assess the maternal and fetal impact of metformin compared with insulin in pregnancy
799 In Silico Analysis of Baicalin’s Binding on Amyloid- β, Presenilin-1 and Tau Proteins: Validation in a Mouse Model of Cerebral Amyloidosis, Brice Ayissi Owona1*, Arnaud Fondjo Kouam2, Zhi yuan Zhang3, Hermann J Schluesener3 and Paul F Moundipa1
The production of amyloid-β following activation of presenilin-1 and accumulation of the hyperphosphorylated tau protein contribute to Alzheimer’s disease development. In order to understand Baicalin’s effect on AD treatment, we have used in silico studies to predict its binding on amyloid-β, presenilin-1 and tau protein receptors. Computational molecular docking was performed using Molegro Virtual Docker software. The scores obtained were -112.35, -68 and -53 Kcal/mol respectively for the three receptors, indicating potent inhibitory effect of Baicalin on amyloid-β (highest binding score). Moreover, Baicalin showed high affinity towards 3jq5 (amyloid-β protein receptor) as it showed thirteen hydrogen bonds with nine amino acids. Contrary to what was observed with amyloid-β, a lower binding affinity was observed for tau-protein. In addition, to confirm molecular docking results, in vivo studies using APP/PS1 mice (a model of cerebral amyloidosis) treatment with Baicalin showed that it restores behavioural impairment, inhibits the production of amyloid-β in the cortex, alongside with the inhibition of macrophage infiltration in the brains of these mice. These findings open new ways for deeper understanding of the amyloid hypothesis in AD and consideration of Baicalin as a promising drug for AD treatment.
800 A Review of the Impact of COVID-19 on Emergency Departments: Decrease in ED Visits Throughout the Pandemic, Courtney Chinn1,2, Saif Shaikh MS1,2 and Leonard Ranasinghe MD3*
As COVID-19 cases across the United States climbed in the first half of 2020, emergency departments experienced a proportional decline in visits during that time. With stay-at-home orders enacted to limit community transmission of disease, healthcare utilization changed [1]. Accounting for all ages and causes, ED visits declined by 42% during the early stages of the pandemic. This is shortly after the WHO declared a pandemic and the US proclaimed a state of national emergency [2,3]. Fear of contracting infectious disease as well as nationwide concern regarding PPE stopped patients from coming to the ED [4,5]. This brings into question whether or not patients are delaying seeking care for emergent matters, how different populations are affected, and what the future of patient care entails
801 Managing Mental Health Problems of Students During the Pandemic of COVID-19, Addisu Tadesse Sahile*
Coronaviruses are enveloped, positive, single-stranded large RNA viruses that infect various animals including humans which were first investigated by Tyrell and Bynoe in 1966 [1]. During January 2020, novel coronavirus was confirmed by World Health Organization (WHO) to cause respiratory illness in a cluster of people in Wuhan city, Hubei province, china [2], whereas the case fatality rate of Covid-19 was much lower than SARS of 2003 [3,4].
802 Delivering Health and Care in the Digital Era depends on Forging New Partnerships , Ann Aerts1* and Doreen Bogdan Martin2
“Blue sky thinking” is a perfect description for digital health: the potential is clear, the space vast and wide open. However, still countless digital health initiatives are underway around the world without overarching vision or coordinating mechanisms. This piecemeal approach makes it difficult to scale effective solutions and realize the full potential of digital in health systems. That would require new partnerships to be forged and digital technology to become integral part of every health system [1].
803 Hyperventilation-Apnoea Syndrome in a 79-year Old Woman with Congestive Heart Failure, Laura D Ciobanu1*, Mihai Grigoras2, Daniela Boisteanu3, Livia Popa4 and Gabriela Tofan5
We report the case of a 79-year woman admitted for daily episodes of sudden breath arrest abruptly occurred one month prior to hospital presentation. These episodes are preceded by hyperventilation due to physical activity, especially when working in bending forward position. She was diagnosed and treated for high blood pressure, coronary heart disease, major left bundle branch block, congestive heart failure, obesity, hypercholesterolaemia and hypothyroidism
804 Generalized Convulsions- a rare Presentation of HaNDL Syndrome, Geetanjali S Rathore*
Headache with Neurologic Deficits and cerebrospinal fluid Lymphocytosis (HaNDL) syndrome is a rare entity related to migrainous headaches. It is a benign, self-limited disorder, which is characterized by transient neurological symptoms and cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis. The International Headache Society criteria requires, episodes involve migraine-like headache along with weakness, sensory changes, and/or aphasia lasting at least 4 hours.
805 Generalized Convulsions- a rare Presentation of HaNDL Syndrome, Geetanjali S Rathore*
Headache with Neurologic Deficits and cerebrospinal fluid Lymphocytosis (HaNDL) syndrome is a rare entity related to migrainous headaches. It is a benign, self-limited disorder, which is characterized by transient neurological symptoms and cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis. The International Headache Society criteria requires, episodes involve migraine-like headache along with weakness, sensory changes, and/or aphasia lasting at least 4 hours.
806 Statistical Test for Composite Hypothesis in Clinical Research, Fuyu Song1, Xinyi Ma2 and Shein-Chung Chow3*
In clinical evaluation of the safety and efficacy of a test treatment under investigation, a typical approach is to test for the null hypothesis of no treatment difference in efficacy in randomized clinical trials (RCT). The investigator would reject the null hypothesis of no treatment difference and then conclude the alternative hypothesis that the treatment is efficacious.
807 Assessment of Behavior and Attitude of Academic Community During Covid-19 Contingency, Carrasco Omar F1,2, Fajardo Dolci German1, Olaiz Fernández Gustavo1, Juárez Arturo1,2, Vicuña Félix1,2, Muñoz Arturo1, Veloz Corona Quetzalli2,3 and Juárez Olguin Hugo*2,3
The survey about the behavior and attitude of an academy community was carried out to know their preventive measures and response caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection. In the period between March 26 and May 31, 2020, data from “Survey on the Follow-up of the Community of the Medical Faculty” were collected using Lime Survey version 4.2.5 in the CIPPS Survey Service. The use of mouth and face mask in the respondents barely exceeded 70%. 10% of the respondents have chronic diseases such as hypertension and obesity
808 The Concept of Cognitive Vitality: Analysis and Clinical and Research Implications, Boniface Harerimana1*, Michael Borrie2, Julie Walsh3, Jennifer Fogarty4 and Cheryl Forchuk5
Age-related cognitive decline poses significant individual and societal economic burdens. Substantial research has demonstrated that enhancing cognitive vitality can delay age-related cognitive decline. However, scholarship has inconstantly used cognitive vitality and provided far less information about its traits and pragmatic indicators. The present scholarly work analyzed the concept of cognitive vitality using the [1] framework to propose clear definitions, defining attributes, antecedents, and empirical references of this concept. In the end, a model explaining mechanisms underpinning the concept and a new definition was constructed.
809 The Role of TRPV1 Receptors in Vasoregulation , Róbert Pórszász*
Transient Receptor Potential V1 (TRPV1) receptor is under investigation for several decades to develop a sensory neuron specific analgesic substance, but in contrary of the intense effort success is awaiting. A pile of experimental results gathered about the non-neural location of TRPV1 receptor in the last two decades. The physiological role of these receptor locations is not well understood and the pharmacological exploitation is not elaborated. The present review focuses on the role of TRPV1 receptors in vasoregulation and blood pressure homeostasis including Bezold-Jarisch reflex, baroreflex sensitivity, sensory neuron dependent vasodilation, endothelial cell mediated vasomotion, arteriolar Smooth Muscle Cell (SMC) related vasoconstriction and visualization of TRPV1 receptors on SMCs by reporter mice
810 Potential Biomedical Applications of Terahertz Technologies, Xiao Yu Peng1*, Fei Chen1 and Ben Liang Xie2
Terahertz (THz) Technologies applied in biomedical science are reviewed in this paper. Current research results indicate that THz technologies would be able to provide not only potential novel detection techniques for cancer diagnostics but also potential novel therapies for cancers and skin disease treatment.
811 Anti-oxidant and Anti-free Radical Activities of Natural Oil Blend Formulation: Implication for Immune Regulation and Potential Adjuvant Treatment in Infectious Diseases , Keri Lestari1, Haig Babikian*2, Yusef Babikyan3, Tigran K. Davtyan4, Rajeev Kumar Jha2, Gayane Manukyan5, Ajeng Diantini1 and Maya Febriyanti1
a. The obtained result has great implication for immune regulation and adjuvant treatment in infectious diseases. b. Natural Oil Blend is a combination of the following oils Gardenia jasminoides, Commiphora myrrhea, Boswellia serrata, Foeniculum vulgarae, and Daucus carrota with the purpose of viral inactivating properties. c. Using quantitative flow cytometry, the influence of Natural Oil Blend on neutrophils phagocytosis and their respiratory burst induction were studied.
812 The Effectiveness of Polarized Light in Musculoskeletal, Skin Problems and Burns, Nicolaou Valentina1, Stasinopoulos Dimitrios2* and Lamnisos Dimitrios3
Introduction: The purpose of this systematic review is to demonstrate through studies that have investigated the therapeutic power of polarized light in musculoskeletal, skin problems and burns. We will see through reviews how each question is answered individually and what problem gives the best therapeutic results. Bioptron Light is a patented non-invasive optical device and technology based on the biostimulatory effects of polarized and inconsistent light in the visible and infrared spectrum.
813 Microarray profiling of long noncoding RNAs and mRNA expression in the kidney of rats damaged by cadmium, Hui Liu1,3#, Xichen Wan2#, Qihan Zhao3, Jin Ouyang3 and Shaoxin Huang3,4*
Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal that can induce nephrotoxicity with the unclear molecular mechanism. Microarray technology is a tool in the global analysis of gene expression, allowing for the simultaneous investigation of hundreds or thousands of genes in a sample. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) represent a novel class of noncoding RNAs that are involved in a variety of biological processes and human diseases. For the gene expression analysis, kidney tissues from both normal(fed with physiological saline) and cadmium treated rats(fed with 6.6mg/kg cadmium for 4 weeks) were collected.
814 The Effect of User Charges on the Pattern of Health Care Demand in Nigeria, Lloyd Ahamefule Amaghionyeodiwe
The economic downturn in early 1980s in Nigeria led to the introduction and implementation of user charges in government health care facilities. This coupled with the persistent poverty level in Nigeria raises the question of consumers’ ability and willingness to pay these user charges. Accordingly, using primary data, this study examined the possible trade-off between user charges and demand for government health services in Nigeria. The analysis showed that increasing user fees substantially reduced the use of government health facility by low-income earners. Thus, it was recommended, among others, that government should introduce price discrimination into user fees, to be set at marginal cost. This would help avoid the adverse distribution effects of user-fees, especially, on the lower income group.
815 Comparison and Behavioral of the Breast, Formula and Mix Feeding Related to Infant Health from Birth Up to One Year, Halgord Ali M Farag1, Abdel Hamid El Bilbeisi2*, Samer Abuzerr3,4 and Amany El Afifi5
The multitude of health organization recommended that breastfeeding as the significant configuration of nutrition for infants throughout the first 12 months of life, most momentously they are consistent exclusively breastfeed for the first 6 months of life. The aim of this study was the evaluations of breast milk and formula milk connected to infant health from birth up to one year of age as well as to find the developmental nourishing of the baby through this time followed by the period of supplementary feeding
816 Protection of Episodic Memory by Neuroprotective Peptide Treatments in Sprague-Dawley Rats Subjected to Hypoxic Exposure, David Ellis1#, Amber Braddock2,4#, Erin Roberts2,4, Katherine Ingram1, Eric Perez1, Amanda Short1, Judy Triplett1, Curtis Schimmel2, Victoria Hutzley1, Joshua Bevins1,3, Chelsey Webb1 and Victor Chan1*
This study aimed to demonstrate successful protection of episodic memory function by intranasal instillation of neuroprotective peptides delivered prophylactically using a rodent model. Aerospace professionals frequently experience hypoxia, which may be preceded or followed by hyperoxic exposure. These conditions have both short- and long-term impacts on neurological and cognitive functions, resulting in impairments of spatial and working memory, concentration, and attention shifting. To test memory protective activities of ADNP-8 (also known as NAP/Davunetide) and Semax under hypoxic conditions, male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with one of these peptides daily for four weeks
817 Relationship Between the Sizes of Blood Vessel and Selected Stent, Yung Kuan Chan1, Hui-Han Lin2*, Keng-Chang Tu3, Wan-Ting Hu1, and Shyr Shen Yu3
Left subclavian artery (LSA) occlusion is often treated by stent implantation. However, it may cause In-Stent Restenosis. The most comment of In-Stent Restenosis is excessive thrombus that squeezes the stent and causes vascular occlusion; hence “Drug-Eluting Stent” and “Assurance” are produced. Besides, the selected stent size is an important factor for preventing from In-Stent Restenosis. There are no data regarding the blood vessel cross-section area versus subclavian In-Stent Restenosis. This research is to investigate the relationship between the cross-section diameter of blood vessel and the size of the selected stent after stenting for In-Stent Restenosis based on previous medical records. A doctor then can select which stent is more suitable for a patient.
818 Will the COVID-19 Pandemic Revolutionize the Psychiatric Healthcare System?, Karina Badura Brzoza* and Patryk Główczyński
The general definition determines telemedicine as a remote medical care which, apart from the process of diagnosis and treatment itself, also emphasizes the importance of medical education of patients [1]. Another, more precise definition says that telemedicine is a form of exchange of medical information between two partners, using telecommunications, to improve the patient’s health [2]. The development of telemedicine dates to the 1960, where the transfer of medical data via various communication systems was mainly used by the military services (NASA).
819 Greater Flow Diversion with the LVIS Stent vs the Enterprise Stent Regarding Basilar Tip Aneurysm Hemodynamics, Chao Wang1*, Zefu Li1,Yuguo Wang1, Xinjian Yang2, Jian Liu2 and Chao Sun3
Objective: Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been widely used to investigate the intra-aneurysmal hemodynamic alteration after stent implantation. The aim of this study was to quantify the flow diverting difference of the new LVIS stent compared with the conventional Enterprise stent and various stent configurations in basilar tip aneurysms using CFD.
820 An Apple A Day’… Is Going Away. What Can We Do to Stop the Decline in Per Capita Apple Consumption?, Christian Fischer* and Valérie Bossi Fedrigotti
Apples (Malus domestica) are one of the world’s most appreciated fruits. Today commercially grown in 96 countries around the globe, apples are the third most produced fruit by weight, after bananas and watermelons but before grapes, oranges and mangoes, according to FAOSTAT [1]. Apples are harvested in both hemispheres (August through November north and April/May south of the equator). Moreover, now, apples can be kept in longterm cold storage for up to one year [2]. Hence, for decades already, consumers have been able to buy apples nearly everywhere and at any time during the year in most places in the world.
821 Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori IgG Class Antibody in Diagnostic Laboratory Blood Specimens of a Private Corporate Hospital at Dhaka City Bangladesh, Abu SM Giasuddin1*, Khadija A Jhuma1 and Wadud A Khan2
Approximately 50% (over 3 billion) of the world population are known to be infected with Helicobacter pylori (H pylori), a most common human infection worldwide. Hundreds of millions of them develop peptic ulcer disease during their lifetime and still tens of millions might progress to gastric cancer. The high prevalence of infection occurs mainly in developing countries and the test-and-treat strategy puts a huge economic burden on many of these countries. It is high time to take an immediate action toward this bacterial infection and adopt a strategy to prevent it. In this regard, it is important to know the prevalence of H pylori in hospitals and population in different geographical locations. The prevalence of IgG class antibody against H pylori was determined in requested blood specimens sent to Laboratory Medicine of Impulse Hospital Ltd, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Out of 142 blood specimens, 37.3% (53/142) were positive, 17.6% (25/142) were equivocal and 45.1% (64/142) were negative for IgG class antibody against H pylori. The results were reported and discussed in the present article accordingly
822 Anticancer Agents and Nephrotoxicity: A Mini Review, Jolly Jolly1, Mohd Ahmar Rauf2* and Zeeshan Ahmad2
Onco-nephrology research has gained interest in the last decade because of increasing nephrotoxic effects developed by anticancer drugs. The anticancer drug developed nephrotoxicity limits the necessary treatment of the underlying malignant process of the cancer patients, and a multiple of kidney lesions develops, thus impairing the immediate survival. The kidney is an essential organ for the elimination of various antineoplastic drugs and their metabolites via glomerular filtration and tubular secretion. Thus, its dysfunction affects health and quality of life. Nephrotoxicity resulting from anticancer drugs, particularly chemotherapeutic agents, is the irreversible damage in the kidney. Chemotherapeutic agents affect the segment of the nephron leading to proteinuria, electrolyte disturbances, hypertension, acute and chronic interstitial nephritis, glomerulopathy, acute kidney injury, and sometimes chronic kidney disease. This review aims to summarise the nephrotoxic efficacy of some of the most recently developed anticancer agents and their mechanism of toxicity
823 The First Reported COVID 19 Infection in a Patient with Cardiovascular Disease in Sudan; Case Report, Mohammed Elmujtba Adam Essa1,2,3*, Abdelkareem A. Ahmed1,4,5*, Ayman Sati Sati Mohamed1,2, Maha Ismail Elfadul Biuo1,6, Amier Mohamed Elhassan Fadolalla6, Mohammed B.M. Ibrahim7, Diaaeddin Abusin8,9, Sadia Kamal Albadawi Mohamed1,10, Ziryab Imad Taha Mahmoud1,11 and Mustafa Mohamed Ali Hussein1,2
The Corona virus disease 2019, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, and has become the furthermost popular clinical entity since the beginning of the year 2020, as a viral infection spread rapidly and has significant mortality rate. The aim of this study is to report the first case of COVID 19 in Sudan. Here we are report a 26-year-old female, presented with generalized edema, cough, fever, shortness of breath and one-month history of left side hemiplegia. Clinical examination and lab investigation show the diagnosis of anemic heart failure, echocardiography revealed a severe mitral stenosis. Eight days after receiving the treatment patient markedly improved in spite of raising temperature, Chest computer tomography (CT), real time PT-PCR nasopharyngeal swab and sputum for COVID 19 Confirmed the diagnosis. Five days later patient passed away after developed massive pleural effusion.
824 The Mechanism of Radioprotective Effect and Immunoreactive Effect on Vitamin c, Yeun-Hwa Gu1* Takenori Yamashita2 Tota Inoue3 and Ki-Mun Kang4
Background and Objective: Vitamin C preparations have a fairly high antioxidant effect, demonstrating increased efficiency for the immune system. Also, since Vitamin C is sensitive to heat, it is less safe to heat. Methods: Radiation protection from death and stimulating leukocyte recovery by oral administrations consecutively of vitamin C, 200 mg/kg and 400mg/kg b.w., once a day, before whole-body x-rays irradiation was confirmed by tests with C3H mice, meanwhile, its radioprotective effecs compared to immunological enhancement. Based on the studies of survival, behavior of hematograms, and numbers of lymphocytes, whole body following irradiation, it was demonstrated that vitamin C was an effective radioprotector. The survival of irradiated mice protected by vitamin C was significantly increased and statistically higher than that of mice pre-treated with oral administration. After administration of vitamin C, enhanced CD4 and CD8 cells, numbers of NK cells and CD4 and CD8 cells in mice were found and lymphocytes numbers was higher than in irradiated control group
825 Radiation-Induced Breast Angiosarcoma After Breast Cancer: A Case Report, Rodríguez-Fernández V, Cameselle-Cortizo L, García-Mallo A, Novo A, Cameselle-Teijeiro JF and Schmitt FC
Radiation-induced breast angiosarcoma is a rare but very aggressive tumor, with high local recurrence rate and poor survival. The approximate incidence of this tumor after Radiation Therapy (RT) for Breast Cancer (BC) is 0.1%. The clinical presentation and diagnostic imaging are nonspecific; so angiosarcomas are often initially confused with dermatoses attributable to RT, leading to delays in diagnosis. In this article we describe the clinical, radiological and pathological findings of a 76-year-old woman who developed an angiosarcoma two and a half years after RT for BC and died 11 months after this diagnosis. It represents a clinical, radiological and histological challenge. We must always consider and rule out this entity in the face of radioinduced vascular lesions, since early diagnosis and aggressive treatment with free margins are the main prognostic factors.
826 The Importance of Relational Skills in the Management of the team in the Healthcare Sector, With Particular Reference to the Nurse Leader Role: An opinion, Maria Antonietta Taras1* and Giancarlo Tonolo2
The clinical nurse leader is an innovative new role for meeting higher health‐care quality standards. What are the personality characteristics that the nurse leader must possess in order to get the right balance in a working group? The importance of technical skills is fundamental and essential in the management of an operational unit, but the latter is made up of people and therefore an efficient vision in an organization certainly has positives but is not enough to ensure the success of the working group [1-4]. Given these premises, it is essential to have tools useful for understanding interpersonal relationships, with a particular focus on conflict management. In a working group, where people have not been chosen, there are implicit and explicit rules,
827 Transmission Dynamics and Control of COVID-19 Pandemic: A Mathematical Modelling Study, Chacha M Issarow*
Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic remains a major global public health concern. It is assumed that the COVID-19 outbreak originated in Wuhan, China and spread worldwide as a result of international travel. Here, I used data from China to assess the impact of contact rate for COVID-19 transmission and decay of transmission rate due to implemented interventions for disease control.
828 Non-Invasive Respiratory Support During Covid-19 Pandemic, José G González García1*, Oswaldo A Caguana1, Roberto Chalela1,3 and Joaquim Gea1-3
Acute respiratory failure frequently occurs in severe COVID-19 and requires ventilator support. However, during the first wave of the pandemic, conventional resources for critically ill patients were insufficient in many centers. Therefore, an alternative strategy based on the use of non-invasive respiratory support (NIRS), and especially continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), have been massively employed, either as a definitive therapy or as a bridge for orotracheal intubation. The results of this strategy have been excellent. If patients are carefully selected and monitored and NIRS is managed by an expert team in an appropriate environment, the vast majority of patients survive, avoiding intubation in most cases, and even decreasing the possibility of a self-inflicted lung injury (SILI). Moreover, there is evidence that with these techniques the risk of aerosolization is low. Nowadays, CPAP is considered the best option for most patients, with BiPAP being especially recommended in those with previous thoracic diseases or chronic hypercapnia. We conclude that NIRS techniques can be used in the initial care of most patients with severe respiratory failure from COVID-19 pneumonia and/or thromboembolism. To achieve the best results, intermediate care units, where specialized respiratory support can be provided, are the most appropriate framework.
829 Approaches to Research and Clinical Practice Relating to Zinc Deficiency, Hiroko Kodama*
Zinc deficiency is common in developing countries and affects over 2 billion people worldwide. Wessells and Brown reported [1] that an estimated 17.3% of the global population is at risk of inadequate zinc intake, with the regional estimated prevalence of inadequate intake ranging from 7.5% in high-income regions to 30% in South Asia. Zinc deficiency often accompanies various conditions and diseases, and can affect the elderly, pregnant women, lactating women, patients with chronic diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, liver disease, kidney disease, and inflammatory bowel disease, and during the administration of chelators [2].
830 A Case Report of a Glomangioma in an Unusual Location and Review of the Literature, Amal Douida1*, L Tahiri1, A Mazti1, K Abdellaoui1, I Sanhaji2, N Hammas1,2, H Elfatemi1 and L Chbani1
Glomangioma or glomus tumors are rare neoplasms of the glomus body, which are located in the stratum reticularis of the dermis throughout the body. Its location on the elbow is unusual and presents a diagnostic challenge. It manifests clinically by a triad of pain, tenderness and cold hypersensitivity. We present a case of 75-year-old male who presented with a very painful nodule over the left elbow for the past 3 years. Dermoscopy showed an angiomatous nodule. After local excision, histopathology revealed sheets of epitheloid-like ovoid cells, disposing around dilated and congestive vascular structures without nuclear pleomorphism or mitotic activity. On immunohistochemistry, glomus cells were positive to smooth muscle actin, characteristic of a glomus tumor
831 Triggered Alice in Wonderland-like Disturbed Visual Body Sensations Arbitrarily Inducible by Firm Hand Position in a Pillow in Bed Since Age 6, Bittmann S*, Luchter E, Moschüring-Alieva E, Weissenstein A and Villalon G
“Alice`s Adventures under Ground” [1] wrote in 1864 the roman of Alice in Wonderland Lewis Carroll. In 1955 the British psychiatrist John Todd (1914-1987) described the strange state of the micro- and macrosomatognosy, changed perception of the body picture and described it as Alice in the wonderland syndrome. John Todd described it in 1955 and gave him in his publication the literary name. The first description of the state became from Lippman et al. AIWS encloses the distortion of the body picture, the form of objects, the feeling of the time expiry and zooming the surroundings. In the book Caroll these changed changes of the body form were interpreted as somatosensoric dysfunction.
832 This Moment of Review of Humanity Reaches Up How Eat and to the Ways of Getting Food?, Mabel Angélica Fabro*
The Covid 19 pandemic has generated a special moment for contemporary humanity. It has placed us in a place of complexity, uncertainty accompanied by a need for abrupt changes in habits, although in principle temporary
833 Assessing Citation Bias in Scientific Literature, Walter R Schumm* and Duane Crawford
Our objective was to provide a further test of possible citation bias or confirmation bias in science based on differential outcomes of two articles published between 1979 and 2013. The two articles used here formed a natural experiment because the articles were from the same author and concerned similar topics except one article had more positive results for its participants. Based on Google Scholar citations, citation rates were compared using binomial tests, including normal approximation z scores, and one-sample chi-square tests. Between the two articles, the one that presented more favorable findings was cited far more often than the one with less positive results, providing empirical support for the existence of citation or confirmation bias, which may result in lower quality and less comprehensive literature reviews.
834 Young-Onset Colorectal Carcinoma: Is This A Single Entity or A Two Age Group with Different Pathological Findings and Molecular Profiles?, Maria F Gonzalez* and Allison L Keepers
Context: Although the national incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) has decreased in recent years, mortality has increased among those younger than 50 years. While CRC has been widely studied, there have been few studies analyzing specific pathologic parameters in patients with youngonset CRC (YO-CRC). YO-CRC is one of the hallmarks of hereditary CRC syndromes.
835 Restoration of Lymphatic Function: Free Vascularized Lymph Node Transfer with Afferent LymphaticoLymphatic and Afferent Lymphatico-Nodular Anastomosis , T Aung1, M Ranieri1, S Geis1, S Klein1, P Lamby1, R Mueller-Wille2, WA Wohlgemuth2, K Evert3, PI Heidekrueger4, L Prantl1 and JH Dolderer1*
Introduction: Lymphatic malformations (LMF) are characterized by abnormal formation of lymphatic vessels and tissue overgrowth. The lymphatic vessels present in LMF lesions may become blocked and enlarged as lymphatic fluid collects, forming a mass or multi-cystic formation. Lesions are typically diagnosed during childhood and are often disfiguring and life threatening. Available treatments consist of sclerotherapy, surgical removal and therapies to diminish complications.
836 Remedial Strategies Against an Emerging Threat of Ticks in Goats: A Review , Asad Ali Khaskheli1*
Current study was conducted in order to explore the prevalence of ticks infestation as well as different curative strategies against tick infestation in goats. In this regards a detailed review was carried and the obtained results were found much interesting and useful. It was noticed that the prevalence of tick infestation in goats is 70% compared other diseases. Female goats suffers more (82.84%) compared to males (56.25%). All the tick-infested goats show the clinical signs of weakness, anaemia, and anorexia, hair loss and skin damage. It was further reported various application are used for controlling this emerging threat in goat, however, the efficacy rate of Trichlorfon remains significantly higher (78.4 to 85.6%) compared to other applications. Further, the Cypermethrin was reported as second most effective (68 to 81.6%) effective application after Trichlorfon. In conclusion, Trichlorfon has been proved most effective drug against the tick infestation in goats compared to all other application. It may safely be used against emerging threat of ticks
837 COVID-19 Epidemic Models: A Study from Georgia State in the USA, Hafiz Khan1*, Mohammed Chowdhury2, Aamrin Rafiq3, Agam Shah4, Mohammad S Zahangir5, and Muni Rubens6
The purpose of this study was to identify gender-specific differences and best-fit coronavirus (covid-19) model for the infected people of Georgia. Statistical methods chi-squared, ANOVA, logistic regression, Poisson and negative binomial regression models were utilized to analyze Covid-19 data, which were obtained from the Georgia Department of Public Health. The difference among the mean ages of deaths for overall underlying conditions (P = 0.0248) and with ‘no’ and ‘unknown’ medical conditions (P = 0.0196) were found to be significant. The covariates regions, minimum age, maximum age, and average age were found to have a significant effect (P < 0.0001). The negative binomial regression model exhibited a best-fit model in building a death curve compared to Poisson regression model obtained by the GLM method. The findings will help to determine genderspecific future virus models for effective interventions, and they can be generalized to the population with geographic and racial/ethnic similarities
838 Suboptimal Birthweight and Adult Cardiometabolic Disease: The HPA-Axis Link, Wrivu N Martin1, Craig E Pennell1,2* and Carol Wang1,2
Suboptimal birthweight (90th percentile) has a well-established relationship with several adult cardiometabolic risk factors, including obesity, dyslipidaemia and elevated blood pressure (BP) [1]. Over the past three decades, several animal studies have investigated this relationship. Together, these studies have shown that in sub-optimally grown offspring, adaptive changes occur in key organ systems to maximize chances of ex-utero survival [2]. Unfortunately however, these early life adaptations to organ structure and function render suboptimally grown offspring vulnerable to chronic disease later in life [3]. This concept is known as the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DoHAD) hypothesis, and provides the broad mechanistic framework underpinning the relationship between adverse early life exposures and chronic disease in adulthood [2].