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Journal of Clinical Nutrition and Food Science

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1 Synergistic Hypoglycemic Effect of Pumpkin Polysaccharides, Pueraria Flavonoids and Pu-erh Tea Theabrownin in Type 2 Diabetic Mice through Enhancing the Nrf2/HO-1 Signaling Pathway , Xue Chen1 , Zixuan Liu1 , Ping Xiao1,2, Haiqing Wu1 , Yeni Zhang1 * and Jinfu Liu1,2*
In order to investigate the hypoglycemic effects and potential mechanism of Pumpkin Polysaccharides, Pueraria Flavonoids and Pu-erh Tea Theabrownin on diabetes, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) mice were established and treated with the active components of plants. Results showed that the active components of plants treatment could result in the decrease of blood glucose and possessed the efficacy of insulin resistance alleviation in the diabetic mice. Furthermore, the levels of Nrf2/HO-1were up-regulated by the active components of plants, which indicated the involvement of the Nrf2/HO-1 signal pathway in the hypoglycemic mechanism. Results suggested that Pumpkin Polysaccharides, Pueraria Flavonoids and Pu-erh Tea Theabrownin could ameliorate the T2DM and combined groups had much more efficient effects than its single groups which might be a promising candidate functional food or medicine for T2DM treatment.
2 Synergistic Hypoglycemic Effect of Pumpkin Polysaccharides, Pueraria Flavonoids and Pu-erh Tea Theabrownin in Type 2 Diabetic Mice through Enhancing the Nrf2/HO-1 Signaling Pathway , Xue Chen , Zixuan Liu , Ping Xiao , Haiqing Wu , Yeni Zhang and Jinfu Liu
In order to investigate the hypoglycemic effects and potential mechanism of Pumpkin Polysaccharides, Pueraria Flavonoids and Pu-erh Tea Theabrownin on diabetes, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) mice were established and treated with the active components of plants. Results showed that the active components of plants treatment could result in the decrease of blood glucose and possessed the efficacy of insulin resistance alleviation in the diabetic mice. Furthermore, the levels of Nrf2/HO-1were up-regulated by the active components of plants, which indicated the involvement of the Nrf2/HO-1 signal pathway in the hypoglycemic mechanism. Results suggested that Pumpkin Polysaccharides, Pueraria Flavonoids and Pu-erh Tea Theabrownin could ameliorate the T2DM and combined groups had much more efficient effects than its single groups which might be a promising candidate functional food or medicine for T2DM treatment.
3 Double Blind, Randomized Clinical Study to Evaluate Efficacy of Collagen Peptide as Add on Nutritional Supplement in Type 2 Diabetes , Sheena Devasia , Suresh Kumar , Stephena PS , Naoki Inoue , Fumihito Sugihara and Keiji Suzuki
Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) inhibitors are currently used to manage Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Peptides derived from collagen has been stated to have DPP IV inhibitory properties. A double blind randomized trial has been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of collagen peptides (CPT) as nutritional supplement in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Resistant dextrin, a non-digestible dietary polymer, has been used as active comparator in this study. The subjects have been advised to consume 10g per day either CPT or resistant dextrin for 90 days. There is significant reduction in fasting blood glucose (FBG) and HbA1C in three months study period in subjects who have taken oral ingestion of CPT. Insulin sensitivity measured in as HOMA IR has been improved significantly in CPT group. Study demonstrates the potential role of CPT as add on nutritional supplement for the management of type 2 diabetes.
4 Variations in Essential Oil Content and Compositions of Eight Zanthoxylum bungeanum Species , Hailan Zhu, Zhe Li, Wangwang Jia, Yonghong Liu and Keyou Li
Zanthoxylum bungeanum has been much investigated while there have been virtually no comparison of its chemical compositions. Eight Zanthoxylum bungeanum species: Chenjiawuci (CW), Dangcunwuci (DW), Fengjiao (FJ), Hanchengdahongpao (HD), Hanchengwuci (HW), Qin’anyihao (QY), Shizitou (SZ) and Xinongwuci (XW) were collected in China. The essential oils from the eight species were obtained by simultaneous distillation extraction and evaluated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Hierarchical clustering analysis was conducted to evaluate the relationship among the eight species based on contents of chemical constituents in essential oils. Nighty-eight compounds were identified from all the species and their quantities are different quantity among the eight species. Terpinen-4-ol and Terpinyl acetate were the main components with contents DW ( 21.17% and 15.62%), HD (18.67% and 14.43%), HW (31.44% and 9.43%), QY (21.95% and 15.74%), SZ (25.83% and 10.18%), XW (13.05% and 19.36%). On the other hand, Terpinen-4-ol (25.20%) and Cymene (10.08%) were the main components for CW while Terpinen-4-ol (12.08%) and Linalool (28.71%) were the main components for CW. CW and HW exhibited high similarity. The study facilitates linking the oil compounds with the pharmacological activities of essential oils extracted from Z. bungeanum. These results can provide valuable reference information for resource assessment and the rational utilization of Z. bungeanum resources.
5 Phosphatidylserine: A Well-Studied Cognitive Solution for Supplements and Functional Foods , Itay Shafat
Phosphatidylserine is a structural component of cell membranes, which can be found in all biological membranes of plants, animals and other life forms. The human body contains about 30g of phosphatidylserine, close to half (~13 g) of which is found in the brain. Phosphatidylserine plays a vital role in several cellular processes, such as activation of cell-membrane bound enzymes, and is involved in neuronal signaling. Phosphatidylserine can also be found in human diet, though in the last decades it is estimated that average consumption levels have declined by approximately 50%. Phosphatidylserine has been extensively studied as a dietary supplement, mainly for cognitive health in various populations, from children with ADHD to elderly, healthy and diseased alike. Preclinical and clinical studies demonstrated that oral administration of phosphatidylserine is safe and well tolerated, and can improve cognitive functions, relieve daily stress, improve skin health, have benefits for those dealing with sports, and more. The physical traits of phosphatidylserine, such as the fact that it is an amphiphilic molecule or its lack of organoleptic problems, makes phosphatidylserine especially suitable for functional foods. Together with the growing consumer trend preferring functional foods over the traditional tablets and capsules, phosphatidylserine can be an interesting addition to foods for children, seniors, athletes and others.
6 Assessment of Redox Status in Commercial Bottled Mineral Water , Ken-ichiro Matsumoto, Yukihiro Ogawa, Masato Kamibayashi, Minako Nyui, Ikuo Nakanishi, Shigeaki Suenaga, Hiromu Ito, Hirofumi Matsui, Toshihiko Ozawa, Hiroko P. Indo and Hideyuki J. Majima
Redox status in commercial bottled mineral water, ILOHAS, Mt. Fuji, Choju, Crystal Geyser, Volvic, Evian, Vittel, Perrier and Contrexville was studied. Among the 9 water, Choju and Perrier showed significantly larger DMPO-OH decay rate, k (min-1). Next, redox related correlation was studied with 9 water samples. A strong correlation between the hardness of water and the amount of residue after lyophilization of each water sample was demonstrated. Significant correlations were observed between X-ray-induced •OH generation and pH of the water sample. Another significant correlation was also observed between free radical-reducing ability and 1 minus the ratio of hardness/residue content (1-H/R value) of the sample water, which is a value indicating a ratio of mineral contents other than (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) in the water sample. No notable correlations were recognized among other factors, such as correlation between DMPO-OH generation C0int and residue weight, correlation between DMPO-OH decay rate and pH, and correlation between DMPO-OH decay rate and residue weight
7 Exposure to the Dietary Supplement N-Acetyl-LCysteine during Pregnancy Reduces Cyclophosphamide Teratogenesis in ICR Mice , Brittany M. Miller , Kyle K. Wells , Charles B. Wells , Xuan T. Lam , Marah E. Carney , Douglas S. Kepko , Morgan L. Mueller , Ronald D. Hood and Melissa M. Bailey
Cyclophosphamide (CP) is a complex multifaceted developmental toxicant, with mechanisms of teratogenesis thought to include production of excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS). N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) is a powerful antioxidant that may decrease the toxicity of certain anticancer drugs, such as doxorubicin and CP. The current study explored the potential of NAC to attenuate CP-induced damage to the conceptus. Mated ICR mice were orally dosed with 150 mg/kg/d NAC, 150 mg/kg/d NAC + 20 mg/kg CP, CP only, or vehicle only. CP was administered by intraperitoneal injection on gestation day (GD) 10, and NAC was given by gavage on gestation days 6-13. Dams were sacrificed on GD 17, and their litters were examined for adverse effects. There were significant reductions in the incidences of digit, limb, and tail defects, as well as anasarca and macroglossia, in fetuses exposed to the combination of NAC and CP, compared to fetuses exposed to CP only. NAC did not increase the incidence of any defects when compared to control. Fetuses exposed to NAC weighed significantly more than the average vehicle control fetus. The data indicate that NAC, a well-tolerated, relatively inexpensive antioxidant, appears to reduce the incidence of specific cyclophosphamide-induced malformations when administered prior to, concurrently with, and after exposure to CP.
8 A Basic Science and Clinical Review of Vitamin D , Stephen A. Mills , Sophia Dueno and Gregory H. Wallace
Vitamin D was discovered in the early 20th century [1]. Since that time, it has been the subject of extensive research by both the scientific and clinical communities. Vitamin D is commonly known for its regulation of serum calcium and phosphorous levels and its ability to prevent rickets [1,2]. The development of molecular and genetic technology has allowed researchers to look at the effects of vitamin D on other organ systems. Vitamin D receptors have been found on various organs in the human body and it has been estimated that vitamin D regulates around 250 genes [3,4]. Vitamin D research continues to be an open field where clinicians look to achieve a complete understanding of vitamin D function and its benefits in human health.
9 Calculation of Costs based on Time-driven Activities (TDABC) during Hospital Nutritional Care in High-cost Pathologies such as Stomach, Colon and Rectal Cancer with Malnutrition , Pinzón-Espitia OL and González-Rodríguez JL
Background & Aim: An optimal nutritional care process with costs that contribute to the sustainability of hospitals, contributes to reduce the complications associated with states of malnutrition in oncological pathologies. Methods: We analyzed the nutritional care costs of 471 patients with stomach cancer pathologies 39.5%, followed by colon cancer 37.98%, and rectal cancer 23.79%, in order to know the real cost caused by applying the methodology of cost based on time invested per activity (TDABC). Results: In the ADHD analysis, it was shown that a nutritional intervention model favors the control of costs and opportunities for improvement, actively involving physicians, clinical teams and administrative staff in charge of the cycle of care, allowing a net profit of 3.7% to be established. Conclusions: It was found that a nutritional care process based on time-driven activities optimizes care times and generates a positive net profit as part of comprehensive care.
10 Is the Use of Metformin Associated with Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Hospitalized Patients? , Madill J, Hartman B, Donnelly-VanderLoo, Smeall K, Siswanto O, Watson T and O’Connor C
Objective: The primary objective was to determine the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency and subclinical deficiency among metformin users in various clinical settings across Southwestern Ontario. The secondary objective was to determine the relationship between metformin use and B12 deficiency. Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted on patients admitted to emergency, neurology, critical care and trauma, and spinal cord and stroke rehabilitation units in 3 hospitals across Southwestern Ontario between January 2010 and December 2012. A total of 710 electronic charts were studied through random sampling. Results: Overall prevalence of impaired B12 status (< 220 pmol/L) among the entire patient population with B12 data were 18.6% (n=391) and 24% among metformin users (n=78, P < 0.0001). The majority of metformin users were not likely to take a B12 supplement (P=0.0065). The 2 patients on metformin who were both classified as being B12 deficient, however, only 53% of those with subclinical deficiency were taking a B12 supplement. B12 supplement administration did differ by hospital site in those with subclinical B12 deficiency status (148-220 pmol/L, P=0.0334). Conclusion: This study reports a higher prevalence of B12 deficiency among metformin users than the general patient population. Metformin users with overt B12 deficiency were taking B12 supplements but only half of those with subclinical deficiency were using a B12 supplement. Recommendations for B12 supplement use among those with subclinical status vary by institution. Measuring methylmalonic acid [MMA] to determine functional B12 status may ensure those with subclinical deficiencies receive treatment, and this should become the standard medical approach.
11 Vitamin D Levels in Patients with Colorectal Cancer and Matched Household Members , Marissa B. Savoie , Alan Paciorek, Li Zhang, Nilli Sommovilla , Alan P. Venook, Erin L. Van Blarigan and Katherine Van Loon
Background: Vitamin D levels, as measured by 25-hydroxyvitamin-D [25(OH) D], are inversely related to the risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC). Given shared demographic and lifestyle factors among members of the same household, we sought to examine vitamin D levels and associated lifestyle factors in household members of CRC patients. Methods: Thirty patients with pathologically confirmed CRC were enrolled prior to oncologic therapy along with unrelated household members who were matched for age (+/- 5 years) and race. In addition to serum blood draws for 25(OH)D levels at baseline and six-month follow-up, questionnaires collected gender, vitamin use, body mass index, family history of CRC, race, dietary vitamin D, UV exposure, and exercise. Results: Median serum 25(OH) D levels were 26.8 ng/mL for CRC patients versus 27.3 for household members (P=0.89). Vitamin-D associated factors such as dietary vitamin D intake, UV exposure, gender, multivitamin use, vitamin D supplement use, and family history of CRC were not significantly different between CRC patients and paired household members (P>0.05). Household members were more likely than CRC patients to be overweight and to exercise more. Conclusions: Vitamin D levels and many associated lifestyle factors were not significantly different between CRC patients and unrelated paired household members. Given comparable vitamin D levels, further investigation into whether age-matched household members of CRC patients may be at increased risk for CRC is warranted.
12 Effects of Sports Nutrition Education on Athletic Performance and Iron Status in High School-Aged Youth Athletes , Marni E. Shoemaker, Zachary M. Gillen, Brianna D. McKay, Jean Ann Fischer, Christina Hansen, Nicholas A. Bohannon, Sydney M. Gibson, Karsten Koehler and Joel T. Cramer
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an online sports nutrition curriculum on athletic performance and iron status in high school-aged male and female athletes. A repeated-measures design evaluated forty-three males (n=18) and females (n=25). Athletic performance and biomarkers of iron status were measured before and after participating in an eight-week online sports nutrition curriculum. Performance tests included vertical jump height and power (VJPP and VJH, respectively), broad jump (BJ), pro-agility (PA), L-cone (LC), 20-yard-dash (20YD), and push up strength and power (PPUF and PPUPP, respectively). Concentrations of ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and hemoglobin (Hb) were reported from capillary blood samples. Dietary recalls were collected as part of the first curriculum lesson. There were no changes in any measurement from pre- to post-curriculum (p=0.070 – 0.977). As expected, males were greater than females for VJH, VJH·kg-1, VJPP, VJPP·kg-1, BJ, BJ·kg-1, PA, LC, 20YD, and ferritin concentrations (p<0.001 – 0.039), but there were no sex differences for PA·kg-1, LC·kg-1, 20YD·kg-1, PPUF , PPUF ·kg-1, PPUP , PPUP ·kg-1, Hb, Hb·kg fat-free mass (FFM)-1, ferritin·kg FFM-1, sTfR, and sTfR·kg FFM-1(p=0.075 – 0.952). While males met most recommendations, females were below recommendations for energy, carbohydrate, protein, and iron intakes. Although the sports nutrition education did not directly enhance athletic performance or iron status, high school-aged female athletes may benefit from sports nutrition education to encourage dietary intakes that fall within recommended ranges.
13 Nutrition in Disguise: Development, Testing and CostAnalysis of Nutrient-Enhanced Food for Residential Care , Heather Keller, Flavia Lucio Pereira de Paula , Cindy Wei , Alison Duncan4 and Lisa Duizer
Older adults living in residential care are at risk for micronutrient deficiency and malnutrition. This study aims to demonstrate the feasibility of micronutrient-enhanced recipes to meet this need. Three phases were used to develop micronutrient-enhanced foods, made with novel ingredients, appropriate for residential care. Nutrients, ingredients and food vehicles to be enhanced were identified through published literature, consultation with providers and nutrient analysis to determine ingredients/foods high in nutrients shown to be low in the diets of residents. 21 recipes were developed by residential chefs of which 10 were taste-tested by residents without (n=18) and with (n=11) cognitive impairment. Liking and sensory appeal were measured using hedonic scale (9 point), a cued facial response scale (9 point), weighing remaining test foods and unprompted facial expressions and comments. A 7-day residential menu was substituted with one or two nutrient-enhanced foods and nutrient analysis and cost were compared to the original menu. Recipes were created for desserts, baked products, soups, quiche and a smoothie. Nutrients enhanced were: vitamin B6 , folate, vitamins B12, D, E and K, calcium, magnesium, selenium and zinc. Taste-testing across persons with and without cognitive impairment identified that desserts and baked products were preferred, although there was no single tasting method that clearly identified preferences for persons living with cognitive impairment. Cost increase was less than 10% and nutrient content increased for one, and two food item substitutions in the residential menu, but differences were not statistically significant. Enhancement of micronutrients through novel ingredient recipes for residential care is a feasible strategy to mitigate micronutrient malnutrition.
14 Cytotoxic Potentials of Clerodendrum Volubile against Prostate Cancer Cells and Its Possible Proteomic Targets , Saheed Afolabi , Olufunke Olorundare , Gideon Gyebi , Deeba N Syed , Hasan Mukhtar, Ralph Albrecht and Mamoru Koketsu
The plant Clerodendrum volubile consumed by the Niger/Delta people of Nigeria has additional therapeutic applications for diabetes, ulcer, arthritis, rheumatism, dropsy, etc. The present study was conducted on the methanol extracts from Clerodendrum volubile leaves (CVE), with the aim of exploring its cytotoxic activity against prostate cancer (PCa) cells and delineate its potential mechanistic targets. CVE inhibited cell viability and suppressed clonogenic potential of PCa cells as assessed by MTT and colony assays. Western blot analysis of CVE-treated cells revealed concentration-dependent cleavage of PARP and Caspase 3. Flow cytometric data validated apoptosis as the primary mechanism of CVE-induced cell death with significant increase in the number of apoptotic cells subsequent to treatment. Furthermore, CVE-treated cells demonstrated increased levels of cyclin- dependent kinase inhibitor p21, suggesting modulation of cell cycle machinery. Profiling of CVEtreated PCa cells, utilizing a LC-MS/MS based quantitative proteomic strategy, yielded a data set of 16 significantly modulated proteins. Other than three proteins, ALBU, ROA3 and HNRPC that were downregulated [1.7; 1.7 and 2.5 fold, respectively], 13 proteins including TALDO, SYWC and FUMH with specific roles in the pentose phosphate pathway and tricarboxylic acid cycle were significantly upregulated [2.4; 1.9 and 1.8 fold, respectively] in CVE-treated PCa cells. Our studies provide insight into plausible mechanism(s) through which CVE exerted its growth inhibitory effect against PCa cells. Further studies are warranted to characterize the effect on functional pathways modulated by CVE with special focus on glucose metabolism.
15 Vitamin D3 Supplementation to Children; A Pilot-Study of Adherence , Kerstin Ekbom
Background: Non-adherence to supplementation is a widespread public health problem and according to the World Health Organization adherence among patients with chronic disease averages is only 50 percent. The difficulties in treating children with obesity are well-known and the outcome is highly dependent on adherence. Obesity is associated with a low vitamin D3 status and it is discussed if supplementation should be considered for obese children, when low vitamin D3 status increases the risk of several diseases. Objectives: The study aim was to determine the convergence between self-reported adherence and serum 25(OH)D3 levels, the circulating vitamin D3 metabolite. Thereafter to compare the adherence between children with obesity vs normal-weight children. Method: The study design was a prospective longitudinal study of 20 children (11-17 year of age) with a low vitamin D3 status. The children were recommended supplementation for 2 months. Adherence was checked during visits at the clinic in combination with bloodsampling (25(OH)D3 ). Results: All the participants had a high self-documented adherence (75%), which was in line with the vitamin D3 levels that increased significantly after 2 months. No difference was seen in the adherence between obese and normal-weight children. Conclusion: The convergence between self-reported adherence and serum 25(OH)D3 levels was high. The adherence to vitamin D3 supplement for children works well due to frequent contacts with a pediatric nurse in combination with blood sampling with no difference between obese or normal-weight children.
16 Validation Data Based on a Web-Based Photographic Questionnaire for Assessment of Skills in Estimating Carbohydrate Portion Sizes in Adults with Type 1 Diabetes , N Schouw , AG Skouboe , JM Bruun and B Ewers
The data in this article present differences and agreements in estimating the carbohydrate content in foods based on web-based photographs vs. real foods in adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D). The Carbohydrate Photographic Questionnaire (CPQ) consists of photograph series of 20 commonly eaten high-carbohydrate foods in the Nordic countries. The CPQ was developed as a simple tool for assessing skills in accurate estimation of the carbohydrate content of foods. Ninety-six adults (52% females) on insulin pump therapy attended the study. Error estimates for the true carbohydrate content were calculated based on the participants’ estimations from the CPQ and from real foods. Cross-classifications indicated an overall moderate agreement in estimation errors between the CPQ and real foods. The median percentage of participants classified into the same error category when estimating the carbohydrate content in real foods vs. the CPQ was 39% (interquartile range (IQR) 35–50%). The highest correct classification was obtained for grapes (79%) while lasagne (15%) had the lowest correct classification.
17 Skills Lacking in Estimating Carbohydrate Content: A Need for Continual Education of Adults with Type 1 Diabetes , Schouw N , Skouboe AG , Bruun JM and Ewers B
Aim: To examine whether adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D) educated in counting carbohydrates can identify and correctly estimate the carbohydrate content, and to examine whether these skills are associated with lower glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Methods: Ninety-six patients with T1D on insulin pump therapy participated. We assessed skills in categorising 32 food items as either high- or low-carbohydrate and estimating carbohydrate portion sizes in 20 typical Danish high-carbohydrate food items. We calculated error estimates for carbohydrate portion sizes and examined patient characteristics with a likely impact on estimation accuracy. Results: An average of 88% correct answers ranging from 21 to 100% were found for the high- or low-carbohydrate food items. The participants’ estimations differed significantly from the correct carbohydrate content in 17 of 20 typical Danish high-carbohydrate food items. No significant associations were found between HbA1c and the ability to estimate carbohydrates correctly. Conclusion: Although adults with T1D previously educated in basic carbohydrate counting can identify high-carbohydrate food items, they lack skills in correctly estimating carbohydrate portion sizes. Our results underline the need for continual education to strengthen and maintain skills in carbohydrate estimation.
18 Direct Exposure to Sunlight Accelerates Vitamin D Biodegradation in Milk , Ronald C Hamdy , Reza M Mohseni , Edith Seier , W Andrew Clark and Jennifer Culp
Background: Vitamin D is essential for the gastrointestinal absorption of calcium and mechanical integrity of the musculoskeletal system. It can be ingested and is also produced in the skin by the action of ultraviolet (UV) sunlight on 7-dehydro-cholesterol, converting it to cholecalciferol. Given the risks of exposure to sunlight and convenient availability of sunblock lotions, many people tend to rely on the oral intake of vitamin D. In the United States milk is routinely fortified with vitamin D and is one of the primary dietary sources of the vitamin. Hypovitaminosis D is nevertheless quite prevalent and has been associated with a number of pathologies. Objective: The purpose of our study is to determine whether the rate of cholecalciferol biodegradation in fortified milk is accelerated by exposure to direct sunlight. Methods: This study was conducted on a sunny day when the temperature was 72°F. Commercially available skim milk was used. Three clear glass containers of milk were placed under direct sunlight, 3 in an adjacent shaded area, and 3 in a refrigerator. Samples from each container were obtained at 0, 5, 10, 30, 60, and 90 minutes. The modified AOAC Official Method 992.26 and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were utilized to extract and analyze cholecalciferol, and the Vitamin D content (mg/L) was calculated using the BeerLambert law. Results: Our data show that the vitamin D content of fortified milk decreases significantly (to about 80% of its original value) over a period of 60 minutes when exposed to direct sunlight. The vitamin D content of fortified milk kept unrefrigerated in shade also decreases over a period of 60 minutes (by about 10%), but the vitamin D content of samples kept refrigerated remains largely unchanged. Conclusions: Vitamin D degradation in milk exposed to sunshine occurs steadily over a period of 10 minutes to 60 minutes, leveling off between 60 and 90 minutes. Vitamin D content of fortified milk stored in a refrigerator remains consistent throughout the time period tested.
19 Impact of Gut Microbiota Extracellular Vesicles on Inflammatory and Metabolic Disease , Tae-Seop Shin, Eun Kyoung Kim, Andrea Mc Dowell and Yoon-Keun Kim
The microbiome is the collection of genetic material associated with the microbial community of bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes that coinhabit a given environment. The number of symbiotic microbes in the human body has been conventionally estimated to be 100 trillion, 10 times more than human cells, and contribute over 100 times more genetic material than the human genome [1]. The intestinal microflora is the largest component of the human microbiome and is known to play an important role in human physiology. For example, the intestinal microbiota metabolizes substances that humans cannot process through digestion, contributes to immune system maturation, and has been associated withdevelopment of metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes, anxiety, depression, dementia and other mental health disorders [2].
20 Is Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D Associated with Health among Chinese in the Netherlands? A Cross-sectional Study , Ping Wai Man , Irene M. van der Meer , Wenzhi Lin , Ron Wolterbeek , Mattijs E. Numans , Annemieke C. Heijboer, Paul Lips , Barend J. C. Middelkoop
Background: Little is known about the association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and health outcomes of Chinese people residing in the Netherlands. Objective: The purpose of our cross-sectional study was to explore the associations between 25(OH)D and bone health, cardio metabolicrelated outcomes, and physical performance. Methods: In a sample of Chinese people living in the Netherlands, 416 men and women aged ≥18 years with a Chinese background, serum 25(OH)D concentrations, fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, and physical performance were measured. Bone health was measured by means of quantitative ultrasound of the heel. Physical activity, sunlight exposure, calcium intake, and use of vitamin D supplements and drugs were self-reported by means of questionnaires. Results: At the cut-off point of 25(OH)D for vitamin D adequacy as defined by the Health Council of the Netherlands (HCN), fasting blood glucose was higher when serum 25(OH)D was <30 nmol/L (or <50 nmol/L for persons aged ≥70 years) both unadjusted (0.340 mmol/L; 95% CI, 0.059 to 0.621) and adjusted for age, sex and use of vitamin D supplements and glucose-lowering drugs (0.284 mmol/L;95% CI, 0.033 to 0.536). Other associations at the HCN cut-off point were not found. At the cut-off points of 25(OH)D of 50 nmol/L and 75 nmol/L no associations between 25(OH)D and health outcomes were found. Conclusion: Although this study provides some insights into detectable associations between vitamin D and some health outcomes, further longitudinal and intervention studies are required to confirm our findings.
21 Enhancing Water Resistance, Tensile Properties and UV-Shielding Capacity of Bovine Gelatin Films Modified with Epoxidized Soybean Oil and Glyoxal during Processing , M Lucía González Granados, Josefa F Martucci and Roxana A Ruseckaite
The present work is focused on the use of epoxidized soybean oil (ESO, 10 wt%) as hydrophobizing additive, glycerol as plasticizer (Gly, 30 wt.%), and glyoxal (GLX, 2 wt%) as low-toxicity cross-linking agent to endow bovine gelatin (BGe) films with improved moisture-related and UV-light barrier properties. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effect of such modifications on the physicomechanical and structural properties of the obtained gelatin films. Modification was produced during intensive mixing and hot-press molding as a more environmentally sound and less time-consuming processing method. ESO improved moderately the moisture content (MC) and water vapor permeability (WVP) of BGe film by 19% and 29%, respectively, but the total solubility of BGe-10ESO film evidenced the inability of ESO to induce covalent cross-linking. When GLX was added to the BGe-10ESO formulation, several target film properties were upgraded; the film kept about 78% of its weight after 24 h of soaking in water, WVP improved by 56.8%, the tensile strength (TS) increased 48% while the stretching ability dropped in about 41%. The significant reduction in available free amino groups, from 100% (control) up to 21.9%, together with the increased color from light yellow to light orange confirmed that amino groups in BGe were involved in imine-based cross-linked structure when treated with glyoxal. Further, the high blocking ability of BGe-10ESO-2GLX film against UV-radiation may be useful in delaying UV-induced lipid oxidation when it is placed in contact with foods.