Journal of Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality
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A Philosophical Approach to Animal Rights and Welfare in the Tourism Sector
Ebru Günlü Küçükaltan  , S. Emre Dilek 
Although studies on animal rights and welfare in the field of tourism have begun to emerge in recent years, the subject is still new. In this context, a philosophical approach to animal rights and welfare in the tourism sector is put forward in this study. Concepts commonly used in animal rights and welfare debates, such as moral status, animal love, animal hatred, speciesism, anthropocentrism, ecocentrism are explained and are then discussed in the context of the tourism sector on the philosophical basis of what tourism means for commodified animals. Various proposals are developed for how changes can be made to grant animals in the tourism sector a moral status, both in theory and in practice.
A Survey on e-Complaints: The Case of Turkish Airlines
Sema Battal  , Erkan Kayalı  , Ümit Soner Ural  , Duygu Yetgin 
Handling of complaints in airline companies that take customer satisfaction into consideration has a significant impact on customer retention. Customer complaints provide great opportunities for detecting and eliminating weaknesses, and for preventing similar problems. Thus, the airline companies should pay attention to customer complaints in order to improve themselves, increase their profits, and to provide continuity. Within this context, the online complaints made between February 2018 and February 2019 regarding Turkish Airlines in the most-visited customer complaint website in Turkey, ‘www.sikayetvar.com’, were reviewed in this study, and it was aimed to determine the most common subjects of complaint. The complaints were evaluated through one of the qualitative research methods, content analysis. The complaints were categorized, and the most common subjects of customer complaints were determined. This study aims at showing the types of weaknesses in services offered by Turkish Airlines Company. The most common subjects of complaint were found to be damaged and lost luggage, Turkish Airlines loyalty card; Miles and Smiles card, delays, and ticket refunds. At the end of this study, suggestions were made for Turkish Airlines and the literature.
Tourists as Meme-seekers: A Theoretical Approach
Tourists seek a variety of experiences and they all participate in tourist mobility in their way. In this study the concept of seeking analysed in the scope of memetics. The tourist meme has identified as a meme that in a close or wide relation with tourist mobility which are carrying information about a place, an era or period of time, a culture, sub-cultures, cultural items, styles, behaviours, individuals themselves, completely imaginary things, a religion or a belief, an event, events or other memes and so on. It is accepted in meme/gene analogy when a meme spread into a brain, it associates with other memes in a kind of package or other words, in a memeplex. For this reason, tourist types accepted as tourist memeplexes and tied theoretically with the concepts of focus and goal. Kanerva’s conception of focus was used to more broadly define what a meme was associated with, as Gabora does. In this statement, memes have accepted in the form of information patterns encoded within the focus indicating the scope and experiential quality of the individual’s awareness. The proposed theoretical model consists of three dimensions. These are tourist memeplex, focus and goal. With this proposal, it is aimed to assess different types of tourist experiences together which were defined by different authors. On the other hand, this model gives a chance to develop a new and complex taxonomy to assess various types of tourist experiences in a single framework.
Developing a Sufficient and Effective Coastal Tourism Model
Coastal tourism is nowadays the most important tourism activity worldwide and its development is based on the optimal combined use of tourism resources available in the coastal region. Over-development of a destination, however, leads to significant environmental, cultural, economic and social impacts on communities and infrastructures of destinations. Important differentiations are, therefore, needed for re-designing existing destinations and developing new and under-developed ones in sustainable ways. This model must be based on a strategy to regulate, control and finance tourism development proposals using universally accepted rules and practices. It is concluded that sustainable tourism development of a certain coastal area requires the involvement of all stakeholders, as well as the strong commitment of the state to ensure broad participation and consensus. Sustainability in tourism is a continuous process that requires thorough impact monitoring and adoption of all necessary measures to prevent, suppress and/or correct all emerging problems on a case-by-case and day-by-day basis.
Views on the Effects of Nature-Based Tourism Activities on the Environment: The Case of Fairy Chimneys Tourism Region (Turkey)
Semra Günay Aktaş  , Ali Yılmaz  , Nor'Ain Othman 
The Fairy Chimneys Tourism Region (FCTR) is located in a historical geographic region called Cappadocia in the central part of Turkey. Cappadocia, with its rich history, natural and cultural attractions, is one of the most visited places by domestic and international tourists and its most important attraction is fairy chimneys. In addition to its natural attractiveness, it has important tourist attractions for cultural and faith tourism. The region also offers a wide range of nature-based tourism activities. Qualitative research methods were used in the study and semi-structured interview technique was used. The study was conducted in Nevsehir province in Turkey. In the research, the following main results were obtained. With the nature-based tourism activities, the duration and expenditures of the tourists have increased. Almost all of the respondents (except balloon business) stated that nature-based tourism activities adversely affect the environment. There are different opinions about the rate of negative effects of sportive activities for tourism purposes on nature and which activity is causing more harm. Those who earn direct income from an activity generally report that there is little or no loss. Problems were identified such as unplanned and uncontrolled activities and lack of legislation. The sector lacks specialized tour guides to work in nature-based tourism activities in the region. Efforts should be initiated to develop and implement new tourism policies in order to ensure long-term sustainable tourism development in the region that does not threaten its future. It should be ensured that all stakeholders work in cooperation.
Investigating Antecedents of Customer Loyalty for Web-Based Travel Intermediaries
Şükrü Fırat Çiftçi  , Beykan Çizel 
Information technology has conspicuously influenced and transformed travel and tourism industry. With the advent of different technological developments such as Computer Reservation Systems (CRS) in the 1960s, Global Distribution Systems (GDS) in the 1980s and the Internet in the early 1990s, the travel and tourism industry has faced with new opportunities and challenges. These technologies have also changed customer behavior. There are few studies investigated the relationship among trust, satisfaction and loyalty of customers together in the literature in terms of web-based travel intermediaries. The main aim of this study is to investigate factors such as trust and satisfaction creating customer loyalty in web-based travel intermediaries. It was explored the degree of importance of trust, besides satisfaction, when it is associated with loyalty. Multiple linear regression was used to examine the relationship among web-based travel intermediary loyalty, satisfaction and trust. The research was conducted between February and April 2018 in Istanbul. A total of 362 data were collected by questionnaires and analyzed. The results indicated that participants’ satisfaction and trust predicted web-based travel intermediary loyalty at 68.9% level. Accordingly, satisfaction and trust seem to have a significant and positive effect on web-based travel intermediary loyalty. The results provide evidence that trust is a strong influence on customer loyalty as well as satisfaction. Contributions, recommendations and limitations are also outlined at the conclusion part of this study.
Tracing Industrial Heritage: The Case of Berlin Bicycle Route
Evinc Dogan 
This paper aims to investigate how the industrial heritage is represented on a cultural bicycle trail and used as a tool for constructing tourist gaze. A qualitative case study methodology is used, where the analysis is two-fold. A phenomenological approach is adopted at first step. The bicycle route is explored to get first-hand experience and familiarize with the data in the physical urban context. The second step is document analysis. Texts are collected and analysed for interpreting the meaning by digging deeper into socio-cultural context. The cycling route is a form of experience bridging the spatio-temporal gap between tangible heritage (monuments, landmarks) and intangible dimensions (symbols and meanings). The findings reveal shifts in meaning drawing on relations between the physical space and represented space. The cultural routes are of interest as applied tourism products. They provide opportunities for creating a strong destination image. This exploratory research is an initial examination of how cultural routes can shape tourism experience. It presents a framework to tackle with heritage and representation, while offering further avenues for investigating urban tourism where tourists can be co-creators for adding other layers of meaning. This helps increase awareness about urban heritage and offers an alternative tourist gaze and perception.
English Communication Needs of Tourism Faculty Undergraduates: A Comparative Stakeholder Analysis
Davut Uysal  , Cihan Seçilmiş 
The purpose of this study is to identify the needs of tourism faculty undergraduates to develop their English communication skills with a comprehensive needs analysis and to investigate if the stakeholders’ views about the students’ needs differ from one another. The study is considered to be important because it included all the stakeholders of tourism faculties in Turkey to provide a basis for a well-tailored vocational English curriculum and to increase the qualifications of tourism faculty graduates. In this study, graduates and undergraduates of tourism faculties, tourism lecturers and English language instructors at tourism faculties and executive representatives of the tourism sector were taken as the stakeholders. The population of the study covered all tourism faculties in Turkey. The sample was taken from six different tourism faculties using the simple random sampling method with a questionnaire. The sampling of the graduates and executive sector representatives was taken from an Antalya-based association using the simple random sampling method again. Analysis of the research data helped identify which stakeholders differed from one another in the needs of tourism undergraduates for the development of tourism undergraduates’ English communication skills, especially tourism lecturers were found to have differed from almost all other stakeholders. Relevant suggestions are offered to manage the differences to increase the effectiveness of the English courses currently given at tourism faculties and possible reasons for such differences among stakeholders are discussed in the study.
Cultural Benefits of Former Military Buildings’ Reuse: Public Room, Skopje, Republic of North Macedonia
Olgica Grcheva 
The reuse of former military buildings is a relatively recent tendency in Skopje. As in different regions and countries around the world, especially after the fall of the Berlin Wall and start of the new political realities in Europe in the late 80s and the beginning of 90s, in the former socialist countries, such as Macedonia, military heritage has become a common part of the society and has been used for various cultural purposes. These former military facilities that have remained in a good physical condition and that have undergone contemporary reuse projects in Skopje have become a part of the new cultural networks and routes, and they have even promoted various values related to smart city concept. The conversion from the rigid and neglected military buildings which have been existing near the former Railway Station into new cultural hubs, centers for design and innovations are offering vast multi-layered benefits to the cultural mainstreams. This paper aims to interpret how the mentioned benefits are achieved through the applied adaptive reuse project and decision- making process within the context of “Public Room”; offering and promoting up-to-date multicultural activities and events to the locals and tourists, without any bias towards political, ethnical or religious orientation.
Thoughts of Academics on the Use of Mobile Augmented Reality in Tourism Education: The Case of Eskisehir
Duran Cankül  , Batuhan Sönmez 
Human resource in the tourism sector is critical enough to shape the future of the sector. The opinions of academics are extremely important in the use of any new product, method and process that will lead to the development of human resources. In this sense, the role of academics is particularly important in enhancing the qualifications of students and the education given to them. In line with this, the aim of this research is to reach the views of the tourism academicians who work in tourism faculties regarding the use of mobile augmented reality technology in tourism education. For this purpose, the research was carried out with the use of qualitative methods. In the method part of the research, one-to-one interviews were conducted with 15 academics working in the tourism faculties of Anadolu University and Eskisehir Osmangazi University using a semi-structured interview form. The answers obtained were transcribed by the researcher and interpreted under four themes: strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats by applying content and frequency analysis. It has been stated by tourism academics that mobile augmented reality applications offer opportunities for the development of tourism education and therefore the development of the sector.