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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RECREATION AND SPORT SCIENCE

Journal Papers (18) Details Call for Paper Manuscript submission Publication Ethics Contact Authors' Guide Line
1 Leisure Time Habits of Employees of Ministry of Justice According to the Education Level , Ömür Fatih KARAKULLUKÇU, Suat KARAKÜÇÜK
This research is concluded in order to determine the effects of the educational levels of the individuals on the leisure time evaluation preferences. The sampling of the research consists of 159 personnel working in various departments of the central organization of the Ministry of Justice. A questionnaire consisting of 64 questions iss used as data collection tool in the study,The data is analyzed with the SPSS 15.0 Statistical Package program and the frequency tables of the variables are given together with the percentage values. One way Variance Analysis (ANOVA) test is used to determine whether there is a significant difference between the variables, and the .05 value is considered as statistically significant. In addition, the frequency of participation of the participants in leisure activities is presented as cross tables  according to their educational status. According to the results of the research; it is understood that individuals can not have sufficient leisure time, but at least they try to evaluate the leisure time they have in a more effective and planned manner as their educational status increases. In addition, it is observed that individuals with low education level are more likely to participate in leisure time activities on their own and also it is observed that as the level of education increased, the activities carried out together increase. Therefore, it is determined that the level of education is influential on the preferences of individuals to evaluate leisure time.
2 A Qualitative View Into the Employment Problems of Sports Management Graduates in Turkey , Cenan ERUZUN, Yağmur KINALI, Esin Esra ERTURAN ÖĞÜT
The aim of this study is to examine the employment problems of sports management in public sector. Firstly, instrument analysis was done and literature was reviewed. The dimensions of research were identified as personal development, universities and government. Interview technique was used as data collection tool in the study. Chained technique was used to determine interviewers and 13 interviews were done in total. Interviewers consist of sports experts and bureaucrats.  Recorded interviews were turned into text via decoding by researchers. Ethnographic content analysis was conducted to these texts. The findings of the study showed that it is really necessary to have personal development to get employed. According to this, improvement of administration and leading skills and having a good knowledge of sports field as well as education and personal development could catalyse employment. According to the findings, poor education, syllabus and quality of the academic in universities staff are among the problems. Additionally, the impact of government on employment shows up in the categories such as the problems of personnel selection and assignment, uncooperative of public institutions, lack of planning and policy. As a result, the employment problems of sports management graduates in public sector are evaluated as the problems such as lack of personal development, the quality of higher education and government based problems.
3 A Study of the Academic Self-Efficacy of Physical Education and Sports Academy Students from the Perspective of Various Variables , Turan ÇETİNKAYA, Hakkı ULUCAN
The aim of this study is to determine the relation of the level of academic self-efficacy to various variables of the studentin physical education and sport department. 330 students who are studying at the departments of physical education and sports teaching, spors management and coaching in Ahi Evran University and Aksaray University, College of Physical Education and Sports participated to the research. Personal information tool and academic self-efficacy scale consisting 30 items were used as data collection tool in the research. Distribution, frequency, t test and anova test were used in comparison of the related data. As a result of  statistical analysis, academic self-efficacy levels significant differences were detected in terms of gender variable on social status and technical skills and in terms of sports type and nationality player variable on social status, technical skills and cognitive applications.
4 Perception of Participation Constraints to Recreational Activities: A case of University Students , Ayşe Aslı HONÇA, Turan ÇETİNKAYA
The purpose of this research is to analyze the perceptions of the university students related with the constraints that affect the participation to leisure time activities. In  this  study, Turkish Leisure Constraints Questionnaire (T-LCQ) was used as a data collection tool. LCQ measure university students’ perceptions of constraints on leisure participation. The population of the research consists of the students of Kastamonu University and the sampling consists of 300 university students between the ages of 18-30 who are studying in the department of Physical Education and Sports Teaching at Kastamonu University in the academic year of 2012-2013. When the obtained data were analyzed, it was determined that the answers of some participants were "invalid" and 232 university students (91 female and 141 male) formed the sampling of the research. According to the sub-dimensions of T-LCQ, independent sample t-test was used to examine the mean differences related with gender and age. Although female university students have higher average scores in all sub-dimensions of T-LCQ, there is no significant difference (p> .05) between the mean scores of male and female students for all sub-dimensions according to t-test analyzes. No significant difference was observed between age groups (p> .05). General findings show that the sub-dimension of facility / service and accessibility is the biggest constraint for leisure time activities and the lack of friends is the least constraint for all participants.
5 Analysis of Expectations and Perceptions of the Customers in Sports and Healthy Life Centers for Service Quality (Sample of Afyonkarahisar Province)   , Yasir KOÇAK, Uğur TUKUL, Betül TOLAN, Hüseyin GÜMÜŞ, Ersan TOLUKAN  
The purpose of this study is to analyze the expectations and perceptions of the fitness center customers related with the quality of service in Afyonkarahisar. A total of 340 participants (age: 25.03 ± 13.34), including 171 men (age: 23.51 ± 12.67) and 169 women (age: 26.57 ± 13.85) who used 11 different wellness centers in Afyonkarahisar were included in the study. The "Service Quality Assessment Scale" (LSP) developed by Lam (2000) and adapted by Turkish Gurbuz, Koçak and Lam (2012) was used as a data collection tool in the research. The HDQÖ consists of 4 sub-dimensions (personnel, program, locker rooms, facility) and a total of 34 articles. The scale is in likert type of 5 (1: I definitely do not participate, 5: I definitely Participate) and measures the expectations and perceptions of the participants from the wellness center. Independent samples t-test, descriptive statistics and One way Variance Analysis (ANOVA) were used in the analysis of the data. According to the research findings, there was no statistically significant difference between the marital status and educational status (p> 0.05), while there was a significant difference in the Service Quality Evaluation Scale scores of the participants in terms of age, gender, monthly income, duration of membership and the frequency of using the facility (p< 0.05).
6 Suggestion for Transition from Tourism Animation Associate Degree Program to Recreation Undergraduate Program , Kurtuluş Onur KAYA
The purpose of this study is to critically and descriptively analyze the problems of upgrading Associate of Tourism Animation degree to a Bachelor’s degree. Of the total number of students, 42.9% were female and 57.1% were male. The mean age of the female students was 20.67±2.94 years and mean age of male students was 20.88±1.36 years. 13 item data collection instrument was designed by the researcher. Fifty percent said after graduation they will work in the profession (animation) in which they are studying; 21.4% said they were undecided about working in the profession. Also, 57.1% of the students reported Theatre, %21.4% Recreation, and 21.4% Tourism and Hotel Management as the potential upgrading bachelor’s degree program for Tourism Animation associate’s degree. Fifty percent of the students plan to complete an associate’s degree and upgrade their degree to a bachelor’s degree. Also, 50% of participants think bachelor’s degree will contribute them in the workplace and 50% think that it will also contribute their academic career in the future. Results of the analysis showed that, 64.3% of the participants think that course contents of the Tourism Animation program and Recreation program is similar and 50% think that getting a bachelor’s degree in Recreation is more advantageous than getting a associate’s degree in Tourism Animation. It is suggested that bachelor’s degree in Recreation should be provided as an upgrading program for the graduates of associate’s degree in Tourism and Animation. This will help students to gain motivation, to improve their knowledge and skills for their future academic career, and to transition these knowledge and skill to future generations.
7 The effect of Solo last friday ride as a sport community in Solo , Rianto Ardi NUGROHO, Sugiyanto, Muchsin DOEWES
The purpose of this study was to determine the implementation and organization of mass cycling event Solo Last Friday Ride,a mass cycling participants' creativity Identifying Solo Last Friday Ride, explaining the benefits of mass cycling participants Solo Last Friday Ride and communities around the mass cycling events Solo Last Friday Ride. The research was conducted in the city of Solo, Central Java. Using qualitative research and is presented using a phenomenological approach. The result of this research is the mass cycling event Solo Last Friday Ride bike community-initiated motion to move the mass cycling community as a means to stay in touch between cyclists, sports facilities, recreation, and promote the bicycle as a means of transportation back healthy and environmentally friendly. Organizing place prior to the coordination of internal discuss the themes and routes that bypassed, Creativity indicated participants adjust costumes and accessories in accordance with the theme, The benefits of participants was as a means of exercise, recreation, socializing, and reduce air pollution, while the general public around the activity is increased revenue.
8 Investigation of concerns of athlete students in athlete training centers for the future , Bilal ÇAĞLAYAN, Şükrü YILMAZ
In Athlete Training Centers, the General Directorate of Sports is responsible for not only sports education of the students at different ages between the 5th and 12th grades but also for their formal education. It is important to identify and monitor potential concerns of all these athlete students, who are at a stage of shaping their future life and planning their professional career, for the future regardless of whether they are successful in sports or not, and to guide them in their career planning. The aim of the present study is to determine concerns of athlete students in athlete training centers (ATCs) for the future and reveal their thoughts about career planning. The universe of the study was 668 high school athlete students in ATCs. “Personal Information Form” and “Career Planning Questionnaire” developed by the authors, and “Beck Hopelessness Scale”, which was developed by Beck et al. and validity and reliability of which in our country was demonstrated by Seber et al. (1993) were used for collecting the study data. SPSS 22.0 software was used for calculations of the data and Chi-square test was employed to find the frequency and percentage distributions as well as the relationships between the questions. The study demonstrates that hope levels of athlete students for the future are high, guidance and counseling services provided at ATCs are guiding them in planning their future, but most of these athlete students are uncertain about what to do after they leave ATCs.
9 Outdoor and indoor sports that require skill executive branches of the personality types of athletes , Hasan Erdem MUMCU, Sema ALAY ÖZGÜL
There are many studies in the areas of personality and motivation. However, there are limited studies on the association of skills to personality trait and motivation in our country. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of the personality types of the athletes, who perform sports requiring outdoor and indoor skills, on the motivation using the Basic Personality Scale for Turkish Culture and the Motivation in Sports Scale. The conclusions drawn here are thought to be that the motivations and personality traits of the athletes will contribute to the selection of the athletes in the future, the selection of the athletes' sports branches and the process of continuing the sports. The sample of the study consisted of 239 national athletes in judo, taekwondo, shooting, wrestling, table tennis, boxing, weightlifting, tennis, swimming, karate, bocce, billiards, chess, badminton and archery branches. Totally 239 national athletes participated in the survey, of which 98 are girls and 141 are boys. When comparing open skills required athletes with closed skills required athletes, the effects of gender, age, educational status, the age of sport, the age of national athletic age on personality types and motivations were examined by Multiple Regression Analysis, Binary and Partial Correlation Analysis. Statistically significant differences were found on the motivations of the athletes who perform sports that require both indoor and outdoor skills.
10 The needs for cognition and cognitive avoidance: The example of the faculty of sports science , Nuri Berk GÜNGÖR, Serkan KURTİPEK, Fatih YENEL
The aim of this study is to examine the levels of cognitive avoidance and needs for cognition of students in higher education institutions providing sports education, according to some variables and to determine the relationship between them. The sample of study consists of 209 female and 117 male students studying at different departments and grades at Gazi University, Faculty of Sport Sciences. Quantitative research method was used in the research and it was designed in relational survey model. The "Cognitive Avoidance Scale" developed by Akyay (2016) and the "Needs for Cognition Scale" developed by Uçar (2017) were used as data collection tools. Data were analyzed by using descriptive statistical methods, t-test, single-factor variance analysis and Pearson Correlation test. In accordance with the findings of the study, it was seen that the cognitive avoidance and needs for cognition of the participants in the study group were at the average level (=3.23, =3.02). It can be stated that the participants have an average level of tendency to engage in cognitive activities such as learning a new concept, researching the causes of events. In addition, it can be stated that participants mostly prefer thought suppression and distraction strategies from cognitive avoidance strategies (=3.51, =3.36). It can be said that the participants made a cognitive effort to avoid a disturbing thought and that they prefer to avoid stimuli that trigger irritating thoughts. As a result of the study, it was determined that the levels of needs for cognition of the participants did not show a significant difference according to gender, class, age and their cognitive avoidance level did not show a significant difference according to gender, department, and class variables (p> .05). However, it was found that the level of needs for cognition of the participants showed a significant difference according to the department variable and their cognitive avoidance level showed a significant difference according to the age variable (p <.05). In addition, the results of the research show that there is a positive correlation between the levels of cognitive avoidance and needs for cognition of the participants (r=.45, p<.05).
11 Investigation of the effects of leisure time constraints of the university students in physical education and sport scholls on their leisure time motivation: Bartın university sample , Hasan GÜLER, Mutlu TÜRKMEN
This study was conducted to determine the barriers to leisure time and motivation levels of university students, to compare them in terms of demographic variables and to determine the relationships between them. This study is a correlational survey model in which Leisure Time Motivation Scale and Barriers to Leisure Time Scale were used. The sample of the study consisted of 317 volunteers who study at Bartın University School of Physical Education and Sports. The statistical methods used for the evaluation of research data are frequency distributions, T-test for binary groups, ANOVA analysis for multiple groups and pearson correlation analysis for determining the relationship. The results of the study revealed that the perceptions of the participants about barriers to leisure time were above average and this was due to the perceptions of lack of relevant facilities and lack of sufficient time. Higher identification-introjection and knowing-succeeding dimensions were more significant in leisure time motivation levels. There was no relationship between barriers to leisure time and leisure time motivation levels. When the findings of the study were evaluated in terms of demographic variables, significant differences were determined for sex and age variables.
12 Physical education teachers organizational trust and organizational investigation of awareness levels , Ramazan KUBAT, Aydın ŞENTÜRK
The aim of this study, primary and secondary education school physical education teachers who work in organizational trust and organizational awareness is intended to determine the relationships between the levels. Relating to organizational awareness organizational confidence with variable teacher perceptions; gender, mourning, education, seniority, making this institution operating time and graduate's has changed has been identified according to the variable. The research universe, 2016-2017 in the academic year under the Ministry of national education, Ankara province, Mamak County official primary and secondary education schools and teachers in these schools. The sample of the survey in the Mamak district 158 physical education teacher. Research as a tool for data collection "personal information form", "the scale of Organizational Trust in schools", and "Organizational Awareness Scale in schools".  Research results and the results are as follows; Physical education teachers perceptions of organizational trust and all of its dimensions with dimensions of organizational awareness in schools and at the level of the child has been found quite agree. According to the variable gender physical education teachers perceptions regarding openness and trust in organizational communication environment showing statistically significant difference in the size of mourning and physical education teachers according to their seniority variable organizational trust administrator perceptions regarding trust in size have shown statistically significant differences. Physical education teachers perceptions of organizational trust-related education, the premises at run time, and working with the Manager of the institution according to the duration variable did not show statistically significant difference. Graduate education of physical education teachers according to the variable do the perceptions of organizational trust in all child dimension was found statistically significant. Teacher awareness, organizational awareness in schools administrator awareness and perceptions of organizational trust with positive way meaningful relationships. Regression analysis as a result of the size of the trust and openness to the administrator, the teacher is raising significant awareness and openness in schools the size of organizational awareness significantly as a result of the upgrade.
13 Investigation of Perceived Service Quality of Youth Centers   , Bahadır ALİGÜL, Hasan Erdem MUMCU, Abdullah ÖZLEYEN, Neşe MUMCU
Youth centers serves for the improvement of the youth at 180 locations in 81 cities within the Ministry of Youth and Sports. And also, it is essential to be aware of the quality of the activities provided for youngsters. The study is implemented to evaluate the perceived service quality of the youth centers that is in service in the TR 42 Level 2 area. This research is carried out with the help of questionnaire techniques and sights of the participants are taken into consideration. This research, which is carried out to determine the relation between the age, gender, time of membership of a Yotuh Center and the variables of that center and the quality of output, quality of physical environment and quality of subdimensions of interaction, is done with the help of sectioning approach and relational screening model which are one of the general screening models.Accordingly, thoughts of the youngsters who are the members of Youth Centers active in TR42 Level 2 area of Ministry of Youth and Sports are taken into account and for this, the data collection tool is used which is developed by Aycan (2005) and evaluated by Polat and his fellows in 2013 in terms of validity and reliability. The findings are processed with SPSS 21.0 For Windows programme and finalized. As a result of research carried out,it is found that there is not considerable amount of differences in terms of gender whereas significant differences are found in terms of age, time of membership of a Youth Center and the variables of that center.
14 Scaling The Psychological Variables That Affect Performance of Athletes By Means of Pairwise Comparison Method , Abdulaziz KULAK, Hüseyin SELVİ
This study aims to identify and scale the variables that thought to affect athlets performance and place those variables on an interval scale. The study group consists of Şanlıurfa Spor football players and coaches, and amateur football players and coaches in Şanlıurfa. Pairwise comparison method and fifth case equation is used in data analysis. Findings showed that the most important variable that affecting the athletes performance is 'self confidence' and the least important variable is ‘anxiety'. According to findings, it is thought and suggested that such psychological variables as self-confidence, goal setting, motivation and attention should be included in exercises in order to enhance the performance of athletes.
15 A Study on the Effect of Personal Values on Leisure Motivation , Tebessüm AYYILDIZ DURHAN
The purpose of this study is to assess the effect of the personal values ​​of licensed football players on leisure motivation, as well as to determine the relationship between personal values ​​and leisure motivation. While the study group consisted of 208 footballer who continued to sport life in licensed football clubs in Ankara, While the study group consisted of 208 athletes who continued to sports life in different football clubs in Ankara, Personal Value Inventory (Asan et al., 2008) and Leisure Time Motivation Scale (Mutlu, 2008) were used for collecting data. The descriptive statistics, independent sample t test, Tukey (HSD-LSD) tests for analysis of differences between Anova groups, simple linear regression analysis and pearson correlation test were used. According to the findings obtained, the highest level of PV and LM were found in the highest PV score and the lowest in the respect and accuracy subdimension, while the lowest average was found in the discipline and responsibility subdimension. There was no significant relationship between participants' educational status, marital status, lack of leisure, availability of leisure and personal values ​​and leisure motivation scales. In addition, there is a weak but positive direction between the personal values ​​and the leisure motivation, which is found in favor of the participants with low income level in the perceived income variable, in favor of the longest-licensed players in the category of licensed players, correlation between the personal values ​​and the leisure motivation as a result of the regression analysis revealed that there is a statistically significant positive linear relationship. As a result, it is concluded that personal value and leisure motivation levels are high, that certain variables affect this level, and that there is a weak but positive relationship between PV and LM. And it is the result of research that PV is the effect on LM.
16 Investigation of Sportsmanship Behaviors of Athletes Participating in Intercollegiate Basketball Competitions , Yıldırım Gökhan GENCER, Oğuzhan EROĞLU, Yunus YILDIRIM
This study focused on investigating sportsmanship behaviors of athletes participating in intercollegiate basketball competitions. Study group was composed of 148 athletes participating in Intercollegiate Basketball Competitions organized in Mersin and Çorum Provinces during 2017-2018. In the study, “Sportsmanship Scale” was used as data collection tool. In the study, it was found that sportsmanship levels of athletes participating in basketball competitions was at moderate level and sportsmanship behaviors did not change statistically in terms of sex, department and position variables p>0.05. Besides, it may be argued that students attending School of Physical Education and Sports had higher level of sportsmanship as compared to students attending other departments.
17 Recreational Activities for with Disability: School-Aged Children and Adolescents , Pervin TOPTAŞ DEMİRCİ
There is a need to develop appropriate opportunities for people with disabilities throughout their life course. The provision of access for people with disabilities to quality physical activity and sporting opportunities must be addressed on an equal basis with those of their non-disabled peers. The aim of this study was to disabled children and Adolescents recreational physical activity, frequency of physical activity, examine the benefits of physical activity and the participation in recreational physical activity to create more active people with recommendations for physical activity. A high level overview of the reviews of published literature. A systematic search of Web of Science, Medline, PubMed, and SPORTDiscus, Physical Education Index was employed to find all relevant studies focusing on human participants. Search terms included “Recreational Activities ”, “Children with Disabilities ”, " Prevalence of Physical Activity "and “Benefits of Recreational Physical Activity ”. The benefits of physical activity are universal for all children, including those with disabilities. Participation of children with disabilities in sports and recreational activities encourages inclusion, minimizes conditioning, optimizes physical function and improves overall well-being. Despite these benefits, children with disabilities are more limited in attendance, have lower fitness levels, and have higher levels of obesity than those without disabilities. The importance of sport and physical activity must be underlined by strategic action at national, regional and local level. Social commitment and an appreciation of the benefits to society of diversity is promoted and fuelled by clear national policy and frameworks and co-ordinated strategic planning. Increasing physical activity in children with disabilities is very complex and demands further development and research.
18 The Development of Yoko Techi Training Method to Increase the Movement Function and Decrease the Anxiety Level on Pre-Elderly and Elderly Woman , Husnul Khatimah LALARNİ, Wara KUSHARTANTİ
The purpose of this research is to create a training method to increase the movement function and decrease the anxiety level on pre-elderly and elderly women. The method which is a combination between yoga, makko ho, pilates and tai chi called as YOKO TECHI. It is supposed to increase the movement function while decreasing the anxiety level on pre-elderly and elderly women. This research aims to search and improve this new technique. In addition to interview methods, large and small tests were conducted for observation. The effectiveness test was conducted via pre-experiment with one-group pretest-posttest design. This research was conducted on elderly posyandu Amrih Sehat Jatijajar village, Bergas sub-district, Semarang. It is followed by 10 subjects for small,15 subjects for large scale test to get the product effectiveness test. YOKO TECHI Training treatment was done three times in a week for six weeks. Data analysis was conducted via t-test and assisted by SPSS. All YOKO TECHI movements can increase the movement function on pre-elderly and elderly women while decreasing the anxiety level with the shoulder movement function enhancement of 17.08%, on the back there is an enhancement from movement function of 22.45%, on lower extremity there is an enhancement for movement function of 21.38% whereas on anxiety level there is 10.93% decreasing. The development of yoko techi training method can increase the movement function and decrease the anxiety level on pre-elderly and elderly woman.