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American Journal of Biomedical Science AND Research

ISSN(p): | ISSN(e):2642-1747
Journal Papers (304) Details
Indexed Journal

1 Thiamine Deficiency and Benfotiamine Therapy in Brain Diseases , Dragan M Pavlović
Thiamine is hydrosoluble molecule from B vitamins family vitamin that is crucial for the metabolism of glucose and is essential for the normal growth and development of the organism, as well as for the normal function of body systems such as digestive, cardiovascular and nervous system, both central (CNS) and peripheral (PNS), and also stimulates the brain and improves the psycho-emotional state. Hypovitaminosis B1 is more common than it is thought, primarily due to the discrepancy in high intake of pure calories and the low intake of vitamins. The most frequent deficiencies of thiamine are Wernicke’s encephalopathy, Korsakoff’s psychosis, beriberi, Alzheimer’s disease, but many more cases are those of marginal deficit of thiamine. Benfotiamine is a synthetic vitamin B1 that is liposoluble than manifold increases his penetration in brain and peripheral nerves compared to thiamine. Benfotiamine is thiamine precursor that can be converted into thiamine in tissues and then metabolites into thiamine monophosphate and thiamine diphosphate. Polyphenols in coffee and tea can inactivate thiamine.The effects of benfotiamine are mild inhibition of cholinesterase, reduction in production of amyloid plaques and hyperphosphorylated tau. Benfotiamine inhibits the three main pathways leading to hyperglycemic damage. Long-term administration of benfotiamine corrects cognitive status. Usual doses of benfotiamine are 150 mg or 300 mg once or twice daily. In some cases, Korsakoff psychosis requires long-term administration of benfotiamine in maintenance dose with excellent results.
2 Alcohol Consumption Prevention Strategies , Lídia Susana Mendes
The alcohol consumption affects an increasing number of people around the world, and an estimated 2.3 million over the age of 15 are consuming alcoholic beverages [1]. Binge drinking (BD) is a consumption over 60 gr or more of pure alcohol in one occasion at least one time in the last month, affects young people (15-19 years), with a peak at 20-24 years [1].There are multiple factors of vulnerability associated with alcohol consumption. The choice of the drink and the age at which the consumptions occur result from the combination of both individual and social vulnerability. The Individual factors that condition alcohol consumption is age, gender, family conditions, religious affiliation, and socioeconomic status (WHO 2014; Collins, 2016). Other conditions, of society, such as the level of development, culture, context of consumption and production of alcohol, distribution and regulation, also have an influence in the consumption of alcoholic beverages.
3 Phosphatidylethanol (PEth); the Superior Direct Alcohol Biomarker against Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), Aspartate Amino Transferase (AST), Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase (GGT) and Carbohydrate-Deficient Transferrin (CDT) , Salah Eddine Breidi
As ethanol itself is metabolised and excreted quickly from the body, assessing alcohol consumption with a blood test relies on other markers indicative of consumption. Traditional tests include Liver Function Testing (LFT), Carbohydrate Deficient Transferrin (CDT) Testing, and a Full Blood Count (FBC). Phosphatidylethanol (PEth) testing, on the other hand, is a direct biomarker of alcohol consumption, can only be detected when alcohol has been consumed, and is directly correlated with the level of alcohol consumed.
4 Improving Sleep with the Unique and the Newly Developed Acupoint Protocol to Fight Against Cancer Pain , Tony Hong
Pain is a very common condition which can affect the quality of life of patients at any time. Rated from a dull ache to a sharp stab and ranged from mild to server in the daily life, pain management is attracting more and more attention because the occurrence of pain rises when people are getting older. Compared to men, women are more likely to experience pain which is generally classified into acute pain which is understood to be the normal response to tissue injury, and chronic (ongoing) pain that persists beyond the normal time of healing and generally lasts for more than three months [1].
5 CDC Alert for Hospital Infections due to Candida Auris Multiresistant , Dra Mirta D Ambra
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has received reports from international health centers that Candida auris multi-drug resistant yeast is causing health-associated invasive infections with high mortality. Some strains of C. auris have high minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) to the three main classes of antifungals, severely limiting treatment options. C. auris requires specialized methods for its identification and could be mistakenly identified as another yeast when the procedure is based on traditional biochemical methods. The CDC is aware that a strain of C. auris was detected in the United States in 2013 as part of ongoing surveillance. The experience outside the United States suggests that C. auris has a high potential to cause outbreaks in health centers. Given the presence of C. auris in nine countries on four continents since 2009, the CDC is alerting health centers in the United States to be on the lookout for C. auris infections in patients.
6 The Coexistence of Hypertension and Dyslipidemia in a Cohort of Iraqi patients with essential Hypertension: Cross Sectional Study , Ali Fawzi Abdalsahib Al Zamili
Hypertension and hyperlipidemia are among major risk factors for ischemic heart disease, the principal human killer worldwide. In addition, they form important components of the well-established metabolic syndrome. Generally speaking, dyslipidemia comprises abnormality in the level of triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol. The description of hypertension and dyslipidemia as a single entity under the title “dyslipidemic hypertension (DH)” has emerged in medical literatures since 1988; a suggestion was made at that time as being a genetic syndrome to explain the coexistence of dyslipidemia and essential hypertension in a subset of patients.
7 Sino-nasal T/NK lymphomas (Medio-Facial Malignant Granulomas) , Jbali Souheil
Nasal T / NK Lymphoma Was First Described In 1933 As A Medio-Facial Malignant Granuloma. The Diagnosis of This Rare Disease Is Clinical and Immuno-Histopathological. We Report 18 Cases of TNK Lymphoma Collected at ENT and Maxillo-Facial Surgery Department Of La Rabta Hospital Over A Period Of 17 Years (2000-2016). We Included in This Work All Patients Whose Diagnosis of TNK Lymphoma Was Confirmed Histologically and By an Immuno-Histochemical Study. The Classification Adopted Was That of The World Health Organization (WHO) For Lymphoma (2008). The Treatment Was Based on Exclusive Radiotherapy for Four Patients Classified Stage IE, Radio-Chemotherapy for Five Patients: All Classified Stage IE Diffuse, And One Patient Classified Stage IV. Exclusive Chemotherapy Was Performed in Four Patients: Classified Stage IIE In Three Cases and Stage IE Diffuse in One Case. The Mean Follow-Up of Our Patients Was 8 Months (2-42 Months). Clinical Remission Was Noted Only in Two Patients.
8 Using the Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire and Lifestyle Modifications to Improve Symptoms of Pelvic Floor Dysfunction , Marc Bonis
Objective: The purpose of the study was to determine if lifestyle modifications along with a specialized exercise program improved symptoms and pain levels due to pelvic floor dysfunction.Subjects: 36 women aged 45.5 ± 9.1 years old (mean ± s.d.) identified with symptoms of pelvic floor dysfunction.Methods: The subjects were assessed for symptoms of pelvic floor dysfunction using the Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire (PFIQ–7). After a 30-day control period of no changes to lifestyle and activities, the subjects were introduced to lifestyle modifications and a specialized exercise program that included eight 45-minute live group sessions and a home exercise program to be performed at least three times per week. The subjects were re-assessed after completion of the intervention. IBM SPSS Version 24 statistical programming was used, and Wilcoxon non-parametric analyses were applied to compare the pre- and post-intervention data to determine if significant relief from dysfunction occurred. Results: The intervention significantly improved pelvic floor disorder symptoms (PFIQ-7, z (36) = -3.777, p < 0.05) and diastasis recti separation, (z (36) = -4.926, p < 0.05). The level of significance was set at p = 0.05.Conclusion: Lifestyle modifications and a specialized exercise program can significantly improve symptoms of pelvic floor dysfunction.
9 Evaluation of Antidiarrheal Activity of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Anogeissus leiocarpus on Castor Oil-Induced Diarrhea in Rats , Michel Archange Fokam Tagne1*, Yaouke Rékabi1, Paul Aimé Noubissi2, Gaëtan Olivier Fankem3, Hypolyte Akaou1, Henri Wambe4 and René Kamgang3,5
Diarrheal diseases are a major public health problem in developing countries. Anogeissus leiocarpus (DC.) Gill. & Perr (Combretaceae) is used in Africa and particularly in Cameroon for the empirical treatment of diarrhea. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of aqueous extract of leaves of Anogeissus leiocarpus on castor oil-induced diarrhea in rats. Diarrhea was induced by administering 10 mL/kg body weight of castor oil orally to male rats. The determination of effective doses was made by assessing the weight and frequency of diarrheal stool of different doses of the extract (25 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg). The effects of the aqueous extract of Anogeissus leiocarpus on intestinal transit were determined with an activated charcoal meal in rats. The effects of the aqueous extract of Anogeissus leiocarpus on intestinal secretion were evaluated by measuring the volume of the intestinal content and by dosing the electrolytes (Na+, K+ and Cl-) in the intestinal content by the colorimetric method. Castor oil-induced diarrhea was significantly inhibited (P <0.01) by 59.93%; 69.39%; 68.88%; 67.60% and 75.00%, respectively in the animals treated with the aqueous extract of the leaves of Anogeissus leiocarpus at doses of 25 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg. The intestinal transit was inhibited significantly (P <0.01) by 29.34%, 31.35% and 43.29%, respectively of the aqueous extract of A. leiocarpus at doses 25 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg. The volume of the intestinal content was decreased significantly (P <0.01) by 53.91%, 83.43% and 72.17%, respectively in the animals treated with the extract at doses 25 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg as well as the concentration of electrolytes. These results would justify the use of leaves of Anogeissus leiocarpus in the treatment of diarrhea in traditional medicine.
10 Polymeric Nanoencapsulation of Indocyanine green for Photodynamic Therapy Technique , Mohammadreza Saboktakin
Indocyanine green (ICG) has been exploited as a photosensitizer for use in cancerous phototherapy including breast, brain, and skin tumors. Although ICG is of particular advantage for use in cancer phototherapy, it adversely tends to disintegrate in aqueous medium and such degradation can be markedly accelerated by light irradiation (photodegradation) and/or heating (thermal degradation). Furthermore, ICG after administered intravenously will be readily bound with blood proteins and hence leads to only 2±4min of plasmatic half-life. Among various pharmaceutical polymers, poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), PEG, Chitosan are the best-defined biomaterials with FDA approval for drug encapsulation due to its biocompatibility, biodegradability, and controllability for drug release. This review shows that novel applications of biodegradable polymers as nanocarrier for ICG to improve of physicochemical properties of ICG such as Half-life.
11 Transpersonal Caring Relationship , Joyce Reder
The enduring values and beliefs that brought me to nursing include a desire to have purpose in my life. This means I want to know that I did not waste my time on earth. Another belief is that every person deserves to be cared for by compassionate caregivers. My compassion for others comes from my belief in all people being children of God. My religious values are the most important beliefs I hold. Faith gives people a reason for everything they do. I believe we will be judged by God at the end of our time on earth and I want to be worthy of redemption. Caring for those who are sick or can-not care for themselves is, in my opinion, helping to do God’s work. Hopefully this work will assist in my being judged favorably.
12 Epidemiology, Diagnosis & Prevention of Newcastle Disease in Poultry  , Mebrate Getabalew1, Tewodros Alemneh2*, Dawit Akeberegn3, Daniel Getahun1 and Derbie Zewdie1
Newcastle disease is a contagious bird disease affecting many domestic and wild avian species. It is a zoonotic disease with widespread distribution. It is caused by avian Paramyxovirus serotype 1 virus which, with viruses of the other eight serotypes (avian paramyxovirus1-9), has been placed in the genus Avulavirus, sub-family Paramyxovirinae, family Paramyxoviridae. Virulent ND virus strains are endemic in poultry in most of Asia, Africa, and some countries of North and South America. Other countries, including the United States of America and Canada, are free of those strains in poultry. The strain of Newcastle pathogenicity can be classified into five pathotype: Asymptomatic enteric strain; Lentogenic strain; Mesogenic strain; Viscerotropic velogenic strain and Neurotropic velogenic strain. Clinical signs are extremely variable depending on the strain of virus, species and age of bird, management, concurrent disease, and pre-existing immunity caused by Paramixovirus with worldwide distribution affecting chickens of all age groups. The transmission of ND occurs through respiratory aerosols, exposure to fecal and other excretions from infected birds, through newly introduced birds, selling and giving away sick birds and contacts with contaminated feed, water, equipment, cannibalism and clothing. Gasping, coughing, sneezing, rales, tremors, paralyzed wings and legs, twisted necks, circling; colonic spasms and complete paralysis are the clinical pictures of the disease. Newcastle disease may cause conjunctivitis in humans, when a person has been exposed to large quantities of the virus. The objective of this review is, therefore, to understand the epidemiology, clinical signs, diagnosis, prevent and control of Newcastle disease in poultry.
13 Air Pollution, Health and Ethics , Robin Attfield*
Recent findings about nitrogen dioxide pollution in Britain and about particulate pollution worldwide raise ethical issues about the protection of human (and animal) health [1]. Many urban areas of Britain have been found to have illegally high levels of NO2. But it turns out that there is a world-wide problem with particulates, particularly in large towns and cities in Third world countries, as well as in much of Europe and North America. In many cases diesel engines are to blame. Does it follow that these should be phased out as soon as possible? Many of us would answer ‘yes’. But before we do, we should reflect on the broader picture. The aims of this presentation are to begin this undertaking, adduce relevant ethical principles, and to draw conclusions which are not invariably the ones that we might well adopt prior to reflection. First, can we phase out diesel engines? With automobiles, this is certainly possible, and it is open to governments to introduce scrappage schemes, encouraging people to trade in their diesel-powered cars and replace them with petrol-powered ones. But even this, as we shall see, is not unproblematic.
14 Electron Microscopy Study of Nerve Cell Death Types in Some Central Nervous System Diseases. A Review , Orlando J Castejón*
In the present review we describe the nerve cell death types in some nervous central diseases. Cortical biopsies of patients with congenital hydrocephalus, brain trauma, vascular anomalies and brain tumors are examined by means of transmission electron microscopy to study distinct and combined forms of nerve cell death. Most non-pyramidal nerve cells, astrocyte and oligodendrocytes undergo a hybrid oncotic-apoptotic and necrotic continuum process. In a lesser proportion another non-pyramidal nerve cells, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes show apoptosis or oncosis only. Autophagic cell death was rarely seen in non-pyramidal nerve cells in traumatic brain edema. The nerve cell death is discussed in relation with the severity of brain edema, anoxic-ischemic conditions of the tissue, calcium depolarization and Ca ++ influx, resulting in excitotoxic cell death, glutamate excitotoxicity, caspase dependent and independent mechanisms, oxidative stress, and calcium overload.
15 The Developmental Tasks and The Binge Drinking , Lidia Susana Mendes Moutinho*
In the last decade alcohol consumption in Europe has stabilized, nevertheless a high rate of Binge Drinking (BD) still occurs which means a consumption over 60gr or more of pure alcohol in one occasion at least once in the last month. This type of consumption is the most appreciated by the young people. The age of BD is most prevalent between 20-24 years [1].The age range in which this type of consumption has more followers is also the age that the integration of many developmental tasks is expected. According to Theory of Development of Erickson the people between the ages of 20 and 35 are in the stage designated as young adults. This stage of development suggests significant changes and an increase of responsibility which is a long-term commitment to sharing, companionship, monogamous relationships and a desire to start a family.
16 The Developmental Tasks and The Binge Drinking , Lidia Susana Mendes Moutinho*
In the last decade alcohol consumption in Europe has stabilized, nevertheless a high rate of Binge Drinking (BD) still occurs which means a consumption over 60gr or more of pure alcohol in one occasion at least once in the last month. This type of consumption is the most appreciated by the young people. The age of BD is most prevalent between 20-24 years [1].The age range in which this type of consumption has more followers is also the age that the integration of many developmental tasks is expected. According to Theory of Development of Erickson the people between the ages of 20 and 35 are in the stage designated as young adults. This stage of development suggests significant changes and an increase of responsibility which is a long-term commitment to sharing, companionship, monogamous relationships and a desire to start a family.
17 Miraculous Healing and Long-Term Medical Remission of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) – the role of Divinity within the Future of Medicine , Richard Sarnat* 
While “miraculous healings” or spontaneous medical remissions of various disease states have been scientifically reported previously, the exact mechanism, which allow for these seeming miracles or spontaneous remissions is poorly understood. By contrast, I have recently published multiple case studies of long term medical remissions, which have included the “miraculous healings” of Sarcoidosis, Chronic Lyme Disease, Fibromyalgia, Parkinson’s disease, severe chronic debilitating plantar arthritis and metastatic squamous cell carcinoma without the use of pharmaceuticals or antibiotics and where the mechanism of action used to initiate the “miraculous healing” appears to have a cause and effect relationship and thus is reproducible.This case report now adds Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) (case study #7) to the previous six case studies, which I have observed and now report to be successfully treated by a process, which Master John Douglas refers to as “Angelic Reformation.” These case reports are representative of the many hundreds of case studies I have documented (although most yet unpublished) over a ten-year period, while observing the work of Master John Douglas and the graduates of his Elite Development course. While certainly inspiring, admittedly all of these observations must ultimately be subjected to additional rigorous scientific methodology. Yet, the sheer number of miraculous healings I have observed and the fact that this body of knowledge can be taught to others who obtain similarly effective results is very promising, given our current confusion regarding the exact mechanisms of action and/or causation of autoimmune diseases, dementias and many other chronic disease states.
18 Antibiotic with Essential Metals Complexation and Interaction, An in Vitro Study by Spectrophotometric Method , Jinnat Begam Tumpa and Md Shahidul Islam*
The present research work describes of interaction and complexation studies of Amoxicillin with essential metal & antacid and also investigation of antimicrobial activity of Amoxicillin. Amoxicillin included the third generation drug of penicillin. In vitro analysis, Amoxicillin must be interacted with metal like Mg2+ and Mn2+. At pH 7.4, this study was performed in different ratios of Amoxicillin with metal and antacid both at room temperature 250 0C. by this study, it is investigated that drug Amoxicillin is complexed with metal as well as antacid which is confirmed by job’s plot. This experiment was carried out by using ultra violet spectrophotometer. The microbial sensitivity test is important to know whether there is any change in the effectivity of Amoxicillin after the interaction with metals. There was a remarkable change in the effectivity of Amoxicillin and its complexes. This research work confirms that there was interaction between Amoxicillin with Metals like Mg2+ and Mn2+ which was confirmed by Job’s plot method by spectrophotometric assay.
19 A Review Study on Different Plants in Malvaceae Family and Their Medicinal Uses , Upama Das and Md Shahidul Islam*
In this investigation, a total of 5 species under 5 genera belonging to the malvaceae family were mentioned. In this study Taxonomy and traditional medicine practices on Malvaceae family of Chittagong, Bangladesh was carried out. The plants which were used by local people, were surveyed and collected . The members of this family have mucilaginous substance. Stellate hairs are usually present on their young parts. Flower Bracteate/ebracteate, Bracteolateor Ebractiolate, Pedicellate, Dichlamydeou Spentamerous, complete, actinomorphic, regular, bisexual and hypogynous. Out of the total number of species Abutilon indicum (L.) Sweet., Hibiscus esculentus L., Hibiscus mutabilis L., Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L., were common and Gossypium herbaceum L. was rare species in the study area. Detailed survey has made in gathering information regarding use of medicine has been documented. Usually, the survey in each locality started with the interview of elderly and experienced members, locally known as Hakims. Besides, this the common people of the surveyed localities who themselves have used these plant based for health treatments were interviewed to prove veracity of the curative features of plants. Medicinal uses and data about the treatment of various alignments based on the information gathered by using questionnaires are given subsequently. For each species botanical name, local name, habit, habitat, phenology, status of occurrence, and medicinal uses have been mentioned.
20 Effectiveness of Nutrition Education on Nutrient intake and Nutrition Status of infants in Ondo State, Nigeria , Akinrinmade R1*, Njogu E2 and Ogada I3
Malnutrition during infancy has been linked to lack or low knowledge of appropriate feeding practices of the caregivers. This study determined the effectiveness of nutrition education on Minimum Acceptable Diet (MAD) as an indicator of complementary feeding to achieve the nutrient intake and nutrition status of infants (6-11months) in Ondo State, Nigeria. The study was a cluster randomized controlled trial design, whereby the participants were assigned to two groups. One intervention and one control group in a ratio of 1:1. The sample size was 142 for intervention group and 142 for the control group. Nutrition education on MAD was carried out among the caregivers in the intervention group and the control group received no nutrition education. The nutrition education was based on dietary diversity and meal frequency putting into consideration the hygiene practices. To determine the nutrient intake of the infants, data was collected from caregivers as the infants progressed in age using questionnaires. nutrient intake of the infants was assessed using 24-hr dietary recall. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 22.0. From the analysis, there was no significant difference in demographic and socio-economic status of the caregivers and Nutri-survey software for the nutrient intake. There was no significant difference in the complementary food intake of the infants as intended by the caregivers at the baseline. At the midline and the endline after the nutrition education, the nutrients intake of the infants in the intervention group was higher than the nutrient intake of the infants in the control group as analyzed using nutri-survey. Energy intake of infants in the intervention group was higher both at the midline (259kcal±20.67) and at the endline (366.7kcal±23.03) than those in the control group both at the midline (121.1kcal±17.05) and the endline (212kcal±22.04). There was a significant difference in WAZ (t. test; p=0.001), WAZ (t. test; p=0.001) but no significant difference in HAZ (t. test; p=0.049). There was an association between meal frequency and under nutrition (AOR: 0.489 (0.26-0.92) p-value; 0.027, dietary diversity and stunting (AOR:1.493 (1.25-1.80) p-value; 0.001).
21 Female are More Prone to Halitosis Due to the Changing of the Hormonal Balance-A Cross Sectional Study in Bangladesh , S M Mahmudul Hasan*, Sumia Afrin and Nafees Uddin Chowdhury
Introduction: Halitosis is the highly public health concern and about female are commonly affect this problem. A steroid sex hormone that acts as an important role in maintaining of oral physiology. The menstrual cycle pointed as a constituent that causes halitosis. The prevalence rate of halitosis during menstrual cycle unknown and various sociodemo graphic factors associated to the halitosis.Objective: The purpose of the survey was to get out the sociodemographic factors that cause halitosis during the menstrual phase.Methods: This study was cross-sectional survey, covering in Dhaka district of Bangladesh and data collecting period February 2017 to January 2018. The menstruation is 28 days between the days menstrual phase-1-4, follicular phase-7-11 and premenstrual phase-24-27 days. Anxiety score measured by using the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) questionnaire. Factors of halitosis during menstrual cycle risk measured by cross-tabulation and ordinal logistic regression were used to examine the association between sociodemo graphic factors halitosis during menstrual cycle.Results: Results showed that about 75% of participant were suffering from severe halitosis. In the adjusted model, high-level anxiety versus low-level anxiety (AOR=0.05,95% CI=0.02,0.23) and medium level anxiety (AOR=0.09,95% CI=0.02,2.69); rural versus urban (AOR=3.41,95% CI=1.24,9.34) was significant for malodor during the menstrual phase.Conclusion: This work confirmed the demographic factors were exacerbated oral halitosis during the menstrual phase.
22 Female are More Prone to Halitosis Due to the Changing of the Hormonal Balance-A Cross Sectional Study in Bangladesh , S M Mahmudul Hasan*, Sumia Afrin and Nafees Uddin Chowdhury
Introduction: Halitosis is the highly public health concern and about female are commonly affect this problem. A steroid sex hormone that acts as an important role in maintaining of oral physiology. The menstrual cycle pointed as a constituent that causes halitosis. The prevalence rate of halitosis during menstrual cycle unknown and various sociodemo graphic factors associated to the halitosis.Objective: The purpose of the survey was to get out the sociodemographic factors that cause halitosis during the menstrual phase.Methods: This study was cross-sectional survey, covering in Dhaka district of Bangladesh and data collecting period February 2017 to January 2018. The menstruation is 28 days between the days menstrual phase-1-4, follicular phase-7-11 and premenstrual phase-24-27 days. Anxiety score measured by using the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) questionnaire. Factors of halitosis during menstrual cycle risk measured by cross-tabulation and ordinal logistic regression were used to examine the association between sociodemo graphic factors halitosis during menstrual cycle.Results: Results showed that about 75% of participant were suffering from severe halitosis. In the adjusted model, high-level anxiety versus low-level anxiety (AOR=0.05,95% CI=0.02,0.23) and medium level anxiety (AOR=0.09,95% CI=0.02,2.69); rural versus urban (AOR=3.41,95% CI=1.24,9.34) was significant for malodor during the menstrual phase.Conclusion: This work confirmed the demographic factors were exacerbated oral halitosis during the menstrual phase.
23 Prediction of the State of the Cardiovascular System based on the Allocation of the Boundaries of the Implementation of the Dynamic System , NT Abdullayev*, OA Dishin, ID Ibragimova and KhR Ahmadova
Recently, research methods for rare experimental events have been intensively developed [1-9]. For a quantitative assessment of rare events, the time intervals between occurrences of successive events above (or below) some threshold Q are usually considered. In this case, both the probability density function of these repeated intervals and their long-term dependencies are investigated (autocorrelation function, conditional repetition periods, etc.). In the numerical analysis necessarily considers not very large thresholds Q, which provide good statistical estimates of repeated intervals, and then these results are extrapolated to very large thresholds, for which the statistics are very poor [1-5].
24 Is Cannabidiol the Cure-all Remedy we Have Been Looking for? , Leona Chang and Olga Ostrovsky*
Cannabidiol (CBD), the second major component of the plant Cannabis sativa, has become increasingly popular for its potential anxiolytic, anti-inflammatory, antiemetic, and antipsychotic effects. It is non-psychotropic and has no abusive potential thus far, however scientific evidence on the pharmacological effects of CBD are limited to preclinical studies. More large and well-controlled clinical trials are needed to establish the clinical applications of CBD.Cannabis sativa is one of three primary species from the Cannabaceae family, known for its cannabinoid extract, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (∆9-THC,). ∆9-THC is the most abundant component of Cannabis sativa and is popular for its psychoactive or euphoric effects. On the contrary, the second major component of the plant Cannabis sativa-cannabidiol (CBD)-does not have psychoactive effects; it has received the latest media buzz and marketing claims as a miracle cure for anxiety, depression, pain, inflammation, insomnia, and even cancer, without the high.CBD can be derived from varieties of Cannabis, commonly referred to as hemp or marijuana. Hemp and marijuana differ by the amount of ∆9-THC in the plant. The Agriculture Improvement Act of 2018 (or 2018 Farm Bill) defines “hemp” as any part or derivative of the plant Cannabis sativa, with a ∆9-THC concentration of no more than 0.3% by dry weight, in contrast to up to 30% of ∆9-THC which is in marijuana [1]. The 100-fold difference in the psychoactive component of Cannabis sativa is likely the growing public’s interest in the potential therapeutic effects of CBD.Products advertised to contain CBD have been increasingly found in oils, creams, cosmetics, gummies, and even dog treats. The increasing availability of cannabis-derived products is due to the passage of the 2018 Farm Bill which legalized hemp cultivation and declassified it as a Schedule I controlled substance. Now hemp-derived CBD is widely available in almost all 50 states. With the overwhelming ease in purchasing CBD products, what is the scientific evidence on CBD as a cure all drug and is it safe to use? There are a variety of pharmacologic effects of CBD reported in preclinical studies such as anxiolytic, anti-inflammatory, antiemetic, and antipsychotic properties (Figure 1). 
25 Charcoal-Based Dental Products in Clinical Practice: An Update , Asra Sabir Hussain*, Taha Mohammad Masood and Yousef Alharbi
Charcoal dentifrices and powders are classified as fashionable oral hygiene products of the modern age. They are primarily used for tooth brushing and extrinsic stains removal and, it is entitled as ‘tooth whitening’. The popularity of these charcoal-based products is increasing in many countries across the globe. Many patients these days are concerned about using charcoal-based dentifrices and powders for whitening effects and other benefits. However, it’s often advisable not to use charcoal-based dentifrices as the strength of evidence to support claims by the manufactures is relatively low [1]
26 The Efficacy of Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Therapy for Treating Knee Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Review , Leon Scott*
Objective: Past systematic reviews and meta-analysises of older studies of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) therapy report positive effect sizes favoring treatment over control. This systematic review was conducted to include the most recent studies and evaluate the clinical significance of PEMF compared to control.Data sources: A systematic review of PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane controlled trials Register.Methods: Level one and two trials reporting comparison of pulsed electromagnetic fields with placebo or other control were included. Mean differences were compared to the minimal clinically important differences (MCID) of functional and pain outcome scores.Results: Ten studies, including 495 patients, showed a VAS difference between groups of 11 points out of 100, and a WOMAC difference between groups of 9.7 points out of 100.Conclusion: PEMF is unlikely to make a clinically important difference in knee osteoarthritis pain and function compared to placebo and control groups.
27 Lack of Predictive Value of Ovarian Reserve Tests for Pregnancy Likelihood. The Huge Difference Between Quantity and Quality , G Barrenetxea*, E Martínez, M De las Heras, JI Arambarri1, M Axpe and J Barrenetxea
Objective: To evaluate the predictive value of different variables on the number of achieved oocytes and the likelihood of pregnancy after IVF.Design: Prospective cohort study.Setting: University associated private AR center.Patients: 718 patients undergoing their first IVF treatment during 2016 and 2017.Interventions: None.Main outcome measures: The study had two objectives. First, to identify factors capable of predicting the quantitative ovarian response of patients by applying a multiple linear regression analysis. Evaluated variables included age, BMI, antral follicle count (AFC), anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), basal FSH, LH and Estradiol determination, the amount of administered rFSH during ovarian stimulation and Estradiol and Progesterone levels on day of ovulation triggering. Second, to assess, by applying a multivariate logistic analysis, whether the same parameters, plus the number of achieved oocytes, were useful for identifying chances of pregnancy.Results: Whereas AFC was the most accurate factor predicting the number of achieved oocytes, with negligible added value of the remaining variables, age represented the most important factor influencing successful pregnancies. AMH, AFC and achieved oocytes after controlled ovarian stimulation do not predict the probability of pregnancy.Conclusion: Reproductive potential is more related to factors associated to oocyte and embryo quality than the number of achieved oocytes after COS. Our data show that age is the most important variable defining the probability of ongoing pregnancy and that neither AFC nor AMH can be used as criteria for ART exclusion, but as a tool for counselling and proposing different strategies such as oocyte accumulation.
28 International Students: A Population Facing Significant Stress , David Henneberry*
tress is a condition for which both treatments, and the patient’s ability to change and adapt, partially depend upon environmental factors. Some groups are particularly prone to exposure to significant stressors. The purpose of this opinion piece is to draw awareness of the significant stressors faced by a particular group of underserved individuals who bear a large burden of stressors while living almost unnoticed amongst us. International students are prevalent on all major university campuses, medical schools, stem subject programs and graduate colleges across the United States. Institutions eagerly cash payments for tuition, lodging and academic supplies but seldom devote resources to the mental health of this group. Their level of stress is unique, because it comes from so many different areas of life, all at potentially debilitating levels [1].
29 Echinchrome Pigment Isolated from Sea Urchin Improves Female Rat’s Fertility , Eman Y Salah EL-Din, Ayman S Mohamed*, Neveen Asmet Farag and Abdel Rahman A Tawfik
Background: Echinochrome (Ech) is natural product pigment found in sea urchin. The present study aimed to evaluate effect of Ech on fertility of female rats. Methods: 18 virgin females will assign into 3 groups: Control; received 1 ml 2% DMSO (orally) daily for 30 days, Low dose Ech; received 1 ml of 0.1 mg/kg and high dose Ech; received 1 ml of 1 mg/kg Ech. Results: High dose of Ech caused significant decrease in levels of glucose, AST, ALT, ALP, Creatinine, Urea, Uric acid, TC, LDL-C, Tg, while TP and albumin and HDL-C increase. Significant increase in FSH, LH, Uterus weight, Body weight gain, Placenta weight, Embryos number, Embryos weight, Embryo length was noticed after treatment with high dose of Ech. Conclusion: Echinchrome ameliorate female rats’ fertility through an improvement in sex hormones, lipid profile, glucose level, liver function and kidney functions.
30 Bacillus Thuringiensis Cry Proteins: The Status of Their Therapeutic Potential in Infectious Diseases , Gloria G Guerrero M*
Bacillus thuringiensis Cry proteins has been the subject of intense research in the last three decades. Cry proteins are highly specific towards different orders of insects [1,2]. Bt Cry proteins are a multigenic family. It can be distinguished two main families: Cyt (cytolitic) and Cry (Crystal) protein [1,2]. The protoxins or inmature proteins weights 130 kDa. To be active, protoxins should be processed by the C-terminal region, producing the fragment toxic of 60-70 kDa. The three-dimensional structure of the Cry1Aa, Cry3A toxins has been elucidated [1,2]. In general Cry toxins are formed by three domains [1,2]. Domain I, formed by a bundle of alpha –seven helix, domain II or the binding domain formed by anti-parallel beta-sheet and the domain III formed also by a sandwich of beta-pledged sheets [3,4] By another hand, it has been described the immunogenic and adjuvants properties of the protoxin Cry1Ac [5,6]. The study has been extended to other members of the Cry family, like the protoxins Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, Cry3A as well as to the Cry1A a, Cry1Ab and Cry3A toxins [7].
31 Acute Pneumonia: Infection or Inflammation in the Lung? , Igor Klepikov*
The question in the title of this letter is not a comparison of terms. The answer to this question is fundamental to substantiate the principles of care and further results of treatment of the disease. The choice of the answer to this dilemma determines the strategy for further directions in solving the problem of acute pneumonia (AP). The validity and correctness of this choice will affect not only the effectiveness of further actions and efforts, but also the fate of many patients. To come to a meaningful and reasoned view of the essence of AP, it is enough to analyze the arguments and facts accumulated by medical science and practice.
32 Central Auditory Processing Deficits in the Elderly , Lilian Felipe*
Elderly persons with and without hearing loss experience difficulty listening to speech in background noise, following rapid speech, attending to multiple speakers, or understanding complex messages. When the listening situation is complex or challenging the person expands additional listening effort, which can lead to fatigue, reduced attention, and forgetfulness. Beyond the age-related effects on hearing, known as presbycusis, the central auditory system suffers decline in processing abilities with memory and attention. This common occurrence for the aging brain to experience some decline in functioning, is known as, “central presbycusis”. Specifically related to the auditory system, the brain declines in its ability to listen to speech in noise, dichotic processing which is attending to stimuli in one/both/alternating ears, and temporal processing which is attending to rapid changes in stimuli. Research shows that engaging in cognitively demanding activities like reading, learning, playing games, playing chess, speaking another language, being physically active, engaging in social activities, and playing music can delay and/or reduce cognitive decline and dementia. This paper will further elaborate on the effects of central auditory processing deficits resulting from central presbycusis in the elderly.
33 Clinical Exploratory Recovery of Bacteria Pathogens Associated with some Abattoir Outfits in Port Harcourt, Rivers State: A Potential Public Health Concern , Azuonwu Obioma*1, Ihua Nnenna1, Orabueze Ifeoma Celestina2 and Anthony Augustine Uzochi1
The aim of this study was to investigate the association of some pathogenic pathogens with abattoir environment in Port Harcourt and possibly highlight some of their Public Health implications. The study was a cross sectional research design; hence samples were bacteriologically collected and examined for the presence of some pathogenic pathogens and their potential implication on the overall meat hygiene, using standard microbiological technique. Frequency distribution, prevalence and ANOVA t-test statistics was used at p<0.0 through the application of SPSS version 21 for the analysis of the data. Results implicated the presence of four types of bacteria namely; Clostridium spp, Staphylococcus spp, Bacillus spp, and Escherichia coli with prevalence rates of 4 (5%), 16 (20%), 20 (25%) and 40 (50%) respectively. Total Number of Coliforms (MPN Index/100ml) for all the selected Abattoir locations stood at ≥ 2400. The null hypothesis was therefore retained thus, the bacteriological quality of meat is strongly influenced by the conditions of hygiene prevailing during the production and handling process. It is therefore, strongly believed that without proper hygiene, the environment and materials used in abattoir can act as a source of microbiological contamination. However, indiscriminate littering with feaces is a threat, hence, requires serious control. Abattoir contributes to the problem of food borne diseases and potential health hazards associated with it. The findings from this study indicate that meat hygiene was compromised, and this situation calls for an improvement in abattoir management safety and the application of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) by relevant stakeholders to prevent an outbreak of an epidemic.
34 Vitamin A and its Derivatives- Retinoic Acid and Retinoid Pharmacology , George Zhu*
Retinol (Vitamin A) and its derivative retinoic acid (RA) are essential in the control of epithelial cell growth and cellular differentiation. Retinoid is indispensable in vision and RA inhibits the growth of some malignant cells. RA has also striking effect on pattern formation in developing and regenerating limbs, and also a potent morphogen in chick limb bud. Retinoic acid (RA) proved therapeutic benefits in cancer prevention, in skin diseases and in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). The elucidation of the molecular basis of vitamin A and its retinoid pharmacology emerged as paradigm for the connection between RA and its structure of RA receptors(RAR), oncogenic pml/RARa as constitutive transcriptional repressor that block myeloid differentiation at promyelocytic phenotype, and the molecular model of retinoic acid action in a special APL. A molecular model is further revised. As an approach to APL treatment, one possible the action of retinoic acid (RA), A consensus sequence (TCAGGTCA motif ) has been postulated for thyroid hormone (TRE) and retinoic acid responsive element (RARE)-containing in the promoter region of target genes. High dose of RA-RARE-PML/RARa complexes in intracellular localization appears to relieve repressors from DNA-bound receptor, including the dissociation of corepressor complexes N-CoR, SMRT and HDACs from PML-RARa or partially PML-RARa/RXR. Also release PML/RARa -mediated transcription repression. This transcriptional derepression occurs at RARa target gene promoter. Consquentially, PML-RARa chimera converted receptor from a repressor to a RA-dependent activator of transcription. The resulting pml-RARA oncoprotein proteolytic degradation occurs through the autophagy-lysosome pathway and the ubiquitin SUMO-proteasome system(UPS) as well as caspase 3, or lysosomal protease (cathepsin D) enzyme or/and EI-like ubiquitin-activating enzyme(UBEIL) induction. Accordingly the expression level of PML-RARa downregulated. PML protein relocalizes into the wild-type nuclear body (PML-NB) configuration or a truncated PML-RARa fusion fragment detected or/and the wild-type RAR upregulated. An effect is to relieve the blockade of pml/RARa-mediated RA dependent promyelocytic differentiation and retinoic acid (9-cis RA, ATRA, Am80) in APL therapy (See figure by Zhu G, January 1991, revised in 2012). Here, RA can overcome the transcriptional repressor activity of pml/RARa.The oncogenic pml/RARa uncover a pathogenic role in leukemogenesis of APL through blocking promyelocytic differentiation. This oncogenic receptor derivative pml/RARa chimera is locked in their “off ” regular mode thereby constitutively repressing transcription of target genes or key enzymes (such as AP-1, PTEN, DAPK2, UP.1, p21WAF/CCKN1A) that are critical for differentiation of hematopoietic cells. This is first described in eukaryotes.
35 Assay Linearity and Spike-Recovery Assessment in Optimization protocol for the analysis of Serum Cytokines by Sandwich ELISA Platform , Moses Dabah Lugos1,2*, Obadiah Dapus Damulak3, Venkateswarlu Perikala2, Gwom I Davou1, Uchejeso Mark Obeta5, Jim Monday Banda1, Beatrice O Oluwatayo4 and Joseph AE Okwori4
Background: A sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (sELISA) can be used as a diagnostic tool in medicine, plant pathology, and biotechnology, as well as quality control checks in industries. To generate quality and reliable data using this technique, it is essential to optimise the conditions of carrying out sELISA. The optimisation protocol for sELISA includes but not limited to the determination of the right dilution of the sample type, the optimal concentration for the primary antibodies, the use of correct diluent to mention a few.Aim of study: This study provides a practical approach to establish the right working dilution of serum samples for cytokine sELISA. Study volunteers and methods: We carried out Linearity of Dilution (LD) assay to measure sELISA accuracy and reliability for interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-9, FGF-basic and granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) using serially diluted serum samples from healthy volunteers and controlled by human group AB serum (hABs). Also, we undertook spike and recovery (SAR) assay to evaluate for interfering factors in the sample matrix. Results: Optimum sELISA signals were as follows: IL-4 = Neat, IL-6 = 1:4, IL-8 = Neat, IL-9 ≥ 1:100, FGF-basic = 1:8 and GM-CSF = Neat. The Spike & Recovery assay (SAR) data revealed higher per cent recovery rates for IL-8 and IL-9. Conversely, the remaining cytokines (IL-4, IL-6, FGF-basic and GM-CSF) showed low per cent recovery show the acceptable recovery rate of 80-120%. Our study showed that serum cytokines exhibit different signal strengths on the sELISA platform to varying dilutions of serum samples. Conclusion: It is therefore recommended that before embarking on serum cytokine sELISA analysis, multiple serial dilutions of serum samples must be used to determine the optimum working dilution for the respective cytokines to be adopted for the rest of the study.
36 Fronto-Ethmoidal Osteoma with Orbital Extension: Case Report , Laababsi Rabii*, Elkrimi Zineb, Boubzoub Anas, Ngham Hicham, Rouadi Sami, Abada reda lah, Roubal Mohamed and Mohamed Mahtar
Osteomas are benign bone tumors that can arise from any bone. They are the most common tumor of the paranasal sinuses, often small and asymptomatic. Secondary orbital extension of these tumors is considered an uncommon, while primary orbital osteomas are very rare, only appearing in literature as case reports. We report the case of an 18 years old man who presents with a fronto-ethmoidal osteoma with orbital extension, revealed by an orbital tumefaction, and who was treated with combined endoscopic and open surgery.
37 Rhodochrosite as Crystal Oscillator , Ricardo Gobato1*, Marcia Regina Risso Gobato2 and Alireza Heidari3
The electric charge that accumulates in certain solid materials, such as crystals, certain ceramics, and biological matter such as bone, DNA and various proteins) in response to applied mechanical stress, phenomenon called piezoelectricity. A crystal oscillator is an electronic oscillator circuit that uses the mechanical resonance of a vibrating crystal of piezoelectric material to create an electrical signal with a precise frequency. The most common type of piezoelectric resonator used is the quartz crystal, so oscillator circuits incorporating them became known as crystal oscillators. Particularly one using a quartz crystal, works by distorting the crystal with an electric field, when voltage is applied to an electrode near or on the crystal. This property is known as electrostriction or inverse piezoelectricity. When the field is removed, the quartz - which oscillates in a precise frequency - generates an electric field as it returns to its previous shape, and this can generate a voltage. The result is that a quartz crystal behaves like an RLC circuit, but with a much higher Q. Quartz crystals are manufactured for frequencies from a few tens of kilohertz to hundreds of megahertz. More than two billion crystals are manufactured annually. Most are used for consumer devices such as wristwatches, clocks, radios, computers, cell phones, signal generators and oscilloscopes.
38 Review on Principles of Zoonoses Prevention, Control and Eradication , Haregua Teshome* and Shimeles Abegaz Addis
Zoonoses are “those diseases and infection which are naturally transmitted between vertebrate animals and man”. The transmission may occur through direct contact with the animal, through vector (such as fleas or tick), or through food or water contamination. Zoonotic diseases cause mortality and morbidity in people, while also imposing significant economic losses in the livestock sector. Zoonosis constitutes a diverse group of viral, bacterial, rickettsia, fungal, parasitic and prion disease with a variety of animal reservoirs, including wildlife, livestock, pet animals and birds. The basic principles of zoonoses prevention control and eradication involves reservoir neutralization, reducing contact potential and increasing host resistance. Reservoir neutralization involves preventing spread of infection by removing the infected individual from the reservoir or by manipulation the environment where the reservoir resides. The removal of infected individual can be accomplished by means of a test and slaughter, and mass therapy. Test and slaughter have been most effective with agents spread by direct transmission and in which a limited number of reservoir species are involved. Mass therapy is usually restricted to a local situation in which all potential infected animals or people are treated without first testing them to identify infected individuals. Environmental manipulation can be designed to decrease environmental contamination by acting in relation to the portal of exit from the infected hosts or by decreasing exposure of susceptible hosts by acting in relation to the portal of entry. A basic principle in preventing direct transmission of an infectious agent from an infected individual to a susceptible host is to reduce the opportunity for contact between the two. Increasing host resistance may prevent infection of susceptible hosts or reduce severity of disease. Host resistance may be increased by genetic selection, stress reduction, chemoprophylaxis or immunization. The link among humans, animal populations and the surrounding environment should be done with proper care in order to protect serious consequence both for humans and for economically animals. Health professionals should educate the public about zoonotic diseases to effectively practice prevention, control and eradication strategies.
39 Macroscopic Cardiac Changes in Antipsychotic Therapy , Volkov VP*
By a morphometric method of research, the macroscopic changes of the heart in the process of antipsychotic therapy was determined. The study of the effect of this therapy on the heart showed that changes in the organ at the macroscopic level of its organization develop gradually during the first ten years of treatment, after which they quickly reach almost the maximum and practically do not progress in the future. This reflects a significant reduction in the rate of cardiac remodeling at the organ level, as well as the foreground of microstructural myocardial damage.
40 Obsessive-Compulsive Traits, as Behavioral Invention & Foundation of Cultural-Historical Evolution: A Pilot Study , Saeed Shoja Shafti*
Introduction: No doubt, evolutionary psychologists are trying to enlighten personality and individual differences by way of various theories. But, essentially and from an evolutionary point of view, a few studies exist regarding personality characters. In the present assessment, relationship between obsessive-compulsive personality traits and achievement of people had been assessed.Method and Material: Four hundreds relatives, who had been elected randomly, have been questioned by means of a self-reply inquiry form as regards the existence of obsessive-compulsive personality traits, in their highest and lowest successful offspring. Data were analyzed by z test for comparison of proportions.Results: Except for ‘stubbornness’, all of traits were meaningfully more prevalent among the highest successful kids, in comparison with the lowest successful children. “Perfectionism’ was the most prevalent character among successful group, tagged along by ‘Rigidity regarding Morality and ethics’, ‘Orderliness and devoting to details’ and ‘Devoting to work and avoiding Leisure’. ‘Obligating others to submit his or her style of behavior’, ‘collecting objects and money’ and ‘parsimoniousness’, were the least prevalent qualities.Conclusion: Obsessive-compulsive traits, at a sensible level, seem to be one of the main interactive dynamics that may help people with regard to achievement of personal and social triumphs.
41 The Quest for Reality , Kurt Forrer*
The world is not an objective reality, but a solipsistic fact. To put it quite simply. objects have no point of view. The subject alone has a point of view; hence there is no such thing as an objective world, let alone an objective reality. The world and its myriad of things might as well be a dream. Like a dream it arises in the morning as we wake up, and like a dream after waking, it disappears as we go to sleep. But surely, so we protest, the world must exist to all those who are still awake, which must be testimonial to the fact that the world is real and continues to exist when we go to sleep. Although a tempting inference, logically it is untenable, for this is a double premise. Indeed, one cannot have more than one point of view at one and the same time. What is it then that infuses the sense of reality into the imagery of the world and the dream? It can only be one ‘thing’: Consciousness. Consciousness is indeed the sine qua non of existence.Consciousness emanates matter and not the other way round. Thus consciousness is to be seen as Primary Reality, while matter can only be regarded as relative, or indeed, ‘parasitical’ reality much as are the reflections in the water of a lake. However, the reflective power of consciousness is inherent unlike that of ordinary water, which receives its imagery from its surroundings. Anything that is intermittent cannot be regarded as real. Only something that remains constant and totally unaltered can qualify for reality status. So the prime question here is if consciousness meets these qualifications? In short, is consciousness continuous or intermittent? At first sight it definitely seems to be an intermittent phenomenon for we say of the man, for instance, who suffered a blow to his head and lies there motionless that he is unconscious. Yet when he regains consciousness, we realise that he was only unresponsive to the outside world.But what about the consciousness of the man or woman we consider to be dead? Does it persist?Doctor Moody had no doubt that ‘life’ continued after what we term death, that consciousness was not extinguished and that the individual, although discarnate, retained its identity and lived on in a different realm. His research was naturally heavily criticised. But then, in 1998, a book came on the market that contained a report on an NDE that fulfilled all the requirements of impeccable scientific observation, procedural reporting and indubitable substantiation. It describes Dr. Spetzler’s daring operation on Pam Reynolds, which not only backs up Moody’s observations but also puts to rest all the arguments about a spirit world where one’s relations are encountered after death. It also shows that the senses of our body are not a primary function, but a secondary one, one that in fact is of a lesser quality than primary sensing. From the evidence of this case we must infer that contrary to common perception, NDEs support the notion that consciousness exists separately from the brain and is non-intermittent and therefore alone qualifying for reality status. Consciousness is in fact the ground of all life which is inherent in consciousness. There can be no doubt that consciousness is not generated by the brain, but that it is the Ocean of Absolute Reality and Life in which we and all creation ‘reflect’.
42 Behavioral Changes in Broiler Chicks Exposed to Carbaryl , Sabina Khanam*
Background: Pesticides are the synthetic chemicals used for to protect crops and livestock from various pests. Carbaryl a carbamate pesticide have the potential to cause behavioral disturbances in broiler chicks. Carbaryl inhibit the action of enzyme acetylcholinesterase due to this neurotrans-mission is block in the nervous system of animals because it is absorbed by gastrointestinal tract.Results: Twenty days old broiler chicks of either sex were taken for the study and evenly divided into two groups consisting one control and one treated group. 2mg/kgbw of Carbaryl was added into the diet of treated group for 21 days. Difficulty in walking, dizziness, less food consumption, weakness and less activity was recorded in treated group.Conclusion: Behavioural effects of carbaryl are briefly reviewed earlier. The results of present study showed that a dose of 2mg/kgbw of carbaryl cause neurotoxic effects in both animals and humans.Keywords: Carbaryl; Behaviour; Nervous system
43 A Study to Investigate the Effect of ‘Frontal Lift’ Osteopathic Manipulative Technique (OMT) in Patients with Chronic Sinusitis , David Lintonbon*
Chronic sinusitis (CRS) also referred to as rhinosinusitis is a condition involving inflammatory disease of the nose and paranasal sinuses as defined by the Royal College of Surgeons guidelines (RCS) 2016 and cited in earlier research by Mendez-Sanchez et al. [1] and recent research Bergmark & Pynnonen [2]. The etiology of chronic sinusitis is largely unknown or believed to be multifactorial; with inflammation, infection and obstruction of sinus ventilation suggested by RCS (2016). CRS is subcategorized as with and without polyps (Rosenfeld, 2015). CRS can cause two or more persistent symptoms (one of which must be nasal obstruction and/or nasal discharge and/or facial pain/pressure or loss of smell) that last for more than 12 weeks (NICE, 2018) unlike acute sinusitis which has an infective a etiology and commonly resolved within 12 weeks of onset. CRS affecting 1 in 10 UK adults cited the RCS (2016), is reported to have a significant impact on health-related quality of life, high health-care provision and significant days lost to industry
44 Leadership Roles and MotivationFactors Leading to Occupational Burnout amongst Staff, including Nurses, Working in the Public Health Field , Aikaterini Frantzana* and Marianna Charalambous
Introduction: Occupational Burnout consists a modern problem in Public Health workplaces. The present paper was conducted in the context of the analysis of the leadership and instigation factors as well as the way they can affect the Occupational Burnout amongst staff working in the public health field including nurses.Purpose: The reasons for choosing the ideal leadership in the Path Goal Theory are put forward and a realistic incentive framework is presented so as Occupational Burnout to be reduced in Greek public hospitals.Methodology: This paper includes a scrutinized search of review and research studies conducted internationally as well as in Greece while they refer to the Occupational Burnout Syndrome.Results: The complex and stressful field of Public Health requires a combination of rapid and intense work rates that lead to the onset of the Occupational burnout Syndrome. Significant staff shortages, debilitating circular working hours, imprecise definition of tasks, the absence of economic and social incentives, along with the need of cooperation with different characters and different specialties necessitate not only the proper management of materials and human resources but also the implementation of policy incentives for employees’ motivation. The leader shares the employees’ needs for recognition as personalities, satisfaction of their personal aspirations, professional development and training by designing appropriate training and informational schemes. This motivation must include the satisfaction of individuals’ needs within a rational work schedule.Conclusions: Timely diagnosis of Occupational Burnout, empowerment, counseling and support of the staff in Public Health sector, including nurses, could help address the Burnout Syndrome. The effective leader must utilize the appropriate motivation and stimulation for his staff.
45 Permanent Resident Virus in Human Beings Viral Microecology of Human Being , Chen Guomin1 and Junru Wu2*
For analysis of the origin of life, viruses are compatible with cells. The formation, survival, and development of virus depend absolutely on cells. The existence of viruses must have their long-term host for survival, spreading and extending. Like other species in nature, human beings also coexist with a group of human-hosted viruses, which are called permanent resident viruses in human beings. The immune system of species has the anti-microbial invasion function. The virus has a special coexistence mechanism with its long-term host, who has a perfect immune system. Since the immune system has no capacity for entering into cells to recognize and remove viral nucleic acids, the invading viruses can reside in cells for a long time as a recessive existence under the dynamic balance between residual viral replication and immune clearance pressure. In this normal state, the virus and its long-term host are “stakeholders” living harmoniously. Consequently, the normal state of all natural viruses after the occurrence of the immune system of the species, constitutes the viral microecology of the host (excluded viruses parasitic air cavities in microorganisms). 
46 The Effects of Phosphatidylserine (PS) Expression on HL 60, and the Efficacy of the Role of Doxorubicin (DOX) on HL60 , Mohammad Alshugeer*, Hesham H Ameen and Abdullah Alhassoon
Introduction: In recent studies the importance has been shown of the interactions between CD47 expressed on HL60 cells and the inhibitory Protein Kinase C (PKC) (Bisindolylmaleimide I). Study objectives: the study aimed to explore the function of CD47 expressed on HL60 cells and the inhibitory Protein Kinase C (PKC). Methodology: Initially, the expression of Phosphatidylserine (PS) levels in HL60 was analysed. The effect of PS expression on tumour cell growth and programmed cell death was also examined by triggering with BRIC-126 antibody. At the same time, we were able to observe the efficacy of doxorubicin (DOX) on HL60 when combined with other established leukemic drugs. The HL60 cell lines were analysed using flow cytometry to find out how PKC (Bisindolylmaleimide I) was expressed in HL60 and whether that expression was dependent on whether PKC is activated or inhibited. Although the efficacy of DOX on HL60 was clearly demonstrated by the research the mechanism through which it works was not clearly demonstrated.Study Findings: There was an agreement with the view that PKC may have an anti-leukemic affect, and that it may potentially be a therapeutic target in neoplastic cells, although this would require further research specific to those areas. The data collected also tended to agree with the view that DOX could be a useful treatment for some malignant diseases.Conclusion: The results of the present study showed the potential of using PKC as anti-leukemic therapeutic option.
47 Complications Associated with The Occurrence of Impacted Mandibular Third Molars in Saudi Arabian Sub-Population: Najran Province Experience , Braimah Ramat Oyebunmi1*, Dawood Ali-Alsuliman1, Yahyah Alsalah1, Hakeem O Agbaje2, Nasser Naji Alalhareth1 and Nahal M Alsawas1
Introduction: Impacted third molars impaction is a global clinical condition that is rising. Literature is still lacking on the reported cases of associated pathologies with impacted mandibular third molars despite its richness in prevalence and its surgical removal.Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study with data such as gender and age of patients, special relationships of the impacted molars, reason for extraction, tooth extracted and associated pathologies collected from the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Najran Specialty Regional Dental Center, Najran Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from 2015-2018. The data were processed and analyzed using IBM SPSS software version 25 for IOS (Armonk, NY: IBM Corp).Results: A total of 1024 mandibular third molar extractions was carried out during the study period from 609 (59.5%) females and 415 (40.5%) males (F:M = 1.5:1) (Table 1). Out of this number, 570 (55.7%) had associated pathology with 270 (47.4%) males and 300 (52.6%) females and prevalence rate of 55.7%. The age ranged from 17 to 69 years (mean ± SD, 31.4 ± 9.6years) with majority in the age group (21-30) years. Distal caries on the second molar tooth accounted for the highest number of associated pathologies 193 (18.8%) followed closely by pocket alone between the second and third molars 157 (15.3%).Conclusion: Distal second molar root caries and pocket formation between the impacted tooth and second molar tooth was the most associated pathology with the impacted molar in the current study. These were frequently associated with a mesio-angular impaction
48 Does Psychotherapy Change the Brain Functioning? , Myrthala Juárez-Treviño*
In the past century psychoanalysis, psychological psychotherapy and biological psychiatry developed knowledge separately one from each other. In the last 20 years, neuroimaging has been determinate in displaying the effects of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy in the brain functioning. Relevant neurophysiological findings in psychotherapeutic processes and neuroanatomy of the mental apparatus from a neuropsychoanalytical perspective are revised
49 Herpetic Encephalitis Associated with Multiple Myeloma: Diagnostic Challenge , Lígia Henriques Coronatto1*, Karyme Hussein Daghastanli2, Helton Benevides Santana de Oliveira3, Ana Flávia Pincerno Pouza4, Ligia Lorraine Araújo5, Marília Martins de Moura6, Enzo Barnabé Monteiro7 and Sônia Maria Cesar de Azevedo Silva8
Multiple myeloma is the second most common onco-hematologic neoplasm, accounting for 1% of malignant neoplasms. It is an underdiagnosed condition, as well as herpetic encephalitis. However, it has been known that the relation of myeloma with infections is common, due to the involvement of humoral immunity. Herpetic viral encephalitis has as its main etiological agent the herpes simplex virus 1. The case was described based on a clinical reasoning about a diagnosis permeated by multiple plausible diagnostic possibilities, aiming to contribute to a better characterization of the clinical and diagnosis of two entities that have low rates of diagnostic suspicion and high rates of morbidity and mortality. During the investigation, several etiologies were proposed as responsible for the decreased level of consciousness, leading to a search for a broader range of diagnostic hypotheses, which preceded confirmation of the final diagnosis. The atypical clinical described here presented obstacles to the correct diagnostic suspicion, so that the absence of signs and symptoms characteristic of both diseases led to a search for a broader arsenal of differential diagnoses. Thus, delayed diagnosis and late treatment were factors that contributed to the patients’ reserved prognosis. The association of both diseases are poorly described in the literature, so further studies on that subject are necessary
50 A Review: Targeted Cancer Therapy as a Fight Against Brain Tumor , Rehana Hanif1, Yamna Saud Anwari1, Qurat-ul-ain Iqbal1, Rabia kalsoom1, Rana Khalid Iqbal1and Farhana Naureen Anwar
The brain tumor is the second most deadly disease for causing death among cancer patients. It can be treated by conventional treatment techniques i.e. chemotherapy, neurosurgery, and radiotherapy but with some improvement, it mostly results in the increase of medical problems by non-specific targeting of normal cells in addition to the cancerous cells. Different CNS diseases include cerebrovascular disease, Parkinson’s disease, epilepsy, Alzheimer disease, and other neurogenerative disorders. Despite advance ongoing research, a number of patients are dying every year by these diseases. Different techniques are used including invasive and non- invasive to treat these diseases. Molecular targeting agents are being used which have the advantages of easily crossing multiple barriers i.e. Brain blood barrier (BBB), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain blood-tumor barrier to reach the malignant site, low toxicity and better efficacy than conventional treatment techniques. Antibodies, nanoparticles and proton therapy can be used for specific targeting of tumor antigens which spare normal cells from the diseased ones. Although there are some issues i.e. difficulty in crossing multiple barriers, toxicity profiles, sometimes non-specific delivery, degradation of therapeutic agents by the enzymes. Research work is in progress to solve these issues.
51 The Genetic Revolution: The Challenges of Genetic Sequencing in Substance-Use Disorders , Xochitl Longstaff *
Substance Use Disorders present a global public-health issue and are responsible for approximately 12.4% of deaths worldwide as well as injury or illness in over 40 million individuals every year [1]. Substance Use Disorders are associated with loss of productivity, higher levels of domestic violence, and increased propensity for criminal behavior and incarceration [2]. Due to the high numbers of people affected by this disorder and the large burden it places on society as a whole, developing effective treatment protocols to combat substance Use Disorders is necessary. The brain-disease model can reduce the stigma around addiction as it suggests that the likelihood of substance abuse is influenced by factors such as genetics and neural pathways rather than any moral shortcomings or poor decision-making skills [2]. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) and Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) allow scientists to investigate genes associated with substance-use on a much deeper level [3].
52 Quality Criteria of a Research Output , John KE Mubazi*
An autonomous scholar, whether engaged in teaching, research, or professional service, writes with a clear demonstration of satisfying four criteria: originality, rigour, significance, and coherence. The first three are measures of relative quality while the last demands that the work has a unifying theme. In the subsequent subsections we discuss what each criterion could take into account.
53 Natural Products for the Therapy of Proteinopathies Underlying the Neurodegenerative Conditions: Protein Misfolding and Fibrillization in Alzheimer’s Disease and Parkinson’s Disease , Robert P Weinberg*, Vera V Koledova, Anthony J Sinskey and ChoKyun Rha
Significant progress has been made in our understanding of dysregulated proteostasis and protein misfolding which underlie the pathogenesis of such neurodegenerative diseases as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD). In the 1990s the kinetics of β-amyloid (Aβ) fibrillization was well characterized [1,2]. Epidemiology had shown that mutations in amyloid precursor protein (APP) or the beta- and gamma-secretases which elevate the level of Aβ in the brain, as well as mutations which increase the propensity for Aβ to polymerize, are strongly associated with the development of Alzheimer’s disease. Oligomers of Aβ are more neurotoxic than the monomers [3-5]. These observations suggested that molecules which would interfere with polymerization and fibrillization might slow the progression of AD. During the testing of natural compounds, Thioflavin-T (Th-T) was often used to monitor the state of Aβ polymerization [6].
54 Compliance with Standard Precautions Among Operating Room Nurses at a University Hospital, Egypt , Bishoy Magdy Girgis Awadalla*, Amal Fakhry Garas and Naglaa Fawzy Hanafy
Standard precautions (SPs) have been introduced as means to protect health care workers (HCWs) from exposure to blood borne pathogens (BBPs). Few studies have been conducted to identify the level of compliance with SPs among nurses. Aim: This study determined the level of compliance with SPs among operating room (OR) nurses.Design: A cross sectional survey was carried out in this study.Sample: A convenient sample of 37 OR nurses working in the morning shift.Setting: The sample was recruited from three specialty areas (general, cardiothoracic and orthopedic surgery) at a university hospital, Egypt.Methodology: A Compliance Assessment Sheet (CAS) consisted of two sections; The first section was used to collect self-reported data on (A) Demographic variables related to the OR observed subject and (B) Background data related to OR nurses’ variables; The second section was observation checklist that identified the occurrence of eight SP practices.Results: The result showed low compliance level with SPs. None of OR nurses in the three specialty areas complied with goggles wear. The highest level of compliance with SPs was among OR nurses in cardiothoracic surgery; while general surgery was the lowest in compliance.Conclusion: The study concluded that, the levels of compliance among OR nurses under the study were low. Recommendation: The results can be used to enhance nurses’ safety by focusing on areas of non-compliance.
55 Sub-Acute Toxicity Study of Ethanol Leaf Extract of Terminalia Chebula On Brain, Stomach and Spleen of Wister Rats , Joseph Oyepata Simeon1*, Builders Modupe1, Isinkaye Deborah R1, Sabastine Aliyu Zubairu2, Musa Tabitha Lubo3, Oyepata j Philip4, Joseph Opeyemi Tosin1 and Wazis Chama Haruna
Introduction/Aim: The incidences of medicinal plant toxicity in the society are becoming serious in the society. There is the need for scientist to determine the toxicity profile of most is therefore very important. Terminalia Chebula is traditionally is found in natural colon cleansers and used in treatment of constipation, digestive disorders, irregular fevers, flatulence, ulcers, vomiting, colic, and hemorrhoids. In this study the effect of sub-acute administration of Terminalia Chebula on the brain, spleen, and stomach were evaluated. Method: Rats of either sex were selected. Group 1 received distilled water (10 ml/kg), while group 2, 3 and 4 received Terminalia Chebula 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg respectively. Animals were kept in standard cages and given access to the extract, water and food orally for 28 days, after which they were weighed and sacrificed. Blood was collected by cardiac puncture and taken immediately for hematological and chemo pathological analysis. The brain, spleen, and stomach were also harvested for histological study of the effect of the plant using haematotoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining technique.Result: There was Significant (P<0.05) decrease in RBC, HGB, MCV, while there was no change in the level of neutrophiles, basophiles, eosinophiles and platelets. The size of the brain, spleen and stomach were observed to be slightly significantly (p<0.05) increased in rats with dose level of 400 mg/kg, while there was no significant (p<0.05) change observed at the 200 and 800 mg/kg dose. Histopathological examination of the brain and stomach showed normal features at all doses. The spleen showed Slight lymphocyte hyperplasia at all doses and normal features at the control (10 ml/kg).
56 Arab Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes (ASPED) Masterclass in Pediatric Bone Disease 2nd November 2018, Dubai, United Arab Emirates , Asma Deeb1*, Mohamed Dubayee2, Fahd Al-Juraibah2, Zulf Mughal3 , Dieter Haffner4,5 and Abdelhadi Habeb6
The Arab society of Paediatric Endocrinology and diabetes held a masterclass for paediatric bone diseases in Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE) in collaboration of Kyowa Kirin. This 1-day event was run within the framework of the ASPED School and was attended by 76 delegates and 14 faculty. Plenary lectures and patient case reports were presented. The talks covered all aspects related to rickets and highlighted that nutritional vitamin D deficiencies are relatively common. This is the case despite the availability of proper nutrition and the adequate level of sun light. It was emphasized that is it vital to establish a diagnosis in light of potential underlying genetic abnormalities or comorbidities which may mask initial laboratory assessments and potentially lead to an unsuitable treatment choice. Considering a less common genetic form of rickets is important in the region owing to the high frequency of consanguinity. It has been pointed out that even when a correct diagnosis and initial management is selected, it is essential to follow up patients regularly and adjust their treatment to match their needs during different growth phases. Overall, the 14 regional and international speakers discussed nutritional and hereditary rickets, disorders of phosphate homeostasis, management of hypophosphataemic rickets and skeletal disorders beyond rickets. Lively discussions around all presented topics dominated the day, with a interest in new treatments, including burosumab as a novel fully human anti-FGF23 monoclonal antibody therapy. Burosumab has demonstrated effective inhibition of the FGF23-mediated pathway and has received approval by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of adults and children with X-linked hypophosphataemia (XLH). Preliminary experience in the region of its use has been presented
57 A Novel Treatment of Symptomatic Menopause Autologous Ovarian Transplantation Research in Progress , Boris Petrikovsky*1, EV Zharov2 and A Ansari3
Following the onset of menopause, some women suffer from significant effects, including hot flashes, osteoporosis, mood swings, loss of libido, among others. While natural menopause occurs at the age of 50 plus, on occasion this process may be induced at age 40 or less due to premature menopause [1,2].
58 Modern Era of Rice (Oryza Sativa L.) Genomics for Precise Genomics-Assisted Drought Breeding , Muhammad Mahran Aslam1,2*, Arooj Fatima Ramay3, Muhammad Usama4 and Noor Ahmad5
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important food crop and requires larger amount of water throughout its life cycle as compared to other crops. Hence, water related stress cause severe threat to rice production. Drought is a major challenge limiting rice production. The screening of rice germplasm under drought and its characterization at the morphological, genetic, and molecular levels revealed the existence of genetic variation for drought tolerance within the rice gene pool. The improvements made in managed drought screening and selection for grain yield under drought have significantly contributed to progress in drought breeding programs. The availability of rice genome sequence information, genome-wide molecular markers, and low-cost genotyping platforms now makes it. Drought possible to routinely apply marker-assisted breeding approaches to improve grain yield under drought. Grain yield Grain yield QTLs with a large and consistent effect under drought have been identified and successfully Genetics pyramided in popular rice mega-varieties. The transgenic approach Proteomics is successful in generating drought tolerance in rice under controlled conditions, but field-level testing is necessary. Genomics-assisted drought breeding approaches hold great promise, but a well-planned integration Allele mining with standardized phenotyping is highly essential to exploit their full potential.
59 Nutritional Benefits of Citrus Fruits , Waleed Fouad Abobatta*
Citrus is an evergreen shrub or small trees grown in tropical, sub-tropical and temperate regions, citrus including Oranges, Mandarins, Tangerines, Limes, Grapefruits, Lemons, and Citrons. Citrus fruits are a precious resource of phytochemicals which are beneficial for the human body, like vitamin C, Vitamins B, potassium, phosphorous, and other elements, also, there are various active compounds extracted from citrus fruits used against heart diseases, and in treatments of hypertension, also, it is used as anticancer, inflammation, antiviral, antibacterial and antifungal activity. Citrus juice contains enzymes considered a natural tool for obesity control and contained a range of different protein which burns human fats.
60 Obsessive-Compulsive Traits, as Behavioral Invention & Foundation of Cultural-Historical Evolution: A Pilot Study, Introduction: No doubt, evolutionary psychologists are trying to enlighten personality and individual differences by way of various theories. But, essentially and from an evolutionary point of view, a few studies exist regarding personality characters. In the present assessment, relationship between obsessive-compulsive personality traits and achievement of people had been assessed.Method and Material: Four hundreds relatives, who had been elected randomly, have been questioned by means of a self-reply inquiry form as regards the existence of obsessive-compulsive personality traits, in their highest and lowest successful offspring. Data were analyzed by z test for comparison of proportions.Results: Except for ‘stubbornness’, all of traits were meaningfully more prevalent among the highest successful kids, in comparison with the lowest successful children. “Perfectionism’ was the most prevalent character among successful group, tagged along by ‘Rigidity regarding Morality and ethics’, ‘Orderliness and devoting to details’ and ‘Devoting to work and avoiding Leisure’. ‘Obligating others to submit his or her style of behavior’, ‘collecting objects and money’ and ‘parsimoniousness’, were the least prevalent qualities.Conclusion: Obsessive-compulsive traits, at a sensible level, seem to be one of the main interactive dynamics that may help people with regard to achievement of personal and social triumphs.
According to DSM-5, ‘obsessive-compulsive personality disorder’ is one of the most prevalent personality syndromes in the population, with likely frequency ranging from 2.1% to 7.9% [1]. In systematic studies, ‘obsessive-compulsive personality disorder’ appears to be diagnosed about twice as often among men. The necessary feature of ‘obsessive-compulsive personality disorder’ is perfectionism, preoccupation with orderliness, and mental and interpersonal control, at the expense of openness, flexibility and productivity. This configuration begins by early adulthood and is existent in a variety of circumstances. Personalities with such kind of disorder attempt to maintain a sense of control through painstaking attention to rules, procedures, lists, trivial details, or schedules to the extent that the main point of the activity is missing (Criterion 1) [1]. They are disproportionately watchful and susceptible to repetition, paying unusual attention to detail
61 Methods of Chitin Production a Short Review , Luciano Pighinelli*, Broquá J, Zanin BG, Flach AM, Mallmann C, Taborda FGD, Machado LEL, Alves SML, Silva MM and Dias RJSP
In addition to be the second most abundant natural polymer in nature, a renown has a great potential as a biomaterial in the area of biotechnology, because it is biocompatible, bio reactive and biodegradable [1,2]. Such characteristics, diverse applications in areas such as agriculture, food, environmental, and as two areas with greater focus: pharmaceutical and health [3,4]. Its structure consists of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine units with β- (1,4) bonds, having as main characteristic the insolubility in water and some organic acids [5]. Chitin belongs to the group of structural polysaccharides, together with cellulose, the second polymer being more abundant in the biosphere [6-9]. Due to its structural nature, a product release system was not found in any of the arthropod exoskeleton, in the structures of molluscs [10], in the cell wall of fungi [11,12], protozoa and bacteria, egg shells of nematodes [13,14], the shrimp fishery residue being the most widely used source [15].Throughout the decades of research and handling of this polymer, many methods of extraction have been developed, being the chemical method most found in the literature, being also used in the means of production of industrial chitin.
62 Application of Optimal Control Theory to Biomedical and Biochemical Processes , NU Ahmed*
In a recent paper [1] we proposed a dynamic model to represent the population of antigens and antibodies in cancer patients, in particular, the antigen-specific-antibody interactions to elicit immune response that leads to the death of cancer cells. The antibodies are known to be powerful medications for cancer immunotherapy. We published extensive numerical results in [2] demonstrating efficacy of the method. In another paper we considered bio-reactors and their optimal control and presented some interesting numerical results in [3]
63 The of Results the Test New Multidisperse Anthelmintic Composition Prazinox At with Mono-And of Mixtinvasion of Echinococcosis and Multiceptosis Dogs , AM Bittirov1*, RM Zahokhov2, AS Vologirov3, AA Bittirova4, SA Begieva5
In the subjects of the Russian Federation, echinococcosis and multiceptosis are the most common cestodosis and are found in dogs with an EI of 100%. The goal is to study their distribution in dogs and to test the effectiveness of the new multidisperse anthelmintic composition Prazinox at with mixed invasion of cestodes E. granulosus and M. multiceps. Studies have shown that intestinal taeniidoses in dogs in the form of mono- and mixed invasions is widespread with at total EI of 100%. Associative invasion in dogs caused by intestinal cestodes of E. granulosus and M. multiceps was manifested with EI = 50.0% with an intensity of invasion, respectively, 388.0±14.5 and 3.1±0.4 ekz. /head. In the group of dogs infected with the mixed invasion of E. granulosus and M. multiceps, the new multidisperse anthelmintic composition Prazinox at a dose of 20mg / kg body weight had EE and IE - 100%. At the same time, on the 5th day the deworming of eggs suborder Taeniata in feces did not detect. This dosage of new multidisperse anthelmintic composition Prazinox should be recognized as an effective therapeutic dose.
64 Schizophrenia and Decreasing in Corticolimbic Gabaergic Function , Behzad Saberi*
Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase (GAD) and Gamma Amino Butyric Acid (GABA) activities in the cortex, nucleus accumbens and thalamus would be decreased in schizophrenia. Also, there would be a reduction in presynaptic markers in some GABAergic interneurons in hippocampus and frontal cortex. Glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 KDa is expressed in axons and terminals while Glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 is expressed in dendrites and perikarya. Neurons which express GAD 67 mRNA in prefrontal cortex and other brain parts are reduced in numbers than ones expressing GAD 65 [1].
65 Effect of Wire Tension on Rate of Weight Bearing in Ilizarov Apparatus , Mohammad Reza Effatparvar1* and Alireza Asghari Ardabili2
K-wires play an important role in stability of Ilizarov fixator. In this fixation system, wires are tensioned for bearing patient weight. In this study, measuring of vertical bending of k-wire would show the effect of horizontal tension of wire. Russian Ilizarov K-wires were inserted into artificial tibia sawbones and fixed on the ring. Then, after wire tensions in range of 70kg to 130kg by tensioner device and vertical forces of 40kg to 100kg by bending test device, vertical displacements were measured. 49 data about to wire displacements are recorded. in the minimum horizontal tension (P) (70 kg) and maximum vertical loading (F) (100 kg), the rate of vertical displacement (Y) received to the highest amount (0.837 cm), but in condition that P was maximum (130 kg) and F was minimum (40 kg) the amount of Y got to the lowest point (0.112). Regarding to the obtain data, effect of k-wire tensile on decreasing the vertical displacement and prevent from k-wire cutting is obviously Figure out. More tension is better way to earning stability. This should be noted; the maximum amount of tension is the half of yield point.
66 The Role and Place of Albumin in Modern Transfusiology. Problems and Ways to Solve Them , Andrey Belousov*
The advantages of albumin over less costly alternative fluids continue to be debated. Many scientific articles were devoted to the clinical analysis of the use of albumin in acute illness as well as its comparison with other fluid regimens. However, the lack of fundamental knowledge about the physical and chemical properties of commercial albumin generates many unpromising discussions about the effectiveness of the use of albumin among practitioners and medical scientists. The manuscript provides information about the different variants of commercial albumin, the mechanisms of their action, indications and contraindications to use. The main purpose of this article is to objectively show the failure of generalizing conclusions and recommendations on the clinical use of commercial albumin, taking into account its various physical and chemical characteristics. To date, all studies should be conducted either in the form of a comparative analysis of a specific clinical effect, or within the framework of studies of only one brand of albumin. Otherwise, generalizing the conclusions, the recommendations on the use of different forms of albumin are not correct and generate a lot of useless of the discussions. The presented information is based on fundamental knowledge of physical and chemical properties of commercial albumin. This manuscript is not only educational information, but also is scientific guide for clinicians.
67 Reducing Adverse Reactions to Eradication of Helicobacter Pylori , Fan Chen*
During the eradication of Helicobacter pylori in patients, many adverse reactions inevitably occur due to the variety of drugs used and the relatively long course of treatment. Mild to moderate adverse reactions even account for many patients, and severe adverse reactions also account for some patients. In view of this situation, this article elaborates how to reduce adverse drug reactions from the following aspects. Of course, since the purpose of using drugs is to eradicate Helicobacter pylori, we should consider reducing adverse drug reactions without reducing the eradication rate.
68 Comparative Osteology: A Cross-Species Study of First Rib Parameters and Their Relation to Body Mass with Emphasis on the Woolly Mammoth , AP Harrison1*, J Pingel2 and J Bülow3,4
Scaling of body parts in relation to final adult body mass has been of interest for almost 300 years. However, it has been used quite recently to provide estimates of body mass for extinct species, for example the Woolly Mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius), based solely on isolated bones, mainly of limb origin. This manuscript addresses the discrepancies that appear when one uses different limb bones as predictors of body mass and examines the potential use of rib parameters as a means of improving the assessment of adult body mass in a range of diverse living mammals as well as the extinct Woolly Mammoth. The findings of this study have important implications for furthering our understanding of basic biology, physiology and scaling, as well as potential applications in terms of estimating body mass in the field of forensic science
69 New Single Rod Implant Innovation in Indonesia , Eka Rusdianto Gunardi* and Denny Khusen
The term implant is familiar in Indonesia because it is cultural and mystical, such as the beauty implant, black magic implant, and also popular for contraception. A contraceptive implant is an implantable medical device used for the purpose of birth control. The implant may depend on the timed release of hormones to hinder ovulation or sperm development, the ability of copper to act as a natural spermicide within the uterus, or it may work using a non-hormonal, physical blocking mechanism. As a country with the largest implant acceptors in the world, Indonesia has developed implant that consists of single rod called Monoplant®. Monoplant® is expected to be the best option because it only consists of a single rod implant that is easy to insertion and remove, effective and safe for at least three years [1,2].
70 The Medical-Surgical Lexicon in the Middle English Version of Lanfranc’s Chirurgia Magna , Cristina Raffaghello*
This article aims to examine the surgical in two great treatises written down in late Middle Ages by one of the most important European physicians: Lanfranc of Milan. A particular attention has been paid to the lexicon regarding the surgical instruments and care of diseases.
71 Comparative Evaluation of Total Phenolics, Total Flavonoids Content and Antiradical Activity in Six Selected Species of Family Rosaceae Using Spectroscopic Method , Kiran Zahid1*, Maqsood Ahmed2 and Farah Khan3
The current study aims to investigate the total phenolics, total flavonoids content in addition to radical scavenging activity in six selected species of Family Rosaceae. Double Maceration Technique was adopted for extraction process. Results indicated the presence of phytochemicals in three species i.e. Pyrus communis, Prunus armeniaca & Malus pumila while absence of alkaloids and terpenoids was reflected in other three species i.e. Prunus persica, Prunus domestica & Fragaria vesca. Maximum Phenolic and flavonoids content was found in Fragaria vesca (leaf ) using 70% ethanol as a solvent. All the tested plant species exhibited DPPH anti-radical properties however Prunus domestica (Leaf) 96.06±0.57 possessed maximum antioxidant potential with IC50 value of 0.236±0.001 mg/mL using Graph pad Prism 5.04 software. Ethanolic extracts gave preferable results and have the potential in extracting phytochemicals; these phytochemicals played tremendous role in treating multiple disorders including anticancer, antidiabetic and neurological disorders like Alzheimer or Dementia.
72 Influence of An Age on Organometric Parameters of a Heart at the Antipsychotic Cardiomyopathy , Volkov VP*
By a morphometric method of research and calculation of Cohen’s coefficient the force of impact of an age factor on pathomorphological changes of heart at the organ level of his organization at development of a neuroleptic cardiomyopathy was determined. It is established that at patients of different age crucial importance plays not an age factor, but side cardiotoxic effect of antipsychotics leading finally to development of the neuroleptic cardiomyopathy.
73 Graphene-Based Sensors for Clinical Analysis , Livia Alexandra Gugoasa*
Graphene presents great interest as sensor material. Its exceptional physical and chemical properties made it a star material for the electrochemical detection of different analytes from biological samples. The applications in which graphene-based materials were involved generated thousands of papers but in this mini review we sum only very few of them.
74 The Impact of Stress, Anxiety, Fear and Depression in The Cause of Cancer in Humans , Sorush Niknamian*
Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behavior, such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination. Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person’s thoughts, behavior, feelings, and sense of well-being. Fear in human beings may occur in response to a specific stimulus occurring in the present, or in anticipation or expectation of a future threat perceived as a risk to body or life. In psychology, stress is a feeling of strain and pressure. Also, this is one type of psychological pain. Cancer as mentioned by Drs. Zaminpira and Niknamian, is an Evolutionary Metabolic Disease (EMHC) which is caused by increasing the amounts of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) through the Butterfly Effect (BE) inside human eukaryotic cells. Therefore; increasing inflammation is a promising factor in the cause of cancer. The aim of this review and meta-analysis is to find the link between the depression, stress, fear and anxiety and the possibility of causing cancer. These emotional states have been observed in cancer patients as well. Anxiety and Fear are the two main emotional states which are the side effects of cancer disease, and also, high amounts of emotional stress and depression have been discussed in this review to raise the possibility in causing cancer.
75 Endothelial Progenitor Cells: Characterization and Role in Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformation , Nida Fatima1*, Ashfaq Shuaib2 and Maher Saqqur
Background: The angiogenesis in Cerebral Arteriovenous malformations (cAVMs) may occur through activation of chemokines [stromal-cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1)], which ultimately recruit endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) for aberrant neovascularization. Thus, we determined the role of EPCs in the vasculogenesis of cAVMs.Methods: Literature search was made through electronic database on “PubMed”, “EMBASE”, “Google Scholar”, and “Science Direct” from 1990-2019 using MeSH headings of “Endothelial Progenitor Cells”, “Arteriovenous Malformation”, and “Stromal-cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1)” using Boolean operator “and”/”or”. The inclusion criterion included human experimental studies on EPCs in the cAVMs.Results: Histo morphological characteristics of vasculogenesis, both quantitatively and qualitatively, are pivotal in determining the prognosis of patients with AVMs. cAVMs patients have higher expression of markers of EPCs precursors, which is characterized by stem cell (CD133), endothelial (VEGF-2, CD31, and/or VE-cadherin), and hematopoietic cell markers (CD31). The SDF-1 was co-expressed with CD31+, predominantly on the endothelium of the vessel wall, and recruit ECPs from the peripheral cells to the target tissues thus leads to active remodeling and angiogenesis. A positive correlation exists between the VEGF- A (r=0.53) or HIF-1 α (r=0.43) and SDF-1 α.Conclusion: The EPCs plays an important role in the vasculogenesis of cAVMs lesions through activation by SDF-1/CXCR4 pathway. Therefore, further experimental studies are needed to formulate a therapy targeting these EPCs in the management of patients with cAVMs.
76 Features of Reduction of Th1, Th2 Lymphocytes Functions After Intoxication of Various Toxic Chemicals , Pavel F Zabrodsky*
Experiments on random-bred albino rats showed that organophosphorus compound (malathion) acute intoxication (0.5 LD50) in the greater degree reduces function of Th1 lymphocytes and bound with them of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction and production IFNγ, in comparison with function of Th2 lymphocytes and synthesis of IL-4 by them; the opposite effect is characteristic for methanol (0.5 LD50; decreases Th2-lymphocytes function (IgG and IL-4 production) to a greater extent); acetonitrile and trichloromethane acute intoxications (0.5 LD50) invokes a reduction of functions of Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes and production of cytokines by them (IFNγ and IL-4) equally.
77 Therapeutic Potential of Phthalimide Derivatives: A Review , José Guedes da Silva Júnior*1, Vanderlan Nogueira Holanda1, Daywison Silva Rodrigues Gambôa1, Talyta Valéria Siqueira do Monte2, Hallysson Douglas Andrade de Araújo, José Adelson Alves do Nascimento Júnior1 Victor Felipe da Silva Araújo1, Maria Auxiliadora Macedo Callôu1, Shalom Pôrto de Oliveira Assis3, Vera Lúcia Menezes Lima1
Phthalimides belong to the group of cyclic imides and have as common chemical characteristic two two carbonyls bound to the same nitrogen. Such compounds are obtained by various organic synthetic processes, generally using phthalic anhydride as the precursor. Because they present various biological activities such as antinoceptive, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, anti-convulsant, antimicrobial, among other actions, these molecules have been object of study in several research centers worldwide. This review article is intended to provide highly relevant information on the biological activities of these compounds and their mechanisms of systemic action that have already been elucidated. The articles used in these studies were obtained through the Internet [from Elsevier, NCBI and Science direct] in the period of July and August of 2018. Several compounds were identified acting in various pharmacological actions. The phthalimides and their derivatives studied in this study presented individual molecules, but also conjugated with other pharmacophoric groups, in order to improve their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic aspects and thus generate better therapeutic responses. In spite of the studies with phthalimides, it is still necessary to investigate, mainly the mechanisms of action of these molecules, explaining all the interactions that they can make, so that new and more audacious studies can be carried out.
78 Inhibition of Escherichia Coli, Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Staphylococcus Aureus and Enterococcus Feacalis through Malus DomesticaExtracts to Eliminate Food Borne Illness , Hina Nazar1, Umar Farooq2*, Kashif Akram3, Afshan Shafi2, Zafar Hayat4, Madhura A Jayasinghe5 and Samra Naseem6
The present study was designed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of aqueous extracts of Malus domestica (peel and pomace) against food-borne pathogens (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus feacalis). Extraction conditions (temperature and time) were optimized to obtain maximum yield by using response surface methodology. Antibacterial potentials of the extracts were examined through disc inhibition zone technique and the results were compared with commercial antibiotic. Results indicated that maximum antibacterial activity was shown by peel extract against Staphylococcus aureus with average zone of inhibition 19.25±0.89 mm while pomace 12.75±0.71 mm. The antibacterial activities of peel extract were comparable with commercial antibiotic (20.13±0.83 mm). Escherichia coli were appeared to be the most resistant with inhibition induced by the extracts of peel 15.00±1.07 mm and pomace11.50±0.53mm.
79 Chemabrasion Sheikhing Treatment of Difficult Acne and Acne Scarring , Iftikhar Sheikh*
 Acne is one of the commonest skin disorders. During Adolescence 70% of the population have some clinically evident acne [1]. This is commonly seen as oily face, obstructive horny plugs or inflammatory lesions like pustules. These may complicate into cysts, abscesses, scars, keloids, hyper-pigmentation and above all psychological damage to self-confidence. The striking feature of acne is greasy skin and severity of acne is directly proportional to sebum excretion rate SER [2]. Raised SER is often due to end organ hyper response of the sebaceous glands (SG) mostly at normal levels of circulating androgens [3]. SG are larger and more permeable in acne skin [4]. Chemabrasion may be introduced as a surgical procedure with a new idea where microdermabrasion (MD) is combined with chemical peeling to achieve permanent partial destruction or shrinkage of target organs i.e. SG. This results in decreased number and size of SG. The MD produces controlled removal of superficial skin layers in successive sessions and the chemical peeler absorbed through abraded opened follicles selectively causes partial destruction of SG. This can be proved by measuring the SER before and after treatment [11]. So, investigations of SER are very important for understanding the physiology of SG, pathogenesis of acne and the efficacy of this treatment ‘chemabrasion sheikhing’
80 403Improved Muscle Activity Following Motor Training Without Vision of the Throwing Motion in Baseball Pitchers , Won-Ho Choi1 and Yun-A Shin2*
Throwing motion without vision has the potential as a training method to improve proprioception by concentrating more on joint movements in throwing. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to suggest a method of training motor sense, which can improve ball velocity and the pitchers’ control (target accuracy). The study population consisted of 20 high school and college baseball players. Rotator cuff and elbow joint muscle activation, ball velocity, and ball accuracy in the stride, arm cocking, acceleration, and deceleration phases during throwing the ball with maximum effort (TBME) with or without vision were measured. Muscle activation during TBME was shown in the arm cocking and acceleration phases after visual blockage training. However, there were no significant differences in the surface-detected motor unit potential (SMUP), ball velocity, and accuracy when pitching with or without vision and after visual blockage training. Although the significance of this study was low, the SMUP and muscle activity tended to increase with acute practice, which is considered to be a meaningful result. We suggest that further studies should implement the training program for longer periods, wherein adaptation of the nervous system can be achieved through continuous practice.
81 Prevalence of Heamonchosis in Small Ruminants and Its Associated Risk Factors in and Around Ejere Town, West Shoa, Oromia, Ethiopia , Feyisa Bekuma* and Bayisa Dufera
A cross sectional study was conducted from July 2017 to February 2018 for determination of small ruminant haemonchosis and investigation of associated potential risk factors in and around Ejere town, west shoa, Oromia, Ethiopia. The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of Haemonchus in the area. The totals of 384 animals were included in the study from these 261 sheep and 123 goats depending on the number of small ruminants of the district they were taken randomly from whole animals. The overall prevalence was 63.02% which is lower than the previous reports. This is due the most pastureland is occupied by agricultural activity so that small ruminants are not exposed to this gastrointestinal parasite. The prevalence was higher in sheep (63.6%) than goats (61.78%). In case of species there was no statically significant difference (p > 0.05). The prevalence in young was higher as compared with adult small ruminants with prevalence of 74.72% and 52.47% in young and adult respectively. Depending on body condition the prevalence was higher in poor body conditioned animals (94.5%) due to lack of resistant against diseases and lower in good body conditioned animals (30%). There was significant difference between body condition and Haemonchus prevalence (p< 0.05). from all peasant associations the highest prevalence was recorded in Ilu aga (75.3%) and the lowest was observed in Chirri (48%) there was no significant difference between origin of animals and haemonchosis (p>0.05). The prevalence also higher in September (79.68%) followed by October (67.96%) and November (41.4%). late summer is favorable for Haemonchus to undergo its development and consumed with grass. The prevalence was higher in female (71.6%) than male (58.4%) due to females are always under stress of parturition and pregnancy. There is no significant difference between sex and Haemonchus prevalence (p >0.05). Further studies on the economic importance of helminthiasis and drug resistance patterns of anthelmintics should be conducted for the holistic implementation of helminthiasis control..
82 Lactate Dehydrogenase: Physiological Roles and Clinical Implications , Ahed J Alkhatib1* and Nawaf Abduallah Mohammad Alrakaf2
The present study aimed to review the literature about lactate dehydrogenase regarding physiological roles and clinical implications. The enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is widely spread in almost each cell in the body, and its prime function is to convert lactate to pyruvate through oxidation process. LDH exists in the cytoplasm of cell and when cell dies it becomes extracellular. The levels of LDH vary according to metabolic needs of each tissue such as development, biological conditions, and pathological aspects. Its levels are increased in a variety of clinical situations from inflammatory conditions to malignancies. The specificity of LDH cannot be taken as a single parameter but helps with other biochemical investigations.
83 Harvesting of Plants According Ethnomedicinal Culture of Nso Tribe, Cameroon , Eustace Bonghan Berinyuy*
The firm beliefs of the rural community of the Nso ethnic tribe in the powers and role of plant especially medicinal plants can be used to develop a model for harvesting plants. Their belief systems enable several spiritual cultures like Islam, Christianity, African traditional religion etc. to coexist with each other happily for centuries without major crisis. The belief system differs from science, but all scientific principles are taken care off with different justifications. All plants belong to God and is therefore, necessary to ask God permission to use plants by means of prayers. These prayers are said before harvesting medicinal plants. Traditional rites are performed before falling down trees with economic values like colanuts (Cola acuminate), kirah (Prunus africana) etc. It’s interesting that even the highly educated or elites would not build a house where economic trees like cola nuts or medicinal plants needs to be destroyed without consulting traditional medicine practitioners. It’s very difficult to find an adult without any basic knowledge of traditional medicines especially in treating simple ailments like wounds, stomach upsets, fever etc.
84 Prejudice to the Environmental Balance Exacerbate the Outbreak of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis after the War against Daesh in - Al-Ramadi, Al-anbar Governorate , Amal H Atiyah* and Faraj Hato Joni
Pollution resultant from military operations after the war against Daesh that happened in Ramadi city have direct or indirect significant impact, on contaminated of environmental elements which start to exacerbation the outbreaks of zoonotic Leishmaniasis. In view of the fact that is one of the interpretations of the negative consequences on society, combined with bad personal hygiene. The distribution of CL has explicit affected by demographic characteristics as well as climatic changes. Age group, type of construction, seems to have significant effect on morbidity with parasite. Incidence fluctuated according to degree of temperature during seasonal period a cutaneous leishmaniasis lesion observed in many parts of body’s patients. However, a difference in the percentage of skin infestations was note, including face, hand, and arm and leg. Actually, the exact health situation in area’s study is more complex and cannot be given based on a restricted data.
85 A General Outlook at the Pathogenesis of COPD , Maria Benito*
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by deregulated chronic inflammation of the airways and persistent airflow obstruction, leading to emphysematous destruction of lung tissue and declining pulmonary function. There is a raise in infiltrated inflammatory cells in the lungs of COPD patients. Many processes are involved including damaged repair process that accelerates the development of the disease. Inflammatory mediators and dysfunctional airway smooth muscle (ASM) also play a role in COPD. Proteases and growth factors triggered by infectious pathogens, air pollution or second-hand smoke involved in the development of local and systemic immune response are upregulated during exacerbations. The role of innate immunity in COPD pathogenesis has been implicated in acute exacerbation that together with elevated interleukin (IL) 1-like cytokines suggests that inflammasomes play a role in the pathogenesis of COPD
86 Healthcare Delivery to the rural area in Iran , Hooshang Lahooti*1, Kevin Rod2 and Alayar Kangarlu3
The population explosion in Iran since 1979 uprising, mismanagement, and widespread corruption in the various echelon of Islamic government hierarchy has strained the neglected social infrastructure that has not kept up with the demands and changing demographics. This effect is apparent in the provision and delivery of primary healthcare to rural areas. The contributing factors, such as lack of health education to prepare sufficient numbers of health professionals and the distribution of medical services has not equitably reached all corners of the country. The significant gaps in accessing the medical care between different socioeconomic strata affected the rural healthcare delivery profoundly compared to urban settings. The healthcare system is part of the infrastructure, and its implementation is for the good of all Iranian and not as a business enterprise. Having said that there is a need to develop and implement a comprehensive universal/national healthcare policy; this can be achieved by considering the previous achievement and recognising the importance of solving future complex problems. This healthcare policy should cover the health education, delivery of healthcare and an efficient system free of corruption for reimbursement of healthcare professionals. It is essential to address these problems reasonably well to prevent the occurrence of them in the future secular government in Iran if ignored, that will prevent the recovery and revival of the nation at all levels. The new system should entail a non-profit government funded a system that is a universal, centralised/single-point healthcare insurance in Iran for all Iranian. The point to emphasise is that delivery of health; dental and pharmaceutical cares are not subject to entrepreneurship and profit-making facilities. These are the fundamental needs of a society that is provided by a government. The funding for the healthcare is by collaboration with the universities educating the necessary health professional and financial support by pharmaceutical industries, private sectors and the government. 
87 Becoming God in the Multiverse , Paul C Mocombe*
This work explores the nature of God in the multiverse according to Paul C. Mocombe’s structurationist theory of phenomenological structuralism. The author posits that God is not an omnipotent, omniscient, etc., Being that stands outside of spacetime. Instead, God is consciousness, a fifth force of nature, which constitutes the multiverse along with gravity, electromagnetism, and the strong and weak nuclear forces. God is the evolution of consciousness at the subatomic particle level, a fifth force of nature, a psychion constituted as a subatomic psychionic field, which evolves via experience as embodied aggregated neuronal energy in microtubules of brains recycled/entangled/superimposed throughout the multiverses. In the human ethos, the psychionic/pan-psychic subatomic field that is consciousness becomes God, which is associated with attributes that we must embody in order to reproduce our being in material resource frameworks.
88 Syndrome of the lodges in the wake viperine enemasures in intensive care Chu of Bouake. Ivory coast , Koffi N’guessan R*, Ogondon Bernard, Pete Yaïch DC, N’da Koffi Cinthia, Kouame Ke, Boua Narcissus and Brouh Yapo
Viperine envenomation’s are serious because of the local complications they cause.Objective: To describe the clinical and evolutionary aspects of patients with post-envenomation syndrome.Patients and Method: Retrospective and descriptive study of cases of viperine envenomation syndrome treated in intensive care unit at the CHU of Bouaké during the period from January 1, 2012 to March 31, 2016. We identified 126 cases of envenomation including 37 viperine envenomations and noted 06 cases of compartment syndrome. The average admission time was 11.50 hours with extremes of 02 and 48 hours. There were 04 men for 02 women. Farmers were the most affected including five and a shepherd. The bite was located at the feet and ankles at 04 patients and at the hands at 02 patients. Painful tension was observed in the muscular compartments with extensive locoregional edema, and disappearance of peripheral pulses necessitated a discharge fasciotomy. Antivenom serotherapy was systematically performed with the FAV Afrique at a dose of 02 doses on average associated with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid antibiotics and multimodal analgesia (paracetamol, tramadol and / or morphine). The average duration of hospitalization was 13 days with extremes of 10 and 19 days. The evolution was favourable in all the patients without amputations with sequelae of tendinous retractions
89 Personalized Approach in the Diagnostic and Treatment of Tinnitus , Lisotskaya VV*, Merkulova EP, Greben NI and Eremenko UE
Tinnitus is a disease that affects millions of people. However, there is still no standard for diagnosing and treating this disease. What necessitates a lot of new research in this area?The object: 40 patients with Tinnitus studied at Audiology department of the State Institution “The Republican Center for Research and Practice in Otolaryngology”, from 2018 to 2019 year.The aim: To determine the most effective method of management patients with Tinnitus.The methodology: Mathematical statistics, Student t-test, Fisher test. All patients underwent DPOAE, TEOAE, tympanometry and acoustic reflexes, Auditory Brainstem Response, high-frequency audiometry, Word Recognition test.The results: The study involved 40 individuals an equal man (N=23) and women (N=17) in the middle age at 32,31 ± 10 years (95% CI 18-55 years). All patients (N=40) were divided into 2 groups: 1 group (соntrol) - patients with tinnitus with standard diagnostic and treatment plus white noise masking, 2 group (experience) –patients with tinnitus who were managed with personalized approach. It was found that statistically significant difference was observed between the both groups diagnosed with DPOAE and TEOAE. All patients successfully passed the TEOAE-test from 2 groups. But all patients showed lower results at 1501, 2002, 6000, 8000 Hz frequencies by the distortion-product otoacoustic emissions. It was significantly revealed an elongation or the shortening of the peak of I wave (t≥ 0,95) with an increase in the amplitude and an increase in the latency. Speech intelligibility was 80±5% (t≥ 0,95in both groups. Based on the characteristics of the peak of I wave, drug treatment was prescribed to stimulate or inhibit the functioning of the auditory nerve in the experience group for 2 weeks. Additionally, in the group of experience group, listening to delta waves at a frequency of 5kHz was assigned for three months. Significant difference was achieved in the experiment group and was accompanied by the restoration of the amplitude of the peak of I wave to 61,3 ± 5.8 % to normal and completely passing DPOEA during 6 months.Conclusion: Personalized approach increases the effectiveness of treatment of tinnitus and the quality of life this kind of patients.
90 Anti-Abortion Law is an Ethical Issue, Thanks for Alabama Governor Kay Ivey , Othman Alfleesy*
Michael Cook the editor of Bio Edge published an article on 19 May 2019, titled: Alabama passes most restrictive abortion law in US, which seems to me one of the most important issue for human life. On the basis of this important article let me say:The good soul is driven by good motives and loving living feelings and Governor Kay Ivey was that one. Your courageous step in making this immortal, courageous, moral and ethical decision is a real and tangible expression of your humanity, your living conscience, your high morals, and the principles of your ethics, education and behaviour, regardless of social or political altercation dilemmas.
91 Training Implications for Firefighters through objective Measurement of the Physiological Demands of Firefighter Job Tasks , Dierdra K Bycura*, Christopher P Repka, Anthony C Santos and Nanette V Lopez
The purpose of this study was to describe the direct measurement of physiological demands of firefighter job tasks within a modified Candidate Physical Abilities Test (CPAT) broken out by specific task. Twenty male firefighters from a large municipal fire department in the southwest United States participated in the study. To directly measure cardiorespiratory demands of firefighting job tasks, the study incorporated the measurement of individual firefighter physiological demands on four different physiological variables (VO2, Heart Rate-HR, Respiratory Exchange Ratio-RER, Energy Expenditure per Minute-EEM). These four variables were measured during participant completion of a modified physical protocol for firefighters (CPAT); 8 tasks repeated for 15 minutes in duration at baseline, 6 weeks post-baseline, and 14 weeks post-baseline, using the Cosmed K4b2 portable metabolic system. Tukey’s HSD comparison test was performed to compare the differences between responses of each task (p ≤ 0.05). Results demonstrated significant differences between some tasks. VO2 requirement to complete the tasks increased from baseline to 14 weeks post-baseline while RER decreased. Knowledge of physiological work required of specific and accumulated firefighter job tasks could inform type of training, timing and fitness ability needed to safely perform job tasks and directly target fitness maintenance for the job.
92 The Multifunctional Therapeutic Approach to Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease: Molecular Bases, Pharmacology and Perspectives in Medicinal Chemistry , Aldo Sena de Oliveira*1 and Anderson Luiz Machado2
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that affects a large part of the elderly population, aged over 65 years. With increasing life expectancy, AD has become the most common form of dementia, leading to progressive impairment of daily living activities and a variety of neuropsychiatric symptoms and behavioral changes. Despite advances in recent years, the chemotherapy treatment of AD still presents a challenge, since a great part of the therapies only act in the reduction of the symptoms in order to improve the quality of life of the patient. In this context, this mini review seeks to illustrate and emphasize the need to understand AD at a molecular level and to combine multi-target strategies in order to develop new drugs, safe use and with fewer adverse effects, as a way to contribute to the advancement of research in an area that represents a major global public health problem.
93 Review on Some Virulence Factors Associated with Campylobacter Colonization and Infection in Poultry and Human , Wafaa MM Hassan1*, Mekky AAA1 and Enany ME2
Campylobacter is one of the most important four global diarrheal diseases. It is considered to be the most common bacterial cause of human gastroenteritis in the world causing a disease called campylobacteriosis. In developing countries, campylobacteriosis in children under the age of 2 years are especially frequent and sometimes resulting in death [1]. Mainly C.jejuni and C. Coliare well recognized causes of human campylobacteriososis with symptoms ranging from mild watery diarrhea to serious neuropathies [2]. 
94 Patient Perspective Regarding Medical Services in 21st Century , Alexandrina Maria Pauceanu*
To start, I would like to mention that this document is my opinion based on my personal experience from the previous years. It is not meant to accuse or denigrate anyone in anyway. It is meant to be a reflective document from a patient and business professional perspective. In the recent years, we have witnessed a boom of private medical practices. Do not get me wrong, this is a good thing from economic perspective; it is good from competition point of view as well. However, the question remains: what about us, the patients?
95 Pharmaceutical Residues in the Aquatic Environment: Recent Studies in Estonia , Maiu Tiismus, Erki Lember and Maret Merisaar*
Ecotoxicological impacts of pharmaceuticals in the environment were first paid attention to in the 1990-ies, when a massive death of the bird species Gyps africanus or white-backed vulture occurred in Pakistan and India. This was found to be caused by accumulation of diclofenac in their kidneys. These residues originated from veterinary treatment of free-range livestock that the birds had been eating Oaks et al. [1].
96 Risk of Imminent Transformation of Diabetes Mellitus Postpartum in Women who covered with Gestational Diabetes: Physiology and Perspectives of Treatment , JC Paredes Palma*1, Lorena Balladares Macedo1, DRA claudia Nayely Paredes palma1, Daniel López Hernández2, Georgina González Zarate2, Carlos Ramirez Velazquez3, Mario Alberto Huesca Rodriguez4, Erik Osvaldo Sanchez Hemández5 and Beatriz Irene Sanchez Trampe6
In the last 30 years the incidence of obesity has increased alarmingly and almost on a par with the Metabolic Syndrome, which evolves into Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM2) [1]. In 2012, the International Diabetes Federation (IFD) estimated that more than 371 million people lived with this disease and that 4.8 million people die because of its worldwide [2]. The frequency of DM2 in Mexico, from 1998 to 2012, has seen a trend towards an increase of 4.7%, from a morbidity rate of 342.1 to 358.2 cases per 100 thousand inhabitants, specifically in 2012, 418,797 patients were reported. diagnosed with diabetes (which represents 0.4% of the Mexican population), 59% of the cases were female, being the age group of 50-59 years of age the most affected, with a morbidity rate of 1,237.90 cases per 100,000 inhabitants [2-6]. 
97 Review of Green Synthesis and Antimicrobial Efficacy of Copper and Nickel Nanoparticles , Ahtesham Ahmad Shad1* and Wajahat Ahmed Shad2
Nanotechnology is the field of significant importance and exhibit versatility in approaching other sciences at micro to macro levels. The presence of nanoparticles in natural environment has gained special attention recently in medical world. Because of smaller size, inorganic and organic nature, optical phenomenon, physical and biochemical properties in relation with size to volume the nanoparticles are applicable in various disciplines and sciences. Moreover, due to major threat of prevailing antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and slow progress in developing new drugs, the need of time also provoked these nano-technological approaches due to their antibacterial activity. The various kinds of nano-particles have been extracted and prepared from various methods i.e. gold, silver etc. This review aimed to highlight green synthesis phenomenon in preparation of copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni) nanoparticles as few data is available. Moreover, antibacterial efficacies of these nanoparticles are also explained to give a better look in understanding and expanding the knowledge accompanied with already described other nanoparticles.
98 Leading Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease Among the Population of The North-West of Russia , Boris Fishman1*, Alla Horoshevskaya1, Zurabov V1, Abdulin A1, Prozorova I1, Prozorova N1, Mikhail Yukhno1, Svetlana Butrimova2, Oksana Lole3, Pavel Staricov3, Anton Dovgal3 and Raff S4
Arterial hypertension and coronary heart disease cause huge damage to the health of the population, being the strongest risk factor for the excess mortality of the population. The results of many prospective studies conducted in the country show a high prevalence of these FR and prove their influence on the indices and dynamics of CVD mortality [1,2]. The concept of RF became the scientific basis for prevention, reducing morbidity and mortality from CVD and is widely used in practical work [3-5].
99 Burnout Syndrome in Syria: What are the affecting factors? , MHD Bahaa Aldin Alhaffar1*, Ghadir Abbas2 and Omar Hamadah3
Background: Burnout syndrome is the response to work-related process of chronic stress. In recent years, burnout syndrome began to be investigated in college students. A more comprehensive definition of burnout has recently been proposed to differentiate three different clinical subtypes of the syndrome: the frenetic type, the underchallenged type, the worn-out type characterized by overload, lack of development, neglect respectively. Risk Factors for Burnout include Specific job characteristics and personality characteristics. Emotional Intelligence (EI) is proposed to have the potential to deepen and enrich students’ understanding of competency during medical training, and possibly contributing in developing burnout among students.Materials and Methods: we preformed cross-sectional study on medical and dental students of Damascus University. A specially designed questionnaire was used to collect data consisting of three sections: the first dedicated to collect the demographic data for the sample, the second is (BCSQ-12-SS) questionnaire to evaluate burnout syndrome, the third is (SSREIS) to measure emotional intelligence. SPSS 22 was used to perform the statistical analysis.Results: final sample size was 376 students, 51.3% of whom were dental students, and 48.7% were medical students. The prevalence of overall burnout was 48.9%, while 22.1%, 24.2%, 19.1% had overload, lack of development, neglect respectively. Family income and type of work students did and practicing a hoppy were significantly related with burnout (P= 0.033, P= 0.21, P= 0.049). Students had an average emotional intelligence of 121.2, EI was significantly related (P= 0.089) and negatively correlated (P= -0.007) with lack of development, and was significantly related (P= 0.043) and negatively correlated with neglect (P= -0.065), and it was positively correlated with overload (P= 0.014)Conclusion: High prevalence of burnout is present among health care students, Emotional intelligence appears to have a role in the syndrome and further studies need to be carried out to intensely investigate this relation and other contributing factors to the burnout, and to develop programs to help these students in adapting coping mechanism to avoid burnout
100 Training to Train Resident as A Clinical Teacher: Perception of the Participant Residents , Piryani Rano Mal1*, Piryani Suneel2, Mishra Ravish3 and Poudel Rajesh4
Introduction: The residents have long been recognized as resource for clinical teaching to students, interns, junior residents. They need to train to become effective clinical teachers. That’s why Universal College of Medical Sciences Bhairahawa, Nepal organized one day “Training to train resident as a clinical teacher”. The objective this study was to take feedback of the participant residents and assess how they perceive the training at level-I of Kirkpatrick model of evaluation.Methodology: Feedback of the participants of training was taken on the valid semi-structured questionnaire comprised of four parts: Part A-Demographic information, Part B-Overall feedback on training, Part C. Feedback on specific sessions and Part D- Feedback for the improvement. Data was analyzed using IBMS SPSS version 21. Results: The participants rated training on scale 1-10 (1=poor, 10=excellent) for usefulness 9.21±1.05, content 9.07±1.00, relevance 9.29± 0.82, facilitation 9.50± 0.85, and overall 9.29± 0.82. They rated on specific session/s “knows about adult learning principles” 8.71±1.25 and “learning domains” 8.93±1.41 on scale 1-10 (1=poor, 10=excellent), while on sessions “How to be an effective clinical teacher” 3.79±0.43 and sub-session “How to plan a lesson for teaching” 3.79±0.43 rated on Likert Scale 1-4 (4=extremely important, 3=moderately important, 2=slightly important, 1=not important). The residents perceived that the training updated their teaching skills 3.64±0.50 rated on Likert Scale 1-4 (4=Strongly agree, 3=Fairly agree, 2=Slightly agree, 1=Not agree). The residents mentioned that training was interactive, participatory and friendly and demonstration of clinical skills through video was significant.
101 Peculiarities of Implementation of the Concept of Providing Quality of Drugs in Ukraine , K Smetanina*
The modern quality assurance of medicines covers the quality assurance of drugs, from the stage of their pharmaceutical development, research, through proper production, quality control, storage, implementation and the provision of information to the physician and patient. According to this concept, reliable guarantees of quality and safety of the drug should be provided at all stages of the drug life cycle.The quality of each drug should be proven at the stages of preclinical studies and clinical trials, objectively evaluated in the case of state registration, securely secured in the course of industrial serial production, and constantly controlled in the wholesale, retail and medical applications. In the focus of the WHO’s recommendations, all areas of the implementation of the concept of quality assurance of drugs should be aimed at meeting the needs of patients.
102 Autoimmune diseases of the nervous system: Risk factors and therapeutic challenges , Mostafa A Abdel Maksoud*1,2
Autoimmune diseases are a heterogeneous group of pathological conditions that have a rapidly increasing morbidity and mortality rates nowadays. The complex nature and the inscrutable etiology of these diseases have made them a non- negotiable challenge for immunologists. The neurologic autoimmune diseases are considered more dangerous as they affect the system that orchestrate all other body systems. However, the available body of knowledge in this area is so much little than the required and still many questions are needing to be answered. The risk factors that could lead to autoimmune reactivity are still also a matter of debate. This review will focus on the risk factors that could be potentially considered as contributors for the appearance of autoimmune reactivity and their implications in the therapeutic approaches of these diseases.
103 Autoimmune diseases of the nervous system: Risk factors and therapeutic challenges , Mostafa A Abdel Maksoud*
Autoimmune diseases are a heterogeneous group of pathological conditions that have a rapidly increasing morbidity and mortality rates nowadays. The complex nature and the inscrutable etiology of these diseases have made them a non- negotiable challenge for immunologists. The neurologic autoimmune diseases are considered more dangerous as they affect the system that orchestrate all other body systems. However, the available body of knowledge in this area is so much little than the required and still many questions are needing to be answered. The risk factors that could lead to autoimmune reactivity are still also a matter of debate. This review will focus on the risk factors that could be potentially considered as contributors for the appearance of autoimmune reactivity and their implications in the therapeutic approaches of these diseases.
104 Alzheimer’s Disease and Metabolic Dysfunction: No Association Between L72m Ghlr Variant in Brazilian Population , Daiane Priscila Simão-Silva1*, Patricia Fernanda Rocha Dias2, Micheli Pecharki2, Paulo Henrique Ferreira Bertolucci3, Lucas Trevisani Rasmussen4, Spencer Luiz Marques Payão4, Mauro Roberto Piovezan5, Helio Afonso Ghizoni Teive5, Lupe Furtado-Alle2, Ricardo Lehtonen and Rodrigues Souza2
Introduction: In Alzheimer’s disease (AD) the pattern of expression of ghrelin is modified. A reduction in this peptide hormone was observed in some regions of the brain as the hippocampus and the temporal lobe, both associated with cognitive system and memory. Ghrelin is the multifunctional hormone with an important role in regulation of energy balance and metabolic function and is coded by the GHRL gene. Objective: The aim of this work was to verify the relationship of the L72M GHLR variant, that is associated whit metabolic disorders, with Alzheimer’s disease. Materials and Methods: By case-control association study, DNA samples from 194 AD patients and 201 elderly control (EC) were genotyped for L72M GHLR variant (rs696217). Results and Discussion: The allele frequencies were similar in cases and controls (72M: 9.07% and 7.71%, respectively). These results suggest that L72M variant is not a risk factor to AD. We did not find association with this variant of GHLR, which has a larger correlation with metabolic effects and recent evidence suggests a strict link between metabolic disorders and AD. This work does not exclude the possibility of action of the other variants or epigenetic control factors of GHRL in AD.
105 Quality of Life and Spirituality in The Context of Chemical Dependency , Irami Araújo-Filho1*, Jurema Ribeiro Luiz Goncalves2, Nathalia Silva Gomes3, Eliseu da Costa Campos4 and Amália Cinthia Meneses Rêgo5
Objective: To describe the sociodemographic characteristics, quality of life and spirituality of users of alcohol and other drugs at the Center for Psychosocial Care in the Triângulo Mineiro region of Minas Gerais, Brazil, comparing levels of quality of life and spirituality according to sex.Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out with chemical dependents from this region of Brazil. The questionnaire on Sociodemographic and Economic Profile, quality of life (WHOQOL-bref), and spirituality, religiosity and personal beliefs (WHOQOL - SRPB) was applied.Results: A total of 232 chemical dependents were included in the study and 80.4% were male. In the Physical, Psychological, Social and Environmental domains, men presented higher scores than women. The women obtained a worse score in the Psychological and Environmental areas.Conclusion: The importance of proposing a Single Therapeutic Plan more adapted to the female reality, considering spirituality as an essential strategy for the recovery and handling of quality of life
106 Perception on Psychiatric Reform from A Standpoint of the Families , Bruno Vilas Boas Dias1*, Érica Alves da Conceição2 and Laís Fecchio Garcia2
The aim of this study was to obtain the perception of the relatives of patients with mental disorders, about the treatment offered at the Psychosocial Care Center (CAPS) and to identify the preference about the hospitalization in psychiatric hospitals and the treatment offered after the Psychiatric Reform. Qualitative, descriptive and exploratory research based on the Theory of Social Representations, following the guidelines of the Discourse of the Collective Subject. The sample consisted of 20 relatives of patients who were treated at CAPS II, in the city of Campo Limpo Paulista, in the interior of São Paulo. The central ideas obtained by relatives who are in favor of hospitalization in psychiatric hospitals were: “Aggression” and “Benefit of Hospitalization”. Family members who are not in favor of hospitalization and prefer the treatment offered by CAPS were: “Ineffective Method of Hospitalization” and “Family Tie “. Even after the Psychiatric Reform, there are still relatives in favor of hospitalization in psychiatric hospitals.
107 Toxicological Effects, Prophylactic and Curative Activity of Rauwolfia vomitoria Leaf Extracts on Plasmodium Berghei NK 65 infected Swiss albino mice , Omoya Funmilola Oluyemi* and Falusi Olatunde Ademoye
This study evaluates prophylactic and curative antiplasmodial effects of Rauwolfia vomitoria leaf extracts on Plasmodium berghei NK 65. The extracts of the leaves at 100, 200 and 400 mg kg-1 body weight/day dose levels were used to treat the test groups 72 hours before infection for the prophylactic test and 72 hours post infection for the curative test while a standard antimalarial drug, chloroquine, at a dose of 5 mg kg-1 body weight was administered on the positive control group. The negative control groups were left untreated. The level of parasitemia, Percentage Packed Cell Volume (% PCV), erythrocytes (RBC) and leukocytes (WBC) counts in the different groups were monitored also, bicarbonate, creatinine, uric acid, urea, calcium level and histological effects of extracts were determined during the period of study. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemicals of water and ethanol leaf extracts were determined. The water and ethanol crude extract at 400 mg kg-1 body weight/day had chemo-suppression of 95.27 and 97.21% for prophylactic test as against 81.88% for the standard drug while the level of parasitemia was reduced by 80.91 and 87.64% respectively after treating for five days in the curative test as against 88.98% for the standard drug. The variations in the values of Percentage Packed Cell Volume (%PCV), erythrocyte counts, bicarbonate, creatinine, uric acid, urea and calcium level for groups treated with water and ethanol extracts were significant (p<0.05) for prophylactic and curative treatment. Histological features revealed that there were well-formed liver hepatocytes with minor injury in ethanol extract when used as prophylactic treatment. Alkaloid, Anthraquinones, Cardenoloides, Glycosides, Phenol, Phlobatanin, Reserpine, Resins and Saponin were present in the crude extract. The result of this study suggests that extracts of R. vomtitoria has antiplasmodial effects, these however supports local claims on the efficacy of the plant’s leaf in the treatment malarial infections. This study has implications in future development of antimalarial drugs with little or no cytotoxic effect.
108 Processes of Cultural Change and Health Education , Alessandra Gargiulo Labriola*
In the era of globalisation, the profound technological transformation of production processes is leading to an important change in both the pace of life and time of work, study and leisure. The strong technological acceleration produced by the fastest means of transport, forces us to travel, to run without considering however the impact of our way of travelling on the environment and on the quality of life in our city. In an ever more interconnected world, which changes with extraordinary rapidity and speed, it becomes urgent to reflect on phenomena that we usually define synthetically with the industry 4.0 [1]. How do we educate ourselves in these profound changes? How to question the opportunities that new generations will have to make a great contribution to human and sustainable development in the future of society. If in the time of St. Jerome the language was latin today is the “digital”, the language of the web, big data, internet of things. A new language that changes schools and transforms work into factories permeating every moment of our life in being globally and locally interconnected. The language of the web is a language that lays the foundations of a new humanism and that, therefore, cannot and must never lose sight of the centrality of man. When we confront with the digital world, when we look at an uncertain future, we must never forget the depth and strength of our cultural roots even in the time of “the engineering of flows and the existential processes that we pretend to control with rationality “[2], robotization, digital skills.
109 Effect of Production Factors on the Development of Colorectal Cancer in the Population of the Omsk Region , NG Shirlina* and AS Kolchin 
The data of an epidemiological analytical study (case-control) are presented, in which 609 people living in the Omsk Region took part. The prevalence of colorectal cancer risk factors associated with production factors in the population of the Omsk Region was studied.
110 Human Identification by Amelogenin Test in Libyans , Samir Elmrghni* and Mahmoud Kaddura
Sex typing is essential in medical diagnosis of sex-linked disease and forensic science. Gender for criminal evidence of offender is usually as the initial information for investigation. For individualization, identification of gender is performed in addition to the STR markers recently. We reported the anomalous amelogenin results of 2 male samples (out of 238 males) represented as females (Y deletions) and another 2 samples with (X deletions) in Benghazi (Libya). The frequency in both was about 0.8%. Higher than those of the other populations reported. To confirm amelogenin results of the controversial samples, DNA was further used in SRY and Y-STR typing. All samples typed as males but two showed with X chromosomes. From the results, it was highly suggested that for the controversial cases of human gender identification with amelogenin tests, amplification of SRY gene or/and Y-STR markers will be adopted to confirm the gender [1].
111 Neurotoxin and Alpha-Neurotoxin Time-Resolved Absorption and Resonance FT-IR and Raman Bio spectroscopy and Density Functional Theory (DFT) Investigation of Vibrionic-Mode Coupling Structure in Vibrational Spectra Analysis , Alireza Heidari1,2*, Jennifer Esposito1 and Angela Caissutti1
α-Neurotoxins are a group of neurotoxic peptides found in the venom of snakes in the families Elapidae and Hydrophiidae. They can cause paralysis, respiratory failure, and death. Members of the three-finger toxin protein family, they are antagonists of post-synaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the neuromuscular synapse that bind competitively and irreversibly, preventing synaptic acetylcholine (ACh) from opening the ion channel. Over 100 α-neurotoxins have been identified and sequenced. Parameters such as FT-IR and Raman vibrational wavelengths and intensities for single crystal Neurotoxin and Alpha-Neurotoxin are calculated using density functional theory and were compared with empirical results. The investigation about vibrational spectrum of cycle dimers in crystal with carboxyl groups from each molecule of acid was shown that it leads to create Hydrogen bounds for adjacent molecules. The current study aimed to investigate the possibility of simulating the empirical values. Analysis of vibrational spectrum of Alpha-Neurotoxin is performed based on theoretical simulation and FT- IR empirical spectrum and Raman empirical spectrum using density functional theory in levels of F/6-31G*, HF/6- 31++G**, MP2/6-31G, MP2/6-31++G**, BLYP/6-31G, BLYP/6-31++G**, B3LYP/6-31G and B3LYP6-31-HEG**. Vibration modes of methylene, carboxyl acid and phenyl cycle are separately investigated. The obtained values confirm high accuracy and validity of results obtained from calculations [1-42] (Figure 1).
112 Detection of Vibrioes in the Aquatic Environment and the Sewage System by Culture Method in Selected Areas in Yemen , Mohammed F Al-Helali1 , Nisreen Yahya Al-Kahtani1 and Hassan A Al-Shamahy2*
Water sources contamination is nearly always the result of human activities and drinking water source is especially vulnerable in areas where population density is high and human use of the land is extensive. When water sources become contaminated, it is difficult to purify. Liquid waste dis-charged on to the soil initiates solute and microbe movements are the main source that contaminates water sources. Thus far, there are no records of any studies in which Vibrioes contaminations have been studied in aquatic environment in Yemen, so in the present study, we tried to isolate vibrioes in Thiosulfate citrate bile salt media (TCBS) selective media from different sources of drinking water, in addition from swages system in Sana’a city. A hundred and thirty water specimens were collected from drinking water sources that appear to be free from phytoplankton, 70 specimens were collected from drinking water sources that contain phytoplankton from Sana’a city and surrounding villages. 500 ml fresh drinking water or 500ml fresh drinking water contain phytoplankton specimens were passed through the membrane filter, soaked first on alkaline peptone water then 2 loop-full of the culture broth streaked to the TCBS media, and then bacterial growth colonies were identified with standard bacteriological methods. Also 75 specimens from different places of sewage system of Sana’a city were collected. An equal amount of swage’s water and enrichment media (alkaline peptone water) were mixed then incubated for 24 hours then sub-cultured to TCBS media after that bacterial growth colonies were identified with standard bacteriological methods.The rate of V. cholerae was zero from drinking water sources or from sewages. V. algenolyticus was isolated from only one fee phytoplankton drinking water sources (rate=0.8%), while in drinking water sources that contain phytoplankton V. algenolyticus and V. fluvialis were isolated with rate equal to 4.3% and 25.7% respectively. The crude prevalence rate of potential pathogenic Enterobacteria was 78.5% for drinking water sources. The rate of Salmonella typhi, and Shigella species, in swages system were 16.4% for both of them, while V. cholerae rate was zero.We conclude from this study that, the prevalence of Vibrio cholerae in drinking water sources and sewages in Sana’a city was zero, while others Vibrioes as V. algenolyticus and V.fluvialis were isolated. The prevalence rate of other pathogenic bacteria species that transmitted through water ingestion in drinking water sources was high which indicate human fecal contamination of water sources. The rate of contamination with these bac-teria is higher than that reported from other Arabic countries. Also non-V.cholerae species were low in free phytoplankton sources, while high level of non-V.cholerae was present in phytoplankton sources.
113 Pre-procedural Planning and Analysis of Coronary Anomalies During TAVR , Parivash Badar1* and Jacob C Vinson2
Variations in coronary anatomy and the presence of anomalous coronary arteries are associated with high-risk valve cases i.e. higher rates of morbidity and mortality. Therefore, it is valuable for physicians to be aware of the importance of the application of screening tools to determine the location of the coronary arteries from the aortic root. Imaging modalities such as Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography (Coronary CTA) can be utilized to evaluate and determine coronary origin, course and termination, thus allowing physicians to anticipate, prepare for and prevent complications in technical valve procedures, i.e. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR).
114 Sources of Sand and Dust Storms in Kuwait , Raafat Misak*, Abeer H Al Saleh and Ahmed O Abdulhadi
In Kuwait, the main threat on highways, oil fields, air bases, military camps, new settlements and agricultural farms is the sand encroachment phenomenon. During June – September 2018, Kuwait experienced severe sand and dust storms. The wind speed reached 70 km /hour. The north-west wind was prevailing. The sand and dust storms forced the closure of three ports and disruption of air traffic. The visibility was below 300 m. Several incidents were reported along Wafra Roads. Multiple sources of sands and dust storms (SDS) are observed in wide areas in the terrestrial and coastal environments of Kuwait .These sources vary in nature, land use, history, activity, impact and composition .The objective of the current study is to identify and characterize the sources of SDS in Kuwait .To realize this objectives, field surveys were conducted during 2017- 2018 . Landsat images of 2010 and 2017 were analyzed for land use comparison.
115 What should be our community’s Responsibility? , Temple F Smith*
Nearly everyone in the various fields of Bio Medical research is aware of emerging gene editing tools developed round the CRISPR-Cap9 system. What seems less clear, is now fully involved in the discussions of the associated ethical and societal issues is this research community. This is needed not just in the education of our students and other mentored, but with the general public. The importance of this is readily seen in the diversity of published opinions on both the utility of and implications of these new gene editing tools. For example, in the book “GMO Sapiens” by Paul Knoepfler and with Nature’s [1] headlines: “Russian biologist plans more CRISPR-edited babies” scary views are being presented
116 An internet is one of the most powerful tool for remote Medical Consultation for peers , Sanong Suksaweang* and Khongpakorn Sangmas
In order to get help, sometimes people can be assisted via a modern social network service like Facebook. This friend of mine was timely helped just the right time before he did anything wrong into his own help condition. Via regular check Facebook posting, I found his post very striking in term of picture and the question. I, therefore, took action immediately as I should. Luckily, he complied to my advice and got the right intervention with his doctor. In my opinion, Facebook can be one of the interesting tools for our medical personals to think about when it comes to Health services.
117 Add Onion to Your Dishes to Clean Your Arteries , Dongfeng Wu*
One of my close family members had some heart valve problems recently. He went through many heart-related tests, such as, electrocardiogram (EKG) [1], Echocardiogram test [2], transesophageal echo test (TEE) [2], and cardiac catheterization (CATH) [2], etc. The last one, CATH, is to check the coronary arteries blockage. Among all the bad news, one good result is that his blood vessels are very clean, without any build-up of fatty deposits, and even the doctor was a little bit surprised; since so many people are suffering from clogged arteries at this stage of life.
118 Editorial on Carcinoma Prostate , Nayab Mustansar*
When healthy and normal cells in the body change and grow out of control it forms a cancer. There are different kinds of cancers. Most common are the breast Cancer, thyroid cancer and prostate cancer. Breast cancer and prostate cancer spread to bones most commonly. A cancer can be a benign cancer or a malignant cancer. A malignant tumour has a metastatic spread that is it spread to other organs whereas a benign cancer can grow but cannot spread [1].
119 Detection of Essential Oils Adulteration: A Quick Overview and Current Challenges , Paul Vargas Jentzsch*1, Luis Ramos Guerrero2 and Valerian Ciobotă3
Essential oils are highly appreciated raw materials due to a variety of their intrinsic characteristics and properties. They are complex mixtures of volatile compounds produced by plants as secondary metabolites; communicational and defence roles were attributed to constituents of essential oils [1]. Over the years, many researchers have reported a great variety of properties of essential oils including antimicrobial and antioxidant activities, as well as, some other effects of biological interest that could be used in human and veterinary medicine [2]. 
120 New Perspectives and Competences in Redesign Clinical Organization and Appropriateness in Internal Medicine Wards: The Impact of ICT , Ilario Stefani* and Antonino Mazzone
Modern Internal Medicine is faced with the need to ensure continuity of care by operating in highly technological contexts. The complexity in managing today’s health needs must adapt to the growing articulation of demand and, on this basis, create flexible responses to emerging opportuni-ties. Nowadays we are witnessing a new evolution in communication, with the expansion of virtual technologies that increasingly replace traditional forms. In this article we will briefly discuss the feasibility and the impact of new medical technologies, communications set and devices application in Internal Medicine, with particular attention to chronic patients, with prolonged interventions to support a growing fragility, favouring integration in health, social and welfare services.
121 Environmental Bioindication using Some Morphometric and Physiological Parameters of Plants , Guzel R Valeeva*, Zarina M Khafizova and Violetta A Gabdrakhimova
The work aims at assessing the quality of the environment in the city of Kazan (Russian Federation) through the study of such indicators as the fluctuating asymmetry (FA), the chlorophyll content, and the delayed chlorophyll fluorescence in the leaves of birch (Betula pendula). We collected the samples at 21 sites within the city with high levels of anthropogenic stress. In the study, we evaluated the morphometric parameters of the leaf lamina (on the basis of these parameters, we later determined the level of fluctuating asymmetry), the content of photosynthetic pigments in the leaves, as well as the delayed chlorophyll fluorescence
122 No Proof that Biofilm Bacteria are Causing Dermal Filler Granulomas , Lemperle Gottfried*
An estimated 1000 patients worldwide, who develop foreign body granulomas after the injection of all kinds of dermal fillers, are treated falsely with systemic antibiotics over several months – just because one pathologist claimed to have found the reason for granulomas in a local bacterial infection. The problem is the easiness today how authors can find, copy, and refer to articles, whose results they never questioned but cited, only. One copies the results from the other – and by the way of repeating a hypothesis several times, it becomes the truth for the majority of a whole community of dermatologists and aesthetic surgeons. Since its first publication in 2005 [1] a multitude of at least 30 publications [2] offer broad-spectrum antibiotics as the treatment of choice for dermal filler granulomas. One reason is the widespread fear of injecting corticosteroids locally because the possibility of causing skin atrophy if injected outside the granuloma. If corticosteroid crystals (triamcinolone, prednisolone, betamethasone), the logical and effective treatment of choice [3,4], are injected strictly intralesional by moving the needle back and forth within the nodule, skin atrophy will never occur. The second reason for bacteria is causing granulomas is appealing because it blames the patient and excludes the product and its injector.
123 In the Wake of the “Implant Files”: Unheard Ideas to Make Device-Based Therapies safer and always more Innovative , Egron Sandrine*
The invention of implantable devices has revolutionized how doctors treat their patients. The case of faulty aortic valve replacement illustrates the spectacular progress which has been achieved. The first prosthetic aortic valve was implanted in 1952 by Dr. Hufnagel. The valve was made of a rigid cylindrical bulb chamber containing an acrylic ball. The prosthetic valve, which was placed in the descending aorta during a high-risk surgical procedure, improved the conditions of hundreds of patients in the fifties, though it offered poor hemodynamics and patients could hear the valve’s prosthetic ball bouncing around in the chamber [1].
124 Homophobia: A Psychodynamic Analysis , Jesús Dueñas Becerra* and Mariela Castro Espín
The World Day to Combat Homophobia and Transphobia is commemorated, in the Cuban archipelago and beyond our island geographical borders, since 1973; date in which homosexuality -as a no so graphic entity- was eliminated forever from the International Classification of Mental Illnesses. To evoke this historical event, I make this article available to the readers of this periodical publication. It is not possible, in any way, to explain what homophobia is without first conceptualizing the words homosexuality and phobia. The specialized literature defines homosexuality as sexual preference or attraction for people of the same sex, while phobia describes it as intense and persistent fear towards a specific object, situation or activity.
125 Measuring and Evaluating the Levels of Coagulation Factors and Platelet in the Serum of the Patients with Moderate and Severe Brain Injury , Behzad Saberi*
Brain injury is a common accident and many factors involve in it’s occurance. Due to daily increasing in vehicles numbers and some other dangerous factors, Brain injury incidence is increasing day by day. In case it would not be treated on time, it will cause high levels of mortality and disability. Current usual scale to detect the severity of head injury is GCS which although it is beneficial but has many limitations and in most of the time cannot be measured and used appropriately during clinical practice. So it would be necessary to try to find biomarkers that can determine the severity of brain damage in this patients group. This study has been done to determine and compare the levels of coagulation factors and platelet in the patients with moderate and severe brain injury [1-6].
126 Association Between Timp-/Angiotensin II,Profile and Cardiac Remodeling in Patients with Essential Hypertension and Heart Failure with Mid-Range Ejection Fraction , Asparuh Nikolov1*, A Blazhev3, M Tzekova2, K Kostov2, and N Popovski4
Background and Aims: Arterial hypertension (AH) is a leading cause for heart failure with mid-range ejection fraction (HfmrEF). The aim of our study was to: 1. Measure levels of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloprotease-3 (TIMP-3) and Angiotensin II (AII) in sera of patients with AH and HFmrEF. 2. In sera of controls. Material and Methods: 56 patients with AH and HfmrEF were examined, mean age 65.62±9.69; and 22 age and sex matched healthy subjects, mean age 56.4±5.53. 41 of patients were with hypertension mediated organ damage and 15 were without. Patients were divided in two subgroups- subjects with left ventricular hypertrophy (n=32); (HFmrEF+LVH) and subjects without left ventricular hypertrophy (n=24); (HFmrEF-LVH). ELISA was used for measuring AII and TIMP-3. Results: Patients with HFmrEF-LVH showed higher levels of TIMP-3: 7.747 (1.21916.725) than HFmrEF+LVH 4.693 (2.06210.463); (KW=0.48; p=0.48) and healthy controls 6.460 (1.00712.520); (p>0.05), but not significantly. TIMP3 showed correlation with grade of AH (r=0.85; p=0.02) and stage of AH (r=-0.52; p=0.05); and PLVW (r=-0.40; p=0.03). Patients with HFmrEF+LVH showed statistically significantly higher levels of AII: 8.533 (1.47713.009) than HFmrEF-LVH 1.333 (0.4776.932) and healthy controls 1.539 (0.2745.218); (KW=3.48; p=0.04). AII correlated with TIMP-3 (r=-0.50; p=0.0001), hypertensive cerebrovascular damage (r=0.57; p=0.0009), DBP (r=0.30; p=0.05), stage with AH (r=0.47; p=0.001); CK-MB (r=0.42; p=0.002) and UA (r=0.35; p=0.02). Conclusion: Our data suggest an association between changes in levels of TIMP-3/Angiotensin II profile and cardiac remodeling. Determination of serum TIMP-3/Angiotensin II profile may be a useful method for monitoring of development and progression of LVH.
127 Exhibition of Postural Time-Force Parameters in Varying Severity of Osteoarthritis of Knee During Performing Sit-To-Stand Testing , Shin-Tsu Chang* 1,2,3, Hsin-Yi Wang2,4, Shun-Hwa Wei4 and Shao-Chi Lu5
Background: Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is an irreversible leading cause of disability in elder. Clinical and research assessment for knee osteoar- thritis often use radiographic finding to determine the disease severity. But recently research found that radiographic diagnosis couldn’t reflect the functional activity of life capacity of patient with knee osteoarthritis. Load distribution influence functional capacity of patient with knee osteoarthri-tis. It is important to know the correlation between performance and functional capacity of knee osteoarthritis patients. Purpose: In this study, a sit-to-stand task was chosen to compare the force-plate measured time-force parameters and weight bearing asymme-try degree in knee osteoarthritis patients with different functional severity. Method: Study content sit-to-stand performance task and Lequesne severity index questionnaire. Forty-nine subjects participated in this study and were categorized into four groups (normal, mild functional limited OA knee patient, moderate functional limited OA knee patient, severe func-tional limited OA knee patient) according to Lequesne severity index questionnaire grading which assesses the functional disability of knee osteoar-thritis patients. Sit-to-stand performance used a four-load cell force-plate to detect ground reaction force during movement. Then four parameters (sit-to-stand total time, the ground reaction force, the moving rate of center of force (COP), and asymmetry index) which measured by force-plate were compared with the Lequesne severity index questionnaire grading. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the four parameters difference between four groups. Results and discussion: Compared with the normal subjects, the knee osteoarthritis patients take more time to stand up (p=0.003). Insufficient lower extremities extensors muscle strength (p=0.039), slower COP moving rate (p<0.001) were also found. The asymmetry index has shown the discrepancy between normal subjects and OA knee patients which showed weight shifting to their sound side. There was a good correlation between the patient’s Lequesne severity index and asymmetry index. Conclusion: Objective assessment of the OA knee patient’s functional performance reflects the patient’s subjective assessment of their function-al ability. OA knee patients shown a tendency of slow sit-to-stand movement, weakness lower extremities extensor muscle strength, poor posture control and weight shifting to sound side associated with reduced functional performance.
128 The Association Between Oxidative Stress,Inflammation and Diabetes , Sharon Hall Murff*
The concept of stress has been studied over many decades. An individual can research various forms of stress such as psychological, physiological, emotional, acute, and chronic. Other terms related to stress are daily hassles and oxidative. Holmes & Rahe [1] and Selye [2] reported that stress is a force or, are forces that place demands on an individual and as a result a series of responses occur. Selye [2] also reported that the forces, also termed stressors, evoke positive or negative responses in an individual. The aim of this manuscript is to describe the association between oxidative stress and diabetes mellitus. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disorder related to impairment in glucose metabolism. In 2013 a report from the World Health Organization (WHO) indicated that globally, the number of people with chronic diseases such as diabetes was increased [3]. The world-wide mortality rate for people with diabetes and other chronic diseases (i.e. cardiovascular and renal diseases) has been estimated to be greater than 60% [4]. Predictions related to the global prevalence of diabetes are that by the year 2030 over 400 million people will have diabetes. He et al. [5] reported an association between chronic diseases, inflammation, and stress, more namely, oxidative stress.
129 En-Bloc Transurethral Resection of Non-Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer. Current Evidence and Glimpses into the Future , David D’Andrea1, Francesco Soria1,2, Kilian M Gust1, Paolo Gontero2, Rodolfo Hurle3, Thomas RW Herrmann4, Dmitry Enikeev5, Petr V Glybochko5, Sergey Kotov6, Maxim Ryabov6, Lukas Lusuardi7 and Shahrokh F Shariat1,5,8,9,10*
Background: The purpose of this review was to summarize the current evidence on en-bloc transurethral resection (eTURB) of non-muscle-in-vasive bladder cancer compared to conventional TURB (cTURB) with a particular emphasis on ongoing randomized trials. Materials and methods: A PubMed/MEDLINE search of the English-language literature from its inception until June 2019 using the following terms in isolation or combination “bladder cancer”, “en bloc”, “TURB” and “resection” was performed. Evidence synthesis: Compared to cTURB, eTURB has been shown to achieve higher rates of detrusor muscle (>95%) and better quality of the specimen for pathological evaluation. Complication rates and perioperative outcomes are comparable between the two techniques. Moreover, eTURB seems to achieve lower recurrence rates. However, the retrospective nature of the studies and underpowered prospective trials limit the interpretation of these results. There are currently two active randomized trials which are evaluating the one-year recurrence rate (EB-StaR) and difference in the rate of detrusor muscle in the specimen between cTURB and eTURB (eBLOC), respectively. Conclusion: eTURB seems to provide a significant improvement in the surgical management of NMIBC with regards to oncology and safety outcomes.
130 Level of Obesity and Prevalence of Diabetes Among Children and Adolescents of Some Affluent Families of Bangladesh , KC Bhuyan*
The present analysis was based on data collected from 662 children and adolescents of 560 families of students of American International University - Bangladesh. The children and adolescents were classified by level of obesity, where level of obesity was measured by percentiles of BMI. It was observed that, among 662 children and adolescents 465 were in underweight group. Obesity and severe obesity were observed among 9.1 percent children and adolescents. A big (38.1%) group of obese children were suffering from diabetes. Obesity and prevalence of diabetes were significantly associated.The present analysis was done to identify the most responsible variables for obesity and diabetes. The identification was done by performing factor analysis and discriminant analysis. The detected responsible variables were parents’ education, occupation, family income, food habit of the child and utilization of time by the child.
131 Malt Extract as a Healthy Substitute for Refined Sugar , Daniela F Seixas Chaves1*, Daniela Valim Hatano2 and Dulcineia Rossini Milan2
An overconsumption of refined added sugars may cause inflammation, insulin resistance and an increase in visceral adiposity. It is important to highlight that refined sugar is devoid of micronutrients and phytochemicals and natural sweeteners such as malt extract and honey have a different effect in oxidative stress markers and overall health. Malt extract contains approximately 90% carbohydrate, most of it in the form of maltose, B vitamins (mainly niacin), amino acids and some minerals such as magnesium and potassium. It is also rich in phenolic compounds mainly ferulic acid and flavan-3-ols. It has a high antioxidant activity, both in vitro and in vivo, which makes malt extract a healthy substitute for refined sugars.
132 New Development Method for Determination of Cefuroxime Axetil (CUA) and Cefprozil (CZ) in Pharmaceutical Drugs by RP-HPLC , MA Alfeen1* and Y Yildiz2
High performance liquid chromatography was one of the most important technologies used in drug control and pharmaceutical quality control. In this study, an analytical method was developed using chromatography method for determination of two Cephalosporin as like: Cefuroxime Axetil (CUA), and Cefprozil (CZ) in pharmaceutical Drug Formulations. Isocratic separation was performed on an Enable C18 column (125mm × 4.6mm i.d, 5.0μm, 10A ÌŠ) Using Triethylamine: Methanol: Acetonitrile: Ultra-Pure Water (0.1: 5: 25: 69.9 v/v/v/v %) as a mobile phase at flow rate of 1.5 mL\min. The PDA detection wavelength was set at 262nm. The linearity was observed over a concentration range of (0.01–50μg\mL) for RP-HPLC method (correlation coefficient=0.999). The developed method was validated according to ICH guidelines. The relative standard deviation values for the method precision studies were < 1%, and an accuracy was > 98%. The results were within the limits allowed by the US Pharmacopoeia and successfully for determination of Cefuroxime Axetil (CUA) and Cefprozil (CZ) in Tablets and dry syrup of the local pharmaceutical formulations.
133 Comparison of Two Methods for The Determination of Potassium in Vitreous Humor , Focardi M1, Lanzilao L2, Bonari A2, Rensi R1, Pinchi V1 and Gualco B1*
The estimation of time since death is one of the important issues faced in the daily forensic practice. The well-known and largely adopted methods of investigation in an early phase, however, cannot be applied after the first 24 hours from death. Several body parts and fluids have been analyzed over the years in order to find a correlation between biochemical markers and the postmortem interval. Among those methods, the study of the concentration of potassium in vitreous humor demonstrated a time-related increase. The methods for the determination of potassium concen-tration published in the literature are of common use in clinical chemistry laboratory, even if we should consider the well-known matrix effect given that such instruments are validated for plasma or urine analysis. The aim of the present research is to compare a gold standard method not affected by this effect with the low cost and easily available indirect potentiometric method provided by an automatized system.
134 Does Veterinary Science have a future in Australia? , JAL Maxwell*
In 2018, an Australian veterinary scientist asked the question, “Does Veterinary Science have a future in Australia [1]? The discipline of veterinary science has a relatively short history in Australia, and it was not until the 20th century that university veterinary education began. Four university veterinary schools were established in the 20th century (1909, 1910, 1936 and 1974), and during the 21st century, three new schools were added (2005, 2006 and 2008). Today, Australia has more veterinary schools per capita than any other western nation. Australia’s veterinarians serve in private practice, government, academia and industry. Initially, veterinary scientists devoted their expertise to servicing economic livestock and this justified their utility to Australia’s economy. However, today, approximately 90% function in private practice, with the majority providing a dog and cat GP service in urban and major regional centres, so the author askes the question, do we need the veterinary professions at all?
135 Metabolic basis of trained immunity , Kewei Qin1, Tengfei Zhang2 and Chaofeng Han3*
Innate immunity is considered to be unable to construct immunological memory in the traditional concept. However, in recent years, there is growing evidence to dispute this idea. Plants and invertebrates lacking an adaptive immune system can mount resistance to secondary infections [1,2]. NK cells and monocytes are also found have memory characteristics [3,4] In 2011, Netea et al. [5] proposed a new term “trained immunity” for describing innate immune memory responses. In 2012, Quintin et al. [6] further demonstrate trained immunity even occurred in mice lacking T and B cells, serving as an increased response to secondary infections which is monocyte- dependent after priming with β-glucan from Candida albicans. 
136 The Stiffness of the Blood Vessels as a Component of Cardionephro - Cerebrovascular Risk for Obesity , Murkamilov Ilham Torobekovich1,2* and VV Fomin3
Summary: In the studied sample the prevalence of 1st degree obesity was 70.4%. In 1st degree obesity, a significant increase in the stiffness index and the duration of the pulse wave are recorded, which were significantly more often associated with the type of the “A” pulse curve. In 3rd de- gree obesity, a significant increase in the level of central aortic and systolic blood pressure was accompanied by a statistically significant increase in the level of augmentation index and the value of augmentation index brought to a pulse of 75 beats per minute. In persons with obesity, a relationship was noted between the value of body mass index with a stiffness index, an alternative stiffness index, and A2d4 vascular parameters. Materials and Methods: The study included 715 people aged 18 to 88 years (mean age 53.5 ± 11.8 years) with obesity, women 409 (57.2%) and men 306 (42.8%). All examined individuals were measured for body length (cm), body weight (kg) with the determination of body mass index (BMI, kg/m2), blood pressure (BP) systolic and diastolic (mm Hg), frequency heart rate (HR, beats/min). Depending on the BMI classified obesity (WHO, 1997): 1st degrees (30–34.9 kg/m2), 2nd degree (35–39.9 kg/m2), 3rd degree (more than 40 kg/m2). Investigated the central arterial (aortic) pres- sure (CAP) and the parameters of vascular stiffness (VSt) on the apparatus “AngioScan-01” (LLC Angioscan-Electronics, Russia). Results: The presence of grade 1 obesity was detected in 70.4% of the examined individuals, grade 2 obesity in 22.3%, grade 3 obesity in 7.1%. In the studied sample, people of middle (45.1%) and elderly (27.8%) age prevailed. Among the study participants, obesity in 10.2% and 46.5% of cases was associated with smoking and tachycardia. Significant increase in central aortic pressure (140 ± 20 mmHg. versus 133 ± 21 mmHg; p <0.05) and systolic blood pressure (143 ± 20 mmHg. vs. 135 ± 20 mmHg; p < 0.05) were observed in patients with obesity of the 3rd degree compared with the 1st degree. A statistically significant increase in the augmentation index and the value of the augmentation index resulted in a pulse rate of 75 beats per minute (AIp75) of the vessels was recorded in persons with grade 3 obesity. The stiffness index and the duration of the pulse wave were significantly higher in the subgroup of examined individuals with 1st degree obesity. The type of pulse curve “A” was more often detected in persons with obesity grade 1. A direct link is noted between the value of BMI with a stiffness index (r = 0.298; p = 0.001), an alternative stiffness index (r = 0.119; p = 0.001) and A2d4 indicators (r = 0.101; p = 0.001) of the vessels. In patients with obesity, the most associated diseases were arterial hypertension (64.3%), comorbid diseases (34.8%) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (14.4%). In addition, among those examined with obesity, cerebro-vascular diseases were detected in 3.3%, coronary heart disease in 8.5%, chronic kidney disease in 9.9%, and type 2 diabetes in 11.3%.
137 Use Them but Do Not Abuse Them , Alex Atock*
The origin of the partnership between man and horse goes back to prehistory. There is evidence of this partnership in the art and literature of ancient China, Egypt, Persia and Greece. Xenophon wrote “The Art of Riding” 2000 years ago. The horse played its part in peace and in war. It was used for practical purposes in agriculture, hunting and transport and it was also used for recreation and sport. Most of the sports were purely local and depended on the culture and traditions of each community. Some of these sports were based on military skills, others were derived from hunting, but it is probable that wherever horses were used some form of racing will have taken place.
138 Informational Hygiene as A Medical and Biological Tool for Health Preservation in The Digital Era , Eduard I Denisov*
Brief overview and essay of the issues of digitalization of economy and society is presented. Some technical trends in developing new devices and medical and biological problems and achievements are discussed. The concept of allostasis as new biological approach and information hygiene as new branch of preventive medicine are briefly considered. The need for risk assessment and risk management thru international ISO/IEC stand-ards as well as need for new sanitary supervision systems with appropriate methods, criteria and norms are suggested. 
139 Acute Toxicity of The Pharmaceutical Substance Branched Oligohexamethyleneguanidine Hydrochloride at Mice and Rats after Intragastric Administration , Denis O Shatalov1,2, Stanislav A Kedik1,2, Natalia V Krupenchenkova1, Elizaveta A Voroshilova1*, Ivan S Ivanov1,2 and Diana A Akhmedova1
The toxicity of pharmaceutical substances remains one of the main issues of modern research. Accordingly, the search for analogues with lowered toxicity as compared to established substances remains a major task for modern pharmacology. A promising compound in this respect is OHMG-HCl, the toxicity of which is examined in this study. The results of the study indicate that the application of OHMG- HCl to be a promising perspective due to its low toxicity.
140 Mitochondrial Therapy for Disease Treatment and Prevention: What’s New? , Jan Tesarik*
Many diseases caused by mitochondrial dysfunction are caused by mitochondrial DNA abnormalities. The concept of mitochondrial therapy is based on the repair or removal of the existing anomaly. This can be done by replacing affected mitochondria by healthy ones, by in situ correction of the damaged mitochondrial DNA or by selective destruction of the affected mitochondria. In theory, all these concepts are applicable at the precon-ception stage, thus preventing the mother-to-child disease transmission, as well as at more advanced developmental stages (embryonic, fetal and postnatal) to alleviate disease symptoms in specific organs and tissues. Animal reasearch has paved the way to human therapies at all of these levels. So far, the only successful human application concerned the preconception stage and was based on replacement of diseased mitochondria in pa-tients’ oocytes with healthy ones originating from oocytes donated by healthy women. However, new developments in molecular biology techniques, enabling a direct reparation of mitochondrial DNA mutations or selective destruction of the affected mitocondria, will hopefully make it possible to treat mitochondrial diseases at both preconception and postconception stages, without the need for recourse to third-party (donor) biological material.
141 Histological Study of Effect of Ethanol Stem Extracts of Homalium Letestui in Paracetamol Induced Injury in Albino Rat, Using Various Staining Techniques , Sabastine Aliyu Zubairu1, Musa Tabitha Lubo2, Joseph Oyepata Simeon*3, Builders Modupe3 and Joseph Opeyemi Tosin4
Introduction/Aim: The use of medicinal plants has attained a commanding role in health system all over the world. This involves the use of me-dicinal plants not only for the treatment of diseases but also as potential material for maintaining good health and conditions. Many countries in the world, that is, two-third of the world’s population depends on herbal medicine for primary health care. Homalium letestui is an evergreen tree. The plant has been of immense benefit to traditional users. A bark-decoction, combined with other medicinal plants, is taken by draught for orchitis, and bark-scrapings enter a prescription given to a newly delivered woman. In this study the histological effect of the ethanol stem extract of Homalium lestetui on rat paracetamol induce liver injury was carried out using H&E and Gordon and Sweet silver impregnation Technique. Method: Thirty-six rats where used for this work. Group one served as the positive control receiving normal saline, group two served as or-ganotoxic group received paracetamol 2000 mg/kg body weight, group 3 received silymarin 100 mg/mg, while group 4, 5 and 6 received 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg of the extract respectively. General staining procedure Hematoxylin and Eosin and the specific staining technique, Gordon and Sweet silver impregnation Technique were carried out on the liver. Haematological and chempathological investigation were also done. Result: In the groups pretreated with the extract there were slight areas of vacuolation, cellular degeneration, hepatocytic hyperplasia, cellular proliferation and Pyknotic nucleus compared to organotoxic group which revealed severe cellular degeneration, vascular congestion, hepatocytic hyperplasia and pyknotic nucleus in H&E stain. In Gordon and Sweet silver impregnation Technique, there were well structured reticular fibers with no obvious abnormality seen in the H. letestui administered group, while there were distortion and degeneration of the reticular fibres in the group that received paracetamol only. Conclusion: Histological work suggests that the plant may prevent or protect the liver architecture.
142 Monitoring of Organophosphorus Pesticides in Brazilian Food , Tatiana SM Fernandes* and Ronaldo F Nascimento
The accumulation of agrochemicals in agricultural products is a major concern since the plants act as intermediates in the transport of soil, water, and air contaminants to humans and fauna. The assessment of pesticide residues in food has become a priority objective, ensuring the quality of food and protecting consumers against possible risks. Brazil has legislation on pesticides, but monitoring is still far from other countries, as is the case in the USA and Europe. Therefore, it is necessary to establish better practices for the evaluation of pesticide residues in food.
143 Analytic Hepatic Deterioration in Rectal Cancer: Liver Steatosis Vs Disease Progression , Losada Vila Beatriz*
Hepatic steatosis is a phenomenon that is often objectified in imaging tests that, if there is no analytical alteration of the hepatic profile, does not need further follow-up. It can be caused by chemotherapy treatment, so in oncological patients should be monitored more closely. We present the case of a patient treated with capecitabine who, once the treatment was finished, began to increase bilirubin and transaminases, showing an increased diffuse hepatic steatosis in an MRI
144 Use of Laboratory Animals in A Pre-Clinical Trial: A Critical View of the Biomodels Development and Application , Gabriel Melo de Oliveira1*, Cleiton Felizardo Brito1 and Ana Karina Furtado2
The scientific use of laboratory animals throughout history demonstrates changes in their vision and applicability, specifically from a moral, ethical and current legislation. In the Laboratory Animal Science Division of the Cellular Biology Laboratory, the development of experimental models and the performance of pre-clinical tests emphasizes the 3Rs principle of refinement in relation to equipment and methodologies. Thus, we transform the point of view over animal model as a Bioreactor for a Biomodel, being able to associate clinical/behavioral methods, consequently, to increase the welfare animal, reproducibility and confiability of the results.
145 Estrous Cycle Ratio as a Reproductive Index in the Rats , MJ Adeniyi1* and FO Agoreyo2
Estrous cycle is an endogenous rhythm. Previously, studies have evaluated and analyzed the cycle based on its regularity and length and diestrus proportion. The aim of the review is to introduce estrous cycle ratio as a reproductive index and highlight its relevance. Twenty murine studies were retrieved from electronic databases published between 1999 and 2019. Estrous cycle ratio was calculated according to the method of [1]. The result shows that the average estrous cycle ratio is 0.81 with a nadir of 0.5 and a zenith of 1.5. Increase in estrous cycle ratio may signify prolongation of follicular phase length and delay in ovulation. Decrease in estrous cycle ratio may indicate delay in luteal regression with attendant delay in the initiation of new folliculogenesis. Therefore, estrous cycle ratio is an estrous cycle evaluation index.
146 Screening of Oat (Avena Sativa) Varieties in Saline-Sodic Soil , Muhammad Arshad Ullah1*, Imdad Ali Mahmood1, Muhammad Sarwar1 and Muhammad Rasheed2
Oat has much privileged sodium ion levels than wheat, soybean, cotton, and other seasonal crops. Oat cultivation is still well thought-out to stand for a supportive biological assess to recover saline lands due to its high capability to accrue salt ions in its straw, which is widely used as forage for livestock. Seeds of Oat (Avena sativa) were sown in a pot study to different combinations of salinity and sodicity [S0=4.70dSm-1+ 19.12 (mmol L-1)1/2, S1= 9.02dSm-1 +30.65 (mmol L-1)1/2 and S2= 11.35 dSm-1 +34.69 (mmol L-1)1/2]. Seven oat varieties namely Bulbin, S-2000, Dilawar, PD2LV65, No.667, Bob and Cyprus were used for screening against salt tolerance. The leaset % decrease in grain yield (35.24) was attained in S-2000 oat variety than other varieties. Therefore, this oat variety showed minimum loss due to toxic effects of salinity cum sodicity. Dilawar oat variety attained the highest grain yield (1.38 tha-1) under S2 [11.35dSm-1 +34.69 (mmol L-1)1/2]. Bulbin oat variety received the least position (1.21tha-1) in this salinity level. % decrease at S2 over S0 was indicated salt tolerance of oat varieties. Bob oat variety attained the lowest % decrease at S2 over S0 (42.27). Therefore, this variety had the maximum salt tolerance other than six oat varieties under this experiment.
147 Medically Complex Children; Defining A Specialty , Mark Bleazard*
Medically complex children can be defined as subset of pediatrics with multiple co-morbidities, technology dependence, increased healthcare needs, and significant functional limitations [1]. The proportion of medically complex children requiring services in the pediatric healthcare environment is rapidly increasing [1]. In addition, medically complex children have the potential to significantly impact institutional indicators of success including hospital-readmissions and mortality rates, as well as healthcare costs [2,3]. Significant vulnerability as well as increased reliance on artificial and technological devices for survival may also disproportionally impact other quality measures of success including nosocomial infections, ventilator associated pneumonia, central line associated blood stream infections, surgical site infections, catheter associated urinary tract infections, pressure ulcer rates, and sepsis morbidity and mortality rates.
148 Obesity, Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Eating Behavior Disorders , Habiba Libaton*1, M Mziwira1,2 and R Belahsen1
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease related to obesity is a growing epidemic worldwide, resulting in the accumulation of triglycerides and free fatty acids in the liver. In Morocco, the increase in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease related to obesity highlights the contribution of environmental factors to this public health problem, without denying the caloric contribution that is due to macronutrients, high energy density and low oxidation. In fact, the dietary transition experienced by Morocco following the production of the food industry and the presence of the media has turned the Mediterranean dietary model characterized by a diet rich in starch and fiber, low in fat and a physically active life to a pattern with more diversified diet rich in sugars, saturated animal fats and processed foods, low in fruits, vegetables and fibre and a sedentary and stressful lifestyle [1]
149 Asean Harmonization on Traditional Medicines , Suwijiyo Pramono*
Term “Traditional Medicines” has two meanings. The first one means all healing methods that are used traditionally by the people as curative, preventive, rehabilitative, paliative and promotive manner for their health. It can be psychological, physical and/or herbal interventions. An exemple of psychological intervention is supranatural approach, while accupuncture and accupressure are the exemples of physical interventions.
150 Detection of Escherichia Coli in Freshly Harvested Spinach Samples Collected from Five Different Markets in Zaria , Karaye GP1*, Karaye KK2 and Kaze PD1
Escherichia coli, though, normal flora of the digestive tract of human and animals have over the years evolved the ability to cause a wide range of disease. A total of 100 freshly harvested and ready to sale spinach samples in five selected market in Zaria, Kaduna State were collected and analysed for E.coli 0157: H7. Twenty (20) samples each were collected from Sabon Gari, Palladan, Samaru, Hayin Dogo and PZ. Isolates were screened using the conventional biochemical characterization for E. coli O157: H7. Twelve (12) gram of spinach leaves each was washed with sterile distilled water. Five (5) mls of each washing was inoculated into 5 mls of double strength Mac Conkey broth and inoculated for 24 hours at 370C. A loop full of the positive colonies was subcultured on EMB Agar and incubated for 24 h at 370C a greenish metallic sheen on the surrounding medium were observed. These presumptive positive colonies were stored in nutrient Agar slant at 40C until it was required for biochemical test. E. coli was confirmed by biochemical test and the growth on EMB Agar. Out of the 100 samples collected, Isolates were screened using the conventional biochemical charac-terization for E. coli O157: H7. A total of 119 (47.6%) E. coli O157: H7 and 16 (6.4%) E. coli O157 was isolated respectively. Therefore, there is need to characterize the E. coli from spinach in local markets in Zaria, so as to checkmate and create awareness on the spread of E. coli especially 0157:H7 infection in livestock and humans in Zaria and Kaduna State.
151 Stilbene-Based Two-Photon Thermo-Solvatochromic Fluorescence Probes with Large Two-Photon Absorption Cross Sections and Two-Photon Triple Fluorescence: Detection of Solvent Polarities, Viscosities, and Temperature , Chi Bao Huang*, Xiao Jun Peng and Jiang Li Fan
The unusually sensitive solvatochromism of 2,5-dicyano-4-methyl-4’-dimethylaminostilbene (P1) whose emission maximum varies from 445 nm in cyclohexane to 641 nm in DMSO are described. 1a with remarkably large two-photon cross sections exhibits very strong polarity-, viscosity-, and temperature-dependence of fluorescence, and can be used to detect polarities, viscosities, and temperature. The successful application of P1 provides a brilliant prototype for the developments of ideal two-photon fluorescence probes.
152 Biphasic P Waves–Paying Attention to Details , Jochanan E Naschitz*
On a rather usual electrocardiogram (ECG) a rather unusual morphology of the P waves provided the chance for my young colleagues and me, the veteran, to sharpen some of our professional skills. The Case: The patient, a 69-year-old man, was transferred for rehabilitation in the following of mitral and aortic valve replacement. The ECG on admission showed sinus rhythm, 98 bpm, and left ventricular strain (Figure 1).
153 The Use of Digital Imaging Techniques for Better Understanding of Cellular Reactivity , Ahed J Alkhatib*
Using ordinary techniques in viewing microscopic activities is limited by being qualitative in nature. Looking for more advanced understanding of image properties suffers from subjective views. Looking for more professional imaging analysis is available and not affordable in all settings. From our experience in immunohistochemistry, we used to localize biomarkers using indirect immunoproxidase techniques, but analyzing sections was a problematic and mainly beneficial for diagnosis since the result is mainly interpreted as positive or negative. The research needs in histopathology require more data for statistical analysis through examining hypotheses. To overcome these difficulties, we used the imaging analysis tools exist in adobe Photoshop software. The idea depends in calculating the total pixels per image, then an option to select a color of the image to compute its distribution as pixels. The obtained number is divided by the total pixels in slide. The resulting number is recorded. The same process is repeated for all sections that represent study groups. Using this technique leads to generate digital data that can be statistically analyzed and to compare the differences in groups and to determine the significance in occurring of cellular phenomena. Finally, we have used this technique for more than 10 years and published important articles in various journals.
154 Post-Partum Ilio-Psoas Abscess. A Rare Case of Puerperal Sepsis with Streptococcus Agalactiae , Huda Saleh*1, Rati Barman1 and Gamal Sayed1,2
Mrs. A a 41 years old gravida 6 para 5 lady delivered vaginally, with spontaneous onset of labour at 39 weeks of gestation under epidural analgesia with intact perineum. She had a regular antenatal care at a large tertiary care center. Her antenatal risk factors were a high body mass index and mild anemia with a normal Glucose tolerance test and no other medical or surgical co morbidities. Day one post vaginal delivery she started complaining of left hip and back pain restricting her mobility. Her pain was of new onset and described as spasm like and starting from left hip and radiating to the whole of her left leg. An initial management plan was conservative in form of analgesia and although she had some relief from the pain aspect, yet she started complaining of lower abdominal pain, left back pain and left hip pain with radiation till the toes with inability to walk and presence of fever with chills.
155 The Origin of the Plant Diversity and the Origin of Human Races , Maria Kuman*
The article offers a parallel between the unlimited possibilities of plants to adapt and the unlimited possibilities of humans to adapt. While in the Darwin’s evolutional theory, proclaimed in 1859, external influences modify the material body, for Goethe (in 1790) the external influences modify the archetypal form called plants’ spirit. For Goethe, the whole diversity of plants is a result of adapting of this initially created archetypal form, called plant Spirit, to different environmental conditions - adapting the plant’s spirit was taking many different forms. I think this was a genius intuitive insight of Goethe, but as all intuitive insights it was too much ahead of his time to be appreciated. It seems that the humans’ unlimited ability to adapt to different environments has the same origin – it is done through the initially created archetypal form, called human Spirit, which is nonlinear electromagnetic field (NEMF). The quantum origin of this NEMF is the basis of the human extremely flexible adaptation, which is the foundation of the origin of races. The racial features developed as adaptation to the different climatic conditions at different geographical latitudes. However, the unlimited ability of humans to adapt could only be explained if it was done through the quantum features of his NEMF, called human Spirit.
156 Health Care and the 2020 Us Election , Mildred A Schwartz*
Health care promises to be a leading issue in the 2020 US election. In the past, health care policies helped Democrats get elected. Currently, new policies may not give the Democrats such a clear advantage because of divisions in the party associated with contenders for the presidential nomination. Health care promises to be a critical issue in the forthcoming US election, ranking among the most contentious issues roiling the public sphere and accentuating the division between Republicans and Democrats [1]. To a large extent, health care played a similar role in the 2018 midterm election [2,3].
157 Health Care and the 2020 Us Election , Mildred A Schwartz*
Health care promises to be a leading issue in the 2020 US election. In the past, health care policies helped Democrats get elected. Currently, new policies may not give the Democrats such a clear advantage because of divisions in the party associated with contenders for the presidential nomination. Health care promises to be a critical issue in the forthcoming US election, ranking among the most contentious issues roiling the public sphere and accentuating the division between Republicans and Democrats [1]. To a large extent, health care played a similar role in the 2018 midterm election [2,3].
158 Steroid-Induced Osteoporosis; At a Glance , Berrin Durmaz*
Due to its strong immunosuppressive effects, steroids are a valuable group of drugs and are widely used in the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. With the discovery of cortisone and cortisol in the 1930s, synthetic derivatives of glucocorticoids are used successfully in many fields of medicine such as rheumatology, allergy, lung diseases, dermatology, hematology [1], Glucocorticoids (GC) in the treatment of many inflammatory conditions plays an important role. Nowadays steroids major reasons for its use; rheumatologic causes such as rheumatoid arthritis, polymyalgia rheumatica, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It has been reported that oral steroid use in the population is between 0.5-0.9%. The use of GC in the 70-79 age group is approximately 2.5%. [2]. During chronic use of steroids, well-known side effects such as diabetes, osteoporosis, myopathy, cataract, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis suppression, susceptibility to infections are seen. In addition, lipodystrophy and neuropsychic disorders are the most common side effects [3,4].
159 Post-vaccination epidemiological analysis of hepatitis “B” viral infection among selected communities in the Central region of Ghana , Yussif Mijirah Dokurugu1*, Evans Duah2, Clement Agoni2, Ransford Kumi Oduro2, Richard Kobina Dadzie Ephraim3 and Samuel Essien-Baidoo3
Introduction: Hepatitis B viral infection (HBV) remains a global health threat. About 257 million people currently living with HBV worldwide. HBV is prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa with prevalence of >8% established including West Africa. Though Anti-HBV vaccines existed since 1982, as the single most important Hepatitis B prevention measure. Ghana started active mass immunization program on HBV in infants in 2002 with sin-gle-combined Expanded Program Immunization (EPI) (pentavalent vaccine). However, this do not cover persons outside the EPI especially Adults. We designed this study to evaluate the impact of this vaccination programs, the accessibility of vaccines and the scope of this program in selected communities in the central region of Ghana. Methods: We screened and evaluated 1021 respondents from five Ghanaian indigenous communities in the central region namely Nkanfoa, Mankessim, Abura, Yamoransa and Gomoa Pinanko. They were screened for HBV and evaluated for status of Anti-HBV vaccination and on knowledge on the existence of such vaccine. Results: Majority of the respondents were between the ages of 52 years and 68 years representing 28.2% of the study population. Sixty-three (63) screened respondents tested positive to HBV infection. We recorded 6.2% HBV prevalence for the study. 11.9% had history of previous An-ti-HBV vaccination whereas 33 (3.2%) had knowledge on the existence of Anti-HBV vaccines. The age class ≤17 years had all benefitted from the EPI hence were previously vaccinated. Interestingly, they all had no knowledge of such vaccines in existence. However, 4 respondents of this beneficiaries tested positive to HBV. Conclusion: HBV is still endemic in Ghana. Despite the inception of EPI, there is still more work to be done to finally eradicate HBV from the country. EPI should be extended to benefit adults who missed the opportunity to be vaccinated from year 2002. A state of emergency should be issued on HBV and public education intensified. Easy accessibility and affordability of Anti-HBV vaccines are key in eradicating HBV from Ghana
160 Underutilization of the Subcutaneous Route of Administration , Kenneth W Locke*
Therapeutic proteins have become an important part of treatment, particularly for serious and chronic diseases, and the subcutaneous (SC) route of administration has become a more popular, yet still underutilized mode of delivery. The extracellular matrix of the hypodermis is composed of a network of fibrous proteins (e.g., collagen and elastin) embedded within a viscoelastic gel. The viscoelastic gel is composed of glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans that create resistance to bulk fluid flow in the SC space.
161 Underutilization of the Subcutaneous Route of Administration , Kenneth W Locke*
Therapeutic proteins have become an important part of treatment, particularly for serious and chronic diseases, and the subcutaneous (SC) route of administration has become a more popular, yet still underutilized mode of delivery. The extracellular matrix of the hypodermis is composed of a network of fibrous proteins (e.g., collagen and elastin) embedded within a viscoelastic gel. The viscoelastic gel is composed of glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans that create resistance to bulk fluid flow in the SC space.
162 Cognitive Dissonance in Iranian Multiple Sclerosis Patients , Atefeh Ashrafi Birgani* and Elham Foroozandeh
Multiple Sclerosis is a chronic disease characterized by loss of myelin in neurons. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the cognitive dissonance of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with healthy people. Methodology: MS participants were selected using non-probability sampling method from Iranian patients and healthy participants were paired with MS sample in education, age and illness stage. They were asked to complete dissonance arousal and reduction questionnaire (Har-mon-Jones;2008). Discussion: The results showed that the average score of MS patients was significantly higher than non-clinical subjects (p<0.05). It can be stated that one of the basic reasons of dissonance cognition in MS referred to probably impairment of memory, learning and cognitive functions. Keywords: Cognitive dissonance; Multiple sclerosis; Cognitive process Abbrevations: MS: Multiple Sclerosis
163 Features of Coping Behavior of Tuberculosis Patients , Sukhova Elena Viktorovna*
According to the results of the study of psychological and social characteristics of patients with tuberculosis, as well as the results of the survey on the targeted author’s questionnaire presents the features of coping behavior of patients with tuberculosis.
164 Carcinoma of the Faacial Skin among Yemenis; (A Prospective Hospital-Based Study) , Ali Ali AL-Zamzami*
Objective: The study aimed to study facial skin carcinoma among Yemenis to determain, the types, sites, the relation of this disease to the age and gender, and to define the possible risk factors associated with development of facial skin carcinoma. Material and Methods: The study is a prospective descriptive hospital based- study carried out at Al-gomhori –Teaching Hospital in Sana’a Republic of Yemen. The material consisted 126 cases of Yemen patients who attending to the department of oral and maxillofacial surgery and to the consultant unit of the head and neck surgery and diagnosed clinically, radiographically and histopathologically as having facial skin carcinoma. Patients who had previous treatment (surgical, radiation or chemo - therapy) or who had recurrent cancer were excluded. Data: were collected from history (using a questionnaire sheet), clinical examination of patients and from the histopathology results of the biopsies. Data were analysis using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). Results: In this study, 126 cases were reported, 81 cases (64.3%) were males and 45 cases (35.7%) were females, male to female ratio was 1.8:1. Carcinoma of the Facial skin is still remaining the disease of elderly patients, particularly those who have history of long-standing exposure to sunlight. The patients age was ranged from 8 to 92 years, the mean age for both genders was 64.29 ± 15.33 years. The majority of patients (95%) were over the age of 40 years. Basal cell carcinoma was the communist type, accounting 74.6%. Sqaumous cell carcinoma was the second type of facial skin carcinoma, accounting 25.4%. Naso-labial region and infera-orbital region were the most involving sites, accounting 20.6% and 19.8% respectively. Outdoor works (long-standing exposure to sunlight) was the main risk factor that play an important role to developing 68.1% of basal cell carcinoma and 75.0% of sqaumous cell carcinoma. Conclusion: Carcinoma of the facial skin in Yemen as in all countries still remains the disease of the elderly patients, 95% were over the age of 40 years. Males were affected more than females. M: F ratio was 1.8: 1. Basal cell carcinoma was the most common type, accounting 74.6%. Naso-labial region and the naso- labial region were the most involving sites, accounting 20.6% and 19.8% respectively. Prolonged exposure to sunlight (outdoor work) was the main risk factor that play an important role to development of facial skin carcinoma among Yemenis.
165 Novel Diagnostic Biomarkers in Liver Disease-a Metabolomic Review , Ahmed I*1, Niaz Z2, Cheema S3, Kassem W4 and Manuele F5
Disease of the liver are complex and pose significant challenges to physician due to diagnostic difficulty requiring invasive techniques such as liver biopsy. Changes in the odour of human excretions could provide diagnostic insight into pathophysiological imbalance. Identifying underlying volatiles metabolites responsible for these odorous changes can be correlated with the pathological process within the body. Advances in the tech-nology have enabled us to interpret the volatile signature of these changes in the odour. This has opened a promising area to lay the foundations of a rapid, non-invasive and point of care diagnostic tool. This review explores the diagnostic potential of volatile organic metabolites as novel biomark-ers and extends the discussion on the clinical applications of these biomarkers in liver disorders. 
166 Plant Toxins , Ogori Akama Friday*1,2
Plant toxins are generally the metabolites produce through plants to protect themselves against different threats like insects, predators and mi-croorganisms These toxins found in food plants is due to natural or new reproduction methods which enhance defensive mechanism. The plant part which may cause toxic effects includes roots, tuber, stem, fruits, buds and foliage. Natural toxins are present in numerous types of plants and these are ingested as food and when consumed in large quantity and not cook properly leads to food poisoning. These toxic substances when ingested can be potentially harmful to human health. Some plants produce phytotoxins that can severely harm or destroy any herbivore. Such as toxic proteins which have a role in defense against pathogens and insects. Such as ricin and rRNA N-glycosidase which have the potential to be used as bio-threat agents. They can be modified to exemplify improved affinity and efficacy for health endorsement. Several of these plants are commonly consumed as food. They have been developed as an evolutionary movement for self-protection. These toxic substances when taken in considerable amount can be harmful to human health and cause discomfort.
167 Wheat Gluten, Desirable or Dangerous Genes , Ewa Filip* and Małgorzata Kaplewska
My opinion is issued to collect and broaden the information about gluten, or more precisely, whether its presence and properties should raise concerns. Knowledge about gluten has expanded considerably over the last dozen or so years. It is known that it is a large polymer consisting of a mixture of proteins. Gluten occurs in popular cereals such as wheat, spelt, barley, rye and oat. Works carried out by cereal breeding institutes require a continuous control of the presence of various forms of these proteins in wheat grain, because, firstly, there is a need to obtain fertile varieties with high grain quality parameters, and secondly, to improve the physical and chemical properties of farinaceous products. As it turned out, gluten, which brings many positive aspects in the breeding process of cereals, as well as in the production of bakery products, can become a cause of many prob-lems for humans. According to many authors, apart from celiac disease, there are already over 50 other diseases, such as osteoporosis, autoimmune diseases, cancer and neurological diseases that are being associated with gluten effects
168 Facial Lipodistrofia In Patients Living with HIV/AIDS: From Diagnosis to The Necessary Interventions , Elcio Magdalena Giovani*, Silva AC, Noro Filho GA, Santos CC and Pollo IC
The advent of Aids has brought new challenges to the health area and the dentist surgeon plays an important role in the management of these patients. Antiretroviral therapy has dramatically changed the morbidity and mortality associated with HIV/Aids infection but has contributed to the emergence of other new situations that require proper approach. Lipodystrophic Syndrome Associated with HIV/AIDS is of multifactorial origin but is strongly associated with the use of antiretrovirals. It comprises alterations in the distribution of body fat, accompanied or not by metabolic alterations. The loss of facial fat, called facial lipoatrophy, is one of the most stigmatizing signs of the syndrome. This condition, often revealing the disease, brought back the stigma of AIDS, leading patients to depression and total seclusion of their daily life activities. It is necessary that Dental Sur-geons always share with the multidisciplinary team working with HIV/AIDS patients to identify these changes and seek effective and recommended treatment options for the treatment of facial lipoatrophy associated with HIV/AIDS
169 Public Health Impact of Substance Use on Adolescent: A Snapshot of Yenagoa in Bayelsa State. Nigeria , Raimi Morufu Olalekan1* , Abdulraheem Aishat Funmilayo2, Major Iteimowei2, Ebikapaye Okoyen3, Bilewu Olaolu Oyinlola4
The Nigerian polarization of its society with an estimated population ranging from 198 to 210 million people, growing at the rate of 3.2% per annum, into a large rural sector and a small urban component could provide a basis for the rapid increase in the prevalence of substance use among adolescents, which has aroused public health concern and have been declared a national public health and social emergency with a threat multiplier. One in every five people in the world is an adolescent, regrettably four out of every 10 teenager’s you meet on the street now abuse drugs and if unchecked, seven out of every 10 young persons on your street would become drug addicts by the year 2030 particularly in the major cities. Yet, many adolescents lose their lives during this adolescent period. However, the World Health Organization reported that an estimated 1.7 million adolescents die yearly mostly through accidents, suicide, violence, pregnancy related complications, substance abuse and high-risk behaviors or illnesses that are either preventable or treatable. Adolescents suffer from a preponderance of health risk and behavioral problems. Admittedly, substance abuse is particularly problematic for this population and causes significant harm to their health and well-being. However, the teenage years are so volatile that parents should not worry about making much progress. Consequently, substance use affects developing brain by increasing the risk of addiction, mood disorders, lowered impulse control, increased risk for adverse consequences, confusion, cognitive impairment, and medical morbidity, which can contribute to hospi-talizations and health care costs, as well as loss of independence and has been known to increase risky sexual activity, emphysema, lung cancer, heart disease, oral cancers, laryngeal carcinoma, and a number of other health issues in older age, decreased academic grades, and making poor decisions, that can be detrimental to the adolescents using or to others crime, militancy and violence behaviors etc. This article addresses the current trends and research related to the public health impact of substance use on adolescent. It is therefore vital for parent and societies to seize the opportunity of applying behavior modification, mind transformation and remodification therapy to young adults. Also, citizen advocacy should be intensified and encouraged on the health impact of substance use. It is also imperative that all stakeholders engage in concerted efforts to target both parents and adolescents in substance use control strategies
170 Influence of Endometrial Microbiota on Reproductive Outcomes in IVF Programs , Veronika Smolnikova1*, Lela Keburiya1, Tatiana Priputnevich1, Vera Muravieva1, Elena Kalinina1 and Gennadiy Sukhikh1
Introduction: Implantation failures are one of the causes of the inefficiency of IVF programs. Recent studies have shown that in humans, some biotopes such as the uterus and placenta, previously considered sterile, are colonized by their unique microbiota. Disturbance of the uterine micro- biota can be one of the reasons for the decline in the effectiveness of assisted reproductive technology programs. Materials and methods: A total of 80 patients with infertility were enrolled in the study: group I included the patients with fresh embryo transfer and group II included the patients with frozen-thawed embryo transfer. After routine embryo transfer, the most distal 5 mm portion of the embryo transfer catheter was placed in the sterile container. A study was conducted using culture–based methods with extended nutrient media. Results: In patients with fresh embryo transfer in ovarian hyperstimulation cycle, 28 species of microorganisms were detected. Pregnancy in this group occurred in 20 women (40 %). The microflora was dominated by Lactobacillus spp. (90% of women). In patients with frozen-thawed em- bryo transfer, 20 species of microorganisms were detected. Pregnancy in this group occurred in 13 women (43.3 %). The microflora was dominated by Lactobacillus spp. (69.2 % of women). Bifidobacterium spp. were significantly more frequently detected in patients of group II than in those of group I (23.3% and 2%, respectively). Conclusion: The evidence of this study suggests that the uterus is not sterile, the uterine microbiota may differ from the cervical canal microbi- ota, the uterine microbiota is one of the predictors of the success of embryo implantation.
171 Integration of Basic Sciences in Undergraduate Nursing Curricula , Fred Saleh*
Background and aim: Undergraduate nursing curricula often offer basic science courses during the first academic year of the degree program. These include Gross Anatomy, Embryology, Physiology, Pathophysiology, Biochemistry, and Microbiology. They are often given as separate courses, thus lacking horizontal and vertical integration with major nursing courses, such as medical-surgical nursing, critical care nursing, pediatric nursing, maternal nursing, recovery nursing, emergency nursing, operating room nursing, and geriatric nursing. This study aims to survey undergraduate nursing curricula in Lebanon about the integration of basic science courses. Materials and methods: We conducted two separate comprehensive PubMed and Medline searches using the following combined MeSH terms: “Gross Anatomy, Embryology, Physiology, Pathophysiology, Biochemistry, OR Microbiology, AND Nursing, AND Lebanon”. In parallel, we reviewed the nursing degree catalogs and the related description of courses of the nursing programs currently offered by various universities in Lebanon about whether basic sciences are integrated into the curriculum. Results: Our results showed that Anatomy, Embryology, Physiology, Pathophysiology, Biochemistry, and Microbiology are still delivered as separate courses during the first years of the nursing programs which we reviewed. On very few occasions, some of these courses are rather offered during the second or third year. Also, and except for combining Anatomy with Physiology in one course in some of the reviewed programs, proper horizontal integration is still lacking. Embryology is mostly not given as a separate course, but rather either embedded in the Anatomy course or not given at all. Finally, we did not find vertical integration in the 12-degree-programs which we reviewed. Discussion and conclusion: Proper horizontal and vertical integration of basic sciences in undergraduate nursing curricula in Lebanon is still lacking. This often results in a knowledge gap, as well as in difficulty in correlating “normal” with “abnormal” by the students. 
172 Brain-Computer Interfaces: From Past to Future , Murad Sultanov*
More than 100 years ago, scientists were interested in the capabilities of the brain and tried to understand whether it is possible to somehow influence it. In 1875, English doctor Richard Caton managed to register a weak electric field on the surface of the brain of rabbits and monkeys. Then there was a lot of discovery and research, but only in 1950, José Manuel Rodríguez Delgado, a professor of physiology at Yale University, invented the device, which could be implanted in the brain and controlled by radio signals. Thus, began the era of neural interfaces and technologies capable of enhancing human biological capabilities. Already in 1972, a cochlear implant went on sale, which converted the sound into an electrical signal, transmitted it to the brain and actually allowed people with severe hearing impairments to hear. Moreover, in 1973, for the first time, the term “brain-computer interface” was used - a computer-based neuro interface. 
173 Classification of Salivary Gland Diseases among Yemenis: (A Prospective Hospital-Based study) , Ali Ali AL-Zamzami*
Objective: This study aims to classification of salivary gland diseases among Yemenis to established data base, determine the common disease, common site and the relation of these disease to the age and gender. Material and Methods: The present study designed as a prospective descriptive hospital –based study carried out at Al-gomhori –Teaching Hospital in Sana’a. All patients attending to the department of oral and maxillofacial surgery and to the consultant unit of the head and neck surgery complain of salivary gland disease were examination. Data were collected from patient history (using a questionnaire form), clinical examination of patients, radiographs examination and from the histopathology results of the biopsies. Biopsy result used to confirm the diagnosis. Results: A total of 140 cases of salivary gland diseases were studied,64 cases (45.7%) were males, and 76 cases (54.3%) were females, male to female ratio was 0.8-1. The age of patients was ranged from 3 to 82 years, with mean age for both gender of 40. 09±21.149. The majority of patients (79%) were over the age of 20 years. The most common disease of salivary glands tumor was salivary gland tumor, accounting 43.6%, followed by cystic lesions 20.7% and sialolithiases (20.0%). The less common salivary gland diseases were sialadenitis and sialadenosis, accounting,12.9% and 2.9% respectively. Sqaumous cell carcinoma was the most common types of salivary gland malignancy, accounting 50. 0%. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common types of benign tumors accounting,78.3%. Major salivary glands were the most involving site by both tumors. Rhanula was the most common type of salivary gland cyst accounting, 75.9%, usually found on the sublingual glands. Sialolithiases, usually found on the major salivary glands, 89.3% of this disease were located on the submandibular gland. Sialadenitis, frequently caused by bacterial and viral infections, 77% of them were bacterial sialadenitis and 22.2% were viral sialadenitis. Bacterial sialadenitis, commonly located on the submandibular gland, whereas, viral sialadenitis restricted to the parotid glands. Conclusion: One hundred and forty cases of salivary gland disease among Yemenis were studied,64 cases (45.7%) were males, and 76 cases (54.3%) were females, male to female ratio was 0.8-1. The age of patients was ranged from 3 to 82 years, with mean age for both gender of 40. 09±21.149. The majority of patients (79%) were over the age of 20 years. Salivary glands tumor was the most common salivary gland disease, ac-counting 43.6%, followed by the salivary gland cyst and sialolithiases accounting, 20.7% and 20.0% respectively. Sqaumous cell was the most com-mon type of salivary gland malignancies accounting 50. 0%. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common type of benign tumors accounting 78. 3%. Both salivary gland tumors commonly located on the major salivary glands. Rhanula was the most common type of salivary gland cyst, accounting 75.9%,usually located on the sublingual gland. Sialolithiases, accounting 20.0% of all salivary gland disease, 89.3% of this disease were located on the submandibular gland. The less common types of salivary gland disease were sialadenitis and Sialosis, accounting 12.09% and 2.9% respectively. 
174 Comparative Efficacy of Different Pesticide Residue Mitigation Modules in Mango , Muhammad Asif Farooq*1, Muhammad Jalal Arif1, Muhammad Dildar Gogi1, Ahmad Nawaz1, Bilal Atta2
A study was conducted at different locations of Multan from March 2016 to April 2017 in which 4 IPM modules were devised for mango in comparison with the control, with the focus of pesticides residues mitigation and maximum yield. Pesticides residues mitigation modules (PRMMs)were based on the IPM tactics to suppress pest population with no or minimum use insecticides. Each module was applied in an area of 1 acre of mango orchard and pest population was monitored before and after the application of the modules. After the season of the mango was completed the yield was compared of all the modules and yield loss was also calculated in terms of fruit quantity and fruit quality. It was observed that the orchard which was grown under PRMM-2 showed maximum reduction in pest population calculated as much as 92.66% followed by PRMM-1 which was accounted for 86.13% reduction in pest population. PRMM-3 reduced the pest population up-to 77.97% followed by PRMM-4 which reduced the pest population to level of 71.43% over control. So, the best results in terms of pest reduction were observed in PRMM-2 which included spray of pesticides along with the use of cultural, mechanical, and attract and kill methods for the mango pests. This module outperformed the chemical method by 21.23% better in terms of pest population reduction while only IPM module with no pesticides used, pest reduction was 14.7% over chemical control methods which are in common practice by most of the farmer community in the country. PRMM-2 produced 25.29% more market-able fruits in comparison of control module while PRMM-1 produced 21.17% more marketable fruits over control. In case of PRMM-3 and PRMM-4 the percentage of surplus marketable produce over control was calculated as 17.21% and 11.47% respectively.
175 HBG2 and HBG1 Nucleotide Substitutions and Hbf Production in Thalassemia Patients , Cristina Curcio1*, Benzoni E1, Seia M1 and Giannone V1
HbF represents the main hemoglobin fraction during fetal life. After birth, the synthesis of HbF decreases gradually and is replaced by HbA so that HbF levels are less than 2% in adults. During adulthood, HbF may be slightly or significantly elevated because of pathological or nonpathological causes such as HPFH. This status is caused either by fetal globin gene promoter variants or large deletions affecting the human fetal globin genes. In thalassemia, an increase in HbF is linked to β-thalassemia major, δβ-thalassemia or thalassemia intermedia and improves the clinical picture as γ globin chains compensate for the lack of functional β- globin chains. The degree of HbF persistence varies greatly among adults and is largely ge- netically controlled. Research of causes that induce the expression of γ globin gene can impact the definition of clinical condition, as well as provide potential targets for treatment of hemoglobinopathy, as an increase in HbF production ameliorates β-thalassemia severity. In this report we present full DNA analysis of both HBG2 and HBG1 genes in a cohort of 96 β- and/or α-thalassemia subjects with high HbF levels and 30 healthy individuals to update the list of HPFH polymorphisms.
176 Characterization of Union Sites for Opioids in Human Lymphocyte Membranes , Carlos Osvaldo Navarro Venegas* and Luis Alberto Raggi Saini
The opioid peptides Methionine enkephalin and β-Endorphin are stimulators of Natural Killer cytolytic activity. To know the biochemical mech-anisms that explain this action, the binding of Methionine enkephalin and Naloxone in presence or ausence of Na+ ion and GTP to human Lymphocyte membranes was characterized. Methionine enkephalin or β-Endorphin in concentrations greater than physiological concentrations delivers stimulations of the order of 25% on the respective control value. For the receptors, a binding assay of the radioligands (3H)-Methionine enkephalin and (3H)-Naloxone was used, with the Scatchard analysis finding only one type of binding site in each case, with KD values of 6.8 and 5.9 [nm] and Bmax of 38 and 54 [fmol/mg of protein] respectively. These values are not comparable to those described in nervous, tumor or lymphoid tissue. The displacement tests revealed similarity between Naloxone and Methionine enkephalin binding sites due to their mutual displacement, unlike that observed with β-Endorphin. In contrast to previous studies, it was found that the effect of the Na+ ion (100 mM) did not modify the IC50 values, whereas GTP markedly reduced the total binding of both ligands: Methionine enkephalin and Naloxone and suggests the participation of a protein with G protein charac-teristics
177 Prefrontal Cortex Role in Stress Processing and Regulation , Behzad Saberi*
Regulation and processing of the stress are the important roles of the prefrontal cortex. During exposing to stress, various regions of the prefrontal cortex will be activated like lateral and ventrome-dial prefrontal cortex and medial orbitofrontal cortex. Amygdala responses to the stress as a natural mechanism but long-term stim-ulation of the amygdala leads to its dysfunction and consequently prefrontal cortex dysfunction. Due to the inverse relationship be-tween prefrontal cortex and amygdala, increasing in the activity of the prefrontal cortex leads to reduced activity of the amygdala.
178 Superfoods: Big Focus on Honeybee Pollen in Korea and Japan , Ventura Coll Francesc*
Honeybee pollen has traditionally considered a food of nutritional interest as a source of free essential amino-acids and proteins, carbohydrates and vitamins. The biochemical research on honeybee pollen carried out and published by Josep Serra Bonvehí and Francesc Ventura Coll lead to medical studies “in vitro” and “in vivo” in Japan and South Korea. Honeybee pollen is well known as a nutritional complement but not so well are its preventive and therapeutic effects. For this reason, the television channel MBN from South Korea, which produces TV programs on healthy life, came to Barcelona to film the work in laboratory and to make an interview, the content of which is developed here
179 Postoperative Cognitive Decline , Phillip Gordon*
Post-operative cognitive decline (POCD), described many years ago [1], remains a challenge for all physicians who care for elderly patients. A lot of work has been done in this area but investigators need to be mindful about incorporating some basic precepts into their research protocols. While central nervous system dysfunction after surgery and anesthesia has been described to occur, especially in older adults, it is important to bear in mind that, as Silverstein and colleagues [2] point out, any illness requiring hospitalization may be associated with cognitive decline
180 Justification for Inclusion of Domestic Enzymes in Feed of Laying Hens , A Yu Lavrentiev*, VS Sherne and NV Danilova
Great demands are raised to feed poultry concerning their composition, as they contain several types of grain feed, which contain anti-nutrients that reduce the digestibility and use of these nutrients. Low nutritional value of several grains is since there are significant amounts of other non-starchy polysaccharides, which include beta-glucans and pentosansalong with fiber in them. According to generalized data, the main anti-nutritional factors and wheat, rye and triticale are pentosans, most of which are arabinoxylans. Beta glucans mainly have a negative impact on the absorption of nutrients in barley. Non-starchy polysaccharides have another negative property-they strongly swell, forming viscous adhesive solutions that limit the absorption of already digested protein, starch, fat, and other important biological compounds. The use of enzyme preparations in feed inactivates anti-nutrients, promotes better digestion and use of feed nutrients. This helps to increase egg production and improve the quality of eggs.
181 How Do We Clean Up This Mess? - A Review of The Testing Methodologies Used for Detection of Live Bacteria in Healthcare Environments , Andrew Kemp1* and Mathew A Diggle2
n light of the increasing numbers of disinfectant resistant bacterial species, and the proven direct link between disinfectant resistance and antibiotic resistance, the detection of live bacteria in high risk environments within healthcare, is of increasing importance. The benefits of accurate identification, and in some cases quantification, is paramount in indicating the effectiveness of cleaning products, protocols and therefore safety to practice for patients and staff. A review of the currently available environmental testing methods, highlighting those tests most appropriate for the different areas of our healthcare services has been explored. Looking at the latest technological advances in surface and microbiological testing, to determine their efficiency in adequately detecting organisms of potential significance, and therefore informing us of the most appropriate ways in which to treat areas that have been potentially contaminated. The outcome of using the correct testing methods can determine the true impact of surface contamination in primary and cross infection. Moreover, informing us of the effectiveness of cleaning interventions in the hope of decreasing potential causes of infection (including staff behaviours) and subsequently improving patient outcomes.
182 Raman Spectroscopy: An Evaluation of Antimicrobial Characteristics of Technical Lignin , Klanarong Sriroth1* and Jackapon Sunthornvarabhas2
Technical lignin from agricultural biomass has high potential for various applications and receives strong attention as one of the key materials in the future. One of its unique properties is antimicrobial property against wide range of microorganisms which is very helpful in medical and cosmetic application as potential natural antimicrobial agent. The current challenges are ability to swiftly identify its potency for both product development and routine analysis and its dark color from chromophores that were generated during delignification thus make it less attractive. Coniferyl alcohol, a chromophores and one of the three basic unit of lignin, is a key component that is responsible for antimicrobial property and also responsible for color generation of lignin after delignification. In order to control and monitor, it is essential to use characterization tools that is sensitive to the compound. Raman spectroscopy was reported to be the most efficient tools to monitor chromophores better than IR spectroscopic method. Therefore, using Raman spectroscopy to obtain tendency of antimicrobial property of lignin is suitable and appropriate.
183 Discriminating Bangladeshi Children and Adolescents of Affluent Families by Level of Obesity , KC Bhuyan*1, Atika Farzana Urmi2
The present analysis was based on data regarding level of obesity of 662 children and adolescents of 560 families of students of American Inter- national University, Bangladesh. The children and adolescents were classified by level of obesity, where level of obesity was measured by percentiles of BMI. It was observed that, among 662 children and youth 465 were in underweight group. Obesity and severe obesity were observed among 9.1 percent children and adolescents. Among the obese and severe obesity group, 53% killed their time by watching television and another 26.7% spent their time by doing other works including games and sports. Obesity and severe obesity were associated with time spent by the children and adolescents. Among these groups 31.7% were suffering from diabetes. Diabetes and level of obesity were significantly associated. Among obese and severe obese group around 42% were habituated in taking restaurant food and these two characters were also significantly associated. Some socioeconomic factors of parents were also associated with level of obesity. The discriminant analysis showed that the children and adolescents of different levels of obesity were significantly different mainly for parents’ education and fathers’ occupation.
184 Clitoral Cyst Complicating Neonatal Female Circumcision in a 6 Years Old Child: A Management Plan to Delay Surgical Excision Until Puberty , Anthony Jude Edeh1*, Chijioke Chinedu Anekpo2, Balantine Ugochukwu Eze3 and Kevin Emeka Chukwubuike4
Among many traditional African societies, including the Ibos of south eastern Nigeria, ritual circumcision has a strong irrational bias and many parents continue to believe in old myths or conjure up new ones to justify this practice. Despite the implementation of laws prohibiting female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C), this practice is still performed on nearly 2-3 million women annually [1,2]. We report a case of an unfortunate 6-year-old child who had neonatal ritual circumcision in Enugu, Nigeria. This was complicated by a small clitoral cyst which is asymptomatic but worries the parents. To prevent further physical and psychological trauma to this child we advised delay of excision surgery until puberty unless the cyst becomes complicated
185 Simulation Programs in Disaster Medicine , Evangelia Michailidou*
The Significance Soft Abilities in the services of disaster med-icine Soft skills are characterized as the individual qualities that empower a person to communicate adequately and harmoniously with others in stuff conditions and are fundamental for effective execution in any relational setting. According to Abbas [1] these properties are much more pivotal in the medical services industry of disaster medicine and not only, where therapeutic experts and representatives more nearly collaborate with patients and differ-ent human groups, as a rule under to great degree troublesome and passionate conditions.  
186 Applied Transdérmic Photobiomodulator Therapy About the Primary Carotide Artery in Patients Under Hormonal Blockers and Dynude Disorders and Pathogenic Flora of Orofaringeoand Systemic Repercussions , Juliano Abreu Pacheco1*, Adriana Schapochnik², Cláudia Conforto de Sá³, Antônio Cesar M Santiago4, Guilherme Luna Martinez5 and Marco Aurelio Kenichi Yamaji6
The purpose of this study is to categorize a transdermal anatomical location in the Primitive Carotid Artery (Common) for the use of modified Intrasvacular LASER Irradiation of Blood (ILIB). This study was conducted in twelve patients undergoing hormone blockers - Anastrozole / six and Tamoxifen / six and five patients without hormone therapy, all of which were performed in patients currently undergoing disease control therapy, where the site primary neoplastic were the mammary ducts (uni or bilateral). The noninvasive therapy of systemic LASER in the cervical region was motivated by the biological, technical and functional inactivity guided by the INCA (National Cancer Institute - Brazil) in order to avoid any manipulations on the same side of the operated breast, specifically the arm, due to to the possibilities of undesirable intercurrences that may cause clinical lowering and laboratory markers during the multidisciplinary treatment. Cancer patients treated with personalized protocols associated with the carotid region reduce the health-disease process related to morbidities as a consequence of the dysgeusias and imbalance of the oral microbiome. Adding to these benefits of photoenteral therapy (ILIB modified), systemic ones, promoted by the bifurcation of the primitive carotid artery in internal and external, triggering a homeostatic hormonal balance and vascularization of the anterior region of the face, correspondingly.
187 Complexity in Association of Virus and Immune Regulators on the Development of Atherosclerosis via Formation of Foam Cells , Nurul Islam Rosmera1, Muhammad Amir Yunus1*, Ida Shazrina Ismail2 and Rafeezul Mohamed2
Numerous evidences have associated the relation of bacterial and viral agents with atherosclerosis development. Murine norovirus (MNV) especially MNV-4 has been correlated to the regulation of atherosclerosis development in mice. Different studies have demonstrated variable impacts of MNV-4 infection in murine models of atherosclerosis and in vitro studies. Here, we also included the effect of MNV-3 strain on macrophage foam cell formation in vitro produced by our laboratory
188 Influence, Significance and Importance of Body Mass Index in Scientific Research and Various Fields of Science , Katarzyna Zygmunt1, Maciej Kuchciak 2, Marcin Nycz3, Miłosz Szczudło4, and Gabriel Bobula*5
Modern generations of humans pay a lot of attention to a healthy lifestyle, and body mass index is the most popular determinant of health. This tool is used by all people, both amateur trainers, as well as professionals, scientists and researchers. It is used in gym, laboratory, medical office, home, just everywhere and by everyone. BMI indicator applies in different fields of science, trying to determine different aspects of its impact on physical, psychological and social aspects of life. This mini review presents selected examples of the use of body mass index in various fields of science by scientists from different countries.
189 Rosacea: Not Curse of the Celts, But of Many More , Christian Diehl*
From what I can remember from my medical studies, a long time ago, when our Professors were naming rosacea as “acne-rosa-cea”, there was always a mention to its nickname: the “Curse of the Celts”. Hence our formation was including the notion that rosacea was more common among the fair-haired, blue-eyed “Nordic type” [1]. Meanwhile, over the years and with more experience and a deeper knowledge of other continents and populations, I was able to observe that this notion was not exactly and even far from being correct.
190 Autism Spectrum Disorders, is it Under Reported In Third World Countries , Amar Al-Shibli1 and Osama Hamdoun*2
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is defined as a pervasive de- velopmental disorder characterized by impairment of social com- munication, repetitive and restrictive patterns of behavior, inter- ests, and activities. The incidence of autism steadily increasing in the past decades in both developing and developed countries. Worldwide prevalence of ASD is 7.6 per 1000 (1 in 132). The prevalence of ASD in Eu- rope, Asia, and the United States ranges is 1 in 40 to 1 in 500 while comparing developed countries to developing countries its notable that the incidence is lower in developing countries, an example of developing country is China which has the incidence of 1.1 in every 1,000 children. However, this is not reflecting the reality, in fact the lower incidence is due to under reporting of the affected children
191 Combination of Liver Resection with Methods of Local Thermal destruction in the Treatment of Metastases of Colorectal Cancer in the Liver , Chzhao Alexey V, Ionkin Dmitry A*, Olifir Anna A, Vishnevsky Vladimir A, Zhavoronkova Olga I, Stepanova Yulia A, Karelskaya Natalia A, Zemskov Vladimir M and Kozlova Maria N
Relevance: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common of the detection among malignant tumors. More than 80% of patients with metastases of the CRC to the liver are unsuitable for radical surgical treatment. It is this category of patients that shows the application of local thermal destruction methods. The Aim: Improving the life quality and increase life expectancy (in combination of chemotherapeutic treatment) in patients with metastatic of colorectal cancer in the liver (CLM). Materials and Methods: Cryo destruction have been performed in 24 patients with CLM. There were 11 women,13 men. The median age was 56.3 + 4.5 years.” The size of the tumors in the liver was 1.5 - 9 cm, the number of tumors - from 1 to 10 (4±3). The target temperature: -186ºÐ¡. Exposure time: 3-5 min. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in a combination of cryo destruction was performed in 3 patients, Cryo + liver resection - in 7, a combination of liver resection + RFA + Cryo in 5 patients. Open intraoperative RFA and percutaneous RFA were performed in 20 patients, combination of liver resection and RFA in 16 patients. All patients subsequently underwent adjuvant chemotherapy, supplemented with regional chemoembolization in 9 cases. Results: Life-threatening complications in postoperative period has been developed in 2 (8.4%) patients: intra-abdominal bleeding in 1(4.2%) case, and multiple organ failure resulted in death on the 47th day after the intervention (liver resection+ Cryo+RFA) in 1(4.2%). Postoperative morbidity also includes biliary fistula in 2(8.3%) patients, ascites- in 7(29.6%), pleural effusion in 6(25%), pneumonia – in 2(8.3%). Complete pain and right upper abdominal discomfort reduction after the procedure were observed in 40%, significant pain reduction - in 20% of patients. Median survival was 12.0±4 months for Cryo only, 11,0±4 months for RFA only, 7,6±4 months for Cryo in combination of RFA, 13,5±5 months (p<0.05) for Cryo in combination with liver resection, 18,5±6 months (p<0.05) for liver resection in combination with other methods of local destruction (RFA, Cryo). Conclusion: Combination of different methods of local thermal destruction in case of unresectable CLM improves the quality of life and with adjuvant chemotherapy could prolong survival rates.
192 Tinea Infections: Changing Face or Neglected? , Laura Atzori*, Laura Pizzatti and Monica Pau
Dermatophyte infections are of great importance in dermatology practice. The general impression from the literature retrieval is that we are experiencing a change in tinea infections, and these changes involves epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and therapies. The question is whether dermatophytes are changing their biological attitude or there is a tendency to neglect the diagnosis, because of the common use of topical mixed antibiotic/antimycotic corticosteroid cream, delaying the assessment until no response and evident worsening. Following short review encompass actual knowledge to provide matter of tough and auspicate generation of new studies. The menace of antifungal resistance is worth global alert and address the need of reporting and execution of antifungal sensitity tests, which is not a routinely procedure. The adoption of innovative diagnostic techniques, such as MALDI-TOF and PCR identification are by the way, nevertheless, a trained dermatologist should first of all suspect the infection, even when clinical presentation is not obvious, and possibly perform a simple direct mycological examination after KHO clarification, which rapidly confirms the diagnosis. The use of combined steroidal topical drugs should be avoided, further altering the clinical presentation, sometimes giving the false impression of temporary healing, and favoring patient’s intermittent self-application, with consequent risk of side effects, including skin atrophy. Development of new antifungal and clinical trials realization is a sore point, for the apparently limited interest of pharma industry in respect to the biologics and biosimilars indications. Timing and dosage revisiting of old drugs is the current research topic. Main field of therapeutic interest is implementation of onychomycosis treatment.
193 Promoting Interprofessional Collaboration in Biomedical Research , Patricia A Findley*
Health professionals working in silos or in ways that are not collaborative is no longer sustainable for healthcare [1]. For over 20 years national and international professional organizations have sought the reform necessary to educate health professional student in an interprofessional (i.e. interdisciplinary) manner. The impetus for this reform came in 2000 when the Institute of Medicine (IOM) released the report “To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health System”[1
194 A Critical Analysis of HPV Vaccination in Children , Bittmann S*, Luchter E, Weissenstein A and Villalon G
Worldwide, infection with HPV viruses is the most common sexually transmitted disease. The prevalence of HPV infection varies considerably from country to country and can change significantly with changes in lifestyle and sexual behavior. Every year, about half a million women worldwide develop cervical cancer, with up to four-fifths of them from developing countries. The lack or underutilization of cancer screening programmers in developing countries plays a decisive role in this. It is estimated that around 230,000 women worldwide die of cervical cancer every year [1]
195 Management of Chemotherapy Induced Neutropenia – an Unmet Clinical Need , Ananya Gupta1*, Benazir Abbasi2 and Sanjeev Gupta2
One of the major side effects of cancer chemotherapy is myelosuppression leading to an obligate period of neutropenia. Systemic infection resulting in neutropenic sepsis is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer patients. Due to these reasons chemotherapy induced neutropenia has been considered as an “oncologic emergency”. The current system of management of febrile neutropenia involves administration of prophylactic antimicrobials and hematopoietic growth factor supplements (granulocyte colony stimulating factor G- -CSF). However, neutropenia is detected in these patients only after the onset of infection limiting the efficacy of these therapeutic interventions. Repeated infections results in prolonged periods of hospitalisation, delay in treatment and chemotherapy dose reductions. Therefore, timely detection of neutrophil nadir and prevention of systemic infection can significantly improve the outcome of cancer treatment.
196 A Problem Not to Be Born Into , Guarina Isabel Molina*
In adults, obesity is defined as having a body mass index (BMI) over 30 kg/m2, and as of 2016, 13% of adults worldwide suffered from obesity. While being a preventable condition, the prevalence worldwide continues to rise year after year. On this instance, I would like to take a word to focus my attention of a special population group in which this epidemic promise to do twice the harm: pregnant women. When thinking of a pathology at hand, one is usually concerned about the health of the mother. However, more recent studies have pointed out evidence that maternal obesity is not only a threat to the gestating woman, but also to the offspring, both in early childhood and in adult life. Is it to wonder if, by not educating ourselves and our patients on time, we are allowing our future generations to be born into a culture of disease. Statistics report that over 14 million women worldwide in 2014 suffered from obesity, and that over 1/3 of pregnancies in the United States occurred on obese women
197 A Qualitative Analysis of the “Broken Soul” Phenomenon Encountered in Long-Distance Racing-Theoretical and Empirical Insight into the Soultron , Devan Allen Mc Granahan* and Adam M Booth
Exercise physiologists and physiological philosophers alike have long pondered the phenomenon of “soul breaking” within a long-distance race. Here we present a novel, transdisciplinary introduction to the soultron, or the quantum particle of the soul. Soultrons are exchanged when a runner of a lower Race Energy Level passes another runner and assumes a higher Race Energy Level in the course of running along parallel tracks. Once released, the soultron is left suspended in the open atmosphere of the race. Soultron destination can be explained via soultron affinity, but the behavior of the soultron in the company of three or more runners has yet to be explored and determined. Empirical work based on observations of paired runners on municipal pathways concludes with a call for a quantum theory of soultron mechanics.
198 Role of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Treatment and Prevention of Obesity; Molecular Strategies to Recommended Acceptance , Atif Amin Baig1*, Omar Mahmoud Al-Shajrawi1, Yasrul IAB1, Anam Mahmood2, Sarfaraz A3, Chandrika M4, Hassanain Al-Talib5 and Nordin Simbak2
The incidence of obesity is increasing at an alarming rate which has led to a surge the obesity-related morbidity in the world. It is now a most evident problem in world’s population therefore, it needs to be addressed [1]. According to WHO, obesity is defined as BMI equals to or greater than 30kg/m2 which is the accumulation of fat in adipose tissue to such an extent that may be fatal [2]. Obesity is now replacing malnutrition, infectious and contagious diseases as the most vital contributor to ill health. The obesity-related health problem poses a burden on the health care system and lowers the quality of life of obese people. Particularly, it causes many chronic conditions like hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes type, kidney stones, respiratory issues, gout, arthritis, stroke, chronic fatigue sleep disorders and certain types of cancer such as breast and prostate cancer [2,3]. 
199 B-Scan Ophthalmic Ultrasonography of Retinal Detachment , Uduma Fu1*, Akpan Si2, Megbelayin E2 and Abraham E2
Retinal detachment (RD) is categorized into rhegmatogenous, tractional or exudative. In as much as it can be detected using ophthalmoscopy, elucidation with B-scan ocular ultrasonography is not hindered by opaque medium. Besides, B-scan can even give an insight into RD aetiologies and associations
200 Heavy Metals in Cosmetics: The Notorious Daredevils and Burning Health Issues , Abdul Kader Mohiuddin*
Personal care products and facial cosmetics are commonly used by millions of consumers on a daily basis. Direct application of cosmetics on human skin makes it vulnerable to a wide variety of ingredients. Despite the protecting role of skin against exogenous contaminants, some of the ingredients in cosmetic products are able to penetrate the skin and to produce systemic exposure. Consumers’ knowledge of the potential risks of the frequent application of cosmetic products should be improved. While regulations exist in most of the high-income countries, in low income countries there is a lack of similar standards. In most countries for which these legal regulations have been identified, restrictions on the permissible level of heavy metals are strict. There is a need for enforcement of existing rules, and rigorous assessment of the effectiveness of these regulations. The occurrence of metals in cosmetic products is of concern for three principal reasons: a) The use of cosmetic products could represent a possible source of population-wide exposure daily, and often long-term exposure to metals in cosmetic products b) Metals can accumulate in the body over time, and c) A number of them are known to exhibit different chronic health effects, such as cancer, contact dermatitis, developmental, neurological and reproductive disorders, brittle hair and hair loss. Some metals are potent endocrine disruptors and respiratory toxins. Moreover, some metals, such as Cd, As, Pb, Hg and Sb, are exceptionally toxic with a wide variety of chronic health effects, whereas Cr, Ni and Co are well known skin sensitizers. Since the issue of heavy metals as deliberate cosmetic ingredients has been addressed, attention is turned to the presence of these substances as impurities
201 Protracted Symptoms after Heat Stroke. Is Vasopressin the Culprit? , Thomas Brown*
Nausea is a common finding in patients diagnosed with heat related disorders but there are no reported cases of severe persistent nausea after initial symptoms of heat stroke have resolved. I present a case of a Cross Country athlete that developed protracted nausea, headache and hypertension after experiencing exertional heat stroke
202 Detection of Resistance mecA Gene In Gram Positive Bacteria Described as Nosocomial , Zúñiga B1, Jara MA1, Mosnaim AD2 and Navarro C1*
Shortly after the introduction of an antimicrobial to the market it has been possible to find bacteria that are resistant to its action. This resistance is natural in some bacteria, while in others it is a condition acquired through the incorporation of genes that code various mechanisms of resistance.These resistant strains represent a big problem in human hospitals when causing nosocomial infections, since the therapeutic options are limited. In veterinary medicine, although nosocomial infections are increasing, they are still less studied than those acquired by people. However, these infections -both in human and veterinary patients- have in common to be caused, mainly, by methicillin-resistant staphylococci. Due to this fact, in addition to the fact that methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is transmitted between different animal species, including humans, the purpose of this work was to detect the mecA resistance gene in bacteria described as nosocomial.For this, three environmental bacterial strains isolated from Veterinary Hospitals of the University of Chile and that showed resistance to oxacillin were used: Staphylococcus kloosii, Micrococcus sedentarius and Enterococcus faecium. After the extraction of the DNA, the technique of the Polymerase Chain Reaction and the corresponding electrophoresis, fluorescent bands of approximately 500 bp were obtained. These amplicons were sent to be sequenced and the sequences obtained were compared with those described in the GenBank® for the mecA gene. The percentages of nucleotide identity of 97%, 97% and 98%, respectively, confirm the presence of strains that possess the mecA gene and suggest its early incorporation as positive control strains in future investigations
203 Long Term Effects of Abuse and Violence on Children’s Behavior , Maria Lourdes A de Vera*
Abuse and Violence are a health risk among Children. It carries the potential of producing long and debilitating mental health problems that includes maladaptive behaviors, anxiety disorders, personality or relational issues. This health issue requires equal importance as any other physiologic and physical disorder. It advocates the use of client centered or person-centered therapy. Every child is a human being having similar rights as any adult have. It includes their right to association with both parents, human identity, the provision of the basic needs for physical protection, food, universal state-paid education, health care, and criminal laws appropriate for the age and development of the child, equal protection of the child’s civil rights, and freedom. Prevention of a disruptive home environment is better than a whole system of cure. Abuse, whatever the nature is; physical, psychological or sexual according to Mullen and Fleming (1998) reveals a significant connection between a history of child abuse and a range of adverse outcomes both in childhood and adulthood. The important role of the family and community where the child is raised is stressed. This study describes coping mechanism, mental health wellbeing and functioning of an abused child. The child’s right to be respected for his views is necessary in the treatment and healing process.
204 Perspectives on Insulin Stimulation of Glucose Transport , Richard D Sauerheber*
Although the mechanism by which insulin stimulates glucose transport proteins in the plasma membranes of insulin-sensitive cells has long been intensively studied, many details still remain controversial. The simplest, most energy-efficient mechanism that is consistent with most available data is described. The mechanism is counter to much published literature and is thus important to discuss
205 Screening of Fifteen Sugarcane Genotypes under Irrigation based on Genetic Variations and Heritability for Agro-morphological Traits at Early Selection Stage in Ferké, Ivory Coast , Crépin B Péné*1 and Michael Béhou2
The study aimed to determine the best performing early-season sugarcane genotypes tested at the first selection stage under sprinkler irrigation, in comparison with a check variety (R579). The experimental design used was a randomized complete block (RCB) with 17 cane genotypes in three replications. Every plot consisted of five dual rows of ten meters with 0.5 and 1.90 m of inter-row spacing, i.e. 95 m² per plot and about 5000 m² for the whole experiment. It was carried out on a commercial sugarcane plantation of Ferké 2 located in the northern part of the country, over two seasons (plant cane and first ratoon) as an early-season crop from November 18, 2015 to December 05, 2017. Over each micro-plot, data based on different agro-morphological traits were collected at harvest from three central dual rows. The study showed that based on sugar yields, six genotypes higher or equivalent to check varieties used, namely N47, R95-2202, ECU01, R97-0391, N49 and CP98-1029, were found promising for the next and final advanced selection stage, with respectively 20.3, 16.5, 15.2 , 14.2, 13.3 and 13.3 t sugar/ha. Their cane yield performances ranged from 115.8 to 160.8 t/ha compared to 160.4 and 134.0 for check varieties R579 and SP70-1006, respectively. Not only sugar yield, but also, recoverable sucrose, cane internode infestation rate and number of tillers per hectare were found as the most relevant agro-morphological traits in genetic variation of sugarcane genotypes tested in line of their higher broad sense heritability values.
206 PSA Testing? Over-Treatment? Active Surveillance? Biopsy value? No PSA for Elderly? , Charles Chuck Maack*
I have been an avid student researching and studying prostate cancer as a survivor and continuing patient since 1992. I have dedicated my retirement years to continued deep research and study in order to serve as an advocate for prostate cancer awareness, and, from an activist patient’s viewpoint, as a mentor to voluntarily help patients, caregivers, and others interested develop an understanding of this insidious men’s disease, its treatment options, and the treatment of the side effects that often accompany treatment.  
207 Increasing Rape Cases in Pakistan Call for Effective Remedial Efforts in the Society , Rana Muhammad Mateen*
Every country in the world is suffering from rape against women and children. In Pakistan number of rape cases are increasing regardless of several efforts at government and non government level. Culture and norms in the society are such that rape incidences are not reported due to expected dishonor in the society. Solid efforts are required at the government level for awareness of the women rights in the society to overcome this stigma. Proper implementations of the women and children protection laws, media campaigns, changes in the curriculum and healthy discussion can help produce fruitful results
208 Engineering Approaches in Life Science and Health Care , Christine C Huttin*
Contrary to engineering sciences, where the cost criterion is an issue for engineering in optimization of physical systems; in medical and health systems, usually highly regulated for market access and reimbursement of medical services, researchers are used to combine two criteria, cost and effectiveness or cost and efficacy. The field is usually called outcome research, and it relies nearly exclusively on a specific industry called outcome research firms, mainly recruiting consultants from the life science industry firms or researchers trained in economic evaluation techniques (especially pharmacoeconomics).In the US however, important political circles have rejected these double criteria especially in the Senate to keep technological trajectories and research and innovation investments close to the production efficiency curve (Philipson et al. es, xx) in order, not to be too disruptive. The field is Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER), versus what is called in most European regulated markets HTA, where usually both cost and effectiveness criteria are used. This on-going problem of course is debated to keep a good adjustment of supply and demand needs, and the more regulated the health system, the more, normally, local demand needs, and its variations are integrated. However, the current globalization stage of both supplies, but also demand with the implementation of Universal Health Coverage, lead to reconsider this debate since local adjustments of supply and demand, even regional adjustments are not enough. Conventional outcome research is therefore challenged and new methodological approaches are explored, among them, MCDAs and especially relevant to engage multistakeholders in a consensual process over the adjustments of supply and demands. However, researchers on patterns of utilization of medical care (especially pharmaco epidemiologists) removed, especially after September 11 events, economics or cost criteria from the studies, with a top priority setting for research on safety issues. This leads to reduce the access to market to a lot of potential useful medicines and may have contributed to a disequilibrium between the portfolio of medicines of major firms and the markets where they could get enough returns. Too marginal return of investments in their drug incremental innovation especially was jeopardized by this process. In the current situation, major R&D areas have been withdrawn from the research pipelines, the most critical being the AMR areas. Discussion at Padova and Paris with Prof Fraga lead to review engineering approaches used not only for the supply of drugs (such as the optimization of penicillin production presented in Paris) but also engineering approaches to re design workflows of tasks in physicians’ practices, to possibly compare ways to adjust supply and demand, with scenarios analysis. A previous research project on transaction cost economics in primary care (as a collaboration with the California Medical Association) lead to identify areas of uncertainty where such approach could be useful: impact of pandemics, failure of computer system, loss of liability insurance. The paper will propose some optimization solutions for efficiency of the workflow in situations of uncertainties, in primary care. For instance, physicians will know in advance, seasons and announcements for a flu epidemic, but not exactly the day or the week it might hit their populations of patients, especially more or less anticipated events such as flus, allergies, others, on a weekly basis. The current discussion paper will formalize some scenarios within the engineering approach on transaction costs approach and Huttin C application for primary care.
209 Electrochemical Sensor Based on the Clay- Carbone Paste Electrode Modified by Bacteria-Polymer for Elimination of Phenol , R Maallah*, MA Smaini, C Laghlimi, J El Mastour and A Chtaini
A Cyclic voltammetry (VC), Square Wave Voltammetry and Impedance Spectroscopie methods for the determination of trace amounts of phenol at bacteria-polymer-Clay-CPE bioelectrode is proposed. The results showed that the bacteria-polymer-Clay-CPE exhibited excellent electro catalytic activity to phenol. This electrochemical biosensor shows an excellent performance for detecting phenol.
210 Factors Affecting Nurses’ Compliance to Standard Precautions in Resource Scarce Settings , Aurang Zeb*1, Dildar Muhammad2 and Awal Khan3
Background: Standard precautions are universally accepted guidelines for infection control practices in health care settings. Good compliance to standard precautions prevents nurses from occupational exposure to blood and body fluid and decrease the risk of infection transmission to them as well as to patients. Aim: The overarching aim of the study was to determine nurses’ knowledge, their compliance and factors affecting their compliance to SPs in resource scarce settings. Method: A cross sectional study was conducted to determine nurses’ knowledge, compliance and factors affecting their compliance to SPs in three tertiary care public sector hospitals in Peshawar. A total of 199 registered nurses were recruited to the study through Stratified random sampling. SPSS version 20 was used for data analysis. Results: The mean knowledge score reported was 11.64(58.2%) with SD of 2.16(10.8%) out of 20(100%) marks. The maximum score documented was 18(90%) whereas the minimum score was 6(30%). A significant result with p-value 0.011 was obtained between training of infection control and SPs Knowledge. The mean compliance score was 33.83(56.38%) with SD of 10.84 (18.06%), with the maximum value 59(98.33%) and the minimum value of 10(16.67%) out of 60(100%). A significant association was noted between gender and compliance (p-value 0.006) and as well as between infection control training and compliance (p-value 0.001). Contributing factors towards noncompliance to SPs reported were lack of resources, workload and lack of infection control policies. Conclusion: This study identifies that nurses working in tertiary care hospitals of Peshawar do not have enough knowledge and compliance to SPs. The study suggests that health authorities should take necessary actions for developing and implementing infection control practices in these hospitals
211 Titanium Scaffolds – Hopes and Limitations , Magda Dziaduszewska and Andrzej Zielinski*
The state-of-art on titanium scaffolds is briefly reviewed. The real hopes from medicine associated with scaffolds are indicated. The limitations of different scaffolds associated with their mechanical, chemical and biological properties are discussed. The great importance of titanium scaffolds is demonstrated as the materials of high biocompatibility and corrosion resistance, fair mechanical properties and important biological behaviour.
212 Nutraceutical Potential of Parkia speciosa (Stink Bean): A Current Review , Nur Hayati Azizul*1, Yin-Hui Leong2, Nurul Izzah Ahmad3 and Salina Abdul Rahman1
Background: Inadequate fruits and vegetables intake contributes to the prevalence of major diseases such as cardiovascular diseases and cancers. Parkia speciosa [stink bean] is a common vegetable consumed in the Southeast Asia. Although it contains various phytochemicals that can help prevent disease development, the effort to develop a specific treatment or food products from Parkia speciosa remains a challenge. Here, we explore research works of the medicinal benefits of P. speciosa that can be used as a guide to develop future clinical studies. Method: We conducted a database search on PubMed, Google Scholar, and Science Direct using the keywords “nutraceutical potential”, “Parkia speciosa” “antioxidant”, “hypoglycemic”, “antitumor”, “antimicrobial” and “cardiovascular effects”. We included clinical trial, in vitro and in vivo studies that were written in English or Malay; and excluded review articles with no time limitations. Result: We reviewed a total of 28 research articles. No clinical trial was found. The articles were grouped into antioxidative, hypoglycemic, antitumor, antimicrobial and cardiovascular effects. Six articles had combination of the medicinal properties. Seeds and empty pods are the most common plants parts used. Each bioactivities differed depending on the plant parts, extracts, methods, cultivar and plantation site. Conclusion: P. speciosa demonstrated antioxidative, hypoglycemic, antitumor, antimicrobial and cardiovascular effects that were contributed by its phytochemical compounds. This finding could be used as a database for future clinical studies. We recommended researchers to use the information from the articles reviewed for drug development and clinical trial.
213 Chitosan Copolymer with Activated Carbon as Nanocomposite Through DFT Modeling , Juan Horacio Pacheco-Sánchez*
Our aim is to simulate nanocomposites through intermolecular interactions among copolymer chitosan (Ch) and activated carbon (AC) in the simplest form of them. Structural properties as pore size distribution are to be investigated in this way. A geometry optimization (DMol3-DFT-GGA-PW91) among C17 carbon-ring and a chitosan copolymer unit provides one nanocomposite system. First, we draw sketches of chitosan copolymer and arbitrary carbon rings to determine their structure stabilities through the minimum energy criterion, which is also applied on AC+Ch system. Second, we consider Cn carbon rings as activated carbon by knowing that average pore size distribution is around (9Å) according to BET measurements. Some carbon rings known as carbyne, alternate single and triple bonds, and those known as cumulene only have double bonds. The alternation of bond lengths in carbon rings is at least one signal of the consequences of Jahn-Teller effect. Third, we propose pore size distributions of the nanocomposite by means of radial distribution functions. Nanocomposite AC+Ch molecular complex system is expected to be applied in medicine as mitigating intoxication in human beings.
214 Refugees and Asylum Seekers-A Somewhat Challenging Australian Experience , Ingrid Muenstermann*
This article is written by a social scientist, a sociologist, who is concerned about Australia’s current treatment of refugees and asylum seekers. The previously welcoming attitude of politicians, policy makers and people has changed considerably and the Australian Customs and Border Protection Services ‘keep Australia safe’: no maritime arrivals will be processed in Australia nor will they ever can settle in Australia.
215 Solar Activity and its Stronger Magnetic Field Stimulated the Human Brain and Brought the Renaissance , Maria Kuman*
Renaissance was the period of blooming arts, literature, architecture, and the sciences in the middle of the last Mini Ice Age (15th and 16th centuries). Based on study of the glaciers, the article provides evidence that the Renaissance was caused by increased solar activity and sudden warming in the middle of the last Mini Ice Age. Increased solar activity always means increased magnetic field of the Sun, which increases the magnetic field of the Earth. Since our memory is magnetic in origin, external magnetic fields stimulate the brain and memory. If so, the increased magnetic fields of the Sun and Earth during the warming period in the 15th and 16th centuries could be expected to be the factor that stimulated the human brains. This boosted their creativity and caused the blooming of the arts, literature, architecture, and the sciences called the Renaissance.
216 Cell Proliferative and Cell Cycle Effects of Atrazine Using Human Breast Cell Lines , Egbe Egiebor1*, Nadia Abou Zeid2 and Ali Ishaque1
Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer related deaths in women. Several risk factors can increase breast cancer occurrences and strong evidence has shown that exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals including atrazine can lead to breast cancer etiology. This study examined the effect of low level/environmentally relevant concentrations of atrazine on two breast cell lines (MCF-7, an estrogen responsive breast cancer cell line and MCF-10A, a non-cancerous human breast epithelial cell line) by studying cytotoxicity, proliferation and cell cycle events. To study cytotoxicity, cells were exposed to atrazine within a concentration range of 0.315 μg/L to 100,000 μg/L for 96 h and cell proliferation as well as the LC50 were calculated at 24, 48,72 and 96 h using the RT-CES. Cell cycle was studied by exposing the cell to 3 μg/L atrazine, and nuclei was isolated and analyzed using a BD FACSCalibur. The percentage nuclei in the cell cycle was calculated using Modfit LT 3.0. Results showed that there was an overall decreased in LC50 over time in both cell lines. Exposure of MCF-7 and MCF-10A to 3 μg/L of atrazine for 96 h, stimulated an increase in cell proliferation compared to control. Lower concentrations of atrazine showed even stronger impact on cell proliferation. However, ATR induced more cell proliferation in MCF-7 than in MCF-10A. Significant increases were recorded in the percent nuclei in G1 and G2 phases of MCF-7 cells exposed to ATR. Increase in the percent nuclei was only recorded in the G1 phase in MCF- 10A cells exposed to ATR. This adds to the body of evidence that ATR may indeed play a significant role in the onset and progression of cancer.
217 Oral Health During Pregnancy Are We Listening? , David Leader1,2*
Oral health care during pregnancy benefits the mother and the unborn child. According to the most recent PRAMS data (2017), around 55% of women in Massachusetts do not receive oral health care in the year before and during pregnancy. This essay describes the disconnect between knowledge and practice and frames the issue as a health communication problem. Health communication theory such as application of the Diffusion of Innovation model may promote adoption of oral health interventions by systemic and oral health providers.
218 Some Pollutants to Defeat to get Clean Drinking Water , Juan Horacio Pacheco-Sánchez*
The colorants, especially synthetic origin present in waste wa-ter, are responsible for many harmful effects to the environment, flora and aquatic fauna. Among the most important effects are the reduction of dissolved oxygen, eutrophication, the formation of recalcitrant and toxic compounds to cells and obstructing the pas-sage of light to the water bodies and aesthetic impairment [1,2]. As an example, red 2 is an azo colorant that may cause intolerance in people who are affected by salicylates. 
219 Radiation Prosthesis for Improving the Life of Cancer Patients , Harisha Dewan*
Cancer, one of the non-communicable diseases, is amongst the major public health problems in India. Radiotherapy is being used as an adjunctive form of treatment in the management of head and neck cancer. Adverse tissue reactions are associated with the use of radiotherapy in the management of patients with head and neck cancer. With a proper oral hygiene and dental care program, protective radiation prostheses can help reduce the morbidity seen with existing radiotherapy regimens.
220 Antimicrobial Resistance: “The Threat of Future Health” , Aikaterini Frantzana1*, Marianna Charalambous2 and Demetrios Lamnisos3
Introduction: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is now a major issue in healthcare. Antibiotics may be used for the treatment of fungus and parasites. They are applied in veterinary and food chemistry except for Medicine. Purpose: The purpose of this article is the detailed assessment and prevention of antimicrobial resistance in hospitals and the community after the indiscriminate use of antibiotics. Methodology: The manuscript consists of a thorough scrutiny of both international and Greek research and review studies regarding antimicrobial resistance and national action plans. Results: The emergence of antimicrobial resistance to antibiotics constitutes a huge threat for human health. Moreover, it is a paramount European and global concern involving scientific providers. Recognizing the severity of the situation, the government established a series of measures to raise awareness among all those involved and curb the consumption of antimicrobial drugs Conclusions: A holistic approach with prudent and rational use of antimicrobial agents is required in order to reduce AMR and hospital- acquired infections.
221 Understanding Cardiac Rehabilitation , Tsaloglidou A*1, Koukourikos K1, Frantzana Aik2 and Kourkouta L1
Introduction: Cardiovascular disease remains the most frequent cause of death globally. Patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) who have experienced an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or have undergone cardiac surgery are prime candidates for applying to cardiac rehabilitation programs. Cardiac rehabilitation is a multidisciplinary, systemic approach to implementing secondary prevention therapies of known beneficial effects. Purpose: The purpose of this review study is to investigate the contribution of cardiac rehabilitation programs in improving patients’ cardiovascular health and enhancing their quality of life after an incidence of acute myocardial infarction or after a cardiac surgery. Methodology: An Extensive review of the relevant literature was performed via electronic databases (Medline, Scopus and Google Scholar) and international scientific journals, using the appropriate key words: cardiac rehabilitation program, myocardial infarction, cardiac surgery and a combination of them. Results: All cardiac rehabilitation programs should contain specific key components aimed at optimizing cardiovascular risk reduction, encouraging healthy behaviors and compliance with these behaviors, reducing disability, and promoting an active lifestyle for patients with cardiovascular disease. The components of cardiac rehabilitation programs are staffed by a highly skilled team comprising a medical director, cardiac care registered nurses, exercise specialists, dietitian, and counselors. These programs include provision of comprehensive long-term services involving the following key elements: basic patient assessment, nutritional counseling, risk factor management (lipids, blood pressure, weight, diabetes mellitus, and smoking), psychosocial interventions, physical activity counseling and exercise training. Conclusions: Cardiac rehabilitation is a complex intervention offered to patients after myocardial infarction or cardiac surgery to achieve professionally recommended cardiovascular prevention targets and thus good clinical status leading to improved patient’s quality of life. Despite the beneficial effects of cardiac rehabilitation, the overall participation rates remain low due to absent or inadequate legislation, funding, professional guidelines and information systems in many countries, as well as patient related barriers
222 Viral Hepatitis: Implication Of Viral Types from A To E , Chateen I Ali Pambuk*, Fatma Mustafa Muhammad and Mohammed Rhael Ali
Hepatitis is the emergence of inflammatory condition in the liver tissue as a result of viral infection. There are several different types of viral hepatitis as a result of the virus that causes the disease. In most cases, the source of the disease is the result of infection of three basic viruses’ implication: the hepatitis A, B or C virus and with less frequent infections caused by Hepatitis D and E virus. Catching any of these viruses can lead to viral hepatitis, which accompanied by a wide different range of symptoms according to the virus implicated. Some of these infections are accompanied by mild and virtually inconceivable symptoms, but other symptoms may lead to liver breakdown, coma and death (if no alternative liver is found). The aim of this descriptive minireview, generally, is to shed light on the main types of virus involved in hepatitis
223 Analysis of Somatic Variants in Growth Hormone Secreting Pituitary Adenomas by Whole Exome Sequencing , Jinuk Kim and Young Zoon Kim*
Background: Whole-genome and whole-exome sequencing (WES) studies of pituitary adenoma have reported on average three mutations per patient tumor and discovered calcium signaling pathway mediated role of tumorigenesis. The aim of this study is to analyze the somatic variants in growth hormone (GH) secreting pituitary adenoma using WES. Material and Methods: Whole-exome sequencing was used to identify somatic mutations in GH-secreting pituitary adenomas from 14 patients (7-45 years), including a sample from a patient with germline GPR101 duplication. A mean sequencing depth of 94x was achieved covering 98% of targeted exonic regions at a minimum depth of 10x. Results: A total of 30 somatic variants were identified from 14 tumor samples. A recurrent hotspot mutation in GNAS, a well-established gene implicated in acromegaly, were identified in four patients. In addition, missense variants in CACNA1H and WIPI1 were identified which have only been reported in single patients previously. We also observed variants in GNAQ, RASGEF1B and PARP4 (this latter one in the GPR101-positive sample) genes that are involved in cAMP and calcium signaling pathways but have not been previously reported to be altered in acromegaly. Large deletions in chromosomes 1, 6, 10, 11, 12, 16, 17, 19 and 20 were also observed in at least eight patients. Conclusion: By combining our findings with data from previous studies of GH-secreting adenomas, we conclude that pathways involving calcium and cAMP signaling are likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of somatotroph adenomas
224 A Multicentred Phase III Comparative Study between Single Rod Implant Monoplant® and Double Rod Implant Indoplant® , Eka Rusdianto Gunardi1*, Denny Khusen1, Heriyadi Manan2, Julian Dewantiningrum3, Hendy Hendarto4, Retno Budiarti Farid5, Hadriah Oesman6, TY Prihyugiarto6 and Joedo Prihartono7
Objective: To analyze to determine the effectiveness, safety, and time of both contraceptive methods between single rod implant monoplant® and double rod implant indoplant®. Design/data identification: Clinical trial, ‘Open’ (‘open label ‘Randomized Clinical Trial). Materials and methods: This study is a phase III clinical trial, conducted randomized and multicentre, comparing two types of contraceptive implants, namely Monoplant® and Indoplant® performed in Indonesian healthy women. Random blocks of tithe allocation and randomly assigned divided by 5 Monoplants and 5 Indoplants. Results: Based on the interim results obtained from examining the twenty-fourth month this can be concluded as follows: all centre have completed the number of research subjects, the length of recruitment of subjects extends between 5.5 months to 16.5 months, continuity up to 24 months for contraception implantation of monoplant® or Indoplant® is still good, discontinued use for 24 months totaling 50 subjects, namely 27 subjects for monoplant® and 23 subjects for indoplant®, the main cause of discontinuation for both types of contraception is a disruption of menstrual patterns, there is one case of pregnancy that is most likely due to the initial selection error of the acceptor, there were 7 subjects who had to be removed because they wanted more children even though they had previously agreed to use implants for 3 years, there is no significant difference in levonorgestrel levels in the 24th month between monoplant® contraception and indoplant® contraception, the levonorgestrel levels of the two study groups in the 24th month were mostly located between 200 to 400 picograms which were still actively preventing ovulation. Conclusion: There is no significant difference the effectiveness, safety, and time in levonorgestrel levels in the 24th month between single rod implant monoplant® and double rod implant indoplant®.
225 Prevalence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus in Some Ready-to-Eat Meat Products , Saad M Saad1, Fatin S Hassanin1, Fahim A Shaltout1*, Marionette Z Nassif2, Marwa Z Seif2
Although Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a bacterium that remains widely studied because of its high pathogenic potential and its ability to develop resistance to antibiotics routinely used in clinical practice; this study investigated the occurrence of methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in some ready to eat (RTE) meat products collected from some public restaurants and street vendors in Benha city, Qalubiya governorate, Egypt; a total of 120 RTE beef products represented by kofta, burger, shawerma, and luncheon (30 of each) were examined for the prevalence of S. aureus and molecular detection of MRSA strains represented by the presence of mecA gene containing isolates; results revealed that kofta was the most contaminated samples with S. aureus where the mean count was 5.2x10 CFU\g; followed by burger, shawerma and luncheon samples. Molecular detection of MRSA isolates carrying mecA gene revealed that out of eight examined isolates, 2 (25%) of examined isolates were MRSA strain. The presence of S. aureus especially MRSA strains in high prevalence among examined RTE meat products emphasizes the necessity of enforcing application of strict hygienic measures and GMP during preparation, handling, and serving; in addition, the health authorities must exert more control over street vendors and fast food restaurants.
226 Treatment for Colorectal Cancer: Robot-assisted vs Laparoscopic Surgery , Shivani Kamlesh Modi and Satyajit Patra*
Over the past few years, Robotic surgery has been an emerging field in colorectal surgery. Over years there has been continuous shift towards minimally invasive procedures with enormous potential advantages, but progress is impeded because of limited evidence, lack of technology and cost of expenditure. However, recent advances and feedback in robotic surgery and single-port incision in laparoscopic surgery are likely to improve surgical outcomes for treatment of colorectal cancer. Currently, laparoscopic surgery is preferred for colorectal cancer over open surgery and its usefulness is unquestionable. Laparoscopic surgery has become the standard of practice for various digestive tract surgeries. Although, robot- assisted is gold standard for various other procedures, more research is needed to prove its safety and efficacy in the treatment of colorectal cancer. Robotic surgery may overcome limitations of laparoscopic surgery such as assistant dependent camera movements, retraction issues, lack of user- friendly environment and rigid instrumentation. Prolonged operative time, learning time, increased expenses and more trauma to the patient and family are major drawbacks of robotic surgery. In recent years robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery has been increasingly applied, again with lack of comparison and evidence over conventional laparoscopic surgery. The aim of this study is to compare robotic-assisted surgery and laparoscopic-assisted surgery for the treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC).
227 Secular Changes in Relative Height of Children in Japan, South Korea and Taiwan: Is “Genetics” the Key Determinant? , Hiroshi Mori*
At age 20 years, Korean men were recorded as being 2 cm taller than Japanese but 3 cm shorter than Taiwanese in the beginning of last century [1], when Korea and Taiwan were under Japan’s colonization. These differences could have been attributed mostly to genetics. At the turn of the century, Japan’s economy was the richest and Taiwan was 60% greater than S. Korea in per capita consumption of animal products. Yet Korean males were slightly, by 1-2 cm taller than their Taiwanese peers in height. Genetics was no longer a strong explanation of relative height. Following Blum [2], a high consumption of animal proteins does not result in increasing body height if overall consumption of calories and other essential nutrients is insufficient. This paper tries to identify what essential nutrients may have been insufficient in Japanese and Taiwanese food consumption, particularly among growing children.
228 Therapeutic Properties of Honey , Frantzana Aikaterini1*, Alexiou Dimitra2, Panagiotopoulou Konstantina3, Ouzounakis Petros4 and Tsiliggiri Maria
Introduction: Honey is a product of high biological value and helps both the growth and strengthening of susceptible individuals. The history of honey begins in ancient times, where for many centuries, it was the only known sweetener. Even today, honey remains a key component of Mediterranean cuisine because of its high nutritional value. Purpose: The purpose of this review is to inspect closely and thoroughly the usefulness of the nutritional value of honey and the healing properties of it. Methodology: Regarding the methodology followed, a review was conducted through articles and books related to the subject using PubMed, Google Scholar and Scopus electronic databases with key words: honey, nutritional value of honey, therapeutic use of honey. Results: The biological value of honey is determined by a series of beneficial effects that it causes to the human organism. Its antimicrobial action prevents the growth of bacteria and other pathogens. Its antiseptic properties help clean, disinfect or heal wounds and burns. Honey besides having a lower caloric value than sugar, it also has many other beneficial properties Conclusions: In recent years, more and more people are turning to the consumption of natural products, including honey. The beneficial effect of honey on human health is widespread and its use as a food in our daily diet, as a product of superior caloric value, is increasing.
229 The Accuracy Performance of the Point of Care Test (POCT) Boditech I-CHROMA™ Testosterone Method using External Quality Assessment Schemes: RIQAS and UKNEQAS , J Bolodeoku*1, O Coker1, S Bains1, C Anyaeche2, TK Kim3 and F Chinegwundoh4
The estimation of testosterone levels in the blood is an important part of urological practice. This study evaluated and compared the performance of the quantitative Boditech point of care test Boditech i-CHROMA™ testosterone method with other laboratory testosterone methods enrolled in the external quality assurance services, RIQAS and UKNEQAS. Samples 1-12 of Cycle 41 from the RIQAS scheme and forty-six distributions of the UKNEQAS Testosterone scheme were analyzed using the Boditech i-CHROMA™ testosterone method. The Boditech i-CHROMA™ testosterone method compared well with the laboratory methods registered in both schemes. The best correlation was with the Diasorin Liaison method (r2=0.96851) in the RIQAS and the TOSOH AIA method (r2=0.767) in the UKNEQAS. The method with the least bias from the RIQAS was the Diasorin Liaison (-2 ng/mL) and from the UKNEQAS was the Tandem Mass Spectroscopy (0.049 ng/mL). In conclusion, the Boditech i-CHROMA™ POCT Testosterone method compared well with other laboratory methods and can be considered a reliable method for testosterone estimation within its limitations.
230 Improving Diagnosis in Pediatric Orthopedics Surgery Using 3D Printing , Leonardo Frizziero*1, Gianmaria Santi1, Alfredo Liverani1, Valentina Giuseppetti1, Giovanni Trisolino2, Elena Maredi2 and Stefano Stilli2
In this paper is presented a new methodology for the diagnosis of flat feet in orthopedic application. The resulting new workflow will guarantee higher efficiency reducing costs and time. In particular an economic valuation of both workflows is performed showing the reduction of costs with the methodology presented. Through this elaborate it will be shown that today’s most widely used medical technique for the diagnosis and treatment of congenital flat foot from tarsal synostosis have some weaknesses that could be optimized. To reduce weaknesses, the alternative methodology presented involves a new technology within the traditional method’s workflow. In Orthopedics, as in other fields of medicine, new technologies are introduced aiming to improve the patient healthcare. These technologies allow to perform the same treatments in a simpler and faster way making them much more effective and precise. The technology introduced In Proposed methodology is the 3D Printing.
231 Living Conditions and Health Problems of Immigrants , Kourkouta Lambrini1, Frantzana Aikaterini2*, Koukourikos Konstantinos1, Dimitriadou Alexandra1 and Tsaloglidou Areti1
Introduction: Immigration creates problems in host countries, as there is no basic health control of the refugees in the country to which they are migrating. Purpose: The purpose of this article is to investigate the impact of migration on the health of refugees and their contraction from various diseases. Methodology: The manuscript consists of a scrutinized review carried out through scientific articles, books and electronic databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar and Scopus using the key words: migrants, refugees, migrant health problems. Results: The large number of refugees, combined with inadequate infrastructure in their host countries, places refugees in a high-risk group in jeopardy for their physical and mental health. Their poor living conditions, inadequate nutrition and prolonged stress are responsible for most of their health problems. Children’s refugees are also at greater risk, especially when they are unaccompanied. They are the subject of all kinds of exploitation, they are experiencing stress and are forced to take an adult role. Conclusions: Implementing preventative programs, providing psychological support, informing and educating adult refugees and integrating refugee children into school will contribute to their emotional development and socialization
232 Introduction to nanoMIPS Prepared by Solid-Phase approach as an Alternative for Antibodies in the pseudo-ELISA Diagnostic Assay , Katarzyna Smolinska-Kempisty1* and Joanna Czulak
The presented article describes the possibilities of replacing antibodies with artificial molecules in the pseudo-ELISA diagnostic assay. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ELISA is based on specific antibodies, linked to an enzyme, to detect the determined molecule. However, the production of antibodies is complicated and therefore its price is high. Also, the stability of the antibodies is inadequate for their price. For this reason, research into artificial molecules that could replace natural immunoglobulins is becoming extremely important. The article presents studies comparing the use of antibodies and molecularly imprinted nano molecules, nanoMIPs, as artificial antibodies in the ELISA assay.
233 Plant, Human being and Symbiosis , Berov G Lyubomir*
Dear reader, in this article I present a unique perspective on how dominant plant species influence the human societies inhabiting their growth areas. I then raise the point that, in order for the human beings to continue increasing our “living space” without disturbing the balance in nature, we must learn to ward off the manipulative influences of other “living creatures”, and become the leader, at least within the planet Earth
234 Evolutionary Toxicology and Genomics: Utility of Natural Populations’ Sensitivity and Resistance Mechanisms to Persistent Organic Pollutants in Ecological Risk Assessment and Public Health , Goran Bozinovic*
Susceptibility to toxic chemical exposures is determined by genotype-environment interactions. Genetically variable natural populations live in spatially, temporally, and chemically complex environments, and their exposures to persistent organic pollutants should be carefully considered when quantifying evolution’s role in mechanisms of sensitivity and resistance. Although most natural populations’ genomes are not sequenced, reasonably robust lower-throughput custom platforms and data imputation methods help infer missing genotypes and improve the analysis of non-model organisms’ sequencing data. Such datasets yield insights about population processes and variance of allelic diversity within and between sensitive and resistant populations. The advantage of this approach is that an a priori choice of biomarkers of an adverse effect is not necessary. Population genomics provide insights into the sequence variations that define differences in gene expression and protein polymorphisms underlying mechanisms of sensitivity and resistance to polluted environment. Complementary “omics” approaches with model-organism and natural populations offer a better understanding of biological effects and should be an integral component of comprehensive ecological and human health risk assessment.
235 Hybrid Rice Technology: An Overview , Ehsan Shakiba1* and Robert C Scott2
Hybrid rice is one of the important innovations in agriculture along with the discovery of the semi-dwarf gene as well as the green revolution. Since releasing the first hybrid rice cultivar in China, the production of hybrid rice has grown rapidly in all world rice growing regions. Developing high yield hybrid rice cultivars with acceptable quality depends on the agronomic characteristics of their parents. This review discusses about the importance of the hybrid rice, methods for developing hybrid rice and their parents, and genes/QTLs associated with desirable agronomic traits.
236 Toprak’s Kidney Care: A New Comprehensive Kidney Care for Chronic Kidney Disease Patients and their Caregivers , Omer Toprak*
A new special comprehensive kidney care for end stage kidney disease patients which name is “Toprak’s Kidney Care” defined in this paper. Toprak’s Kidney Care means donating your life to your patients and their caregivers. Toprak’s Kidney Care should be considered in the renal recovery and dialysis discontinuation in patients who have residual renal function, in conservative management of patients who withdrawal from dialysis or who choose a life without dialysis or renal transplantation.
237 A Parkinson’s Disease Journey from Patient side view , Jorge Garza-Ulloa*1 and Gordon Johns2
There are a lot of research papers about Parkinson’s disease from the medical point of view, this research paper is from the heart’s patient side view, there are aspects of Parkinson’s that only those living with it truly understand. This paper is based on a treasure from a personal experience into a Parkinson’s disease journey of Gordon Johns. Each degenerative neurological disease patient are real heroes, that fight every day with the evolution of their symptoms that struggle their life 24/7. We, as Biomedical researchers on degenerative neurological disease believe that observing the evolution from the symptoms and emotions progressions, and how they are handling by patients will help: researchers, doctors, others patients, caregivers and all people with human kindness to understand this terrible progressive disease that still doesn’t have cure. Testimonies like this, will point a more human way to find and develop new treatments that will help to deal with the disease for a better quality of life of Parkinson’s patients and find a way to slow down or stop the disease progression or find a cure in the near future for it. I add my sections for: analysis of this case from a Biomedical researcher perspective, Parkinson’s disease general acknowledges and conclusions to find ways to deal with this cruel disease.
238 Wearable Functional Near-Infrared (FNIR) Technology and Its Applications in Naturalistic Conditions , Francis Tsow and Audrey Bowden*
Wearable functional near-infrared technology (fNIR) is a noninvasive neuroimaging technology that is affordable, low cost, and user-friendly, making it a promising technology to study how our brain works in naturalistic conditions. A practical user-friendly fNIR device that allows naturalistic use (e.g., home-use) can open unprecedented opportunities with health, psychologic, political/economic, and physiologic impacts. Wearable fNIR devices impose additional requirements compared to laboratory-based fNIR systems, including size, weight, and motion/ambient artifacts, without sacrificing key performance. Furthermore, to ensure user-friendliness, special attentions to cost, power, connectivity, flexibility to adapt to various applications, and comfort have to be properly considered. This manuscript reviews wearable fNIR in naturalistic conditions, covering reported applications and technologies developed to enable fNIR wearability. We also highlight some of the remaining challenges of current wearable fNIR devices including the limited number of optodes, uncorrected artifacts and noise, and the need for user alignment and manual event recording
239 Positive Role of Green Tea as An Anti-Cancer Biomedical Source in Iran Northern , Ebrahim Alinia-Ahandani*, Zahra Alizadeh-Terepoei and Ani Boghozian
Tea, green gold, is the second famous beverages in the world. Tea was not grown in Iran until the late 1800’s, after an Iranian diplomat, by the name of Kashef Al Saltaneh, smuggled back from India over 3,000 samplings to plant in Iran. In general, green tea contains about 30% (w/w) of catechins in the dry leaves. The major catechins are epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epicatechin (EC), and (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG), which comprise more than 60% of the total catechins. Other green tea conclusion are the flavonols (quercetin, kaempferol, and rutin), caffeine, phenolic acids, the green tea specific amino acid theanine, and flavour compounds such as (Z)-3 hexenols and its esters. Increased consumption of green tea had a potentially preventive effect on breast cancer in a Japanese population. combined green tea composition with other bioactive dietary components may be an appropriate way to improve its effects in cancer prevention. Several studies have shown that the fat-lowering effect of green tea and EGCG is mediated by SREBPs.in this short review around some effects of green tea on cancer prevention and positive effects on body. We hope use and focus on this herb fundamentally in Iran northern as a center of this green gold in healthcare
240 Cell Cycle Dynamics and Endoreplication In the Mosquito Midgut , Krystal Maya Maldonado1, Humberto Lanz Mendoza2* and Fidel de la Cruz Hernandez-Hernandez3*
The mosquitoes are the major transmissors of vector-borne infections, including virus, protozoans and helminths and, during the interaction it is critical for pathogens to accomplish immune evasion actions whereas the mosquito turn on immune mechanisms for its survival. The mosquito midgut is the organ where initial interactions with pathogens happen, and the insect has mechanisms to repair the tissue and to eliminate the invaders. For these tasks’ mosquitoes use different strategies including the specific DNA replication, amplifying specific genes and without cell division in order to have more DNA templates for transcription that allow, in a secondary infection, the fast production of immune proteins in a process known as priming. The study of these processes is necessary for the understanding of the mechanisms during insect-pathogens interactions, and to design future interventions to block mosquito pathogens transmission that could be environment-friendly and not depending on costly chemicals.
241 Nicotine is Insufficient as a Carcinogen, It’s Functions as a Tumor Promoter on Purpose , Jia Ping Wu*
Nicotine constitutes approximately 0.6~3.0% of the dry weight of tobacco. Like anything that enters the body, nicotine is also metabolized. Therefore, any activity that increases your metabolic rate can help speed up the clearance of nicotine. Nicotine also promotes cancer growth, angiogenesis, and neovascularization. Thereby, nicotine impeding apoptosis, promoting tumor growth and activating growth factors. This article provides a brief description of nicotine is unusual in comparison to most drugs, as its concentration profile changes from induced tumor growth to cytotoxic with increasing doses. The concentration of nicotine stimulated cell growth correspond to low concentration was needed, while high concentration was cytotoxic
242 Potential Health Benefits of Thai Seasonal Fruits; Sapodilla and Star Fruit for Elderly People , Jirakrit Leelarungrayub*1, Yothin Pothasak1, Rungtiwa Kuntain1, Jynwara Kaju1 and Ahmed Muhammad Izhar2,3
Nowadays, the proportion of geriatric population has been increased around the world, and likewise has been increased in Thailand. The aged population have high risks of low-immunity and high oxidative stress, which is related to chronic diseases such as; hypertension, stroke, cardiac diseases, diabetics, and cancer. In Thailand, there are many valuable fruits such as; durian, banana, oranges, papaya, and guava, etc. In addition, there are still some seasonal fruits which have interesting useful effects but with less scientific evidences. Sapodilla and Star fruit are rare seasonal fruits that have been claimed to improve the health status with its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in human body. Presently, evidences have revealed that the ripped sapodilla extract possesses the antioxidant capacity with total phenolic, retinoic acid (Vit A), and L-ascorbic acid (Vit C) and scavenging activity on superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide (NO). It could inhibit the tumor necrotic factor-alpha (TNF-α). Whereas, the ripped star fruit (sour-type) extract contains the retinoic acid and L-ascorbic acid which was reported in vitro designed study. Interesting evidences in elderly persons showed that supplementation of 100g of either ripped sapodilla or ripped star fruit twice a day for 4 weeks after meal could improve; total antioxidant capacity, Vit.A, and Vit.C status, the 6-minute walking distance, and reduce the nitric oxide (NO). Moreover, supplementation of ripped star fruit could reduce the TNF-α, Low-density lipoprotein (LDL), while the ripped Sapodilla supplement reduced the cholesterol.as. Therefore, this mini review presents the health benefits of seasonal fruits, sapodilla or star fruit for health status among elderly individuals.
243 Bioconcrete Technology and Neglected Biotoxicity , Galal Fares*
Bioremediation of concrete durability issues becomes a new trend to revise and adopt. Bacteriology becomes an important branch of science in concrete applications. The use of nonpathogenic bacteria spores as microorganisms for biodeposition of calcite in concrete has been widely investigated. These microorganisms play same role as a self-healing agent, which has attracted the attention of several researchers while neglecting the biotoxicity side. Moreover, fewer have pointed at the provisions and precautions that should be applied to avoid “opportunistic pathogenic attacks” on living organisms within the boundaries of microbial concrete structures. The presence of bacteriologist is highly crucial for safe application of bioremediation of concrete properties. Limited applications are suggested.
244 Acidic Pharmaceuticals Simultaneous Removal from Water Sample by Magnetic Ionic Liquid Nanoadsorbent 1-Butyl-3-Aminopropyl Imidazolium Tetrachloroferrate Functionalized Graphene Oxide GO-sBapim) FeCl4 , Farid Abu Shammala1* and Barry Chiswell2
This paper evaluated the removal efficiency of twelve acidic pharmaceuticals by microextraction with 1-butyl-3-aminopropyl imidazolium tetrachloroferrate functionalized graphene oxide GO-(Bapim)FeCl4 nanocomposite. The acidic pharmaceuticals studied were salicylic acid (SYL), clofibric acid (CFA), ibuprofen (IBP), acetaminophen (AAP), gemfibrozil (GFB), fenoprofen (FNP), naproxen (NPX), triclosan (TCS), ketoprofen (KTP), diclofenac (DOF), fenofibrate (FFB), and indomethacin (IDM), which are commonly used as analgesic/anti-inflammatory agents or lipid regulators. The proposed procedure complies with the principles of the green chemistry, since it uses low volumes of easily synthesized MILs-based magnetic extracting phases avoiding the use of toxic solvents. The analytical procedure for the determination of acidic pharmaceuticals in aqueous matrices included solid phase microextraction, liquid chromatographic separation and detection by a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer. Taking into account the main experimental variables involved, the results obtained are accurate and highly reproducible. The low-cost approach is straightforward, environmentally safe and exhibits high enrichment factors and absolute extraction percentages and satisfactory recoveries. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that a MIL-GO is used for analytical purposes in a practical, efficient and environmentally friendly drop-breakup microextraction approach for acidic pharmaceuticals. In the aqueous sample treatment processes, the highest removal rate was observed for ibuprofen and the lowest for acetaminophen, 99%+/-1% and 67%+/-2%, respectively. Whereas, the stability of acidic drugs recovery from municipal sewage were the lowest for acetaminophen and salicylic acid
245 Automatic Generation of Drug Concentration Gradient by a Modified Ink-jet Printer and its Application in Drug Screening , Zongzheng Chen1,3, Jiu Deng2, Zhengzhi Wu1 and Yong Luo*2
Manual preparation of drug concentration gradient is labor-intensive and limits the efficiency of a drug screening to some extent, especially at large scale. In this study, we reported an automatic method to generate drug concentration gradient in 24-well plate. We loaded drug solution in a modified hot ink-jet printer, designed printing pattern in the WORD software, customized the concentration gradient in the WORD software by RGB coding, and finally printed the drug concentration gradient in the 24-well plate. A drug concentration gradient can be automatically generated within 5s in arbitrary pattern. Based on this flexible technology, we developed an ink-jet printer-based drug screening assay. Concentration gradient of 5-fluorouracil, as well as Mcf-7 cells, were printed in the 24-well plate, and the inhibition rate of Mcf-7 cells was measured by MTT method. This was the first time that hot inkjet printing technology was used in drug screening
246 Supplementation of Optimum Nutrient-Dense Formula to Modulate HIV Infection in Resource Limited Settings , Ihab Tewfik1, Abraham Mainaji Amlogu*1,2, Sundus Tewfik3 and Charles Wambebe4
HIV infection attenuates food intake and increases energy requirements through increases in resting energy expenditure. Equally, it triggers nutrient mal-absorption, negative nitrogen balance and metabolic alterations that lead to weight loss and wasting. Substantiating evidences from the literature highlighted the role of nutrient-dense meals in enhancing nutrition status of people living with HIV (PLHIV) and improving some HIV-related outcomes. Despite limited resources, West African countries are renowned with various micro and macronutrients in commonly available food sources which contain antioxidants and relevant essential vitamins and minerals. Such food sources need to be appropriately analyzed vis-a-vis their potentials for use in the management of HIV/AIDS. Hence, nutrition intervention programs that employed nutrient-dense meals -NDMs [e.g. Amtewa meal] were effectively integrated in the management of PLHIV who are on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Prolonged use of NDMs [over 12 weeks] has demonstrated to attenuate and possibly obviate the progression to AIDS.
247 The Effectiveness of Virtual Reality in the Rehabilitation of Balance and Gait in Children with Cerebral Palsy: Mini-Review , Tülay Tarsuslu ÅžimÅŸek*
Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common physical disability in newborn and children. The child’s functioning and development strategies are affected by a variety neuromuscular and musculoskeletal impairments. Gait and postural control disfunctions are common in children with cerebral palsy and depend on the impairments of the neuromuscular and musculoskeletal systems. Balance and gait training are important for most daily activities and helps children recover from balance problems, helps to participation in daily life activities and improvment in quality of life. Treatment programs commonly includes streching, strengthening, positioning, casting, and the facilitation of correct movement and normal postural strategies. In last decades, computer based games (virtual reality training) are used to create interactive play environments in order to achieve specific tasks and treatment goals
248 A Comparison of Traditional Ultrasound with, Sustained Accoustic, Medicine (SAM) , David O Draper* and George Lewis
Therapeutic ultrasound is one of the most common deep heating modalities used by physical therapists, athletic trainers, and occupational therapists [1]. Its thermal effects are treatment of soft tissue injuries [2], relieving a muscle contraction [3], restoration of range of motion [4], an increase in collagen extensibility [5], aiding in collagen alignment and increased wound strength [6,7]. The non-thermal effects of ultrasound include increased histamine release [8], increased phagocytosis [9], increased protein synthesis, [10] tissue regeneration [11,12], wound healing [11], increased fibroblasts and vascular regeneration [12]
249 Rhabdomyolysis After Cocaine Consumption-Case Report , Thiago de Jesus Bacha1,3, Marco Aurélio Almeida de Oliveira1, Alcimar Marques de Araújo Martins1, Marilda de Souza Gonçalves4, Anamika Dhyani2, Emerson Silva Lima1, Rajendranath Ramasawmy1,5 and José Pereira de Moura Neto1,2*
Objective: Rhabdomyolysis, a potentially fatal syndrome, is characterized by degradation of muscular skeletal tissue trigger fatal complications such as acute renal failure. Methods: Clinical evaluation and biochemical measurements were performed on a Brazilian soldier after he was admitted at the emergency department of the Military Hospital of Manaus in August 2014. A 23-year-old soldier reported having consumed about six grams of cocaine. Results: Clinical laboratory measurement of serum showed a significant increase in the levels of indirect markers of muscle lysis. Serum creatine kinase fraction MM (CK) level increased up to 99.500 U/L and creatine kinase MB fraction (CK-MB) up to 6.500U/L. Changes in electrolytes also increased (sodium=1.730mmol/L, potassium=42.1mmol/L, phosphorus =48.3mg/dl, chlorine =1.243mmol/L and magnesium=36.1mg/dl). Changes in kidney functions also occurred (urea =302.6mg/dl and creatinine=11.1mg/dL). The levels of albumin (33.4g/dl) and lactate dehydrogenase LDH (22,545U/L) also increased. Further, qualitative tests for troponin and myoglobin were positive. Intervention: The soldier stayed in the intensive care unit (ICU) for five days. Conclusions: Rhabdomyolysis syndrome was clinically identified due to consumption of cocaine. The soldier showed excellent clinical improvement after hyperhydration and treatment with discharged on the fifth day
250 Use of Regulatory T Cells as a Cellular Therapy for Transplant Rejection/Autoimmunity , Nick D Jones1* and Renad Alhamawi1,2
Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg) are a crucial sub-population of T cells in the control of immunity and the maintenance of immunological tolerance aiding the prevention of autoimmunity. As such Treg have been proposed to be a candidate cell that could be used as cellular therapy to suppress unwanted immune responses. Indeed, there is an expanding literature on the potential use of Treg to induce or re-establish tolerance in both autoimmune diseases such as type I diabetes, arthritis and chronic inflammatory diseases as well as in preventing allograft rejection and graft versus host disease (GVHD
251 The Future of Diagnostic Laboratory Testing in Healthcare , Jawahar (Jay) Kalra1,2*, Zoher Rafid Hamed2 and Patrick Seitzinger
The role of diagnostic laboratory testing in healthcare is evolving. The challenge facing the new era of medicine is the appropriate implementation of new tools and technologies to improve patient care in a cost-effective and sustainable manner. Unprecedented expectations to detect disease earlier and effectively treat all aspects of health and wellbeing create demands for testing which may be premature. Test ordering patterns among physicians are subject to psychological factors such as a desire for certainty and risk aversion, as well as fears of patient dissatisfaction, and litigation. The path towards optimizing the utilization of diagnostic laboratory tests must include strategies to minimize non-contributory testing. Appropriate application and sound clinical reasoning are essential to mitigating overdiagnosis, exponential costs on the healthcare system and unnecessary suffering on the part of the patient. Reducing non-contributory laboratory testing practices would allow for the reallocation of resources toward the protection of imperative practices and the advancement of strategies in preventative and individualized medicine. With thoughtful deliberation and constructive conversations among all stakeholders these challenges, pressures and disruptions have the potential to create innovative strategies to optimize the use of diagnostic laboratory testing in healthcare.
252 Ligamentum Capitis Femoris A Pilot an Experimental Study , Sergey V Arkhipov*, Nikolay V Zagorodny and Dmitry V Skvortsov
Ligamentum capitis femoris (syn. ligamentum teres, ligament of head of femur), connecting the acetabulum and the head of femur. This is one of the least studied anatomical elements of the human body. In order to clarify the functions of the ligamentum capitis femoris, external ligaments and abductor muscle group, we constructed a dynamic model of the hip joint. It was established that this anatomical element is involved in constraining the hip joint adduction and may locking the hip joint in the frontal plane, turning it into an analogue of a third-class lever. When the ligamentum capitis femoris is stretched and the abductor muscle group is tension, a load equal to twice the body weight is evenly distributed between the upper and lower hemispheres of the head of femur. The ligamentum capitis femoris function increases the steadiness of the orthostatic postures and unloads the muscle apparatus of the hip joint.
253 Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils in Aromatherapy Protocols , Yago Queiroz dos Santos1,4*, Gabriella Silva Campos Carelli2,4, Bruno Oliveira de Veras3 and Elizeu Antunes dos Santos2
Aromatherapy is the therapy that employs volatile aromatic elements of the plants, that is, their essential oils. The practice that helps patients to sleep and rest as well as helps on alertness, creativity, among others. The therapeutic massage integrates a set of practices with maneuvers whose goal is to promote health and balance with the body, promoting psychological effects on the skin, visceral pain. This pharmacological components of essential oils are volatile constituents at temperature environment, most of which originate from secondary metabolism produced and stored in their own secretory structures formed in the leaves, flowers, branches, stems or roots of various species usually secreted by glandular trichomes, which have various forms, structures and functions distributed mainly on the surface of the leaves. The identification of essential oil constituents is important for the understanding and prediction of their physiological effects where main studied activities are antimicrobial activity, namely antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral, anxiolytic, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic and antinociceptive effects helpful to develop new clinical aromatherapy protocols.
254 Recent Advances in the Associations of Advanced Glycation End Products (Ages) and Cancer , Qiuyu Wang1*, Congxiao Zhang2 and Nessar Ahmed1
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are reactive metabolites under physiological and pathological conditions. They accumulate in tissues and organs and are involved in the pathogenesis of various diseases including cancer. This review presents recent findings on the roles of AGEs and their receptor (RAGE) in carcinogenesis. The molecular mechanisms of cancer pathogenesis and progression related to AGEs-RAGE interaction are highlighted. The strategies for AGE reduction and inhibition in the potential prevention and treatment of cancers are discussed
255 Study on Prevalence of Ovine Paramphistomiasis in Kutaber Woreda, South Wollo, Amhara Region, Ethiopia , Kindu Wondmnew*, Wossen Temesgen, Mohammed Hussien and Yeshiwork Arega
A study was conducted to identify the current status of paraphisthomum infections in small ruminants in Kutaber. A total of 384 faecal samples from small ruminants were collected and subjected to sedimentation technique. Out of 384 faecal samples inspected, 150 (39.1%) were positive for Paraphisthomum. Prevalence of 36.5%, and 30.8% were observed in good and medium body condition. In adult and young sheep prevalence of 40.9% and 33.3% were identified from faecal samples inspected respectively. The highest prevalence of Paramphistomiasis was observed in Lewcho (50.0%) followed by Beshilo (44.5%) and Elsa (42.1%). The lowest prevalence of Paramphistomiasis was observed in Alansha (19.0%). Based on age groups the highest prevalence rate was 40.9% observed in age category of adult and the lowest prevalence rate 33.3% was observed in young. When body condition was considered as a risk factor for the prevalence of Paramphistomiasis 49.5%, 30.8% and 36.5% was observed in poor, medium and good body condition respectively. The prevalence of paramphistomiasis in male (33.9%), female (41.3%) was recorded. This parasitic disease is distributed in every district and considered as one of the major setbacks to sheep product utilization causing direct and indirect losses
256 Thyroid Carcinosarcoma , Denis Kulbakin*1,2,4, Evgeny Choinzonov2,4, Marat Ðœukhamedov2, Vladimir Perelmuter3, Svetlana Gluschenko3 and Nicolay Vasilyev3
Background. A rare case of diagnosis and treatment of thyroid carcinosarcoma has been presented. Methods and Results. A 58-year- old woman was diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid. Thyroid gland US and MRI examinations showed tumor mass in the right thyroid lobe extending to the tracheal wall and intratracheal component. The patient underwent right-sided neck dissection (level II-VI) and thyroidectomy with resection of the tracheal rings, cricoid cartilage arch and the lower parts of the thyroid cartilage on the right side. Conclusions. The present case of thyroid carcinosarcoma is of interest because the carcinomatous component is a rare squamous cell thyroid carcinoma. Our clinical case confirms the aggressive character of such rare disease as thyroid carcinosarcoma, showing a high potential for regional and distant metastases.
257 Glycocalyx Gone Awry: Pathologic Cell Signaling during Endotheliopathy , Robert P Richter1 and Jillian R Richter2*
The endothelial glycocalyx is a viscous mesh that lines the vascular lumen and serves a variety of functions in health and disease. This gelatinous matrix of proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans is the critical contact point between the circulation and end organs, transmitting physical and biochemical signals through the endothelial surface layer to affect endothelial cell activity that subsequently impacts organ function. In this review we explore the roles of the major structural components of the glycocalyx in mediating cell signaling events during inflammatory-induced endotheliopathy. We also discuss proposed therapeutic strategies to attenuate glycocalyx disruption and promote its regeneration.
258 Synthesis and Analgesic Activity of 5,6-difluoro-2- Methyl-4H-benzo(d) (1,3)-Oxazin-4-one and 3-Amino- 5,6-difluoro-2-Mehtyl-quinzolin 4(3H)-One , PO Osarumwense*
The current study is aimed at the synthesis and Antibacterial evaluation of quinazolinone derivatives. The condensation of Methyl-2-amino- 5,6-diflorobenzoate with acetic anhydride yielded the cyclic compound 2-methyl 5,6-diflorobenzo [d] [1,3]-oxazine-4-one which further produce 3-Amino-2-Methyl 5,6-difloro quinazolin-4(3H)-ones via the reaction with hydrazine hydrate. The compounds synthesized were unequivocally confirmed by means of Infrared, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H and 13C), Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrophotometry and Elemental analysis. The synthesized compounds were screened against various strains of microorganism, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus species, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Serratia Marcensces, and Candida albicans. The compounds 1and 2 showed significant activity as an Anagesic agent.
259 A Case of KiKuchi-Fujimoto Disease/Histiocytic Necrotizing Lymphadenitis in 25 years old African American Female , Jasper X Zheng1, Yingxian Liu2* and Armand Asarian3
Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease, also known as histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis, is a self-limiting condition that primarily affects adult females less than the age of 40. The characteristic clinical presentation of Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease is recurrent fevers, benign lymphadenopathy, and other systemic symptoms. The etiology of this syndrome is still unclear. Pathogenesis, according to clinical presentation and histological changes, suggests an immune response with the involvement of T cells and histiocytes. It has been proposed that Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease progression involves three distinct phases: proliferative, necrotizing, and xanthomatous phase. The histology of the involved lymph node demonstrates paracortical expansion of histiocytes, plasmacytoid dendritic cells, and CD8+ T cells. Moreover, areas of apoptotic necrosis are present in addition to characteristic absence of neutrophils. No specific laboratory tests currently exist that can diagnose Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease directly. Instead, the diagnosis requires histopathological and immunohistochemical examination in order to exclude other diseases with entirely different treatment course. Exclusion of lymphoma and systemic lupus erythematosus is imperative to avoid unnecessary and detrimental treatment. Treatment of Kikuchi disease involves only supportive measures because independent spontaneous resolution of this disease occurs within a 4-month period.
260 Drug Induced Liver Injury and Lactic Acidosis Associated with Chronic Sustained Release Nicotinamide Exposure , Robert Goodnough1*, Alexander Monto2, Yiqi Ruben Luo3, Kara L Lynch3 and Paul D Blanc4
It is frequently difficult to identify an etiology in an individual case of acute liver injury. Xenobiotic exposures, infectious causes, and a broad differential of other potential contributors need to be considered. Pinpointing the specific cause of a patient’s liver injury helps to guide management, especially when xenobiotics are im- plicated, by indicating potential therapeutic interventions and by avoidance of recurrent injury from inadvertent re-challenge with an offending agent. We present a case of acute liver failure present-ing with concomitant metabolic lactic acidosis and hypoglycemia associated with the therapeutic dosing of sustained-release niacin, confirmed by laboratory testing.
261 Fiber, the Ultimate Diet , Hildemar Dos Santos*1 and Natalie Gonzalez2
Based on case studies in clinical settings, increasing the consumption of fiber will produce positive health outcomes. I remember one of my patients that had type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and a BMI over 30. He was taking insulin shots, metformin and a beta-blocker for blood pressure. After a period of two months on a high fiber diet (40 grams of fiber per day), he was able to drop insulin completely, drop to half his medication for diabetes and hypertension, and he lost 14 pounds. The advantage of this plan was that he was not on a diet. In fact, he was eating more than he used to before starting the fiber intervention.
262 Evaluation of Immunostimulatory and Antimicrobial Activities of Probiotic Bacteria Isolates from Commercially Available Yoghurts , Angus N Oli*1, Jennifer O Aguh1, Malachy C Ugwu1, Monday Obaji1 and Ruth A Afunwa2 and Chijioke M Ofomata3
Probiotics provide numerous health benefits that transcend basic nutritional requirements of our daily meal. The focus of this study was to evaluate the immunostimulatory capability of probiotic bacteria isolated from commercially available yoghurts in Awka metropolis. Thirty cans of different branded yoghurts were purchased from local supermarkets and prepared using standard procedures. The samples were transferred into De Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) broth and incubated anaerobically for 24 h. The isolates were identified using biochemical tests. Immunostimulatory activities were evaluated using cyclophosphamide induced immunosuppression and delay hypersensitivity reaction techniques. The antibacterial activity was evaluated using agar diffusion assay. The effects of pH and temperature on the growth of isolated Lactobacillus spp. as well as their ability to tolerate bile salt were assayed. The immunological study showed that the test isolates were able to significantly boost the white blood cell count, lymphocyte count, neutrophil count, eosinophil count and monocyte count after treatment and induced inflammatory response in the laboratory animals used for the study. All isolated lactobacillus spp. has inhibitory effect on E coli, S aureus and P aeruginosa. Bile salts incorporated in the bacteria cultures were effective on bacterial viability. The probiotic bacteria isolated in commercially available yoghurts have health beneficial effects, which include immunostimulatory and antibacterial activities.
263 How to Prevent Burnout in Medical Residents: Literature Review , Yu-Chung Juan1,2 and Chi-Wen Juan3,4*
Background: Healthy settings involve a holistic and multidisciplinary method that integrates actions towards risk factors. In hospital settings, a high level of stress can lead to depression, anxiety, decreased job satisfaction and lower loyalty to the organization. Objective: This study was to perform a systematic literature review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of burnout among medical residents to develop strategies to support residents’ personal and professional development. Methods: The Medline database was searched with burnout and resident search words. Inclusion criteria of articles for review were published in an English-language peer-reviewed journal from January 2010 to October 2018.Total 12 eligible studies were included in literature review. Results: We identified 12 studies including 9796 participants, conducted across the world and covering different specialties which include Oncology, EM, Otolaryngologist, Psychiatry, General surgery, Pediatrics, Neurosurgery and Radiology. All the 12 studies included 11 articles on descriptive cross-sectional studies and 1 article on analysis of variance, longitudinal study. Review results mainly pointed out the significance high prevalence and the need for systematic measures for prevention medical residents’ burnout. Conclusion: These studies revealed high level of burnout among medical residents, whose stresses were mainly from working situation, emotional pressure and demands from patients. Action plan for resident burnout syndrome prevention is to develop a better training program and enhance medical resident well-being.
264 The Effect of Optimizing Pre-Hospital First Aid Process on the Efficacy of Rescue and Treatment for Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome , Liu Zhen*, Qi Xing*, Qi Chunmei#, Zhang Xin, Ma Qing, Lu Ya Nan, Qiao Wei, Ma Yong and Chen Lu
Objective: To explore the effect of optimizing pre-hospital first aid procession the rescue efficacy of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in the construction of chest pain center in general hospital. Methods: A total of 214 patients with ACS admitted to our hospital from 2017 to December 2018 were selected (45 before the establishment of chest pain center and 132 after the establishment of chest pain center). To observe the effect of optimizing pre-hospital first aid process on shortening the time from entry to first balloon dilatation (D-to-B) and from first medical contact to first balloon dilatation (FMC-to-B) of ACS patients and improving the prognosis of STEMI patients. Results: Compared with the operation of chest pain center, D-to-B time (41.82+4.23 vs 90.09+5.26; P >0.05) and FMC-to-B time (81.91 +4.43 vs 143.33 +3.54; P>0.05) were significantly shortened; the incidence of cardiovascular events was significantly reduced (P>0.05), and hospitalization days were significantly shortened. Conclusion: In the pre-hospital first aid process, it is of great significance to optimize 120 departure process, pre-hospital ECG transmission process, referral and reception process improvement in the construction of chest pain center in general hospitals.
265 Is Human Nature Today Different Than Before? , Otto E Rossler* and Frank Kuske
The question comes unexpected. Nevertheless, it has a rationale to it: the existence of a historical anomaly. There exists a published scientific result which is doubted by no one in the scientific literature for the 11 years that it exists -- but no one pays any attention to it even though refraining from doing so goes against human nature as it has existed in the past
266 Nosocomial Infection: Causes Treatment and Management , Safila Naveed*, Aisha Sana, Halima Sadia, Fatima Qamar and Nida Aziz
Hospital acquired infection is also known as nosocomial infection or health care associated infection it is occur when patient admitted in hospital but with other type of infection or at the time of admission in hospital infection is not usually present in patient or it is usually occur in hospital during medical care of patient and this is the basic reason of death in hospitalized patient it can affect the patient emotional stress, decease the quality of life, and increase the patient stay in hospital it can also transmitted to the community when the patient discharge [1].
267 Ethical Dilemmas in Posthumous Assisted Reproduction , Iliadis Ch1, Frantzana A2*, Ouzounakis P3 and Tachtsoglou K4
Introduction: Posthumous assisted reproduction is a method that is being used by more and more people to acquire children. Men donate their genetic material while in life or just before they die, so they can continue their genealogy. Purpose: The purpose of this review is to present ethical dilemmas in posthumous artificial fertilization. Methodology: The material of the study has been recent articles on the subject. They have been mainly found through the electronic database Medline and the Hellenic Academic Libraries Link (HEAL-Link), with the following keywords: ethical dilemmas, artificial fertilization, and posthumous assisted reproduction. Results: Posthumous assisted reproduction now appears as a given reality. Many reservations have been raised regarding the permissibility of posthumous artificial fertilization. The most important thing is that the child born after posthumous artificial fertilization will not have a father. The institution of posthumous assisted reproduction is appropriate only for couples, married or unmarried, and not for single solitary women. The child to be born will be considered as a child born into a marriage while the partner’s spouse’s paternity whose consent to heterologous fertilization had been given, will not be affected. Conclusions: The need for a single legal framework to be applied by all countries is necessary, since to date, each state has established its own laws and rules to deal with issues arising from assisted reproduction.
268 New Presentation of the Acupuncture Law of Five Elements Considering the Shape of the Human NEMF , Maria Kuman*
The law of five elements in ancient acupuncture reflects the order, in which the organs in the body become active. When acupuncture treatments are done this needs to be taken into consideration. This article discusses the Quantum Computer in the Subconscious, which works with the waves of our torus shaped NEMF, and through the waves of NEMF rules and regulates all the organs in the body. Based on this, this article offers a new presentation of the ancient acupuncture law of five elements, which consider the shape of the human nonlinear electromagnetic field (NEMF). The torus shape of the human NEMF and its dynamic was presented as two intersecting pyramids one with top up, the other with top down, in dynamic equilibrium. The upsidedown Yang pyramid represents the five hollow (Yang) organs, which are more active (Yang=active). The upright pyramid represents the five solid (Yin) organs, which are less active (Yin=passive). Then the coupled organs with strong functional dependence are on the vertical lines connecting the bases of the two pyramids and the vertical line connecting the two tops.
269 Left Atrial Enlargement is an Early Signs of Hypertensive Heart Disease , Hanan KG Altalhi1* and Asgad A Abdalgbar1,2
Systemic hypertension often leads to left ventricular hypertrophy, congestive heart failure and death [1]. How to identify the early signs of hypertensive heart is the key to block or reverse the process of heart failure. The aim of this study is to evaluate the predictive value of left atrial (LA) enlargement in the early stage of hypertensive heart disease and to explore the correlation between LA enlargement and heart failure with normal ejection fraction (HFnEF). Method: This is case control study of 52 patients admitted to the hospital, 26 patients with history of hypertension (case subject) and 26 without history of hypertension were included as (Control subject). All participant underwent the standard examination and testing as well as Echocardiography (measurement of left atrial dimension, Ejection fraction, left atrial volume, mitral inflow, Left ventricle mass). Patient with valvular heart disease, atrial fibrillation or coronary disease were excluded. Result: The mean age was 69±18 year in the hypertensive patients and 66±17 year in control group. The LA dimension of hypertensive group (38±5.2) was significantly greater than control group (34.5±3.4); P<0.001) LAV and LAVI were significantly higher in hypertensive group than control group (55.5±15.5 vs 41.7±13.8 , P<0.001 28.5±7.2 vs 22.2 , P<0.001 respectively). LVM and LVMI were significantly higher in hypertensive group than in control group (174±46 vs 150±31 g, P<0.0001, 106 ±24 vs 95±16, P=0.001). Conclusion: We conclude that Echocardiographic LA enlargement may be an early sign of hypertensive heart disease in patient with no other clear cause of left atrial enlargement.
270 Pseudo-Enzymatic Properties of Haptoglobin:Hemoglobin Complexes , Giovanna De Simone, Alessandra di Masi and Paolo Ascenzi*
Hemoglobin (Hb) and free heme are physiologically released into human plasma upon hemolysis of senescent erythrocytes and erythroblasts enucleation, and pathologically because of severe hematologic diseases and blood transfusion. To inhibit the heme-based formation of free radicals, several plasma proteins have been evolved. In particular, haptoglobin (Hp) binds αβ dimers of Hb allowing the Hb removal via the reticuloendothelial system and the CD163 receptor-mediated endocytosis in hepatocytes, Kupffer cells, and tissue macrophages. In turn, the Hp:Hb complexes facilitate heme-based detoxification of NO and peroxynitrite and display NO2 ‒ reductase activity opening new avenues in removing reactive nitrogen species in plasma. The correlation between Hp glycosylation, the stability of the Hp:Hb complexes and pathological conditions (i.e., cancer) has been observed
271 Nutritional Management of Immunological Diseases and Drug-Nutrient Interactions , Shewangzaw Addisu Mekuria*
Background: Balanced nutrition, especially in terms of adequate vitamin, mineral and protein energy intake, enhances the resistance against infections. Nutrients can boost or depressed the immunity depending on the food nutrient and levels of intake. It can cause immunological disorder disease like Allergy, Asthma autoimmune diseases, HIV/AIDS, Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), Celiac, Type I diabetics. A drug- nutrient interaction is the effect of medication on nutrients. Methods: The information was collected from the google scholar and reviewed through Mendeley desktop with the objective of to review nutritional management of immunological diseases and drug-nutrient interactions. Results: The interaction can be a positive and negative effect. One of the effects of this interaction were deficiency lead to vitamin or mineral deficiency. Medication can decrease appetite and sensory organs, nutrient absorption, nutrient production harmful bacteria and loss of nutrient. Conclusion: Nutritional management of immunological disease affected people should be consider and an appropriate or alternative type of food. Drug-nutrient interactions can influence on food intake, nutrient digestion, absorption, and distribution, metabolism to active forms, function, catabolism, and excretion.
272 The Resurgence of Interest in Anti-Cancer Dendritic Cell Vaccines , Robert O Dillman MD*
The ultimate appreciation of dendritic cells (DC) and their role in biology occurred in the fall of 2011 when Ralph Steinman was awarded the Nobel Prize for his seminal work on the discovery, characterization, and biological function of DC [1,2]. The enthusiasm for clinical application of DC as presenters of tumor antigens may have peaked before 2000 following initial positive clinical reports in melanoma and lymphoma [3,4].
273 Pediatric Nursing Triage in Mass Gathering: Education and Training Issues , Farrag S1,2*, Alshmemri M1 and Ragab O3
Deaths of children could occur during mass gathering due to various reasons. Many of these deaths could be prevented if very sick children were identified and appropriate treatment started immediately upon their arrival at the health facility. This study investigates standardized role of the pediatric nurse in Emergency Triage, and the real situation occurring in Makkah local governmental hospitals, where nurses can hardly participate in the assessment, or decision making, and how the guidelines are used in the process. Significance of the study: Researchers have recently found that nurses reported limited knowledge and awareness of the wider emergency and disaster preparedness plans. This clarifies the research gap for pediatric nurses. Aims of the study: (1) is to review all the available studies in order to come up with a clear standardized role of the pediatric nurse in Emergency Triage. (2) to describe the requirements needed by the newly graduated nurses in order to be categorized by Health Authorities as an Emergency Triage Pediatric Nurse. (3) to recommend the integration of Triage competencies in BSC nursing curriculum. Setting: The study was conducted at the Faculty of Nursing, Umm Al Qura University, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A review of the literature on mass gatherings and triage systems, was conducted. Four databases were utilized: (1) OVID (2) PubMed, (3) Cochrane Collection Plus, and (4) Lippincott. The search terms: Triage, Pre-hospital triage, Field triage, Triage nurse, Nursing curriculum, Pediatric nurse, Emergency room clinical competencies. Results: Differences in the application of pediatric triage across local and international hospitals in Mass-Gathering events, are discussed. The lack of standardized role of pediatric nurses in emergency triage is demonstrated both on national and international levels. Conclusion: Pediatric nurses should have a standardized role in emergency triage
274 Embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma of Conjunctival Tissue and Musculus Rectus Medialis in a 14 Years-Old Girl , Stefan Bittmann*, Elisabeth Luchter, Elena Moschüring-Alieva, Gloria Villalon
Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common soft tissue sarcoma in childhood and adolescence and is a tumor of the skeletal muscles. We present a 14 years old girl with an embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (pT1a, N0, M0) of conjunctival tissue treated with systemic polychemotherapy (CWS guidance, SOTISAR register, subgroup C). First complete remission was present in august 2019.
275 The Intake of Aronia Melanocarpa Fruits and Juice has Great Potential for Prevention of Socially Significant Diseases , Margaritka Boncheva*
Socially significant diseases are preceded by changes in metabolism, oxidative stress and changes in the vascular wall of the arteries leading to poor blood supply to the organs, insufficient oxygen to the organs or thrombosis. Prevention of these diseases involves clarifying genetic predispositions and changing lifestyles (diet and physical activity).
276 Nanostructured Electrodes For Biosensing: An Innovative Technology With Huge Potential Applications , Giuseppe Aiello* and Rosalinda Inguanta
anomaterials is a recent technology with a wide landscape of potential applications in several fields. In particular, recent researches have demonstrated their appropriateness for biosensing applications in the clinical diagnosis and prevention of several important pathologies. Recent developments in the application of Carbon-based nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes (CNT) and graphene electrodes have proven their outstanding capabilities of detecting the presence of electroactive compounds in biological fluids, thanks to their excellent electrical conductivity, large surface area and low cost.
277 Drugs Use or Abuse; Pharmacological Considerations , Khalid Aftab*
The most common and essential aspects of patient care when emergencies or urgencies have arisen consist of a thorough primary assessment of the patient and airway treatment. Once this is accomplished the need for drug administration and possible EMS (emergency medical service) assistance is determined. There are no reports of toxicities from degradation products of currently available drugs. How much of potency retain varies with the drug, the lot and the storage conditions, temperature, especially humidity, but many drugs stored under reasonable conditions in their original unopened containers retain ninety percent of their potency for at least three to five years after the expiration date on the label, and sometimes much longer.
278 Prevalence of Staphylococcus Species from Clinical Samples Obtained from Some Hospitals on Kano Metropolis, Nigeria , Sadiya M Ibrahim1, Farouk S Nas2, Kabiru A Garba3 and Muhammad Ali*4
The study was aimed to determine prevalence of Staphylococcus species among patients attending some hospitals in Kano, Northern Nigeria. Three hundred (300) samples from ear swab, high vaginal swab (HVS), wound swab and urine were collected from patients (133 males and 167 females) attending the Hospitals over a period of eight months (October, 2016 to May, 2017). The samples collected inoculated onto the surface of freshly prepared Nutrient agar for colony formation and isolation. Each colony was isolated in a pure form by sub culturing for further studies and identification. The result showed that the distribution of Staphylococcus aureus and other Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus in the clinical samples for the three hospitals, S. aureus was isolated most from wound swab with 51 isolates (33.33%) followed by ear swab with 46 isolates (30.07%) and then H.V.S and urine with 28 isolates accounted for (18.30%) each. CoNS was isolated most from urine sample with 11 isolates (36.67%) followed by H.V.S with 9 isolates (30.00%) then ear swab with 8 isolates (29.51) and wound swab, 2 isolates accounted for (6.67%). Statistical analysis of the result showed significant difference in the prevalence of Staphylococcus species among the samples examined at p<0.05. Staphylococci are one of the etiologic agents of infectious diseases.
279 Study on the Efficacy of Pondguard in Improving Clinical Performance of White Leg Shrimp (Penaeus Vannamei) in an AHPND Bacterial Challenge Model , Haig Yousef Babikian1*, Rajeev Kumar Jha1, Dang Thi Hoang Oanh2 and Truong Quoc Phu2
A bioassay trial was conducted to determine the efficacy of developed product, Pondguard as an anti-Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND) candidate. The Pondguard (Registration no. D 16060285-HBC) is consisting of natural oils, like, lavender oil, Eucalyptus oil and Pine oil. It maintains the immunity level of shrimp, which helps to protect shrimp from infectious diseases. Two doses of Pondguard i.e. 40 ppm and 80 ppm were selected for the trial. The treatment groups tanks were applied Pondguard whereas no application in control tanks throughout the experiment. The shrimp of both treatment and control were challenged by immersion method. The cumulative mortality reached up to 56.7% in positive control whereas 23.3 % in 80 ppm pondguard group and 13.3% in 40 ppm pondguard group at dpi 8 whereas no mortality recorded in negative control. The Relative Percent Survival of 80 ppm group was 64.7% and of 40 ppm group was 76.5%. The trial results show that the developed Pondguard has significant effect against AHPND-Vibrio parahaemolyticus in a controlled condition.
280 Alterations of Hematological and Biochemical Profile of Calves Infected Naturally with Tropical Theileriosis , Abubakar AS1, El Hussein AM1, Abdelsalam MA2, Salih DA1, Samia HA1, Hala Elrayah1 and Sara AM1*
Background: Bovine theileriosis in cattle is a disease caused by protozoan parasite known as Theileria annulata, transmitted by ticks of genus Hyalomma. More than 250 million domestic cattle have been estimated to be at risk. This disease leads to severe losses in production and reproduction of cattle. The present study is performed to investigate the effect of Theileriosis on serum hematological and biochemical profile of calves, as a supportive aid tool for diagnosis of the disease and to figure out any kind of symptomatic treatment to support animal health to reach complete recovery. Materials and Methods: 30 crossbred, 3 months age average Calves were purchased from Keynana company (White Nile state), prior to purchase they were tested for thieleriosis, blood samples were collected and screened by blood smear and confirmed by IFAT, and finally by PCR. Calves were moved to Khartoum state and allocated in a farm recorded positive theileriosis infections previously with noticeable presence of ticks. Samples collected in a period started from January to March 2016 depending on appearance of high body temperature (40ºC), enlargement of lymph nodes and any other sign or symptom related. Samples were tested as described before. Results: Positive samples showed pronounced reduction in Hb, PCV, and RBCs, WBCs count 10.1±0.75, 27.6±2.8, 6.0±2.3 and 2.7±1.2 respectively. While the biochemical profile revealed significant low level of serum total protein, albumin and phosphorus. Whereas liver enzymes elevated significantly, ALT, AST, GGT 53.2±8.9, total bilirubin 4.6±0.08 and direct bilirubin 4.3±0.12. While creatinine, and glucose values, were not significantly different between pre and post infection. Conclusion: Hematological and biochemical profile of calves after theileriosis infection was tremendously influenced, so it could be a considerable tool for tentative diagnosis of tropical theileriosis (Figure 1).
281 The Role of Hyperaldosteronism in the Pathogenesis of Neuroleptic Cardiomyopathy , Volkov V P*
A brief review of the literature deals with the role of aldosterone in the pathogenesis of neuroleptic cardiomyopathy due to the side effects of cardiotoxic antipsychotic drugs. Various physiological and pathophysiological effects of aldosterone, its effect on myocardium and participation in cardiac remodeling during morphogenesis of neuroleptic cardiomyopathy are considered.
282 Antidiabetic Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Carica papaya Leaves in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats , Augustine I Airaodion1*, Emmanuel O Ogbuagu2, John A Ekenjoku2, Uloaku Ogbuagu1 and Victor N Okoroukwu3
The growing number of diabetes coupled with the harsh side effects of some synthetic drugs has led to the increasing search for alternatives which are relatively cheap with minimal side effects. This study sought to investigate the antidiabetic effect of ethanolic extract of Carica papaya leaves in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Thirty adult male albino rats were induced intraperitoneally with alloxan. The rats were grouped into six groups of five animals per group: Group A was not induced with alloxan, Group B animals were induced but not treated, Group C animals were treated with glibenclaimide, Group D, E and F animals were treated with 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg body weight of ethanolic leaf extract of C. papaya respectively. The extracts were administered to the animals orally for 14 days. The animal’s blood sugar levels were assayed using glucometer. The lipid profiles parameters were assayed using standard methods. The animals administered with 200, 400 and 600 mg/Kg B.W of extract showed significant decrease (P<0.05) in blood sugar level compared to the untreated animals. The decrease in the blood glucose level of the animals following the administration of the plant extract suggested that the plant extract possesses antidiabetic effects. The extract of C. papaya produces hypolipidaemic effect and this is evident as there are significant decrease in plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol and an increase in plasma high density lipoprotein-cholesterol in the treated groups compared to the untreated group. This implies that C. papaya leaves could replace glibenclamide in the treatment of diabetes as it has no side effect. The leaves could also be exceedingly helpful in the control of obesity and hypertension
283 Status of Water Used for Drinking and Irrigation in Kano: A Critical Review on Physicochemical and Heavy Metals Concentration , SAA Shawai1*, BB Abubakar2, MS Nahannu3,4 and HS Gaya3
Water is one of the most important natural sources for the sustenance of all living organisms. The importance of water to human’s ranges from domestic, industrial and also irrigational activities. The quality of water is affected by human activities as a result of urbanization, population growth, industrial production, climate change and other factors. Several attempts have been made by researchers in order to ascertain the sources of pollution of water in Kano state. This review provides a clear picture of various water analysis carried out by some researchers from different locations in the state. The water status of rivers, dams, ground water and sachet water used in Kano were presented in this paper. Based on the data considered in this paper, revealed that parameters in sachets and ground water consumed in Kano are within the WHO recommended standards for potable water and ensures the suitability of the water for human consumption. Industrial effluents activities contributed immensely in making the river water sources unfit for human and irrigation purposes. This review recommended that, government should sanction any industry that failed to adhere to environmental regulatory policies. Also, government and non-governmental organization should educate the communities on proper disposal of wastes. Phytoremediation should be use for the removal of pollutants from water and soil especially heavy metals.
284 The Use of Ambrosia Moritima Methanolic Extract as Nephroprotective against Rifampin Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats , Tarig HA Bilal1, Esraa Ramadan1, Idris OF2, Sara A Mohamed*3 and Samia H Abdelrahman3
Background and Objectives: Nephrotoxicity is a progressive loss in kidney function over a period of months or years. Rifampicin (RIF) is the first line drug for the treatment of tuberculosis and can cause nephrotoxicity in human beings and animals. Material and methods: Nephroprotective effect of methanolic extract of, Ambrosia moritima leaves was studied in healthy albino rats (1.25-1.75 kg) of either sex. This plant is a flowering plant in the family Asteraceae, they are distributed in the tropical and subtropical regions. It is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of renal failure, inflammation of kidney and other diseases. The renal toxicity was produced by administration of rifampin at dose rate of 70 mg/kg I/p for 28 days. The plant extract was given by simultaneous oral administration of methanolic extract of Ambrosia moritima leaves at a dose rate of 300 and 600mg/kg for 28 days. Results: It was found that the induced toxicity was inhibited by the administration of the extract. The decreased levels of serum urea, creatinine, sodium (Na) and potassium (K). Histopathological examination revealed protection of the kidney from the marked necrosis of renal tubules that induced by rifampin. Conclusion: Ambrosia moritima methanolic extract has a marked nephroprotective effect depending on the concentration.
285 Calcium Dysregulation and Mitochondrial Dysfunction Form A Vicious Cycle in Parkinson’s Disease , J Tabitha Hees1* and Angelika B Harbauer1,2
Mitochondria are not only the “power houses of the cell” but also function as a major Ca2+ buffer in the cell. Mitochondrial dynamics respond to the level of Ca2+ in the cell in order to maintain a beneficial feedback cycle between Ca2+ buffering and mitochondrial dynamics that allows adaption of mitochondrial to the cellular (sub) environment. Mutations in proteins linked to Parkinson’s disease (PD) are linked to both mitochondrial dysfunction and Ca2+ dysregulation, which can trap the cell in a vicious cycle. The high energetic demands and high Ca2+ of dopaminergic neurons may explain why this cell type is the most vulnerable to mutations in PD related genes.
286 Cerebral Tuberculoma without Clinical Pulmonary Tuberculosis Mimicry as Cerebral Abscess: (A Rare Case Report) , Badrul Munir1*, SB Rianawati2, Catur AS2 and Dotti Inggrianita3
Cerebral tuberculoma is approximately 10-15% of intracranial tuberculosis cases and 1% of all Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) cases. Mostly, Cerebral tuberculoma is always accompanied by pulmonary tuberculosis infection. However, clinical and radiological symptoms of cerebral tuberculoma has mimicry with other brain infections. Gold standard of cerebral tuberculoma is histopathological finding, but it isn’t hard to do so MRI and MRI spectroscopy are used to make sure this diagnosis. In this case we will explore cerebral tuberculoma without clinical pulmonary tuberculosis has mimicry cerebral abses. Case Presentation: 20-years-old woman, complained a progressive left side body weakness accompanied by an intermittent headache for 6 months ago. She had also complained a discharge appeared from both ears for 7 months ago. Patient’s contact history of tuberculosis was doubtful. Hemiparese dextra and smelly yellowish discharge from both ears was found from the examination. Neurological examination: there is no meningeal sign, patient has left hemiparese, the discharge and sputum Gene expert test did not show any sign of MTB. Weber test showed no lateralization and Rinne was negative. Based on contrast head MRI, Multiple lesions in cerebellum, right parietal lobe, and left occipital lobe accompanied by cerebral edema was found, suggestive of cerebral abscess. However, subsequent examination using MR spectroscopy suggested a brain tuberculoma. Oral Anti tuberculosis therapy had shown satisfying result. Conclusion: There are similarities in clinical symptoms and radiological findings between cerebral tuberculoma and cerebral abscess, it is necessary to have MR spectroscopy as a substitution if there are no histopathological examination available
287 Infertility Information System with an approach to Data Architecture: A Systematic Review , Somayeh Sadat Seyedi, Azamossadat Hosseini, Reza Rabiei, Farkhondeh Asadi and Hamid Moghaddasi*
Infertility is one of the major healthcare problems around the world. In order to provide infertile couples with appropriate services, it is essential to have an integrated information system for the management of infertility data. One of the most important aspects of this system is its data architecture so that relevant data can be properly managed and made available to users. The aim of this study was to determine data architecture components in infertility information systems including data sources, organizations involved in infertility care, data exchanges and datasets. In this systematic review the four databases (PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, and Embase) searched. Studies related to each of the various stages of designing, creating, and developing information systems and registries for infertility and assisted reproductive technology were selected. These articles were those published in English between 2007 and 2018. Findings resulting from 44 selected articles were categorized into four groups including data sources, organizations involved in infertility care, data exchanges, and datasets. The most important data sources are databases, paper forms, patient and birth registries, and vital records. Organizations involved in data management include producing and coordinating organizations. The main data exchanges took place between infertility clinics and national infertility databases. Provision of proper services to infertile couples requires a well-designed information system, which collects relevant information from different sources, and makes it available to relevant individuals. Data in this system are used to effectively treat infertility, assess the success rates and safety of assisted reproductive technology, and allocate resources.
288 Primary Intracranial Germinoma: Case Report and Review of Literature , K Messoudi1*, K Oualla1, N Acharfi1, O Zouiten1, I Ouafki1, L Amaadour1, Z Benbrahim1, FZ M’rabet, S Arifi1, Y Dkhissi2, A Amarti3, M Maaroufi3 and N Mellas1
Primary intracranial germinomas (PIGs) are an extremely rare entity with usual location in the pineal and suprasellar regions. Adult cases are rare since they are commonly diagnosed in the second decade of life. Diagnosis is based on specific imaging features in addition to tumor markers, cerebrospinal fluid cytology and stereotactic biopsy. We report a rare case of pineal germinoma diagnosed in adult patient at department by cerebrospinal fluid cytology. The therapeutic strategy was based on neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy. The patient received chemotherapy based on BEP regimen (bleomycine-etoposide-cisplatin) with a clear clinical benefit from the first cycle of chemotherapy by complete resolution of clinical symptoms. The evolution was marked after the third cycle of chemotherapy by severe febrile pancetopenia leading to septic complications and the death of patient. The aim of this work is to describe the rarity of this case, clinical radiological and histological features, in addition to therapeutic management and discuss them in comparison with literature
289 Climate Change, Its Future and Relation to Public Health , Andrei N Tchernitchin*1, Mauricio Ilabaca-Marileo2 and Diana Pey-Tumanoff3
This pre-dictum, prologue in 21st century language, should be a stimulus to change customs, objectives and ethics of our current civilization, in which everything is allowed .... just for a few people: quod licet Jovi, non licet bovi. During its existence, planet Earth has been subjected to enormous catastrophes, such as those caused by an impact of an extremely large meteorite or an explosion of a su- per volcano; after those events, the planet has survived but most of the species become extinct.
290 Improving Antenatal and Postnatal Attendance: Beyond Theory to Practical Solutions , Kizito Uzoma Ndugbu1* and Elsie Chizoba Madukwe2
An antenatal care that seem to thrive on the understanding of the pregnancy state as a potentially dangerous biomedical state, and so goes on to have its mechanisms mainly on surveillance is proving ineffective in developing countries. Despite the many reasons given for poor utilization of ANC, especially in developing countries; which has been the concentration of much research, the main problem appears to be one: the programme seems to be contextually at odds with the situations of pregnant women and their families, especially in low-income areas. This review offers practical ways for a practical solution to begin.
291 272 Plasma Growth Factors in Pain A New Dimension of Treatment , J Alcaraz Rubio*
Pain control has become a medical discipline that costs million dollars to administration in medication, health care and work dis- ability every year. Analgesic units often have difficulty controlling the related pain symptoms in patients, that translates into repeated consultations and hospital admissions with disappointing results for the professionals involved and desperate for the patients who suffer. Without a doubt, the most frequent cause of pain related consultation and functional disability units is related to mechanical low back pain of both traumatic and degenerative origin.
292 Clinical, Hormonal and Metabolic Characterization of Mexican Women who had Gestational Diabetes in the Institute of Security and Social Services of workers of the State of Mexico (Issste) , JC Paredes Palma*1, Carlos Ramirez Velazquez2, Francisco Hernandez Fragoso3, Lorena Balladares Macedo4 and Claudia N Paredes Palma5
Background: Diabetes Mellitus (DM2) has increased its incidence worldwide and in Mexico. The prevalence of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Mexico ranges from 4 to 14%. The risk of postpartum transformation from DMG to DM2 is 40% and in other studies it is described as a 10-fold risk. There is no work that has characterized clinically, metabolically and hormonally Mexican women who have suffered from GDM, to know the differences that exist with other described populations, establish ethnic risk factors and probable treatment strategies. Material and Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 30 Mexican women who during 2018 and 2019 from 18 to 37 years old who were detected during pregnancy with DMG in a Second Level Care Hospital of the ISSSTE, clinical, metabolic characterization was performed and hormonal. Descriptive statistics, correlation of variables with Pearson’s P were developed and Odds Ratio was determined for the development of Eclampsia and Preeclampsia. Results: 30 women who suffered from Gestational Diabetes were detected, the age range fluctuated between 18 and 37 years with an average (P) of 28 years and standard deviation (SD) of 6.43. Most women detected had some degree of overweight or obesity, 26 patients (86.6%). Insulin resistance detected in this population in terms of HOMA was established in 16 patients (53.3%). In 5 (16.1%) patients, fasting impaired glucose was determined and in 1 (3.2%) Prediabetes due to glucose> 140 at 2 hrs, as well as in 1 (3.2%) Diabetes Mellitus. Most of the patients had some type of dyslipidemia 28 (93.3%). The average of the group of patients in the case of Gestational Age at the end of pregnancy was 37.7 with a Standard deviation of 1.25, with a range of 36 to 40 weeks gestation, Conclusion: Most of the population of Mexican women who were studied for gestational diabetes had metabolic abnormalities more frequently than those reported in other populations with a similar prevalence of DM2 conversion reported in other ethnic groups.
293 Tamsulosin and Dementia in Old Age: is There Any Relationship? , Rebecca Renata Lapenda do Monte¹, Karina de Andrade Vidal Costa¹, Arnaldo Santiago Nunes Junior², Amália Cinthia Meneses Rêgo3 and Irami Araújo Filho4*
Tamsulosin is used to treat Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH), prescribed annually to about 12.6 million patients worldwide. It is an alpha- adrenergic antagonist that reduces the tone of the prostate smooth muscle involved in the pathophysiology of BPH. By acting on alpha 1A receptors, predominant in the prostate, tamsulosin also acts on receptors present in the brain. This study consisted of a literature review aimed at disseminating scientific knowledge about the relationship between the use of tamsulosin and the onset of dementia. Pubmed, Scopus, Scielo, Embase, and Web of Science studies involving dementia in patients using tamsulosin in the last five years were selected. The review showed a risk correlation and a higher incidence of dementia in treated patients. The risk ratio, when compared to other medicines, approached 1.20. In conclusion, it was identified the need for clinical trials with higher sampling power to increase relational significance due to the high prevalence of BPH and the extensive use of tamsulosin in elderly patients with the disease.
294 Medical Theory: Why Does Progesterone Not Work After a Traumatic Brain Injury in Humans? , Eduardo de Oliveira Duque Estrada* and Luciano de Melo Pompei
The evidences suggest progesterone has a neuroprotective action in preclinical studies [1], but in some recent clinical studies, this hormone did not benefit people involved in traumatic brain injury. [2,3] So, why progesterone does not work correctly after a traumatic brain injury in humans?
295 Characteristics of Thoracic Trauma in The Enrique Cabrera Hospital. Review of A Five-Year Period , Jorge Agustin Satorre Rocha1*, Olga Caridad Leòn Gonzàlez1, Pedro Rolando López Rodroguez2, Eduardo Garcia Castillo3 and Luis Manuel Danta Fundora3
Introduction. Thoracic trauma is common in today’s society and of great importance Two to the nature of the organs that are located inside the thorax. Goals. Describe the characteristics of the patients admitted with the diagnosis of thoracic trauma. Methods It was made a Descriptive, retrospective and qualitative quantitative study, in which 102 patients were admitted to Enrique Cabrera Hospital with the diagnosis of thoracic trauma in the period from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2018. Data from the medical records of the admitted patients were obtained. Results: Male (77.45%) and ages between 40 and 49 years (25.49%) predominated in the study. Traffic accidents were the most frequent cause of trauma (31.38%), with predominantly thoracic trauma contused (63.73%). The thoracic lesion caused by the most frequent trauma was the pneumothorax (44.11%) and the most frequent extra thoracic lesions associated with the thoracic trauma occurred in the extremities (13.72%), no lesions were associated in 66.75% of the patients. The surgical treatment was the most used being the Minimum Pleurotomy the most used (73.72%). The most frequent complication was wound infections (13.72%), in 58.82%. of the patients there were No complications. 44.12% of the patients remained admitted for an interval of 5 to 10 days, this being the most frequent hospital stay. Conclusions. These results differ in some aspects when compared to other countries, which is given by differences in the economic and social order.
296 Rat Bite in A 55-Days Old Girl Presenting Without Fever: A Case Report , Yara AlGoraini1* and Faisal AlGhamdi2
We report an unusual age presentation of an infant presenting without fever following a rodent rat-bite. The patient was a 55 days old girl who presented with a history of a rodent rat bite. She had been bitten by a rodent rat on her left cheek as well as on the left nostril, which was caught dead by one of the family members. The patient kept in observation and was given anti-tetanus vaccine before discharge with instructions. On day four of discharge from the emergency room, the patient presented afebrile with mild dehydration. She was admitted for hydration and 24 hours of observation then discharged home. Follow up after 3 weeks from discharge by phone with her mother, that she progressed nicely, the bite wound started to heal, and had an uncomplicated course.
297 Flower Microbiology: Old concept but new approach , Ahtesham Ahmad Shad1* and Wajahat Ahmed Shad2
Since the ancient times and till now, flowers have been considered as a significant entity and nature’s gift. Flowers imparted several key roles in art, religion, health and ornamental arena. Like other recent innovative studies, exploring human microbiota especially the gut microbiome the plant microbiota or plant microbiome has also gained a grained vision to unfold the hidden mysteries of biological world. Moreover, symbiosis of plants with the microbes are also an interesting debate nowadays [1,2]. Although it was shown in 1800’s that flowers inhabited with microbes but the ecological relationship between them remained undiscovered [3,4]. Aforementioned already a long time in history, when flowers and other parts of plants studied but the relation of plant in respect to microbe was first investigated by Lorenz Hiltner dated back to 1904 [5]
298 Genital Warts, Etiology, Signs, Treatment and Prevention , Arsalan Khan*
Genital warts, scientifically known as Condylomata acuminate, are the consequences of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), probably one of the most occurring sexually transmitted infections. Human Papilloma Virus is non enveloped dsDNA virus and its predilection site are epithelium of genital organs. It belongs to the viral family Papoviridae, which replicates in the basal layer of genital epithelium. The genital mucosa may be infected anywhere including, penis, scrotum, vulva, vagina, cervix, anus, pubic and perianal area. Four subtypes of HPV 16, 18, 31, and 33, are known to cause cervical cancers, while HPV 6 and 11 cause 90% cases of genital warts. Genital warts may commonly appear as lesions on penis, scrotum, vulva, vagina, cervix, anus, pubic and perianal area. The genital warts may be treated using 0.5% solution of Podophyllin, 25% solution of Podophyllotoxin, Imiquimoid 5% cream, Trichloroacetic acid 60-90% and Podophyllin resin 15%. For the purpose of prevention of the disease vaccines are also available which are parentally administered.
299 Clinical Presentation and Management of Brain Metastasis in a Sample of Iraqi Patients , Mustafa Jarullah Neamah1, Ihssan S Nema2* and Liwa Abdullah Ali1
Brain metastases are neoplasms that originate in tissues outside the brain and spread secondarily to involve the brain [1] This may result either from direct local extension of the primary growth, or from blood born metastases [2]. The intracranial compartment is a common site of metastatic cancer.
300 Clinical Presentation and Management of Brain Metastasis in a Sample of Iraqi Patients , Mustafa Jarullah Neamah1, Ihssan S Nema2* and Liwa Abdullah Ali1
Brain metastases are neoplasms that originate in tissues outside the brain and spread secondarily to involve the brain [1] This may result either from direct local extension of the primary growth, or from blood born metastases [2]. The intracranial compartment is a common site of metastatic cancer. Between 20 and 40% of patients with systemic cancer developed brain metastasis. Such metastasis can be extra axial in nature (e.g. involving the dura and subdural space, or leptomeninges and subarchnoid space), but most commonly they occur within the brain parenchyma [3].
301 Natural Approaches for Reducing Risk Markers of Cardiovascular Diseases Related to Obesity , José Angel Marañón1*, David Munoz Plaza2 and Cristina Lozano3
Calorie imbalance is related to a rising prevalence of obesity. Populations of industrialized countries are becoming more overweight as a result of changes in lifestyle, and obesity may well become the most common health problem of the 21st century. Obesity is a major contributor to the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the developed world, and yet has only recently been afforded the same level of attention as other risk factors of coronary artery disease (CAD).
302 Evaluation of Hexarelin Effects on Epileptic Seizures, Hippocampal Neuronal Damage and Memory Impairment after Pentylenetetrazole-Induced Acute Model in Rat , Yasar Tastemur1, Ekan Gumus2, Ahmet Sevki Taskıran3, Merve Ergul4, Bilal Sahin3, Ahmet Altun
Recent studies have demonstrated that ghrelin receptors have antiepileptic effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ghrelin receptor agonist hexarelin on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures and post-seizure hippocampal damage. In our study, we used 42 male 230-250 g Wistar Albino rats. Animals were divided into seven groups as control, saline (PTZ; 1 ml/kg serum physiologic), positive control (5 mg/kg diazepam), 50 μg/kg, 100 μg/kg, 200 μg/kg and 400 μg/kg hexarelin. 30 min after drugs administration at the indicated doses, PTZ was administered 45 mg/kg to induce an epileptic seizure. The animals were observed for 30 min. Seizure stages (according to the Racine Scale) and first myoclonic jerk times (FMJ). 24 hours after PTZ injection, passive avoidance test was performed, and then brain tissues were removed. After the routine histological process, serial sections from brain tissues were stained with toluidine blue to determine neuronal damage. The hippocampal Cornu Ammonis CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus regions were evaluated histopathologically. Statistical evaluation of the data was performed by one- way ANOVA, and multiple comparisons were determined by the Tukey test. Statistical significance was defined at p<0.05. Obtained data suggest that 200 μg/kg and 400 μg/kg hexarelin decreased seizure stages and increased FMJ compared to PTZ group (p<0,05). In addition, 200 μg/kg and 400 μg/kg hexarelin improved retention time in passive avoidance compared to PTZ group (p<0,05). Furthermore, 200 μg/kg and 400 μg/kg hexarelin reduced neuronal damage in hippocampal CA1, CA3, and DG regions compared to PTZ group (p<0,05). However, all these effects of hexarelin were not observed at 50 μg/kg and 100 μg/kg (p>0,05). In conclusion, we suggest that hexarelin has protective effects on epileptic seizures and neuronal damage after PTZ dose-dependently.
303 Diabetes-Cancer Risk: Hyperglycemia on DNA Damage and Repair , Amy Zhong1, Yumay Chen1,2* and Phang Lang Chen3*
Increased risk of certain cancers has been reported in populations with diabetes mellitus. Ample research supports the notion that diabetic conditions generate excessive amounts of reactive oxygen species, thus resulting in oxidative DNA damage. Recently, several discoveries have shown that cells grown in high glucose conditions also have defective DNA damage response and repair pathways. When considered together, the dual concerns of elevated oxidative DNA damage and aberrant DNA damage response and repair underscore the importance of maintaining tight glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus and cancer.
304 Organ Trafficking as a Criminological Problem , Andrejs Vilks*
The author draws attention to the illegal trade in human organs, which has been increasing in recent times due to increasing demand. Means and methods of searching for organ donors, recruitment, transplantation technologies are improving. The volume of trafficking in human organs, the damage to specific individuals and the profits made illegally are difficult to quantify. Under these circumstances, the value of human life is leveled. Different approaches and methods are applied to the materialized determination of human life and the value of its organs, thus the volume of organs removed, and their prices are evaluated differently. The trafficking of human organs as a criminological problem is becoming more and more important in recognizing human beings as a fundamental value in today’s society