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Open Access Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

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1 Anthelmintic Activity of Methanolic Extract of Strychnos Colubrina L. Bark , Karthikeyan R*, Suryabhavana A and Srinivasa Babu P
Strychnoscolubrina L. (Loganiaceae) is being used in traditional medicine for a variety of ailments. One successive standard and three crude extract of its barks were subjected for anthelmintic activity on adult Indian earthworm pherithima posthuma. The successive methanol extract have shown potent anthelmintic activity in pherithima posthuma with 12.33±0.33, 8.00±0.58, 4.33±0.67 as paralysis time and 38.3±3.76, 27.21±2.18, 15.17±1.28 as death time (mean ± S.E.M) for 100 mg/ml, 250mg/ml and 500mg/ml respectively. The crude methanol has shown moderate anthelmintic activity in pherithima posthuma. All the concentration prepared was paying dose dependent anthelmintic activity.
2 C-termini Analysis of Monoclonal Antibody Fragmentation , Xiaobin Xu*
3 Transdermal Delivery Offer for Low-Dose Acetylsalicylic Acid , Voycheva C* and Tsonou MM
The use of Acetyl Salicylic Acid (ASA) in the secondary prevention of cardio vascular diseases is well known. Orally administered ASA is rapidly metabolized to its principal metabolite Salicylic Acid (SA) in the gastrointestinal fluids, during absorption in the intestine and liver. ASA, and not its hydrolysis product SA, which exhibits antithrombotic activity. Transdermal delivery of acetylsalicylic acid is a safe and convenient alternative, especially during long-term use. The goal of present study was to design transdermal delivery system, using Eudragit E100 weak organic acid and plasticizer. The influence of different dissolution medium for preparation of model systems, the type and amount of cross-linking agents and plasticizer on the release of acetylsalicylic acid was investigated. Matrix systems were prepared by solvent casting method. The dissolution study was carried out in water for 72 hours by disk assembly method paddle and in-vitro release of acetylsalicylic acid from loaded model systems was studied. Quantitative determination of released acetylsalicylic acid by UV spectroscopy at wavelength of 265 nm was made. Significantly sustained release show systems prepared by using water as dissolution medium, MA, like cross linking agent, PEG400 like plasticizer
4 Phytochemical Analysis of Traditional Medicinal Plants and their Antimicrobial Activity: An Experience from North East India , Minakshi B, Jharna D, Chanbi Devi E, Nayan T, Partha PK, Kundal N and Manash PS*
Introduction: Phytochemicals are non-nutritive, chemical compounds that occur naturally on plants and have diverse protective properties .Most Phytochemicals like carotenoids, flavonoids and polyphenols have antimicrobial activity and serve as a source of antimicrobial agents against human pathogens. In the present study, five indigenous plants of Assam namely Oldenlandia corymbosa, Ricinus communis, Lpomea aquatica, Xanthium strumarium, Mentha piperita were analyzed for various Phytochemicals present and their antimicrobial activity. Methods: Phytochemical screening tests was conducted for five plant species and found that extract contains a variety of Phytochemicals like saponins, tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, glycosides and reducing sugars and among which there is higher level of precipitation for phenol and flavonoids. As they are essential source of antimicrobial agents against pathogens, their extract were tested for its antimicrobial activity by well diffusion method using Nutrient agar against human pathogenic bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli. Results: The study plant extract of Xanthium strumarium(leaves, roots) and Mentha piperita(stem) had shown a strong antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and the plant extract of Ricinus communis(leaves ,stem, roots), Lpomea aquatica (stem)had shown antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli. Oldenlandia corymbosa hadn’t shown antimicrobial activity for both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. This study provided evidence to confirm the presence of various medicinally important bioactive compounds or Phytochemicals that has got biological importance and it justifies their use in the traditional medicines for the treatment of different diseases and this findings suggest that the selected plant extracts possesses antimicrobial properties that could be used for biological control of bacterial cultures and this bioactive compounds serve as a source of antimicrobial agents against human pathogens
5 Ending the Ebola Virus Scourge: A Case for Natural Products , Uzochukwu IC*, Olubiyi OO, Ezebuo FC, Obinwa IC, Ajaegbu EE, Eze PM, Orji CE, Onuoha MC, Ejiofor II and Ikegbunam MN
We investigated the binding affinities of antiviral of ethno medicinal origin to five Ebola viral proteins by in silico molecular docking simulations. One hundred and seventy three compounds were obtained from literature, extracted from ZINC® database as mol2 files and further prepared for docking simulations using Auto Dock tools v. 1.5.6. Five Ebola drug targets (VP24, VP30, VP35, VP40 and NP) were obtained as pdb files from the Protein Data Bank and further prepared for docking simulations using both Chimera v. 1.8.1 and Auto Dock tools v. 1.5.6. Virtual screening and docking simulation experiments were performed using AutoDockVina 4.0 on a Linux platform. Docking results were analyzed using PyMol v.0.99r c6. At least five compounds (robustaflavone, cepharanthine, corilagin, hypericin and theaflavin) were identified as frontrunner antivirals with concurrent binding affinities on the five tested Ebola viral proteins. Binding free energies ranging between -6.225 to -8.675kcal/mol were obtained for the compounds. Compounds are recommended as experimental antivirals of ethno medicinal origin with possible anti-Ebola activities. In vitro and clinical trial investigations into the anti-Ebola activities of these compounds are recommended.
6 β-Carbonic Anhydrase as a Target for Eradication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Noor HN*
Infectious diseases are among the most danger, and deadly afflictions that human societies suffering from there. One of the common re-emerged infectious diseases is tuberculosis (TB). The causative pathogen for this disease has developed several methods to resist the ordinary therapy, which are usually acting through inhibition of nucleic acids. Therefore, new researches focused on development of tuberculosis treatment, through discovery of novel targets, on which new synthesized drugs will act. One of these targets that can be utilized for eradication of tuberculosis is carbonic anhydrase enzyme.
7 Transferosomes for Trans-Nasal Brain Delivery of Clonazepam: Preparation, Optimization, Ex-Vivo Cytotoxicity and Pharmacodynamic Study , Nour SA*, Abdelmalak NS and Naguib MJ
Clonazepam (CZ) is a benzodiazepine derivative that is used mainly in the treatment of status epilepticus (SE). Intranasal (IN) administration of nano-carrier systems generally have the ability to deliver the drug to the brain through olfactory and trigeminal nerves pathways circumventing the blood brain barrier (BBB). The aim of the present work was to enhance intranasal (IN) brain delivery of clonazepam in an attempt to treat status epileticus (SE). In order to achieve this goal, clonazepam transferosomes (TF) were prepared via thin film hydration technique (TFH) adopting 22 X 31 full factorial design (FFD). The twelve formulae were evaluated in terms of entrapment efficiency (EE), particle size (PS), polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential (ZP) and in-vitro release. TF1 prepared using sodium deoxycholate (SDC) as edge activator (EA), lipid to edge activator molar ratio of 10:1 and 10 mg as initial drug amount showed the highest desirability value of 0.833. The optimized formula showed minor changes to sheep nasal mucosa upon ex-vivo cytotoxicity study and significant delay in the onset of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced seizures. The declared results reveal the ability of the developed TF to be a strong potential candidate for the emergency treatment of SE.
8 Detonation Nanodiamonds: Opportunity for Pharmaceutical and Medical Application , Voycheva C*
Detonation nanodiamonds have 4-5 nm size primary particles, stable inert core, high surface area and tunable surface structures. They are very attractive from pharmaceutical point of view as a drug delivery vehicle. Nitrogen impurity like defect in detonation nanodiamonds structure are absorbed light at wavelengths of visible, infrared or ultraviolet spectral region, and emit bright fluorescence. This allows their use as agent for imaging biological processes and tracking treatment approaches
9 Medication Errors , Hosny EA*
10 Chikungunya Emerging Health Crises in Pakistan: Are we Going in the Right Direction , Ahmed A*, Tanveer M and Khan GM
11 Chikungunya Emerging Health Crises in Pakistan: Are we Going in the Right Direction , Ahmed A*, Tanveer M and Khan GM
12 Advances in Anticancer & Marine Drug Research: An Overview , Pandey K* and Chalamala C
Out of earth’s total surface area, more than 70% is covered with marine/salty water. World oldest, most revered & holy texts, the Vedas, term the Ocean as ‘Ratnakar’, or the bestower of immense riches. From times immemorial the oceans have been a source of inspiration, awe & adventure for Humankind. Modern science for the first time in the nineteen fifties discovered for the first time, potent bioactive, chemical compounds from marine organisms. Apart from Marine & Natural Products Drug research, several Vascular Disruptive agents, as anticancer drugs have also been synthesized. Thus, today we have a diverse range of better anticancer agents.
13 Preparation, Modification and Characterization of a Hydrogel Based on Polyacrylic and Polymetacrylic Acid as a Potential Carrier for Drug Delivery Systems , Voycheva C*, Georgiev V, Natova M and Baranovsky VY
Complexes of polyacrylic acid (PAA) and polymethacrylic acid (PMA) in presence of sodium alginate (SAL) during redox polymerization of polyacids were formed. They were characterized by IR spectroscopy and viscometry. The swelling index of hydrogels based on the polymethacrylic acid-sodium alginate complex (PMA-SAL) has been found to be lower than that of polyacrylic acid-sodium alginate (PAA-SAL) complex. The hydrogels based on the complex of crosslinked polyacids with sodium alginate can be of practical interest as polymeric carriers for drugs.
14 Drug-Related Problems in Hypertensive Patients with Multiple Comorbidities , Redzuan AM*, Ramli AR and Pheng MTH
Hypertensive patients with multiple comorbidities often received multiple medications to achieve target blood pressure and to treat other comorbidities which can lead to the occurrence of drug-related problems (DRP). The objectives of this study were to identify the DRPs and the most common drugs associated with DRPs in this population. The study was conducted prospectively involving hypertensive patients with multiple comorbidities at a tertiary care centre. Data were obtained from bed head tickets and from the interview with eligible patients. The assessment of DRPs was based on Pharmaceutical Care Network Europe Foundation (PCNE) Classification of DRP tools version 5.01. From the total of 80 patients, 88.8% of the patients had at least one DRP. A total number of 172 DRPs were identified with an average of 2.15 ± 1.5 DRPs per patient. The most frequent category of DRP was interactions (33.7%), followed by adverse reactions (23.9%), drug choice problems (14.5%), dosing problems (13.4%), others (8.1%) and drug use problems (6.4%). Antihypertensive agents were the most common drugs associated with DRPs in this population. Significant associations were found between elderly and the occurrence of adverse reactions, and between renal impairment with the occurrence of drug choice problems and over dosage problems. This study demonstrates that DRPs were frequently observed in hypertensive patients with multiple comorbidities. Thus interventions to resolve these problems are important to ensure the effectiveness and safety of the prescribed medications.
15 Sustained Release Multiple Unit Dosage Form for the Oral Day Delivery of Dexketoprofen Trometamol , Sweed NM, Basalious EB and Nour SA
The aim of this study was to prepare sustained release multiple unit dosage form (MUDF) for the oral day delivery of the frequently administered and the highly water soluble drug, dexketoprofen trometamol (DT). The drug was encapsulated into Eudragit RS100 microspheres using emulsification solvent evaporation technique. A D-optimal design was used to determine the effect of amount of polymer (X1), the percentage of hydrophobic plasticizer (X2), the percentage of hydrophilic plasticizer (X3), and stirring rate (X4), on the % entrapment efficiency (Y1), amount of drug released at 1h (Y2), 4h (Y3), and 8 h (Y4). The optimized formulation was prepared using 1.39 g Eudragit, 0.063 g Dibutyl phthalate (DBP), 0.093 g Polyethylene Glycol 400 (PEG 400) and processed using stirring rate of 683 rpm. The optimized microspheres were evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), and Xray Diffraction (XRD). Results of the optimized formula showed that the microspheres were spherical with a rough surface and a particle size of 32±1.41 µm, with entrapment efficiency 76.0±1.76%. The amount of drug released was 33.7±0.82%, 60.2±0.05%, and 75.1±1.84%, at 1, 4, and 8 h, respectively. Complete drug release was achieved after 16 h. The sustained release pattern of DT for up to 16 h with an acceptable initial release suggests that the developed MUDF may be useful for oral day delivery of the highly soluble and frequently administered drug such as DT
16 Diclofenac Sodium Loaded Nanosized Ethosomes: An Investigation on Z-Average, Polydispersity and Stability , Manwar JV, Patil SS, Patil B, Jadhao RG, Kumbhar DD* and Bakal R
Diclofenac sodium is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Oral therapy with NSAID is always associated with several side effects such as gastric bleeding, and ulceration. The purpose of this work was to explore the feasibility of power ultrasound in designing a noval ethosomal carrier based on Phosphatidyl choline (PC) and ethanol for topical application of Diclofenac sodium, and further to investigate Z-Average (nm), polydispersity index (PDI) and zeta potential (mV). The designed drug loaded ethosomes had Z-Average of 440.3nm, PDI of 0.56, and zeta potential of -35.2 mV. The obtained results demonstrated feasibility of power ultrasound in achieving nanosized drug loaded ethosomes though PDI value (above 0.5) was clearly indicative of broad distribution of particles. The zeta potential value of -35.2 mV substantiated stability of Diclofenac sodium loaded ethosomes.
17 Antihyperlipidemic and Antibacterial Activities of Baccaurea Courtallensis Leaves , Sreelakshmi AG, Thomas N, Carla B and Sunil C*
The present study evaluated the antihyperlipidemic and antibacterial activities of B. courtallensis extract. The antihyperlipidemic effect of B. courtallensis methanol extract was studied in Triton WR-1339 and high fat diet–induced hyperlipidemic rats. In Triton WR-1339 and high fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats, B. courtallensis (200 and 400 mg/kg) exerted a significant (P ≤ 0.05, P ≤ 0.01, P ≤ 0.001) alteration in serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) to near normal. The antibacterial activity of B. courtallensis was evaluated by agar-well diffusion method against selected gram negative bacteria: Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and gram positive bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli. B. Courtallensis extract exhibited pronounced activity against all the bacterial strains tested and the activity was comparable to the standard drug Amoxicillin (100 µg/ml). The results of the present study demonstrate that the methanolic extract of B. courtallensis possess antihyperlipidemic and antibacterial activities.
18 A Mini Review on Antibacterial and Anti-Fungal Activity of Pyrazolo-Pyridazine and Pyrazolo-Cinnoline Derivatives , Asif M*
The in vitro antibacterial and antifungal potential of pyrazolo-pyridazine derivatives (4a-l), (4’a-l) and (4’’a-m). The 3,5- Disubstitutedphenyl-3,3a,4,7-tetrahydro-2H-pyrazolo[3,4-c]pyridazine derivatives were prepared by multi-step synthesis. Reaction of benzoyl, touloyl and p-chlorobenzoyl propionic acid (1a-c) with hydrazine hydrate gave (6-phenyl, 6-touloyl and p-chlorophenyl)-tetrahydropyridazin-3-one (2a-c). This on treatment with aryl-aldehydes resulted in the formation of pyridazinone (3a-l), (3’a-l) and (3’’a-m). In the final step, the pyridazinones (3a-l), (3’a-l) and (3’’a-m) were reacted with hydrazine hydrate to furnish the compounds 4 (a-l), (4’a-l) and (4’’a-m). These compounds were screened for in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities. Compounds 4i, 4’f, 4’’d, 4’’e and 4’’f was found to be significant in its action against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, whereas compound 4f, 4’c, 4’’c and 4’’d exhibited potent antifungal activity. Compound 4’’l, was found to have significant action against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, whereas compound 4’’k, exhibited potential antifungal activity. Other series of Pyridazine derivatives were synthesized by diazotization of substituted anilines followed by FriedelCrafts acylation and coupling to form corresponding hydrazones which on intra-molecular cyclization forms 3-acetyl-substitutedbenz-pyridazine-4(1H)-one. Further, condensation reaction by treatment with hydrazine hydrate yields the 3’-methyl-substituted-pyrazolo [4,3-C]Cinnolines. All cinnoline derivatives were showed good anti-fungal activity against various pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The compound 5e was found to be safe and moderate drug in comparison to standard drug.
19 Assessment of Pharmacist Awareness Knowledge and Attitude of Fluranizine in Rafha Saudi Arabia , Alshammary OS, Amir D and Sultana S*
Objective: This research was aimed to provide a platform for conducting assessment of knowledge and attitude of the pharmacist in Rafha city, Saudi Arabia about Flunarizine. Methods: A cross-sectional research design in which self-completed questionnaire was distributed among 50 randomly selected pharmacists in Rafha. The study was conducted during 8-week study period from March 2015 to April 2015. Results: From the 50 pharmacists participated in the study, there were 2 females (4%, n=2) and 48 males (96%, n=48).The age of participants ranged from 23 to 33 years with mean equals 26.8 years, the experience years ranged from (1.5 to 10.5) with mean equals 4.17. The first part of the questionnaire contained 10 closed ended questions. 100% of participant population choosed the (yes) answer. For the second part of a questionnaire containing 10 questions related to the beliefs and attitude of the pharmacist in consulting and dispensing fluranizine, the choices of pharmacists for answering were different. Conclusion: The findings of this unique study showed that participants had moderate knowledge about fluranizine. In summary, Pharmacists need to be more informed regarding therapeutic indications, drug interactions, dose and precautions taken about fluranizine.
20 A Review on Wound Healing , Pandey A* and Mittal A
In spite of the incredible progress in human medicine, infectious diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses and other parasites are still a major risk to public health. Since ages, plants and herbs with wound healing, antioxidant and antimicrobial potentials are being used in India by traditional healers. Though the healing process is occurs naturally, an infection, mostly from S. aureus, E. coli, P. auregenosa and Bacillus spp. can seriously delay it by prolonging the inflammatory phase and disrupting the normal clotting mechanism hence ultimately delaying angiogenesis. This delaying will also cause generation of reactive oxygen species. Over production of reactive oxygen species results in oxidative stress thereby causing cyto-toxicity and delaying wound healing. Hence estimation of both antioxidant and antimicrobial property of extract is relevant as these agents have synergetic effect on wound healing by destroying the free radicals and preventing the delaying of angiogenesis.
21 Prevalence and Life Style Determinants of Hypertension among Women in Iraq , Fadheel QJ* and Hussein AA
Back ground: Hypertension is one of the major prevalence chronic diseases in the world and it’s greatly increase particularly in developing countries (Include Iraq) especially in women. A number of risk factors for increased the blood pressure include obesity resistance of insulin, excessive alcohol intake, elderly, sedentary life style, stress decrease intake of potassium and calcium, many of this factors are additives such as obesity and alcohol intake. Aim of the study: The study was conducted with the aimed of determining the prevalence of Hypertension among woman and identifying life style related risk factor and we choose women because this town become endemic area with hypertension based on previous survey. Patient: This is a randomize prospected, clinical study it was conducted in AL-Diwaniya teaching hospital, medicinal department, and emergency department. This study started at December 2015, this approved medical ethical community at AL-Kufa University. Materials: There is considerable guidance about the range of appropriate devices for measuring blood pressure and about their maintenance and periodic recalibration local medical physics and biomedical/clinical engineering departments can often give further advice. Methods: Sample of 60 case women in Al-Diwaniya city was chosen randomly all the women present in the hospital of AlDiwaniya Teaching Hospital at the time of visiting. Where interview according to specialise questionnaire... height.... weight; Blood pressure were measured. Results: The prevalence lifestyle risk factor among the study population was as follow: Physical inactivity (65.4%) (Over weight 39.4%), (obesity 35.3), (OCP 16.4), (salty diet 16%), (fatty diet 13.2%) drug intake {mostly (NASIDs) 11.4}, (coffee intake 7.4%), (smoking 1.5%). A significant associated was found between some lifestyles risk factor and hypertension, these were drug intake and BMI, while no sign associated was found between other risk factor and hypertension which were, fatty diet, physical activity, coffee intake and OCP intake.
22 Non Classical Endosomal Compartments Play Important Roles in Cross-Presentation by Dendritic Cells , Imai J*, Yokoyama Y, Otani M and Sakai T
Major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) molecules are expressed on the surface of all nucleated cells associated with short antigenic peptides about ten amino acids long at their extracellular part. The antigenic peptides are derived from endogenous proteins, which are processed by the ubiquitin-proteasome system in the cytosol. In contrast, exogenous proteins are processed by lysosomal proteases and resultant antigenic peptides are presented upon Major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) molecules. In several kinds of cells, especially in dendritic cells (DCs), exogenous proteins are processed and presented upon MHC I in addition to MHC II. This phenomenon is called crosspresentation (CP). CP plays important roles not only in activations of CD8+ T cells into cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) against anti-infectious and anti-tumor immunity but also in in-activations of self-acting CD8+ T cells by T cell energy or T cells deletion for peripheral tolerance. To this date, because of the important roles for CP, there are accumulating evidence to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of CP. Recent researches indicated that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)- associated degradation (ERAD) pathway plays a central role in processing of exogenous proteins. The conveyances of exogenous proteins into ERAD-possible compartments are dependent upon the integration among endosomal or phagosomal membrane with ER membrane. But there still remain several important questions about CP, such as the precious molecular mechanisms of these integrations and the peptide-loading mechanisms upon MHC I. This review describes the recent researches about the molecular mechanisms of CP.
23 Possible Effects of Paraoxonase 1 Q192r Polymorphism on Serum Paraoxonase Activities of a Group of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients , Ates I*, Altuner D, Suzen SH, Koc GV and Karakaya 
Paraoxonase (PON) 1 is an antioxidant enzyme a member of PON family held accountable for the protection against several diseases, exposures and xenobiotics like paraoxon. It has been shown that genetic and phenotypic changes in PON1 concentration evoke some diseases such as Diabetes Mellitus (DM). The recent studies indicated in both Type 1 and Type 2 DM patients; serum PON1 activity and concentrations are diminished. In the light of this information, we carried out this study to evaluate lipid profiles and possible relationship between PON1 activity and PON1 Q192R polymorphism in a group of Turkish Type 2 diabetic patients. Due to our experimental data, the PON activity of the patients with minor RR variant is significantly higher than patients with QQ and QR variants (p<0.01). To conclude, we observed PON1 192RR genotypes are relevant to enhanced PON activity than the other variants. This situation may be interpreted as more protective to lipid peroxidation.
24 A Review on Self Emulsifying Nanoemulsion , Amala FK, Boby JG*, Jeny S, Vinod B and Sunil C
Current article is focused on recent advances in the formulation and characterization of Self Emulsifying Nanoemulsions in Drug Delivery. Self-Emulsifying Drug Delivery Systems (SEDDS) are the isotropic mixtures of oil, surfactant, co surfactant and drug that form oil in water Nanoemulsion when introduced into aqueous phase under gentle agitation. Nanoemulsions are novel drug delivery systems consisting of emulsified oil and water systems with mean droplet diameters ranging from 50 to 1000 nm. Usually, the average droplet size is between 100 and 500 nm and can exist as oilin-water (o/w) or water-in-oil (w/o) form, where the core of the particle is either oil or water, respectively. A lot of techniques are available for enhancing absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs. One such approach is the use of lipidbased systems. Thus enhancement of aqueous solubility in such case is a valuable goal to successfully formulate them into bioavailable dosage forms. Nanoemulsions can be prepared by high- and low-energy methods. Both high-energy and low energy methods can produce stable Nanoemulsions. Nanoemulsion can be formulated for delivery of drugs through various routes. Nanoemulsions are well tolerated orally and on the skin and mucous membranes when used to deliver topically active drugs. Nanoemulsion globules can fuse with membranes of lipid-containing organisms facilitating penetration and transfer. Less amount of surfactant is required in Nanoemulsions compared to other emulsion systems. This can increase the bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs since small particles easily cross the absorption membrane. Furthermore, very small size provides large surface area which eases the solubilization and penetration through the skin or epithelial layer
25 Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Properties of Argyreia Pilosa Wight & Arn , Prasanth DSNBK*, Rao AS and Prasad YR
Background: Pain and inflammation are usually related to the pathophysiology of several medical conditions. The majority of antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory medications accessible within the merchandise found an outstretched purview of complications. The existing investigation was focused at identify the constituents and investigating the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity of methanol extract of Argyreia pilosa whole plant. Methods: The dried plant of A. pilosa was extracted with methanol and partitioned between Petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and butanol. The organic layer was fractionated by various stationary phases and identified by using spectral analysis. The methanolic extract was assessed for its antinociceptive activity by utilizing hot plate, tailimmersion and acetic acid induced writhing test, while anti-inflammatory activity has been established by Carrageenan induced paw edema carried out in vivo. The test group acquired two different doses of the extract (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg) orally. The positive control group acquired diclofenac (5 mg/kg), tramadol (2 mg/kg) orally. The negative control group acquired vehicle (2% Tween 80, 10 ml/kg) orally. Additionally, preliminary phytochemical screening was performed. Results: Phytochemical investigation of the whole plant of Argyreia pilosa (Convolvulaceae) afforded four known Phytoconstituents identified as Stigmasterol (1), ß-Sitosterol (2), Rutin (3) and Quercetin (4). The structures of those phytoconstituents have been elucidated based on spectral information analysis. Oral administration of A. pilosa methanol extract (at all doses) considerably (p < 0.05) interdict pain sensitivity in the pain models. In the same manner, the extract exhibited anti-inflammatory activity in the inflammation models in the rat. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, phenols, steroids, fixed oils, fats, acid compounds, glycosides, amino acids, and proteins
26 The Evolving Definition of Comparative Effectiveness Research: Lessons for Researchers Planning and Designing a Clinical Development Program , Nellesen D, Birnbaum HG and Greenberg PE*
27 Bioinformatics-Key to Drug Discovery and Development , Reddy MA*
Drug discovery and development is a complex, high risk, time consuming and potentially highly rewarding process. Pharmaceutical companies are spending millions of dollar per drug to bring it to the market. The development of a new drug requires a technological expertise, human resources and huge capital investment. It also requires strict adherence to regulations on testing and manufacturing standards before a new drug comes into market and can be used in the general population, in fact, some time it fails to come into market. All these factors just increase the cost for a new chemical entity research and development. Bioinformatics in drug designing process made positive effect on overall process and can accelerate various steps of drug designing, and reduce the cost and over all time. Current note focuses on the role of bioinformatics in drug discovery and development process.
28 Pharmacy Education in Egypt , Nour SA*
29 Simultaneous Determination of Ranitidine Hydrochloride and Ondansetron Hydrochloride in Bulk Drug and Tablet Dosage Form by UV Spectrophotometry , Priya BD, Lakshmi BV, Bhavya V, Ramya V, Aparna D, Prasanthi T and Rao AL*
A simple, accurate and economic UV Spectrophotometric method was developed for simultaneous estimation of Ranitidine Hydrochloride (RNH) and Ondansetron Hydrochloride (ODH) in bulk drug and tablet dosage form. Distilled water was used as solvent for analysis. The wavelengths selected for determination of Ranitidine was found to be 227.8 nm and for Ondansetron was found to be 248.7 nm. The linearity was found to be satisfactory in the concentration range of 2-10 µg/ml for both RNH and ODH. Regression analysis reveals that the correlation coefficient was found to be 0.9976 for RNH and 0.9979 for ODH. The %RSD values for intra-day precision and inter-day precision for Ranitidine were found to be 0.58% and 0.96% and for Ondansetron were found to be 0.44% and 0.54% respectively. The mean recovery of the drugs RNH and ODH was 99.36% and 99.51% respectively. The proposed method was validated as per ICH guidelines and the results are in accordance with acceptance criteria. Hence the present described method can be identically used for analysis of Ranitidine Hydrochloride and Ondansetron Hydrochloride in commercial formulation.
30 Antimicrobial Potential: Herbal Cream of Salsola Baryosma Roots , Khan DH, Ali MY*, Rasool S, Ahmed S, Raza SM, Abbas G
Salsola baryosma, native to Punjab, Baluchistan, Sindh areas of Pakistan, has folk use of topical anti microbial effects in crude form in Cholistan desert, Pakistan. In present study this activity was used to prepare creams. The plant roots were shade dried and crushed and petroleum ether, chloroform and ethanol extracts were prepared from successive extraction and different creams were prepared. The stable formulations were selected on the behalf of phase change were selected after one week and reformulated and subjected to 28 days stability studies in stability chambers. Stability study, centrifugation, physical testing, irritancy testing and pH were performed at different intervals from 0 hour to 28 days. The antimicrobial activity of extracts, formulations and Streptomycin as standard was evaluated against E.coli, S.aureus, P.multicoda and B.subtillus. The ethanolic extract and cream showed greater antimicrobial activity as compared to other extracts and formulations. The results were analyzed by applying two way ANOVA. The ethanolic extract and cream showed greatest antimicrobial activity as compared to other extracts and creams as compared to other extracts and formulations.
31 Importance of Nanotechnology in Drug Delivery , Nahar L* and Sarker SD
32 Assessment of CBC Changes in Breast Cancer Patients Following Treatment with 5-Flourouracil, Adriamycin and Cyclophosphamide (FAC-Protocol) and Adriamycin and Cyclophosphamide (AC-Protocol) , Asif U, Yousaf M1, Saleem Z*, Raza SA, Iftikhar N, Ibrahim K, Nasir Z, Saeed A and Bashir A
Objective: FAC (5 fluorouracil, Adriamycin and cyclophosphamide) and AC (Adriamycin and cyclophosphamide) protocols have significant anti-tumor activity in patients with breast cancer. Our objective was to evaluate the CBC changes in patients undergoing FAC and AC protocols. Methodology: A comparative retrospective study was performed to determine CBC changes in breast cancer patients following 5-Flourouracil, Adriamycin and Cyclophosphamide (FAC-Protocol) and Adriamycin and cyclophosphamide (ACProtocol) among 150 breast cancer patients following 4 cycles of respective protocols. Marital status, surgical history, stages, diagnosis and receptor status were also determined. The parameters under observation were hemoglobin, platelets, MCV, MCHC, RBC’s, WBC’s, monocytes, lymphocytes, eosinophils and neutrophils. Data was analyzed using SPSS. Results: FAC and AC protocol influenced the values of CBC in breast cancer patients in different patterns. A mild decrease in the Hemoglobin level and a significant decrease in the value of RBC’s and significant increase in the level of MCV was observed in the study population after 4 cycles of both FAC and AC protocols of chemotherapy where most of the parameters such as platelets, MCV, Monocytes, Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Lymphocytes and WBCs remained in the normal range except hemoglobin, MCHC and RBCs by the end of 4th cycle of the therapy. Conclusion: No significant difference was observed with the CBC changes in both protocols. A frequent investigation of CBC parameters and careful selection of chemotherapy protocol should be done in patients who are prone to CBC disturbances.
33 Immunomodulatory Аspects and Mechanisms of Аction of βGlucans , Voycheva C*
β-glucans are found in bacterial and fungal cell walls and have been implicated in the initiation of anti-microbial immune response. β-glucansact on Dectin-1, complement receptor (CR3) and TLR-2/6 immune receptors. They trigger a group of immune cells including macrophages, neutrophils, monocytes, natural killer cells and dendritic cells. Most β-glucansenter the proximal small intestine and some are captured by the macrophages. They are internalized and fragmented within the cells, then transported by the macrophages to the marrow and endothelial reticular system. The small β-glucans fragments are eventually released by the macrophages and taken up by other immune cells leading to various immune responses.
34 Pharmacovigilance - Shaping the Present and Future of Medicines , Banerjee B*
35 Screening of Endophytic Fungal Secondary Metabolites from Garcinia kola and Cola nitida for Antioxidant Properties , Nwobodo DC, Ihekwereme CP*, Ugwu MC and Okoye FBC
Objectives: Plant endophytic fungi are novel reservoir of bioactive compounds. The aim of this study was to explore endophytic fungi from Garcinia kola and Cola nitida for antioxidant secondary metabolites. Methods: Six fungal endophytes, Gn1-3 and Cn1-3 were isolated from the medicinal plants G. kola and C. nitida respectively. The pure endophytes were fermented, their crude secondary metabolites extracted and screened for antioxidant properties using 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activities and reducing power (RP) assay. The bioactive principles were identified by dereplication using High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detector (HPLC-DAD) analysis Results: Extracts of Cn3 (identified as Trichophyton sp.) and Gc3 (identified as Collectotrichum sp.) demonstrated the most potent antioxidant activity. In the DPPH scavenging assay, extracts of Cn3 and Gc3 showed an IC50 of 50.7 and 69.1µg/ml respectively compared to ascorbic acid (12.2µg/ml). Extracts of Cn3, Gc3and positive control (ascorbic acid, 250μg/ml) showed reduction values of 1.112 ± 0.011, 1.075 ± 0.014 and 1.203 ± 0.004, respectively. There was positive correlation between TPC and results obtained in both assay (DPPH, R2 = 0.7039; RP, R2 = 0.9778), thus suggesting phenolics-related antioxidant activity. HPLC-DAD analysis revealed extract of Cn3 contain protocatechuic acid and phydroxybenzoic acid, while Gn3contain 4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid and indole-3-acetic acid. These compounds have been previously reported to exhibit potent antioxidant activity. In conclusion, this study reveals that endophytic fungifrom both plants possess potential antioxidant properties. The secondary metabolites present in these endophytic fungi have potential for pharmaceutical and agrochemical applications.
36 Optimization and Formulation Design with In-Vitro Evaluation of Fast Disintegrating Tablets Containing Candesartan Solid Dispersions , Gurunath S*, Baswaraj KN and Patil PA
The aim of this study was to assess the effects of processing parameters on the release of solid dispersion formulation from a fast dissolving tablet dosage form. Graphical and mathematical analysis such as the response surface methodology (RSM) and multiple response optimizations utilizing the polynomial equation were used to search for the optimal formulation and to quantify the effect of each formulation variables. To optimize the influence of superdisintegrant (crospovidone) and subliming agent (camphor) on the prediction of disintegration time (Y1), percentage friability (Y2) and wetting time (Y3), a two factor, three levels (32) full factorial design was used. Results of multiple regression analysis revealed that an optimum concentration of camphor and a higher percentage of crospovidone are required for obtaining rapidly disintegrating tablets. The optimized formulation was subsequently subjected to a short-term accelerated stability study. Processing parameters have shown a profound effect on the release of solid dispersion formulations from its hydrophilic carrier. The observed results of Y1, Y2 and Y3 coincided well with the predictions in the RSM optimization technique, indicating it was quite useful for optimizing pharmaceutical formulation. The release kinetic of drug from fast dissolving tablets followed the first-order release pattern. Experimental values obtained from the optimized formulations were in close to the predicted values, thus confirming the validity of the generated mathematical model. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the potential of statistical experimental design in elucidating the effects of the formulation variables on the rapidly disintegrating tablets containing solid dispersion of a hydrophobic drug.
37 Biomass from Fusarium Venenatum and Preliminary Characterization of Bioactives: Exploration of Hypolipidemic Potential , Patil SD, Shetane TD, Singha RG, Choudhary DM, Nanda RK, D’souza OR and Thomas AB*
Fusarium venenatum derived mycoprotein (biomass) marketed under the trade name Quorn has been designated as a source of first class protein with low cholesterol. Our previous study, demonstrates the significant anti-hyperlipidemic potential of biomass in acute Triton X-100 induced hyperlipidemic model in rats and anti-oxidant activity by DPPH assay. The biomass was produced through cost effective fermentation process in Vogel’s mineral medium using sucrose as the carbon source optimized using Central Composite Response Surface Design (CCRSD). In continuation to our previous reported work, in the current study the hypolipidemic potential of biomass was studied in the chronic high fat diet induced hyperlipidemic model in rats. The high fat diet fed rats showed significant increase in plasma lipid levels [total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), low density lipoproteins (LDL)] with decreased high density lipoproteins (HDL) levels. Biomass (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) and simvastatin (10 mg/kg) administered orally reduced the elevated serum lipids (TC, TG, VLDL, LDL), restored the decreased HDL and improved the atherogenic index (p<0.01). Also the treatment with biomass decreased the liver enzymes levels (SGOT, SGPT) comparable to standard treated group. The biomass treatment also improved histoarchitecture of hepatocytes in hyperlipidemic rats. The acute oral toxicity study carried out as per OECD guidelines demonstrated the safety of the biomass. LC-MS analysis of methanolic extract of biomass showed two major peaks (Compound 1: m/e 209.10 and Compound 2: m/e 329.25). Spectral matching with NIST libraries indicated that compound 2 may be structurally similar to pregnenolone, a naturally occurring steroid. Also, compound 1 may be 4- aminothiophenol, N,S,-diacety (m/e 209.10). These probable bioactives, exhibits varied biological activities including for the treatment of inflammation, and its related disorders as suggested by literature reports. In conclusion, the study proves the hypolipidemic potential of biomass derived from Fusarium venenatum in preclinical acute and chronic animal models. Further investigations to isolate the bioactives and elucidate the probable mechanisms and role in triggering hypolipidemic activity need to be undertaken.
38 Antidiabetic Activity of Pereskia Bleo Aqueous Extracts in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats , Mat Darus NA and Mohamad J*
Pereskia bleo Kunth (Cactaceae) is locally known as ‘Jarum tujuh bilah’. It has been used traditionally by local Malays for the treatment of diabetes. This study investigates the antidiabetic activity of aqueous extract of Pereskia bleo. The leaf, stem, and root aqueous extracts of Pereskia bleo were evaluated for total phenol and flavonoid contents. The in vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH, FRAP and metal chelating assay. The in vivo antidiabetic activity was determined in alloxan induced male Sprague Dawley rats. The LCMS/MS analysis revealed the presence of apigenin 6 glucoside and chrysin. The total phenol and flavonoid contents were highest in the stem aqueous and chloroform extracts at 6.05±0.10mgGAE/g and at 11.07±0.20mgGAE/g respectively. The alloxan induced diabetic rats showed that the leaf, stem and root aqueous extract at 500mg/kg decreased significantly with fasting plasma glucose level by 66%, 65% and 58% (p<0.001) respectively on the 25th day compared from day zero. It also showed decreased in the total cholesterol, triglycerides and restored the HDL level. The liver function test indicated no significance difference in ALT, AST and ALP. Thus, it is concluded that the Pereskia bleo possessed the antioxidant and antidiabetic activity attributed by the presence of apigenin 6 glucoside and chrysin.
39 Chlorpyrifos Induced Alterations in the Status of White Cells Profile: Protective Role of Nigella sativa Seed Extract , Azmi MA*, Adil R and Qamar N
Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the protective role of Nigella sativa seed extract in chlorpyrifos-induced changes in the status of white cells profiles of Wistar albino rats. Methodology: An experimental study. Total sixty four healthy adult rats of either gender were taken for this experimental study. The animals were divided into A, B, C, D groups and each was further divided into two sub-groups on the basis of 3 weeks and 6 weeks of treatment protocol. Control group A1 and A2 were given only distilled water. Group B1 and B2 were given chlorpyrifos 4.2 mg/kg.bw; 1/20 of LD50 orally. Animals of group C1, C2 and D1, D2 were the combination groups and were treated with low dose 250mg/kg.bw and high dose 500mg/kg.bw of Nigella sativa seed extract to these chlorpyrifos – induced group of rats respectively. After treatment 5CC blood sample were taken out from each group of animals through cardiac puncture for the evaluation of white cell profile. The parameters under evaluation were total leucocytes count and differential leucocytes counts such as neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes and monocytes respectively. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 21. Results: The findings revealed that significant reduction in white cells profile were noted in chlorpyrifos-induced animals with p-value <0.001. Significant improvement was also seen in the animals of group C and D when treated with low and high dose of Nigella sativa orally. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study it is concluded that Nigella sativa seed oil has a potent phytotherapeutic role due to having antioxidant characteristics thus providing beneficial preventive role in ameliorating the alterations in the white cell profile status due to chlorpyrifos-induced toxicity
40 Liver Fibrosis-Novel Therapy Perspective , Panakanti R*
Liver fibrosis is highly prevalent in United States. No therapy has been successful to cure it so far. The current approaches in treatment are to prevent its causative etiology such as viral infection, alcohol abuse etc. or liver transplantation. Much progress has been made to understand the mechanisms for development of myofibroblasts in developing fibro genesis, inflammation and cell death. This review summarizes some of the key aspects of liver fibrosis and some novel therapies that have a potential to become a cure.
41 Development and Validation of RP-HPLC Method for Simultaneous Estimation of Moexipril and Hydrochlorothiazide in Bulk and Tablet Dosage Form , Rao AL*, Prasanthi T andLatha PM
A simple, fast, precise reverse phase and isocratic HPLC method was developed for the separation and quantification of Moexipril (MXP) and Hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) in pharmaceutical dosage form. The quantification was carried out using Kromasil C18 (250 x 4.6 mm, 5 µm) enhanced polar selectivity column and mobile phase comprised of orthophosphoric acid buffer and acetonitrile in proportion of ratio 70:30v/v and degassed under ultra sonication. The flow rate was 1.0mL/min and the effluent was monitored at 230nm. The retention time of Moexipril and Hydrochlorothiazide were 2.4 and 3.2min respectively. The method was validated in terms of linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity, limit of detection and limit of quantitation. Linearity of Moexipril and Hydrochlorothiazide were in the range of 37.5 to 225µg/mL and 62.5 to 375µg/mL respectively. The percentage recoveries of both the drugs were 98.44% and 98.80% for Moexipril and Hydrochlorothiazide respectively from the tablet formulation. The proposed method is suitable for simultaneous determination of Moexipril and Hydrochlorothiazide in pharmaceutical dosage form.
42 Investigation of Phytochemical Profile and Combine Synergistic Anti-Diarrheal Potential of Peperomia Pellucida Aerial Part and Cyprus Esculentus Root Extracts , Majumder P*
Peperomia pellucida and Cyperus esculentuslocally found plant used for anti-diarrhoeal activity using standard animal model. The aerial parts of Peperomia pellucidaand Cyperus esculentuswere collected from Trikaripur forest area, kasaragod district of Kerala, India, dried and extracted with ethanol (70%). Wistar albino rats were used for studies. Castor oil was used to induce diarrhoea and 200, 400 mg/kg of ethanol extract of Peperomia pellucida and Cyperus esculentus dual combination was used to test antidiarrhoeal activity. Results were calculated by student “t” test, to assess statistical significance.The extract showed dose dependant inhibition of frequency of defecation as well as reduction in number of wet feces. The percentage inhibitions of faecal with 200 and 400 mg/kg doses of ethanol extract were 69.15 and 76.21 respectively. The plant extracts contains tannins and flavonoids, which could have contribution to the antidiarrhoeal activity. Peperomia pellucida and Cyperus esculentuscombine hydro-ethanolic extractpossesses significant antidiarrhoeal activity compared with loperamide.
43 Mini Review on Research of T.W. Hermann as an Honorable Editor , Hermann TW
44 Tamoxifen: Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics , Shahbaz K
Tamoxifen is the hormone therapy of choice in pre-menopausal estrogen receptor positive breast cancer in women and sometimes in post-menopausal women. The environmental and genetic factors widely affect the pharmacokinetic parameters of a drug and this effect is known as pharmgeonetics. The pharmacokinetic parameters that are what a body does with the drug, such as bioavailability, half-life, distribution and excretion, has primary importance in the treatment of a disease. The pharmacodynamic parameters which elaborate what a drug does with the body like side effects and positive symptoms are the pillars of therapeutic outcome. In depth knowledge of both parameters is essential to get maximum benefits from a treatment plan in a disease for example breast cancer. This review enlightens the pharmacological aspects of tamoxifen in detail.
45 Systematic Review on the Potential of Pharmaceutical Intervention in Relation to Financial Resources Saving for Health System , Kleemann D, De Freitas GRM* and Heineck I
Drug-Related Problems (DRP) generate extra spending on public health resources [1,2]. Pharmacoeconomic analysis allow the elaboration of preventive actions that avoid DRP and reduce costs in order to produce a positive impact on people's quality of life, health system security and resource allocation efficiency [3-5]. Therefore, systematic review of studies evaluating the potential of pharmaceutical interventions on resources saving was carried out.
46 Herbal Sunscreens and Photo Protection Compositions: A Patent Review , Singh S* and Sharma N
Solar ultraviolet type B radiations (UVB) is fundamentally liable to be absorbed by keratinocytes leading to production of free radicals or reactive oxygen species (ROS) which might cause skin erythema, sunburn, skin cancer and premature ageing. Herbal sunscreen guard skin from sun’s radiations which reduces sunburns with reduced risk of skin harms. Antioxidants quench free radicals and ROS which might aid photo-protection effect. This review compiled previously patented herbal photo protection compositions and sunscreens.
47 Quantum Dots: Need to Explore Potential for Delivery of Drugs and Biomolecules , Galgatte UC*
Quantum dots (QDs) are the semiconductor nanoparticles having the range of 2 nm to 10 nm [1]. One of the properties of semiconductor metals of the group IV to group VI of periodic table, to show fluorescence is established in the biomedical research for quantitative fluorescence imaging and detection [2]. QDs based bioimaging is widely used. Comparing with other nanoparticles, a distinct property of QDs is excitation of multiple color fluorescence based on particle size. QDs emit the same wavelength of light which is used as excitation wavelength. Therefore with single excitation light source, multiple QDs with different spectra can be observed. The term quantum dot was coined by Mark Reed.
48 Effect of Extracts of Vernonia Amygdalina in HelminthiasisA Tropical Neglected Disease , Ejiofor II*, Zaman K and Das A
Soil transmitted helminths is one of the Neglected Tropical Diseases. They mainly affect the poor or the rural dwellers, but less affects the well off, because usually poor hygiene is a high risk factor. They are neglected in terms of the research and control funding allocated to them both by developing world governments and other donors. Vernonia amygdalina is being used in traditional medicine for different ailments, which helminthiasis is one. Albendazole as standard medication and methanolic crude extracts of the leaf, stem-bark and root of Vernonia amygdalina were subjected for anthelmintic activity on Adult Indian earthworm pherithima posthuma. These extracts showed potent anthelmintic activity on Adult Indian pherithima posthuma with 82.8±0.43, 46.22±0.5, 25.5±0.17 as paralysis time for the leaf extract, 81.3±0.25, 39.7±0.21, 15.4±0.60 and 39.7±0.35, 31.1±0.11, 13.2±0.30 as paralysis times for the stem-bark and root extracts respectively, and 161.8±1.71, 82.6±2.11, 38.2±1.12 as death time for the leaf extract, 147.5±0.81, 81.70±2.01, 26.4±1.13 and 86.8±2.61, 80.5±2.45, 23.0±0.02 (mean ± S.E.M) as the death times for the stem-bark and root extracts respectively at 30 mg/ml, 50mg/ml and 70mg/ml respectively with a predicted mechanism of action. The anthelminthic activities obtained from the extracts were concentration dependent.
49 Determination of Hydrochlorothiazide in Plasma by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) , Hermann TW*, Chavan SP and Kostenbauder HB
Retention times for hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) and chlorothiazide (CTZ, internal standard) are highly temperature- (20°-26°) as well as pH-dependent (3.5-6.3). Separation of both drugs is maximized in the pH range 6.3 to 6.9. The 10:90 v/v acetonitrile: 0.01 M sodium acetate ratio was necessary to resolve endogenous interferences. Resolution with this mobile phase was sufficient to permit quantitation at 225 nm, where absorbance is almost twice that obtained at the absorption maximum (270 nm). Calibration curves of peak height ratio versus concentration were linear over the concentration range of 20-700 ng/ml, and the intercept was essentially zero.
50 Evaluation of Pharmacognostic, Phytochemical and Physicochemical Standards of Wedelia Trilobata (L.) Root , Prasanth DSNBK* and Lakshmana Rao A
Context: Ethnomedicinally, the root of Wedelia trilobata L. (Asteraceae) has long been used in various ailments in traditional system; most importantly it is used against backache, muscle cramp, rheumatism, stubborn wounds, sores, swelling and arthritic pain, fever and malaria. The main problem experienced in the standardization of herbal drugs is lack of proper identification of plant source. So there is need to establish quality control parameters by using pharmacognostic and phytochemical evaluation, which ensures the purity, safety and efficacy of medicinal plant W. trilobata. Aim: To evaluate pharmacognostic properties including macroscopic, microscopic and physicochemical parameters of the root of W. trilobata. Methods: Micro and Macroscopic characters of fresh and dried root samples were investigated. Physicochemical parameters were done by utilizing WHO recommended parameters, preliminary phytochemical and fluorescent analysis of root sample were performed for identification and standardization of root of W. trilobata. Results: The color, shape, size, odor and surface characteristics were noted from the root and powdered root material of W. trilobata. Light electron microscope images of cross section of root and powdered root revealed that the presence of cork cells, lignified spiral vessels, and parenchymatous cells. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, phenols, saponins, steroids, carbohydrates and glycosides. Physicochemical parameters such as moisture content, ash value, extractive value and fluorescent behavior of root powder were determined. These parameters are useful tools to differentiate the powdered drug material. Conclusion: The present study is helpful to supplement the information with regard to its standardization and identification and in carrying out further research in Ayurvedic system of medicine.
51 Phytochemical Screening of Some Spices Used as Condiment in Kano, North western Nigeria , Ali M*, Nas F S, Yahaya A and Ibrahim IS 
Spices have been added to foods since ancient times, not only as flavouring agent, but also as food preservatives and folk medicines. The study was aimed to screened for qualitative and quantitative bioactive constituents of aqueous extract of seven commonly used spices in Kano, North western Nigeria; namely Ginger (Zingiber officinale), onion (Allium cepa), Garlic Allium sativa, Pepper mint (Mentha piperita) Tea bush (Ocimum gratissimum), Black pepper (Piper nigrum) and Clove (Syzygium aromaticum). The qualitative phytochemical screening of these spices extracts confirm the presence of various phytochemicals like alkaloids, phenol, glycosides, terpenoids, flavonoids, saponin, anthraquinone, reducing sugar, steroids and tannins. The quantitative phytochemical screening of the aqueous extract of the studied spices revealed that alkaloids was found to be the most abundant phytochemical in all the spices. Zingiber officinale (12.30%) Allium cepa (11.30%), Allium sativa (7.20%), O. gratissimum (10.7%), S. aromaticum (9.60%), P. nigrum bird pepper (13.10%) while absent in Mentha piperita. Flavonoid tannin and saponin are available at some extend in most of the spices. The spices were potential sources of phytochemicals which could encourage their use as dietary Supplements in order to maintain and promote healthy life.
52 Medical Imaging Scans: A Short Letter , Dogra A*, Goyal B, Agrawal S andSohi BS
The medical imaging scans of various organs of the body have become an indispensible tool for medical fraternity which helps them in planning various surgical procedures. These scans depict the anatomical, structural and functional molecular level information of the subject under study. In this letter a brief description has been given for the same.
53 In-Vivo Toxicity Assessment of Stem Bark Extracts of Spondias mombin (Linn) on Male and Female Albino Rats , Osuntokun OT* and Oluduro AO
Spondias mombin is depends on for various herbal remedies for the treatment of numerous health conditions. This study is to evaluate the In-vivo toxic effect of Stem bark extracts of Spondias mombin on in male and female albino rats. In-vivo toxicity test was carried out with modified Lorke’s method. Forty two (42) male and female albino rats weighing between 120-180g were used for the sub-chronic study. The rats were divided into five groups A- D (n=12). The albino rats were divided into four groups labelled A, B, C, and D with group A, B, and C consisting of 12 rats each, while the remaining 6 rats served as control which were placed in group D. Group A, B and C were fed with 200 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg body weight doses of crude aqueous, ethanol and ethyl acetate stem bark extracts of S.mombin, respectively with the aid of an oral gastric tube. Treatments lasted for twenty one days (21). Acute toxicity test carried out showed that stem bark extracts of S. mom bin did not produce mortality in rats. Significant (p<0.05) reduction in brain and kidney weights was observed in group C treated with 200 mg/kg and 500mgkg-1 of crude ethyl acetate stem bark extracts of S. mombin. Similarly, significant (p<0.05) reduction was observed in spleen weights in groups C and D that were treated with 200 mg/kg and 500mgkg-1 of both extracts. The levels of LDL (p<0.001) and ALP (p<0.05) were significantly reduced. It can be concluded that, this result suggests that, the use of the stem bark extracts of S.mombin is relatively safe.
54 Generation (Wh) Y; The Digital FVoisey CL*Voisey CL*ace of Pharmaceutical Education , Voisey CL*
The undergraduate population in pharmaceutical science is now more diverse than ever before, presenting considerable teaching challenges as educators are faced with increasing student numbers, lack of space availability and a desire to provide a more integrated approach to teaching and learning. Education technologies can play a pivotal role in engaging these technologically adept students but only when used in an effective and appropriate manner, however there is not as yet a consensus as to how effective these technologies might be in pharmaceutical sciences education
55 Virtual Screening and Validation of Potential Lead Compound from the Malaria Box against Plasmodium Falciparum S7 and S19 Proteins , Mwangi HN, Onyango S, Omosa LK and Mulaa F
Molecular docking is a computer based tool used in drug design, where predominant binding modes of a ligand with known three dimensional protein structures are predicted. This study addresses the possible ways of coming up with antimalarial drugs using computational chemistry methods. This approach which utilizes virtual screening is more advantageous as it is effective, affordable and less tedious as compared to the normal laboratory experimental biological assays and spectroscopic techniques for characterization of the compounds. Treatment of malaria has become complex due to the high rate of emergence of resistance exhibited by Plasmodium falciparum and mutations resulting from the parasite. To test the reliability of this model for future tests, compounds for this study were sourced from the Malaria Box containing compounds proven to have interesting activities against the malaria causing parasite, P. faliciparum. In the current study, three dimensional structures of twenty compounds fetched from the Malaria Box and of the ribosomal 40S proteins S7 and S19 were generated using structure predicting software. The potential of the selected compounds to dock and bind onto the ribosomal 40S proteins S7 and S19 proteins was accessed by calculating pose complex RMSD as well as its geometric shape complementarity score, approximate interface area, atomic contact energy, the 3d transformation, 3 rotational angles and 3 translational parameters applied on the ligand molecule, to test authenticity of the docking experiments. The compounds that showed best pose were considered active lead compounds. Using this model three out of several compounds from the Malaria Box confirmed the results that were obtained using laboratory experiments as evidenced from the low energy pose of the complex. The objectives of the experiment were accomplished as the Plasmodium falciparum proteins S7 and S19 models were generated, validated and the docked structures of the two proteins with the ligands generated. Through the research it was evident that the compounds in the malaria box library could be screened easily, quickly and perfectly to eliminate experimental false positives and negatives. These results could help expedite the process of bringing a more effective class of antimalarial drugs as the results show that they have activity against the proteins with further in vitro validation
56 Virtual Screening and Validation of Potential Lead Compound from the Malaria Box against Plasmodium Falciparum S7 and S19 Proteins , Mwangi HN, Onyango S, Omosa LK and Mulaa F*
Molecular docking is a computer based tool used in drug design, where predominant binding modes of a ligand with known three dimensional protein structures are predicted. This study addresses the possible ways of coming up with antimalarial drugs using computational chemistry methods. This approach which utilizes virtual screening is more advantageous as it is effective, affordable and less tedious as compared to the normal laboratory experimental biological assays and spectroscopic techniques for characterization of the compounds. Treatment of malaria has become complex due to the high rate of emergence of resistance exhibited by Plasmodium falciparum and mutations resulting from the parasite. To test the reliability of this model for future tests, compounds for this study were sourced from the Malaria Box containing compounds proven to have interesting activities against the malaria causing parasite, P. faliciparum. In the current study, three dimensional structures of twenty compounds fetched from the Malaria Box and of the ribosomal 40S proteins S7 and S19 were generated using structure predicting software. The potential of the selected compounds to dock and bind onto the ribosomal 40S proteins S7 and S19 proteins was accessed by calculating pose complex RMSD as well as its geometric shape complementarity score, approximate interface area, atomic contact energy, the 3d transformation, 3 rotational angles and 3 translational parameters applied on the ligand molecule, to test authenticity of the docking experiments. The compounds that showed best pose were considered active lead compounds. Using this model three out of several compounds from the Malaria Box confirmed the results that were obtained using laboratory experiments as evidenced from the low energy pose of the complex. The objectives of the experiment were accomplished as the Plasmodium falciparum proteins S7 and S19 models were generated, validated and the docked structures of the two proteins with the ligands generated. Through the research it was evident that the compounds in the malaria box library could be screened easily, quickly and perfectly to eliminate experimental false positives and negatives. These results could help expedite the process of bringing a more effective class of antimalarial drugs as the results show that they have activity against the proteins with further in vitro validation.
57 Recent Advances in Process Development of Antiviral Agents Targeting the Influenza Virus: Amantadine-RemantadineDerived Pharmaceutical Agents , Pathy KS*
This short review summarizes our work on the process development for the synthesis of amontidine remantadine. The M2 proton channel of the influenza A virus is the target of the anti-influenza drugs amantadine and rimantadine. The effectiveness of these drugs has been dramatically limited by the rapid spread of drug resistant mutations, mainly at sites S31N, V27A and L26F in the pore of the channel. Despite progress in designing inhibitors of V27A and L26F M2, there are currently no drugs targeting these mutated channels in clinical trials. The article traces the evolution of various synthesis approaches and provides a comparison for overall yield efficiency. Amantadine hydrochloride is an antiviral drug used in prevention and treatment of influenza a infections. It has also been used for alleviating early symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. Several methods for the preparations of Amantadine hydrochloride have been reported. Overall yields ranging from 50 to 52%. In this article, we describe procedure for the synthesis of Amantadine hydrochloride from via N-(1- adamantyl) acetamide with an improved yield of 60% the procedure was also optimized to reduce the use of toxic solvents and reagents, rendering it more environment-friendly. The procedure can be considered as suitable for largescale production of amantadine hydrochloride.
58 Impact of GST on Pharmaceuticals: An Overview , Kinjal V*, Parvaiz AP and Neelam S
GST also known as the goods and service tax is defined as the giant tax structure designed to support and enhances the economic growth of our country. More than 150 countries have implemented GST so far. GST is an indirect tax system which takes account expenditure done through sale, manufacture, and consumption of goods & services at a national level which mainly involves companies, industries and services. The GST Rates for medicines were decided by the GST council. GST is levied under 5 different rates, namely NIL, 5%, 12%, 18% and 28% based on the HSN code of the item. GST is expecting to have a positive impact on the Indian Pharmaceutical Industries as it will decrease the manufacturing price since eight different taxes are levied in the pharmaceutical industries helps in easy going business. Beside some positive impact, there are some negative impacts also. A Drug Price Control is issued to make sure that the costs of vital medicines are fixed in such a way that they are affordable for everyone. According to the revised list issued by the National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority( NPPA), prices of the majority drugs have come down, which includes a list of antibiotics and drugs for treating cancer, HIV, diabetes. GST also affects the Business Strategy of Pharmaceutical Companies
59 Intimidation of Bacterial and Viral Infections in Humans , Prabhakar Reddy Veerareddy*
Viruses are very small microorganisms, size range from 15 to 400 nm. Viruses cause a huge variety of diseases in animals, plants and humans. Viruses can be transmitted in diverse ways, when an infected person coughs by droplets, by contamination with stool samples, by sexual intercourse, by contact with blood, by contact with infected animals
60 Analytical Method Development and Validation of Bendamustine in Bulk Using RP-HPLC , Bhawani S*, Nageshwari HG, Mamatha G, Venu M, Sai Krishna M and Murali Krishna KS
A simple, sensitive, precise, accurate and economical method was developed and validated for the estimation of Bendamustine in bulk or formulation by RP-HPLC method using Inertsil column ODS of dimensions ODS -2, (150 x 4.6) mm, 5 µm. The mobile phase (trifluoroacetic acid and acetonitrile ) was pumped at a flow rate of 1.5ml/min in the ratio of 68:32 and the eluents were monitored at 230 nm. Linearity was obtained in the concentration range of 10%-150% with R2 0.999. LOD and LOQ were found to be 2.9 µg/ml and 8.75 µg/ml. The method was statistically validated according to ICH guidelines. RSD was found to be less than 2% indicating high degree of accuracy and precision of the proposed HPLC method. The percentage recovery was in good agreement with the labeled amount in the pharmaceutical formulations.
61 Computer-Based Pharmacognosy: A Review , Mostafa NM and Singab ANB*
In search of modern ways to increase secondary metabolites production in plants, implement genetic engineering, and produce green pollution-free medicinal plants, modern computer-based techniques must be regarded. The introduction of Computer Aided Drug Discovery (CADD), in particular in-silico molecular modeling protocols have become indispensable for the study of macromolecular structures and interactions. In addition, the application of chemometric techniques allowed the analysis of multivariate data. Molecular pharmacognosy has been also introduced to carry the traditional pharmacognosy mission into a molecular level.
62 Quantitative Regression Analysis of Total Hardness Related Physicochemical Parameters of Groundwater , Sisir Nandi*, Sharma A, Ahmed S and Teotia D
Groundwater is the major sources of water for the survival of lives. It is a gift of Mother Nature who supports water to the mankind and animals. Industrialization has been increasing day by day. This is one of the crucial factors for pointing a question mark on the quality of drinking water sourced from the underground. Industrial effluents cause pollution and imbalances in the physicochemical parameters. One of the important constituents of groundwater is total harness to which mineral content is present. It was reported that hard water contains high concentration of cations with a charge of +2, especially Ca2+ and Mg2 and minor concentration other polyvalent ions, such as aluminium, barium, manganese, strontium and zinc. The present study is an attempt to make a quantitative correlation between the total harness and other related physicochemical parameters such as polyvalent ions. It measures the quality of buried drinking water for the household and industrial use and impacts on the public health.
63 Wound Healing Activity of the Formulated Silver Chitosan Nanocomposite Cream against Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Wounded Animal Model , Cecilia DS*, Jan Karlo TE, Ashley Marrion CA, Euriel Jasmin PC, Ariza RG, Carmela Ann BL, Althea VS and Celine AAAV
In the Philippines, the prevalence rate of diabetes is predicted to increase continuously making Filipinos more susceptible to diseases related to the disease above. Drug delivery system using nanotechnology has played a role in the formulation strategy to improve the therapeutic action. This technology offers the advantages of increased stability, enhanced in-vitro antibacterial property, variation in drug solubility and enhanced drug delivery to the action site. This research focuses on the formulation of Silver Chitosan Nanocomposite (SCN) Cream and its use as a wound healing agent using Alloxan Induced Animal Model. SCN with different concentration is developed and is characterized using the following parameters: (i) Transmission Electron Microscopy and (ii) Antibacterial assay. Optimized SCN is formulated into a cream and analyzed based on the following assay including (i) Viscosity test, (ii) Dermal irritation test and (iii) Histopathological evaluation of the wound healing property. The Optimized SCN cream (30% SCN) has exhibited antibacterial and wound healing property comparable to the silver sulfadiazine cream in treating the wound in diabetic patients in terms of epithelial formation.
64 Evaluation of the Effect of Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment on Physicochemical and Thermal Properties of Flutamide , Trivedi D, Trivedi MK, Alice Branton, Nayak G and Jana S*
Flutamide is used primarily to treat the prostate cancer, which blocks the action of exogenous testosterone by binding to the androgen receptor. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the Trivedi Effect®-Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment on the physicochemical and thermal properties of flutamide using the modern analytical technique. The flutamide sample was divided into control and treated part. The control part did not receive any Energy Treatment, while the treated part received the Biofield Energy Treatment remotely by a renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Dahryn Trivedi. The PXRD peak intensities and crystallite sizes were significantly altered ranging from -29.24% to 1.79% and 0.44% to 31.21% respectively; however, the average crystallite size was significantly increased by 19.13% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The particle size values were altered by 0.12%(d10) 2.9%(d50), 7.52%(d90), and 5.81%{D(4,3)}, thus, the specific surface area was decreased by 0.55% in the treated sample compared to the control sample. The melting point and latent heat of fusion of the treated sample were increased by 0.63% and 5.31%, respectively compared to the control sample. The total weight loss was decreased by 1.19%; however, the residue amount was increased by 1.18% in the treated flutamide compared with the control sample. The Biofield Energy Treatment might have generated a new polymorphic form of flutamide which would be more efficacious in the pharmaceutical formulations for the treatment of prostate cancer.
65 To Study the Effect of Swertiamarin in Animal Model of Huntington’s Disease , Rahul PG, Rahul WG and Sameer SS*
Objective: The Data suggest that swertiamarin has antioxidant activity and they modulate neurotoxicity induced oxidative impairments in the brain and can be effectively employed as a neuroprotective. The preclinical findings obtained in the present study may provide a rationale for clinical trials of swertiamarin in humans with HD. Swertiamarin is a safe and well tolerated drug used as nutrient so can be administered for a long period of time. Method: Adult male Wistar rats born and reared in the Animal House of the Agnihotri College of Pharmacy, Wardha, India was used in the present study. Young healthy male rats (250–300 g) were group housed (Six per cage) and maintained at 23±2◦ C under 12:12 hrs light (08:00–20:00 h)/dark cycle with free access to rodent chow and tap water. The animal studies were approved by the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee, constituted for the purpose of control and supervision of experimental animals by Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India, New Delhi, India. Animals were naive to drug treatments and experimentation at the beginning of all studies. All tests were conducted between 08:00 and13:00 h. The drug was tested in doses of 25-100 mg/kg ip. Unless stated otherwise, the data given indicate the effect of swertiamarin in doses of 50 mg/kg ip and a pretreatment time of 1 hr. Result: These findings demonstrate that daily treatment with swertiamarin protects against various behavioral and biochemical alterations induced by 3-nitropropionic acid in rats. However, further studies are required to understand the exact mechanism involved in its neuroprotective role in this animal model of Huntington's disease. Conclusion: Swertiamarin treatment protects behavioral changes, and significantly attenuated oxidative damage and improved mitochondrial complexes enzyme activities in different regions (striatum, cortex and hippocampus) of rat brain against 3-NP induced neurotoxicity. The results show that more effective than Swertiamarin and thus it could be used as an effective therapeutic agent in the management of Huntington's disease and related conditions.
66 Assessment of Serum Calcium, Magnesium and Cholecalciferol Status in the Patients of Migraine: A Cross Sectional Analytical Study , Shahzad R, Khanzada HN, Kazi M, Azmi MA* and Anwar A
Background: Migraine which is a common intense headache occurs usually on one side of head accompained by the symptoms of nausea, vomiting and increased sensitivity to light and sound, photophobia and phonophobia. As the exact mechanisum in the pathogenesis of migraine is not clearly documented but it is thought that the deficiency of some important elements may have role to alleviate headache and migraine. Therefore we have evaluated the role of serum cholecalciferol, magnesium and calcium in the patients with migraine to confirm our results. Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the serum cholecalciferol, calcium and magnesium levels in the chronic migrainuers in comparison to normal healthy individuals. Methodology: A cross-sectional analytical study that was conducted at Isra University hospital and Liaquat University of health and medical sciences hospital, Hyderabad. Total sixty subjects were selected and divided into two groups as group-A comprising of 30 normal subjects and group-B consisting of 30 chronic migrainuers cases. The selection of case subjects were carried out through non-probability purposive sampling based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Whole blood 5cc was taken from each subject and was immediately centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 10-15 minutes to separate out serum which is used for the quantification of cholecalciferol, calcium and magnesium levels in the serum. The data was analyzed on SPSS version 22.0. The continuous and categorical variables were analyzed using Student t-test and Chi square test. Results were described as statistically significant at p-values ≤ 0.05. Results: The data obtained by the present study showed that the mean±SD of age in group A and group B was 38.8±9.64 and 40.2±10.7 years respectively with p-value 0.49 in the normal and migraine patients. However, mean±SD of serum cholecalciferol was found to be 23.94±7.04 and 19.08±6.33ng/dl respectively with p-value 0.007. It has also been noticed that about 90% of the chronic migrainuers showed deficiency or insufficiency of serum cholecalciferol as compared to 73% in the control subjects. The mean±SD of serum calcium in both groups A and was noted as 9.28±0.67 and 8.89±0.83 ng/dl respectively with p-value 0.047. In addition mean±SD of serum magnesium was found to be 1.88±0.24 and 1.75±0.20 ng/dl in both A and B groups respectively with p-value 0.022. Conclusion: It is concluded that serum cholecalciferol, calcium and magnesium was found to be in lower levels in the patients during migraine attack as compared to normal subjects having no complain of headache by the subjects
67 Consequence of Adsorption Chromatography , Taleuzzaman M* and Soni A
Chromatography classify based on separation mechanism, Adsorption chromatography is one type that is developed first, where the stationary phase has solid and mobile phase has a liquid or gaseous. When drugs are manufactured in pharmaceutical industry, the main object needs to sure before the product come into the market is that the product only contains the molecules that there are meant to be or it may be serious for the health. In Analytical field, purification is mainly done by chromatography. The HPLC (High-Performance Liquid Chromatography) especially is the main instruments based on adsorption chromatography to analyze what molecules a mixture consists of. A mixture can be divided in-fractions, which can then be analyzed with e.g. the MALDI-TOF analysis. The molecules separate due to some of the molecules in the mobile phase interact with the surface in the adsorption chromatography, they are absorbed by the surface. The first quantitative observations were carried out by C. W. Scheele in 1773 and F. Fontana in 1777.
68 Enhancement of Hair Growth through Stimulation of Dermal Papilla Cells in Human Follicular Dermal , Mahendra Kumar Trivedi and Snehasis Jana*
Hair gives one of the most memorable images of a person’s identity. Hair loss has an enormous impact on quality of life. Although various treatment strategies are available to prevent hair loss, unfortunately not adequate. Hence, in this context authors performed this study to evaluate the impact of Consciousness Energy Healing (The Trivedi Effect®) Treatment on the test item (DMEM) in human follicular dermal papilla culture cells for the assessment of hair cell growth and development in vitro. The test item, DMEM was divided into three parts. First part did not receive any sort of treatment and defined as the untreated DMEM group. The second and third parts were treated with the one-time and two-times Biofield Energy Treatment by a renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Mahendra Kumar Trivedi and coded as the one-time Biofield Energy Treated DMEM (BT-I) and two-times Biofield Energy Treated DMEM (BT-II) groups, respectively. Results showed that BT-I group exhibited 14.8%, however BT-II group was significantly (p≤0.001) increased cellular proliferation of dermal papilla cells by 124.3% compared to the untreated DMEM group. The results demonstrated that the Biofield Energy Healing Treatment significantly increased the proliferation of human hair follicle dermal papilla cells. Therefore, the Consciousness Energy Healing (The Trivedi Effect®) Treatment could be useful as a hair growth enhancer against different skin injuries like actinic keratosis, necrotizing fasciitis, sebaceous cysts, diaper rash, decubitus ulcer and hair-related disorders like androgenetic alopecia (male and female pattern baldness), alopecia totalis or alopecia universalis, traction alopecia, telogen effluvium, trichodystrophy, scarring alopecias, alopecia areata, etc.
69 Marine Algae as a Precursor for Eco-Friendly Synthesis of Nanoparticles , Sally A El Zahaby*
In the last decade, researchers were developing different types of nanoparticles and exploring more and more applications that made this area of research so promising and very active. Actually, many techniques can be followed in order to prepare nanoparticles. Usually either physical or chemical methodologies were applied. Nowadays, biological methods are very fast growing, moving the synthesis of nanoparticles towards more safe and eco-friendly way of production in addition of being cost effective. Although the chemical methods were used in majority of researches, they had many drawbacks; toxic chemicals are usually used, high cost of reagents, and multi-steps preparation methods
70 Quality Control of Certain Herbal Preparations Used for Respiratory Disorders in The Egyptian Market , Mohamed MS, Gad HA, Mohamed AI and SingabANB*
Background: Herbal medicines comprise a crucial traditional remedy in the treatment of various respiratory ailments. However, the quality control of these herbal drugs is regarded as a main obstacle for their safety and efficacy. Objectives: To assess the quality of different herbal preparations in the Egyptian market containing volatile oils used in the treatment of respiratory disorders. Methods: Four different herbal preparations were purchased from the Egyptian pharmaceutical market: formula 1, 2 in form of powder and formula 3 and 4 inform of syrup. The essential oils of different herbal products were obtained by hydro-distillation, and subjected to GC/MS analysis for quantitative estimation. Furthermore, determination of pesticides residue, aflatoxins, certain microelements, heavy metals, and microbial contaminates were carried out. Results: Fifty-four compounds were identified in formula 1, where anethole (34.15%) was the main identified compound followed by p-cymene (8.16%). In formula 2, estragole (10.81%) and caryophyllene (8.65%) followed by anethole (7.41%) were the major identified compounds from 71.27% detected ones. Seven main components were identified in the oil of formula 3, the majors components were thymol (47.84%) and anethole (34.73%). Regarding formula 4, twenty four compounds were identified where thymol (63.24%) and anethole (9.33%) were the major constituents. Results of pesticide residues and heavy metals were in accordance with the international standards. All preparations were free from pathogenic organisms. No aflatoxins were detected. Conclusion: The selected herbal preparations obey the official standards of health care.
71 Angiotensin II Contributes to the Pathophysiology of Heart Failure , Zaher AME and Ali SMR*
Angiotensin is a protein hormone; it is a part of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), that causes blood vessels to become narrower, helps to maintain blood pressure and fluid balance in the body. It is the primary effector hormone that secreted in response to physiological stimuli. Despite, there is now general agreement that RAS is known to be much more complicated, acting locally within organs or tissue, through both intracrine and autocrine/paracrine mechanisms and systemically, to exert its effects on target organs, including the heart. High secretion of angiotensin II is a common problem resulting in excess fluid retained by the body and, ultimately, raised blood pressure frequency occurs in heart failure where angiotensin is also thought to take part in growing the heart size. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers are used in the clinic to avoid these adverse effects. Besides, High levels of Ang II often causes hypertension, renal failure, and cardiac fibrosis. In this review, will be illustrated how Chronic Activation of the renin-angiotensin System Induces heart failure and injures endothelial cells by activation of cellular suicide pathways leading to apoptosis. Its Effects mediated by angiotensin II receptor (AT2) are suggested to include inhibition of cell growth, fetal tissue progression, extracellular matrix modulation, neuronal regeneration, cellular differentiation, apoptosis, and may be vasodilation and left ventricular hypertrophy
72 The Influence of Cholinergic System on Rheumatoid Arthritis , Mehranfard D* and Hamurtekin E
Rheumatoid arthritis is one of the most prevalent immune-mediated arthritis and is categorized as a chronic, inflammatory and autoimmune disease, which mainly affects the cartilage, synovial joint, and bone, the causes of which remain unknown. There are different factors playing a role in RA pathophysiology on the molecular level, like Citrullination, Regulatory T cells, Monocytes, Macrophages, Platelet microparticles, and RASFs, which mainly induce inflammation by producing pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-8, IL-6, IL-1, and TNF. We have two types of cholinergic systems (CS) in our body, Neuronal CS, in which Acetylcholine (ACh) act as a neurotransmitter and NonNeuronal CS in which ACh act as a local signalling molecule for cellular proliferation and regulation of cellular function including the cells involved in RA inflammation. In light of the recent studies, the links between the CS and cells involved in RA molecular pathophysiology suggest new approaches for controlling RA, which will be discussed further. First, is the stimulation of the vagus nerve, which plays an essential role in the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway through its main neurotransmitter ACh resulting in downregulation of TNFα and inhibition of inflammation. The second strategy is stimulation of CAP by selective activation of α7nAChR, which is represented by different types of immune cells, such as T and B-lymphocytes, monocytes, dendritic cells, especially macrophages, and FLS through acetylcholine or its selective agonist resulting in decreased TNF production and reduced inflammation. As we discussed previously ACh is one of the necessary components for cellular proliferation especially in RASFs. Choline transporter-like proteins 1 and 2 are accountable for bringing extracellular choline inside the RASFs, which further will convert to ACh within the cell. Therefore, as the final strategy, we can induce apoptotic cell death in RASFs through preventing choline uptake by CTL1 and CTL2. Blocking of choline uptake through Choline transporter-like proteins 1 and 2, presents a novel target for RA treatment, but further in vivo studies are necessary to examine the role of these transporters as drug targets in RA
73 Evaluation of the Perspective of Healthcare Professionals on Complementary Medicine and Supplementary Foods in Turkey , Ezel N*, Dedeoglu BD, Ozturk SB, Buyukhelvacigil T, Buyukhelvacigil HF, Koparal B and Buyukhelvacigil M
The recognition of complementary medicine and its inclusion in treatment processes has shown a significant increase in the last decade worldwide. Employing methods of complementary medicine in preventive and complementary treatment becomes increasingly widespread in Turkey. Day by day, domestic and international manufacturers keep putting supplementary foods used in these methods on the Turkish market. However, research in Turkey on the consumption of supplementary foods is quite limited. Understanding the perspective of physicians on this issue to consume supplementary foods more consciously, investigating their roles in users' preferences of safe products, and determining the points of improvement in this field are important for health institutions to develop a perspective on this issue. This research was conducted with 282 people who are physicians from various fields of specialization or dieticians from different provinces of Turkey. Data were collected with a questionnaire from November to December 2018 (2 months). The activities of participants in the field of complementary medicine, their purposes of using supplementary foods, and their perspectives on product safety were investigated. It is seen that physicians and dieticians use supplementary foods for preventive or therapeutic purposes, and prefer the products of brands that they experience or trust while prescribing. The majority of participants do not find safe to supply supplementary foods outside the pharmacy. The proper use of supplementary foods by physicians is important for improving the quality of life of the population. Further studies are needed on this issue to improve the standard of preventive health services provided by healthcare professionals.
74 The Utilization of Residue Come Out as a By-Product by the Cold Press , Naime NT*, Zeliha S, Ali G, Sıdıka BO, Hale Feyza B, Yasemin G and Beril K
In recent years, with the increase of the world population, the studies on the utilization of the herbal wastes resulting from increased industrialization and production have gained speed and importance. Vegetable oils take a large part in the formation of herbal wastes, especially in industrial areas. Vegetable oil wastes (residue) obtained by the cold press method which has been used since ancient times are thought to be richer in nutritional values as they are produced without using heat. In this study, protein, sugar, mineral, and calorie assays of the residues of Nigella Sativa, Wheat germ, Coconut, Grape seed, Fig seed, and Walnut which were generated as a by-product after cold press fixed oil extraction were investigated.
75 Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticle Engineered Herbal Formulation for the Treatment of Skin Infections , Shyla MH
76 CDP-Choline Effect on Arthritis Model in Rat , Mehranfard D* and Hamurtekin E
CDP-choline is a naturally occurring endogenous nucleotide, which after administration rapidly metabolizes to choline (which is a natural α7nAChR selective Agonist) and cytidine/uridine. In the body, Choline promotes several biological functions such as acting as a precursor of neurotransmitter Acetylcholine. As a result of choline availability, Ach synthesis will also increase. It is well known that nervous system under the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway concept has an important role in this inflammatory response mainly through α7 sub-unit of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor which is expressed by different types of immune cells, including macrophages. This pathway conducts its role mainly through stimulation of vagus nerve results in the production of Ach which is an α7nAChR Agonist. Therefore, in the light of above studies we can hypothesize that exogenously administration of CDP-Choline results in enhancement of Choline and subsequently Ach level in plasma that could antagonize α7nAChR present on various immune cells, such as macrophages and FLS; which may exert analgesic effect via decreasing pro-inflammatory cytokines production and decreasement of inflammation in arthritis pain model in rat.
77 A Critical Review on the Plants Used for the Treatment of Ulcer in Kerala , Jincy J*, Nancy J, Jipnomon J and Vinod B
Peptic ulcer disease and its complications remain the cause of significant morbidity worldwide, representing a major burden for health care resources. Although potent anti-ulcer drugs are available, most of them produce several toxicities, thus emphasizing the need to search for new alternatives. As high as 80% of the world population depends on plantderived medicines for the first line of primary health care, reinforcing the theory that plant extracts can be good sources of new drugs. This review focuses to consolidate the evidence-based information on antiulcer plants used in Kerala accumulated in databases (Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct and Web of Science) upto January 2019. Plants like Acacia nilotica L., Achyranthes aspera Linn., Aegle marmelose L., Alillum sativum L., Aloe barbadensis Miller, Annona muricata L., Bacopa monnieri Linn., Carica papaya Linn., Centella asiatica Linn., Curcuma longa Linn., Elatoria cardamom L., Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L., Mangifera indica L., Mimosa pudica L., Moringa oleifera L., Ocimum sanctum Linn., Piper nigrum L., Phyllanthus embilica L., Terminalia chebula Retz., and Zingibera officinalis Roscoe. are available in Kerala, reported with antiulcer property. The secondary metabolites present in the plants like alkaloids, flavanoids, terpenoids, tannins, glycosides, terpines, and resins also have an important role in reliving ulcers due to its antisecretory, antioxidant, and cytoprotective properties. This review summarizes the botany, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and mechanism of action of antiulcer plants.
78 Applications and Implications of Viral and Non Viral Vectors in Gene Therapy , Veerareddy PR*
79 Role of GST in Indian Pharma Sector , Mrinal SK and Rao J*
Goods and Services Tax is one of the significant tax reforms which subsume 7-8 taxes that are applicable to the pharma sector. They include Value Added Tax, service tax, octoroi tax, Central Sales Tax, excise duty, custom duty, additional excise duty, etc. These multiple taxes are then categorised into three types that are State Goods and Service Tax, Central Goods and Service Tax and Integrated Goods and Service Tax. Goods and Services Tax affect the manufacturing by having different rates of tax for raw materials and for end product that is formulation. The effects of Goods and Services Tax with rates 0%, 5% and 12% on price are depending upon the category of the item or product or health care service. In this review we have tried to discuss role of GST that is positive as well as negative role on Indian pharma sector.
80 Cannabinoid Receptor CB2 Subtype: A Novel Pharmacological Target in Cancer and Neurodegenerative Diseases , Contino M* and Giampietro R
81 Antifungal Effect on Candida Albicans of Laurel, Coconut and Coriander Seed Oil , Cansel C*, Huseyin HD, Seyma AB, Ali G, Sidika BO, Yasemin G, Beril K, Hale Feyza B and Mevlut B
Candida albicans (C.P. Robin) mushroom has the highest pathogenicity among other candida species. The high amounts of linoleic acid (18:2), and oleic acid (C 18: 1, 9 octadecenoic acid) in the biphasic mutant fungus Candida albicans in vitro by using cold press method from Laurel and Coriander seeds, and (-)-isopulegol monoterpen component were cultured in the microbiology laboratory of the ZadeVital R&D center. Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method was used in the passages. The proportions of fatty acids were measured by GC (Gas Chromatography), and the free fatty acids by GC MS (Gas Chromatogram-Mass Spectrometry). The oils extracted from the bay and coriander seeds by cold pressing were absorbed into sterile antibiotic discs. Nystatin antibiotic was used as a reference. Antibiograms were checked every 2 days for 24 hours. The zones formed in the passages were measured in mm and resistance and sensitivity analyzes were performed against Candida albicans strain oils. We have found that (-)-isopulegol monotherpen is a determinant of antifungal properties compared to other fatty acids. In this study, we have seen that oils extracted by cold pressing from laurel and coriander seeds have topical antifungal properties on Candida albicans species.
82 Biofield Energy Treatment Based Test Formulation as a Novel and Efficient Approach on Various Biomarkers in human Bones, Heart, Liver, Lungs, and Brain Cells , Streicher LN, Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Gangwar M and Jana S*
Multiple organ dysfunction syndromes (MODS) are one of the common reasons for increased mortality rate against healthcare services. The present experiment aimed to determine the impact of the Biofield Energy Treated test formulation on the function of vital organs such as bones, heart, liver, lungs, and brain using standard activity parameters in specific cell-based assays. The test formulation and cells medium was divided into two parts; one untreated (UT) and other part received the Biofield Energy Treatment remotely by a renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Laura Nelson Streicher, and USA and were labeled as the Biofield Energy Treated (BT) test formulation/media. The test formulation was tested against various activities using cell line assay. The test formulation was tested for cell viability, and the results showed that the test formulation was found non-toxic against all the cell lines at the tested concentrations. Cytoprotective activity among the experimental groups showed a significant improved activity by 156.9% at 1 µg/mL in UT- medium (Med) + BT - test item/formulation (TI) group in human cardiac fibroblasts cells (HCF) cells, while 94.5% at 25.5 µg/mL in the UT-Med + BT-TI group in human hepatoma cells (HepG2), and 92.4% at 63.75 µg/mL in the BT-Med + BT-TI group as compared with the untreated test group in adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cells (A549) cells as compared with the untreated test group. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in MG-63 cells was significantly increased by 80.2% and 93.5% at 10 and 50 µg/mL respectively in the UT-Med + BT-TI group, while in Ishikawa cells showed maximum increased ALP activity by 51.5% at 1 µg/mL in UT-Med + BT-TI group as compared to the untreated group. The percent protection of HCF (heart) cells (decreased of lactate dehydrogenase-LDH activity) was significantly increased by 156.9% and 18.3% at 1 and 10 µg/mL concentrations respectively, in UT-Med + BT-TI group, while BT-Med + UT-TI group showed increased protection by 24.5% and 17.7% at10 and 25.5 µg/mL respectively, and 67.1%, 32.2%, 47.7%, and 73.1% improved cellular protection 1, 10, 25.5, and 63.75 µg/mL respectively, in BT-Med + BT-TI group as compared to the untreated test group. Alanine amino transferase (ALT) in terms of percent protection of HepG2 (liver) cells (decreased of ALT activity) was reported by 93.1% and 64.1% at 1 µg/mL in the UT-Med + BT-TI and BT-Med + UT-TI groups, respectively as compared to the untreated group. Cellular protection of A549 (lungs) cells (increased of superoxide dismutase-SOD activity) in terms of percentage was increased by 20.6% (at 0.1 µg/mL) and 6.9% (at 10 µg/mL) in the UT-Med + BT-TI and BT-Med + BT-TI groups, respectively as compared to untreated group. Serotonin level was significantly increased by 59.3% (at 10 µg/mL), 55.6% (at 1 µg/mL), and 100.1% (at 0.1 µg/mL) in the UT-Med + BTTI, BT-Med + UT-TI, and BT-Med + BT-TI groups, respectively compared to untreated in human neuroblastoma cells (SHSY5Y). However, the relative quantification (RQ) of vitamin D receptor (VDR) was significantly increased by 150.6% (at 50 µg/mL), 380.1% (at 10 µg/mL), and 148.1% (at 50 µg/mL) in the UT-Med + BT-TI, BT-Med + UT-TI, and BT-Med + BTTI groups, respectively as compared to the untreated in MG-63 cells. In conclusion, test formulation would be significantly useful for multiple organ health and improve overall health of bones, heart, liver, lungs, and brain after treatment with the Biofield Energy treated test formulation (The Trivedi Effect®). As a complementary and alternative therapy, Biofield Energy approach can be used against coronary artery disease, arrhythmias, congenital heart disease, cardiomyopathy, cirrhosis, liver cancer, hemochromatosis, asthma, chronic bronchitis, cystic fibrosis, osteoporosis, etc.
83 Numerical Modeling of Hepatitis B Dynamics with Vertical Transmission and Treatment , Razzaq A*, Raza A and Rafiq M
Numerical modeling of communicable disease is a device to understand the instrument of how disease blowouts and how it can be measured. It builds on our considerate of the spread process of a contagion in a population. In this thesis, we have studied the dynamics of hepatitis B with vertical transmission and treatment numerically. We formulate an unconditionally stable non-standard finite difference (NSFD) scheme for a mathematical model of Hepatitis B disease. The developed numerical scheme is bounded, dynamically consistent and preserves the positivity of the solutions. NSFD scheme shows convergence to the true equilibrium points of the model for any time step sizes. But Euler and RK-4 fail for large time step sizes.
84 Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress as Therapeutic Target against Hypertension , Cheang WS*
Studies in the past decade have demonstrated that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is closely associated with pathogenesis of hypertension. Signaling pathways involving AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and NADPH-oxidase (Nox) have been identified to regulate ER stress; whilst ER stress contributes to the imbalance production between nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The present article reviews the protective effects and the potential therapeutic implication of ER stress inhibition by drugs or natural products in hypertension.
85 Occurrence of Microbial Resistence in Blood Cultures in a Teaching Hospital before and after the Restrictive Measure for the Commercialization of Antimicrobials in Brazil , Da Costa JM*, Malta JS and De Pádua CAM
Bacterial resistance to antimicrobial drugs (ATM) has become a global public health problem. The collegiate board of the National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) through RDC 44, published on October 26, 2010, determined that prescribed antibiotics can only be dispensed with special control prescription, aiming to restrict the free access to these drugs and minimize the microbial resistance. The present study aims to identify microbial resistance in blood culture in hospitalized patients before and after the implementation of restrictive measurement. We observed decrease in the occurrence of blood culture microbial resistance in Phase II (0,62 for 100 people day) compared with Phase I (0,75 for 100 people day).
86 Validating the Selection Process of Healthy Control Group Based on Apparently Healthy Volunteers , Naji SA, Mahmood MM*, Alnuaimi AS and Yousif RW
Objectives: The objective of this cross sectional study is to evaluate the probability of finding healthy control subjects according to the results of multiple lab tests in multiple domains including biochemical hematological and immunological measurements. Material and methods: During the period March- June 2016 a sample of 217 apparently healthy Iraqi adults were investigated whether or not they satisfactorily meet the criteria accomplishing the reality of being healthy. Blood specimens were collected from each participant using standard procedures. The following measurements and tests were carried out for all studied participants: anthropometric measurements, complete blood picture test, enzymatic colorimetric assay for serum lipid profile, glucose, urea, creatinine, alanine transferase, and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) for serum high sensitive C reactive protein and interleukin 1 beta. Results: The prevalence rates (PR) of apparently healthy individuals (AHI) were in descending order of wellness requirements as follow: in those with a completely normal lipid profile it was 25.3%, for biochemistry domain 31.3%, for white blood cell count domain 57.2%, for red blood cell count (RBC) domain 11.5% and for platelets domain tests it was 31.3%. A completely normal hematologic domain tests was found in only 8.8% of tested individuals, while for immunologic domain 9.2%. The probability of finding a normal control subject based on multiple testing domains was as low as 13.4%. Conclusions: Avery considerable proportion of population who appear to be healthy, are not in reality, accordingly not all apparently healthy controls are qualified as eligible control. The really healthy control subject is of low probability (13.4%) among Iraqi apparently healthy adults. The WBC domain ranked at the top of restriction normality pyramid, followed by biochemistry, lipid profile, RBC domain and immunological domain respectively.
87 Aegle Marmelos (L.) Correa, A Potential Source for the Treatment of Diabetes Associated Alzheimer’s Disease: A Review , Jannat K, Jahan R and Rahmatullah M*
Alzheimer’s disease is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder leading to memory loss, which is caused by progressive wasting away of brain cells. Memory loss leads to changes in a person’s behavior, thinking and social skills leading in turn to profound alterations in a person’s social and family life. The disease can occur by itself with age; however, onset of diabetes can precipitate the onset of the disease or augment the disease process and symptoms. Current allopathic medications can only improve the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease, albeit temporarily and cannot cure the disease. According to the World Health Organization, about 44 million people were suffering from the disease in 2015, a number likely to go up to 114 million by 2050 causing severe strains in family relationships and finances. Plants are a potential source of stopping the development of Alzheimer’s or even curing the disease. The present review examines the potential of a plant Aegle marmelos or Bengal quince in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.
88 Fabrication and Evaluation of Non-Medicated Jellies of Carrot, Beetroot and Papaya , Jyothi Sri S, Sahoo NK*, Kusuma D and Uma Shankar CH
The current study is conducted for processing of jelly from carrot, beet root and papaya juices at different stages of extraction. Sensory attributes and storage studies of the jellies were also evaluated. The fresh and fully mature carrots, beet root, papaya were used for this experiment. The Juices of all different fruits were collected by extraction process. In this research Gelatin is used as a gelling agent, sucrose as a sweetening agent and citric acid as a salivating agent. Chemical characteristics such as moisture, ash, acidity, vitamin C, sugar and total soluble solids (TSS) of edible fruits, juice and jellies were determined. With respect to chemical composition initially extracted juice was found better than the other two. The jelly from composite of extractions juice was found better than other jellies as per chemical composition and sensory evaluation. On the basis of sensory evaluation the carrot, beet root, papaya jellies prepared from different extractions of juice considering, smell and taste, color, texture and overall acceptability the jelly prepared from composite of extractions of juice was more acceptable than others. Storage study was conducted on the jellies for 60 days at room temperature (23-30°C) and relative humidity 80 to 85%. It was observed that TSS, pH and acidity of jelly did not show any remarkable changes. Color and flavor was acceptable up to 60 days but after 70 days the color and flavor of jellies were changed due to fungal growth and incipient spoilage.
89 Epilepsy and Quinazolinones: The Renewable Relationship , Al Salem HS* and Mirgany TO
Epilepsy is a global public health issue requiring a global response. Epilepsy is present everywhere and affects people of various ages, genders, ethnicities, and social backgrounds, regardless of geographical locations. Excess discharge from the cortical neurons in the cortical section of brain is generally responsible for epileptic state. Understanding the classification of epileptic seizures is the first step toward the correct diagnosis, treatment and prognostication of the condition. Specific seizure types or syndromes often respond better to specific medications or surgical approaches. Multidrug resistant syndrome and refractory epilepsy are the biggest challenge in treatment of epilepsy, they lead to defect access of Anti-Epileptic Drugs AEDs to their target in CNS. Moreover, the marketed drugs carry severe side effects such as drowsiness, hepatotoxicity, anemia, and teratogenicity. Therefore, there is pivotal need to discover more safe and effective drugs. Quinazolinones analogues represent molecules which are capable of binding at multiple sites with high affinity and facilitate more rapid discovery of useful medicinally active compounds. Series of new quinazolinone derivatives were synthesized by many sceintists around the world, screened virtually and evaluated for the anticonvulsant activity against different types of seizures. They are to be a vital part of the solution of epilepsy in the future.
90 Pharmaceutical Formulation Analysis Based on Ion Selective Electrode Determination using Drug of Levamisole and its Application , Moltazem SM*
In this work ion-selective electrode is much simpler, more rapid and more economic than various other analytical methods. Four novel levamisole ion selective electrodes were fabricated, characterized and used for determination of levamisole in pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed sensors incorporated levamisole ammonium reineckate or levamisole potassium tetraiodomercurate ion pair complexes as electroactive materials in PVC matrix membrane and dioctylphthalate or o-nitrophenyloctyl ether as solvent mediators. The sensors exhibited fast and stable near Nernstian cationic response of 57±0.1 mV and 39 ± 0.5 mV/ concentration decade of levamisole in the concentration range of 1.0× 10-6 -1.0× 10-1 M, receptively. The lower limit of detection was 0.21± 0.7 ppm. It was found that sensor based on ammonium renickate as ionic counter and o- nitrophenyloctyl ether was the best and was used throughout this investigation in pH range
91 Surgical Waste Disposal: A Review , Uzma Riaz*
In recent years there has been more difficulty in the processing of medical waste by using disposable nadel, furnaces, and other similar items in most of the developing countries. HCF (health care facility) waste is a special kind of waste generated in small quantities with high infection and injury potential. Knowledge in the fields of waste collection, sorting, stockpiling, transportation and disposal is 2 lacks in developing countries regarding healthcare facilities. Studies in Pakistan have shown that approximately 0.8-2.0 kg / day of waste are produced and 0.1-0.5 kg of it can be classified as a risk 3 waste. Wastes in HCFs are dangerous or toxic waste and waste not harmful. The following categories of risk wastes are: dangerous, contagious, sharp waste, medical waste, genotoxic waste, chemical waste and radioactive waste. Dependent on hospital policies and practices and the type of care given, the amount of biomedical waste generated is different. According to a report by the WHO, approximately 85% of hospital waste was not in danger and 10% was infectious and the remaining 5% was non-infectious due to improper segregation practices waste was mixed, thereby resulting in the presence of wastes as a whole.
92 Trametes Versicolor and Dictyophora Indusiata Champions of Medicinal Mushrooms , Elkhateeb WA*, Elnahas MO, Thomas PW and Daba GM
Overall, studies both on the chemistry and pharmacology of Trametes versicolor and Dictyophora indusiata extracts and compounds are increasing in recent years and show therapeutic potential for various pathologies. The purpose of this review was to investigate the biological activities of polysaccharide extracts prepared from fruiting bodies of Trametes versicolor and Dictyophora indusiata.
93 Evaluation of Anti-Diarrheal Potential of Clerodendrum Wallichii (Merr.) Leaves , Kundan SB* and Mahamedha D
Clerodendrum wallichii Merr. (Family: Lamiaceae) commonly known as Sampulis is native to southern Asia from the Himalayas to Southern China. In India, it is found in Sikkim, Tripura, Mizoram, Meghalaya, Assam, Maharashtra and Uttarakhand. Traditionally, it is used against diarrhea, skin infection, inflammation and fever. The plant has never been evaluated for antidiarrheal activity. Thus, it was considered worthwhile to evaluate anti-diarrheal effect of C. wallichii leaves in rats. Hydro-alcohol extract was prepared and fractionated using n-hexane and chloroform. Diarrhea was induced with castor oil and magnesium sulphate. Colorimetric method was employed for the determination of total phenolic and flavonoid content. Hydro-alcohol extract showed significant (p < 0.05) anti-diarrheal activity. Furthermore, amongst various fractions of hydro-alcohol extract, only chloroform fraction exhibited potent anti-diarrheal activity (p < 0.05). The findings of current investigation suggest that C. wallichii possesses anti-diarrheal activity and could serve as a potential source for the treatment of diarrhea.
94 Mini Review: Pharmacokinetics Changes During Childhood, Old Age and Pregnancy , Ramírez Gómez XS*, Jiménez García SN, Beltrán Campos V, García Campos ML and Ortega Jiménez MC
In the different stages of life, various anatomical and physiological changes occur and can influence the responses to drugs, due to pharmacokinetic processes also change with age. In this context, it is important to analyze how the anatomical and physiological changes influence the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination of drugs during childhood, old age and pregnancy with to obtain the best pharmacological response without effects adverse when drugs are prescribed in these populations. Therefore, this review shows general aspects of each pharmacokinetic parameter, as well as special considerations on the absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination process of drugs in the child, in the elderly and in the pregnant woman to obtain therapeutic success and prevent both therapeutic failure and the toxicity