• We are available for your help 24/7
  • Email: info@isindexing.com, submission@isindexing.com

1 Problem of Cognitive Rehabilitation of Patients with Neurosurgical Pathology of the Brain , Ivanova NE*, Efimova M Yu, Makarov AO, Tereshin AE, Karyagina MV, Reshetnic DA and Ivanov A Yu
The problem of diagnosis and treatment of cognitive impairment - one of the actual problems of neurorehabilitation after neurological and neurosurgical diseases.Neurosurgical diseases of the brain (brain injury, neuro-oncology, cerebrovascular pathology) are the most important cause of disability in the population of developed countries, leading not only to paresis, hypesthesia, discoordination, but also cognitive disorders. The role of ageing in the formation of cognitive deficiency in focal brain lesions has not been definitively determined yet.
2 Problem of Cognitive Rehabilitation of Patients with Neurosurgical Pathology of the Brain , Ivanova NE*, Efimova M Yu, Makarov AO, Tereshin AE, Karyagina MV, Reshetnic DA and Ivanov A Yu
The problem of diagnosis and treatment of cognitive impairment - one of the actual problems of neurorehabilitation after neurological and neurosurgical diseases.Neurosurgical diseases of the brain (brain injury, neuro-oncology, cerebrovascular pathology) are the most important cause of disability in the population of developed countries, leading not only to paresis, hypesthesia, discoordination, but also cognitive disorders. The role of ageing in the formation of cognitive deficiency in focal brain lesions has not been definitively determined yet.
3 Cyanotoxin Threats to Animals , Jian Yuan*
Cyanobacteria, also known as blue-green algae, are a group of photoautotrophic prokaryotes that grow in various habitats mainly freshwater all over the earth due to their strong adaptability to different environments. They can proliferate explosively and outgrow other freshwater microalgae once their optimal growth requirements are met such as enough nutrients and sunlight radiation, and warm weather. Their drastic proliferation always leads to a natural ecological disaster called cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Bloom (cyanoHAB), in which the culpable cyanobacteria are dominant in primary producer communities. CyanoHABs can exhaust key nutrients for other microalgae and thus inhibit their growth, and bacterial decomposition of excessive dead cyanobacterial cells can massively consume dissolved oxygen, creating deadly hypoxic (low oxygen) environment to aquatic organisms.
4 Applications And Prospects Of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction In Chinese Herbal Medicine , Aihua Sun, Xiaoyan Chi*, Xiaoguang Yang, Jiang Feng, Yanmin Li and Juhua Zhou*
Ultrasound-assisted extraction method has become more attractive due to its several advantages such as low energy consumption, less extraction time, less active compound damage and high extraction yields as compared with conventional extraction methods. Ultrasound-assisted extraction has been successfully used in the extraction of various medicinal compounds including alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, phenolic compounds and polysaccharides from plants in laboratory investigations. The mechanisms, regulatory factors, advantages and disadvantages of ultrasoundassisted extraction method are discussed in this paper. It is expected that ultrasound-assisted extraction method will become popular in Chinese herbal medicine industries in the near future.
5 The Proteasomal Subunits: Potential Therapeutic Targets For Cancer , Abdulfattah Salah Fararjeh*
Without doubt, we can understand that cancer such as breast cancer is considered as a heterogeneous disease. It consists of several molecular subtypes and each subtype has a unique signaling pathways with a distinct growth and proliferation stimulatory. Throughout the last few decades, the information about the cellular process and signaling pathways that involved in cancer become clearer. These cellular processes and signaling pathways have been reported to affect the survival, proliferation, migration, invasion and apoptosis of the cancer cells [1-4].
6 Discipline And Publish: A Rallying Call For The Infliction Of Gynaecological Justice , Joseph Miller*
The field of gynaecology is at a crossroads, and if our field is to cross the road, it must engage in self-reflection, like a mirror gazing into a mirror. As we leave the mirror of the field of gynaecology gazing into itself at the crossroads, it is time that the rest of us discussed the enemy within. It is time that we discussed how to expunge the enemy within from the field, at the crossroads [1].
7 Does Forest Certification Improve Socio-Economic And Governance Issues? A Case Of Community Forestry From Nepal , Acharya RP* and Gyanendra Karki
Forest certification has emerged as a market-based solution to improve forest management, and also expected that it can contribute in resource governance and poverty reduction. Nepal’s community forestry is an exemplary participatory forest management system and a total of 18,960 community forest user groups (CFUGs) are managing 1.79 million hectares of national forest land. Selecting two CFUG, one each from Central and Far-Western Nepal, and using longitudinal method, the study analysed the impacts that the forest certification has brought in constitutions, operational plans, minutes and their record keeping systems. Moreover, the implementation status of those changes in regard to decision making, governance, institutional development and livelihood enhancement has been studied. Three time series (2003, 2008 and 2016) data were used to assess change in socio-economy and governance through forest certification. The results indicated that the certification has played an important role for local value addition of non-timber forest products, income and employment generation, and rural poverty reduction. It has also positive impacts in sustainable resource management through improved governance. The signs of major positive changes in resource management were but not limited to improved collection practices, up-to-date record keeping, and maintaining transparency of all process and methods. This has also resulted improvement in forest management and local enterprises promotion. The study suggests that the forest certification in community managed forests can be beneficial to improve natural resource governance, ultimately contributing in reducing poverty.
8 Cost-Comparison Analysis Of APEX M™ Pelvic Floor Therapy For The Treatment And Management Of Female Urinary Incontinence , Anna Camille Moreno, Belinda L Udeh, Yao Meng, Sabrina Sahni and Holly L Thacker*
The primary objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of APEX M™ pelvic floor therapy, a pelvic stimulating device, for women with urinary incontinence (UI) from April 1, 2014 to January 31, 2018 at a tertiary medical center. Efficacy of the device was measured by daytime incontinence episodes; nighttime incontinence episodes (nocturia); number of female incontinence pads at study visits. A total of 47 women purchased the device and participated in a treatment protocol. A total of 71 women purchased the device online or over the counter and did not participate in the treatment protocol. A secondary objective was to assess health-related direct costs of UI including prescription medications, pelvic floor physical therapy sessions, surgical interventions, and female incontinence pads in patients who used APEX M™ and those who didn’t use the device. Health care resource utilization and costs were calculated for women who purchased APEX M™ (47 women) and participated in a treatment protocol as well as for those who were eligible to benefit from the use of the pelvic stimulating device but chose not to purchase it (236 women). Wilcoxon signed-rank tests showed that daytime incontinence episodes, nocturia, and number of pads used had significant decreases from the initial to follow-up visits (day incontinence episodes P<0.001, episodes of nocturia P<0.001 and number of pads P=0.014). More cost-effective and conservative approaches are becoming more common in the treatment of UI. The results of this study may be useful in shared-decision making with your patients regarding the most appropriate, cost-effective and less-invasive treatment for female urinary incontinence.
9 Body Composition And Different Criteria For Obesity Evaluation In Type 2 Diabetic Patients With And Without Angiopathy , Ana Valente*, Manuel Bicho, Rui Duarte and João Filipe Raposo
Background: A single method is not suitable for obesity and body fat evaluation in type 2 diabetic patients. An observational analytical case control study was performed in Caucasian type 2 diabetic and non-diabetic subjects to compare body fatness, obesity prevalence and to evaluate type 2 diabetes (DT2) and angiopathy contribution to obesity prevalence. Methodology: A total of 293 adults were studied in three groups: GI - 75 type 2 diabetic subjects with angiopathy; GII - 75 type 2 diabetic subjects without angiopathy; GIII - 143 controls. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis and body fatness estimated by nine anthropometric equations. Obesity prevalence was calculated using three criteria: BMI, waist circumference and body fat percentage. Results: According to BMI, the obesity prevalence was (GI: 57.3%; GII: 45.4%; GIII: 16.8%). The abdominal obesity prevalence was similar in diabetics (70.7%) and significantly higher than in non-diabetic subjects (51.0%). The obesity prevalence calculated by bioelectrical impedance analysis was higher than 70% in all groups. According to BF%, the DT2 and angiopathy presence did not increase the probability to have obesity. Deurenberg equation from 1998 was the most accurate and showed the lowest variability when compared to bioelectrical impedance. It was found that the prevalence of dehydration in the studied population was very high (>55%). Conclusion: Body composition assessment is an important tool to evaluate the nutritional status of diabetic patients. The anthropometric equations based on direct measurements of skinfold thickness underestimate BF% and demonstrate a weak agreement with BIA method. Some of the equations based on BMI, age and gender agreed with all validation criteria and are suitable to predict body fatness in epidemiological studies or clinical settings. For body fat assessment, in Caucasian diabetic patients, the application of the Deurenberg equation seems to be the best choice when other more accurate methods cannot be used.
10 A Critical Ethnography Through Poetic Representations Of Social Justice Issues , Jeremy T Yeats*, Robert Demski, Ben Paden, Michael Rhoads and Caly Setiawan
The main purpose of this study is to examine how songs, lyrics, and poetry express emotional reactions to inequity of people with different backgrounds, SES, race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, power differentials, lack of power, lifestyle choices, and physical/emotional bullying. This study examined how songs, lyrics, and poetry expressed emotions of inequity with three primary data collection sources: Poetry, spoken word, or lyrics; Lyric/poetry analysis; and Interviews. Findings were divided into three themes and numerous sub-themes. The three main themes were: Racial Issues in the San Luis Valley, Systemic Issues in the San Luis Valley, and the Betterment of Adams State University. Findings demonstrate the importance of having dialogue on these important issues impacting society today. These findings have implications on how researchers and institutions can start and continue important conversations on issues of inequity.
11 Tips For Embryo Transfer Procedure In IVF/ICSI Cycle , Howaida Hashim*
It is well known that the success of IVF/ICSI treatment cycle depends on many factors [1]. These factors could be related to patients treated (Age, BMI, Hormone levels, previous medical history, infertility duration, etiology and more), stimulation cycles (Stimulation protocol, duration of stimulation, drug used … etc.), and laboratory process (quality of gametes, gamete handling, insemination technique (IVF/ICSI), embryology managing and incubation) [2,3]. In addition to an important factor, that is often not realized that is the embryo transfer procedure itself.
12 Innovation , Andrés J Washington*
A study of the frequency of fingerprint patterns indicates that individuals who display the radial loop pattern are mentally elevated. Individuals with this distinction are of great value! Notwithstanding, there is no digit that displays the frequency of a radial loop classification over 2%. The highest frequency of a radial loop classification under the NCIC FPC for the male population is a radial loop with a ridge count of four; displayed on the left index. Out of 17,951,192 males, only 343,812 maintained this classification. This is 1.915260001% of the total. In a female population of 4,313,521, the highest frequency again is on the left index; a ridge count of three numbering 71,439. This is 1.656164419 % of the total. The display of a radial loop is therefore a rare occurrence.
13 Clinical Assessment Of Anesthesia Caused By Combinational Protocol Of Acepromazine-Fentanyl- Ketamine In Dogs , Adel Khodaei Sharabiyani and Mahmoud Tohidi Moghadam*
The purpose of the present study is the clinical assessment of anesthesia by adding fentanyl to ketamine and acepromazine in dogs and the clinical assessment of dogs during this anesthesia. In this study, 12 mixed-breed dogs, that weigh 20 -30 kg and are 2-3 years old, were selected and divided into two test and control groups. Anesthetizing of the test group is done by intramuscular injection of 0.2 mg of kg acepromazine; and intravenous injection of 0.1 mg kg of fentanyl and intramuscular injection of 20 mg kg of ketamine after 10 minutes. Anesthetizing of the control group is done by intramuscular injection of 0.2 mg kg of acepromazine; and intramuscular injection of 20 mg kg of ketamine after 10 minutes. One hour after anesthetizing both test and control groups, parameters such as: heart rate, respiratory rate, rectal temperature and clinical symptoms such as duration of analgesia and duration of anesthesia were assessed in 10-minute-interval periods. T independent test, ANOVA, and Tukey Post Hoc were used for the statistical analysis of the data. As the results show, the dogs’ heart rate was increased in both groups without any significant difference (P> 0.05); however, the respiration rate in the experimental group was reduced significantly (P <0.05). It has to be mentioned that two dogs suffered apnea during the injection of fentanyl and were returned to normal respiration after 2-3 minutes by CPR. A significant different (p<0.05) was observed in rectal temperature of the experiment group between first 10-minte-interval-period and last 10-minte-interval-period; moreover, a significant increase (P<0.05) was observed in the duration of analgesia and anesthesia. In this study, it was demonstrated that adding 0.1 mg kg of fentanyl to acepromazine and ketamine has a significant influence on the reduction of respiratory rate and the increase in the duration of analgesia and anesthesia; however, this addition does not have any significant influence on clinical symptoms of the dogs. Based on the results of this study, it can be suggested that this combination can be used as beneficial in the reduction of respiratory rate and the increase in the duration of analgesia and anesthesia.
14 Coral Degradation And The Flow-On Effects To Reef Fishes , Mark I McCormick*
The coral reefs of the world are under threat from over-harvest, pollution and climate change, which has lead 75% of the world’s reefs to be classed as threatened in 2011. For many reefs these threats have led to a mark reduction in hard corals, particularly as a result of coral bleaching through thermal stress. As corals bleach and die, the fish community changes – there are still fishes present, but there just aren’t as many different varieties. While researchers have documented the changes in fish community that occur as habitats degraded and change, the mechanisms that lead to that change are poorly understood.
15 Transcultural Nursing: Is It Just The Knowledge Of Culture? , Mariela Aguayo-González*
Nursing discipline is a very broad science that allows the healthy or sick person to be approached from multiple approaches. In addition, it is imperative of the profession to consider ethics, bioethics and the humanization of care in nursing practice. However, to comply with all these fundamental elements of the profession, it is necessary to take care of the person from a cross-cultural approach, which will involve providing care from the understanding of the beliefs and customs of the people we serve. That is, to deepen personal values, individual conceptions and perspectives of the disease health process from the individual and unique vision that people possess. You cannot talk about ethics, bioethics or humanized care if we do not consider nurse transculturality. We can understand this process as an approach to the true meaning and meaning of health and illness from the perspective of the person we care for.
16 An Alternate To The Unified Distribution With Application To Breast Cancer Data , Clement Boateng Ampadu*
The Unified (θ) distribution appeared in [1], and in this short note we introduce a variant of this distribution. Further, a member of this family is shown to be significant in cancer modeling.
17 Identifying Precancerous Changes In A Woman With Dense Breasts And Breast Implants , Richard M Fleming*, Matthew R Fleming, Tapan K Chaudhuri and William C Dooley
Evaluation of women with dense breasts is limited using mammography due to the increased fibro glandular tissue present in 50% of all women. Measurement of regional blood flow (RBF) and metabolic differences differentiate tissue types and can be used in women with dense breasts to determine if inflammation, precancerous changes or breast cancer is present. It is also now appreciated that women with breast implants have an increased risk of developing inflammatory reactions - both within the breast and systemically - as well as cancer. We present once such case of a woman with breast irregularities, dense breasts and breast implants, evaluated by FMTVDM*.
18 Finding Breast Cancer In The Woman With Dense Breasts , Richard M Fleming*, Matthew R Fleming, Tapan K Chaudhuri and William C Dooley
Evaluation of women with dense breasts is limited using mammography due to the increased fibro glandular tissue present in 50% of all women. Measurement of regional blood flow (RBF) and metabolic differences differentiate tissue types and can be used in women with dense breasts to determine if breast cancer is present. We present once such case of a woman with positive genetic markers and familial history of breast cancer, whose biopsy and FMTVDM results revealed breast cancer – missed by mammography.
19 The Religious Nursing In The Lleida Of The XIX Century: The Case Of Daughters Of Charity Of Saint Vincent Of Paul , Lorena Lourdes Tejero Vidal*
The city of Lleida that was reborn after the war of independence 1808-1814 had a diminished population and many wounded soldiers who remained in the city’s hospitals [1-5]. In addition, there was a great lack of supply in the military hospitals of the seminary, general hospital and San Luis within the “Corregimiento” to which the city of Lleida Belonged. Fact that led the town hall to address the was commissioner of the French Army General Henriot asking for help [6,7]. To correct these deficiencies, during that month of may an auction of the bread supply was carried out , every neighbor was required to provide an ounce of threads for the hospitals, some 300 mattresses were requisitioned for the comfort of the patients and supplies were provided for the city’s military hospital [8].
20 Structural Design And Numerical Simulation Of An Implantable Axial Blood Pump , Weibo Yang, Huachun Wu* and Yefa Hu
The aim of this research is to design an efficient implantable blood pump to support the blood circulation and reduce the shear stress related blood damage. Axial blood pumps have been evidenced and acknowledged in recent years because of their small size. In this study, an axial blood pump which can be easily implanted in the human body has been designed and studied. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was performed to improve the structural design and the fluid dynamics aspects of the implantable axial blood pump. Based on established numerical methods and hydrodynamic performance testing facilities, the distributions of flow streamline, shear stress, velocity and pressure of the axial blood pump were obtained using the commercial software (ANSYS Fluent, version 12.1.2). The relationship between the rotational speed and shear stress was investigated at several rotational speeds (5,000- 9,000rpm). Also, the pump characteristic curves of the flow rate against the pressure head under different rotating speeds have been performed. The results show that the implantable axial blood pump could produce 5L/min of blood at 100mmHg through the outlet when rotating at about 6,570rpm; the rotational speed has a direct correlation with pressure drop and shear stress; the scalar shear stresses were less than 360Pa. All of these simulation findings are encouraging and demonstrate progress toward achieving an implantable axial blood pump design. In comparison with existing models for VADs, it is confirmed that the shear stresses are decreased by a little increasing in the pump diameter. These will reduce the blood exposure to shear stress significantly and consequently lower the blood damage.
21 The Challenge Of Orthodonic Treatment Against Sickle Anemia: Fear Or Lack Of Information? , Luíza Trindade Vilela*, Bruna Caroline Tomé Barreto, Ana Maria Bolognese and Margareth Maria Gomes de Souza
Sickle cell anemia is a hematologic disease with hereditary etiology. Considered a public health issue, it has a high frequency in the population, being the most prevalent genetic disease in Brazil, especially in feoderms. The growing miscegenation in the country justifies the increase of the disease. Sickle cell anemia is a hereditary type of chronic hemolytic anemia caused by the genetic mutation of the hemoglobin molecule, where the beta globin gene originates, instead of hemoglobin A (HbA), an altered hemoglobin: Hemoglobin S (HbS) [1,2]. The disease affects various body tissues, including the mouth.
22 Cryoanesthesia As A Supplementary Aid To The Mandibular Anesthetic Technique In Endodontics: A Preliminary Experience , Pedro Mejía Fernández, Martha Rebolledo Cobos* and María de los Ángeles Torres Barros
Objective: Describe the cryoanesthetic effect of the use of dry ice (solid Carbon Dioxide) spray in patients with Irreversible Pulpitis (IP) undergoing conventional endodontic treatment in lower molars. Materials and Methods: This are an-in vivo quasi-experimental study with a convenience sample of 126 patients who met the criteria for selection. The clinical history was completed, obtaining socio-demographic characteristics, including the diagnosis of IP. After previously signing informed consent, patients were anesthetized applying the inferior alveolar anesthetic technique; after a period of five minutes, molars were completely isolated, then dry ice spray was applied for two seconds. Subsequently, a conventional access cavity was opened, applying intrapulpal anesthesia upon pulp exposure. For the purpose of measuring the pain experienced by the patients during access cavity opening and instrumentation procedures, the Heft-Parker modified visual analog scale (HPVAS) was used. Results: 60% of the subjects (sample) were female, the average age range was between 53 and 63 years. The tooth most frequently affected by IP was 46. According to HPVAS, 94.4% of patients reported feeling no pain, gender had no influence on the outcome of HPVAS. Based on the odds ratio related to Chi2 at older age, there is a 1.6% probability of success per year. Age showed a P value of less than 0.05. The relation between gender and the affected tooth did not show a statistically significant difference. Conclusion: Cryoanesthesia was successful as a supplementary aid to mandibular anesthesia in the endodontic treatment of lower molars
23 Understanding Nurses’ Intentions To Respond To Requests For Assisted Dying , Michael Wilson*
The trajectory of nursing research since the early 1990s has provided rich information about nursing attitudes toward medically assisted dying (AD) and willingness to participate with it. The research has focussed on a rare event and is usually fragmented by national jurisdictions and methodological inconsistencies that make normative conclusions nearly impossible. Despite the richness of this information, its explanatory power is diminished because it focuses on willingness to participate, not what nurses intend to do. This deficit arises from the theoretical nature of the research that cannot model the factors that predict behaviour. This paper acknowledges the emergence of new AD-related research drawn from behavioural science that models predictive factors. The relevance of nursing research in this area can be further enhanced by a pivot away from rare events of euthanasia to the increasingly frequent need to respond to a patient’s request for AD.
24 Research Of Influence Of Salivary And Oral Cleaning Hygiene On Indicators Of Mineralization Of Hard Tooth Tissues Of Different Functional Groups , Alexandrov MT*, Dmitrieva EF, Artemova OA and Akhmedov AN
Introduction: In vitro, investigate by the method of Raman fluorescence spectroscopy the effect of saliva and oral hygiene products on the mineralization indices of various anatomical and topographic areas of teeth for their various functional groups, to substantiate its clinical feasibility and effectiveness. Methods: In a preclinical in vitro study on 90 model test objects of teeth (incisors, premolars, and molars) removed according to clinical indications, a Raman fluorescence study of the degree of mineralization (Raman spectrum characteristics), dental hygiene conditions (plaque and intensity fluorescence) and evaluation of the effectiveness of remineralizing agents (films, suspensions) in various functional groups of teeth. For registration of the studied parameters, InSpektr M agro-industrial complex was used with a probe wavelength of 532nm. The advantages of Raman fluorescence spectroscopy for determining the degree of mineralization and the hygienic state of tooth hard tissues are objectivity (digital technology), expressivity, non-invasiveness, simple and non-invasive control the degree of mineralization / demineralization of the hard tissues of the tooth and its hygienic state, the possibility of documenting and storing information (creating a database). Results: In the course of the study, a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the influence of saliva and oral hygiene products on the mineralization and hygienic condition of various functional groups of teeth was carried out.
25 The Matrix And Isolation In Close Relationship With The Isolated Strains Showing Benefits Against Pathogens; The Hope Is Right In Front Of Us To Combat Multi Resistant Bacteria , Sandra Quilodrán Vega*
The correct isolation of beneficial bacteria from different matrix in the nature is a very important key to find the right microorganism with effect against pathogens. Beneficial microorganisms are necessary, since de WHO incited the world to decrease the application of antibiotics because of the consequences of multi resistant’s microorganism’s selection [1]. Those microorganisms are interfering with the therapies all over the world. Today there is no treatment for a several diseases, like gonorrhoea, tuberculosis, nosocomial infections (Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus) etc.
26 The Effect On Nursing Leadership Roles With Succession Planning For The Next Generation Of Millennial Nurses , Laura F Sittler*
Healthcare today is a complex and complicated arena. Furthermore, there is the criticality of the vast numbers of registered nurse vacancies that exist due to the long-standing nursing shortage. These factors result in an untenable business model Griffith [1]. The Chief Nursing Officer (CNO) has the burden in the hospital setting of both recruiting and retaining talent for the bedside roles, but as well for the development of the nurse leaders who play an integral role in operationalizing the work of patient care. The role of the nursing leader remains one of the most complex roles in the hospital. There are competing priorities to meet and exceed in every indicator from both patient and clinical expectations of performance. These are in areas such as to high patient experience scores, to value based clinical outcomes payment requirements, to reduction in vacancy in the nurse staff roles, and other key indicators that add stress and strain to the role.
27 Creative Processes And Metaphors-Multi-Associative Or Chaotic? Methodological Remarks For Aesthetics And Innovation , Hans Lenk*
Human beings (at least “creative” ones like artists, poets, inventors, engineers, scientists) can have and develop a consciousness for using phantasy, fiction, similes, comparisons, reflexions, metaphors. They - and we all - are capable of reflecting, developing new ideas and projecting them to other fields and levels. We have and can refine “metaphoric consciousness” (after Cohen). We might even understand the human as the being which is capable of what I called creative ascent” [1] by ascending to higher-level abstract, musical or picture-like phantasies or constructions. e.g. in theories or architecture. Only humans are capable to transcend any positions, levels, strata, perspectives to reach ever new viewpoints and vantage points. The drive to be creative, to transcend limits and levels if in a symbolic manner is indeed psychologically characteristic for any creative activity. Thinking, meditating, reflecting new ideas, solutions and metaphors (“reflectators” after Peat). may be especially productive or “creative”. We are creating beings I call highly creative metaphors “creataphors”. Being human turns out to be possible only if one would live in a continuous creativity of at least a middle range and if one would exercise this creativity, if one is beyond that at least potentially able to create and develop as well as utilize reflectaphors and creataphors. Humans as the interpreting and metainterpreting beings are the specifically creataphoric beings.
28 Reference Values For Some Hematological Parameters In Iraqi Local Horses , Hayder Dawood Saleem and Firas Rashad Al-Samarai*
A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine some hematological values in Iraqi local horses in order to increase the precision of diagnosis particularly no published data existed about this subject in Iraq. A total of 126 blood samples were collected from the jugular vein of horses randomly from several regions in the Middle and South of Iraq during the period from February to December 2017. The age of horses ranged from 2-17 year for both sexes (33 male and 93 female). Reference value adviser was used to estimates these parameters. Results revealed that the local reference intervals (LRI) as following: The red blood cell count (RBC) (5.61-7.90×106 μl), hemoglobin (Hb) (8.42- 12.10g/dL), packed cell volume (PCV) (23.86-33.12%), corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) (32.40-41.30g/ dl), corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) (14.90-16.90pg), corpuscular volume (MCV) (38.90-52.00fl), and white blood cells (WBC) (6.78-12.79 × 103 μl). The results showed that the lower limit of the LRI was lowered than the lower limit of the general reference intervals (GRI) for each of RBC, Hb, and PCV, while the lower limit of the LRI in the others parameters are within the range of the GI. The results obtained from statistical analysis confirmed that the effect of age was not significant, but the effect of sex was significant (P<0.05) only on PCV and Hb. The mean value of males was significantly (P<0.05) higher than females. In conclusion, the results of the LRI showed substantial differences as compared with the GRI and this will increase the need for establishing reference values for horses as well as for all local animals.
29 Chitooligosaccharides In Food Industry , Mina Rajabi*
Chitooligosaccharide (COS) is homo- or heterooligomers of N-acetyl-D- glucosamine (GlcNAc) and D-glucosamine (GlcN) linked by β-1,4-O-glycoside bond and usually prepared from partial hydrolysis of unstable glycosidic bonds of chitosan [1]. Hetero-COS with low, medium and high molecular weight (Mw) oligosaccharides is often used in food industries, pharmaceutical industries, and agriculture [2]. The different Mw is attributed to the different production methods and degree of deacetylation (DD) of starting material. COS typically possesses an average Mw <10,000 Da and degree of polymerization (DP) < 50–55 [3].
30 Organ Transplantation And The Commercialization Of Human Biological Material: Some Philosophical And Jurisprudential Implications , George Mousourakis*
The advances in molecular biology, medicine and the neurosciences and the rapid development of genetic technology in recent years have given rise to a host of questions about the way in which the medical scientific community and biotechnology industry treat persons and their bodies. What is described as the ‘commodification’ of the human body, the notion that a person’s body is a collection of parts that are separable and commercially transferable, is said to pose a major challenge to traditional intuitions and cherished beliefs about personhood, the sanctity of human life and the foundations of its moral dignity. As the commodification of the body is today becoming increasingly prominent it is necessary to consider whether it is appropriate to see the human through the conceptual lens of property and examine and ponder what radical changes may be introduced to our sense of self-identity if this paradigm is uncritically embraced. The aim of this paper is to identify and comment on important philosophical and ethic-legal perspectives that have furnished the framework within which questions concerning personhood and the use of human body and its parts are raised and sought to be answered.
31 Major Aphthosis And Macrocheilite, Think About Crohn Diseases , Mounia Bennani*, Rhizlane Chaoui, Sara Elloudi, Zakia Douhi, Hanane Baybay and Fatima Zahra Mernissi
Orofacial lesion is found in 8-9% of Crohn’s disease (CD) and they are considered as contiguous lesions in the general CD cutaneous disease, we report the case of a young man of 28 years, who presents during a push of his Crohn’s disease a macrocheilitis associated with extensive buccal aphtosis in general CD cutaneous disease.
32 Biological Activity And Applications Of Pyocyanin Produced By Pseudomonas Aeruginosa , Diaa A Marrez* and Haitham S Mohamad
There is growing interest in microbial pigments due to their natural character, safe to use, medicinal properties and rich in nutrients like vitamins. Production of these pigments is independent of season and geographical condition. Moreover, microbial pigments can be produced from waste material reducing water and environmental pollutions. Pseudomonas aeruginosa produce a wide variety of pigments as secondary metabolites, which play an important role in interactions between Pseudomonas species and other organisms. Four major different pigments have been described in P. aeruginosa produce variety of redox-active phenazine compounds, including pyocyanin, fluorescein, pyorubrin and pyomelanin. Pyocyanin is a chloroform soluble blue green phenazine pigment produced by active cultures of P. aeruginosa. Pyocyanin has antibiotic activity against bacteria, fungi and protozoa. About 90 to 95% of P. aeruginosa strains produce pyocyanin which was the main phenazine pigment associated with organism and had powerful antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer activities.
33 Case Of Giant Condyloma Acuminatum Of Buschke- Löwenstein , Selma Benkirane*, Mounia Bennani, Sara Elloudi, Zakia Douhi, Hanane BayBay and Fatima Zahra Mernissi
An 89-year-old patient, does not report the notion of unprotected sexual intercourse, treated for years by touching with trichloroacetic acid for genital warts, presenting a budding mass extending from the pubis to the glans evolving for 2 years. Clinical examination revealed an exophytic budding ulcerating 7 cm tumor, papillomatous in perineal cauliflower with damage to part of the glans, fetid and painless (Figure 1). Dermoscopic examination showed a papillomatous appearance, keratin, and polymorphic vascularity surrounded by whitish halos (Figure 2).
34 Rapid Restoration Of Immunity Using The Molecular Method Of Bio-Cybernetic Clavi-Therapy , Monika Michalska and Ferdynand Barbasiewicz*
Chronic infections with edema lead to activation of destructive psychosomatic mechanisms whereas painkillers administered over several days worsen the restricted circulation of blood within the infected venules. If the infection and swelling area involves the second or the third branch of the trigeminal nerve, enzyme metabolic function may be impaired at sub molecular level due to insufficient blood supply. This leads to the failure of aggregation of peripheral blood interferons acting as bio-cybernetic mediators responsible for subsequent aggregation of lipids, cytokines, endorphins, and other molecular complements making up the myelin sheath into the oligodendrocyte loss zone. As the result, the myelin sheath insulation of the trigeminal nerve fiber becomes deteriorated, leading to reduced nerve potentials in the decay latency period ,responsible for regulation of the enzyme metabolic function or the function of the pyramidal tract fiber dynamizing the skeletal muscles of the oral cavity and splanchnocranium. Reduced blood supply is also observed within the sclerotome and periosteum of local dentition.
35 Codon 249 P53 Gene Mutation Among Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients In Western Kenya , Colins O Oduma*, Bartholomew N Ondigo and James H Kimotho
Background: Alteration(s) on p53 gene adversely affects their regulatory functions resulting to cancers. To our knowledge, no previous studies have analyzed mutation in codon 249 of p53 gene in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients in Kenyan population. In our study, we investigated for these mutations in HCC patients presenting with stage one cancer in the Kenyan population. Methods: A total of forty-six (46) stage one HCC patients and ten (10) controls were prospectively recruited from Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital (MTRH), Kenya. DNA was extracted and purified from 200 uL aliquots of plasma and PCR amplified then sequenced using p53 exon 7 forward and reverse primers. Codon 249 p53 gene mutation detection and analysis were done using Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis v.6.0, Genetyx v.9.0 and Integrative Genome Viewer v. 2.4.4. The male to female ratio for both patients and controls was 1:1. The age range for HCC patients was from 25 to 67 years with a median of 42 years, and from 24 to 64 years with a median of 41 years for the controls. Results: Guanine (G) - to - thymine (T) transversion in the third base of codon 249 of p53 gene was detected in 8 of the 46 HCC patients (17.39%) and 1 of the 10 controls (10%). There was no significant difference across gender among HCC subjects with and without mutation (p=0.4549) at 5% level of significance. There was a striking picture of significant existence of such mutation in a much older population in both the HCC patients (p=<.0001) and the controls (p=0.0003) at 5% level of significance, suggesting that being in the old age is more susceptible to such mutation. There was no significant statistical association of codon 249 mutation with HCC (p=0.6821) at 5% level of significance. Conclusion: There is no association between p53 exon 7 codon 249 mutations and hepatocellular carcinoma from patients presenting with stage I cancer. There is need for supplemental cross-sectional large sample sizes studies of HCC patients presenting with different stages to observe pattern across stages.
36 Ultrasonographic Examination Of The Forelimb Joint Regions In Normal 1- To 2-Month-Old Holstein Calves , Ronan JJ Chapuis, Nora Cesbron, Claude Guintard and Marion Fusellier*
Many studies have described the normal and pathologic ultrasonographic appearance of the musculoskeletal system in cattle. However, these previous studies present few images and descriptions of the aspect of this system in calves. The aim of this anatomic study was to describe the normal ultrasonographic examination of the forelimb joints in 1- to 2-month-old Holstein calves, as well as to present the techniques used to acquire the images. The joint regions of the forelimbs of four cadaver calves were studied. Six forelimbs were evaluated by ultrasonography using a 13.0MHz linear transducer. The images acquired were compared with those acquired with other imaging techniques (six forelimbs were x-rayed, three forelimbs were scanned using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)) and compared with anatomical pieces (one forelimb was dissected, four forelimbs were frozen and sectioned for frozen slides) to finally label the different structures visualized on ultrasonographic pictures. The soft tissues, cartilaginous structures and bone surfaces showed similar echogenicity to what has been previously described. All the anatomical structures were successfully imaged and identified except for the vascular structures due to the post-mortem aspect of the study. To the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to provide an exhaustive description of the normal appearance of forelimb joints of the Holstein calf using multi-modal imaging techniques. The purpose of this study was to provide a reference when determining the presence of pathological joint disease of the forelimbs of calves.
37 Accurate Measurement Of Both Main Components Of Heart Rate Variability Can Be Applied Routinely Clinically , Gary L Murray*
One century ago, the critical role of the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) in health and disease was prophesized. In 1990, Heart Rate Variability (HRV = Sympathetic-tone [S] + Parasympathetictone [P]) was 1st used in clinical cardiology. Emphasizing the reduction in HRV was associated with a poor prognosis in all major cardiovascular illness. In 2000, HRV was included in Sudden Cardiac Death (SCD) risk stratification. There are over 350,000 SCDs/yr. in the USA. High S and critically low P are associated with increased mortality, life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias, congestive heart failure (CHF), and acute coronary syndromes (ACSs). Two common autonomic dysfunctions are Sympathetic Withdrawal (SW, an abnormal alpha-adrenergic response to head-up postural change underlying Orthostatic dysfunction) and Parasympathetic Excess (PE, an abnormal cholinergic response to stress, amplifying the stress response, as in difficult to manage blood pressure (BP), blood glucose, hormone levels, or Anxiety syndromes).
38 Endogenous Adult-Derived Telomerase-Positive Stem Cells , Henry E Young*
Discovered in 1975 Located in the connective tissues throughout the body, ~ 10% of all stem cells in the body Found in 16 different species: terrestrial salamander, Komodo dragon, chicken, waddle crane, mouse, rat, rabbit, cat, dog, sheep, goat, pig, cow, speckled bear, horse, and human They are the natural healing cells of the body, they do NOT decrease in number with increasing age of the individual Cloned from single cells by repetitive serial dilution clonogenic analysis and then extensively characterized Consist of the following (Figure 1 & 2)
39 Cancer Can Be Cured© , Andrew Hague*
More than three years ago, I worked out how to cure cancer with the Cell Sonic VIPP machine [1]. There are no side effects, drugs are not used or needed, and the cure is quick, maybe immediate. Since then, hundreds more patients in many countries have been cured with different types of cancers. At first, we understood that the pressure pulse from Cell Sonic was the main means by which the tumors were killed. That process is certainly involved and applies in many cases. Within a few months and in conversation with Bradford University where they were diagnosing cancer by measuring permittivity [2], we realized that we were also changing the voltage of the potential across the membrane of the cell to lift it from the -15 MV of cancer to the -75 MV of a healthy cell. In other words, we were changing the behavior of the cell and in that sense, it was a cure. The replication of mutant cells ceased, and the correct replication of cells continued.
40 Pairing Human Skin RNases With Alcohol To Reduce Coronavirus Infection Rate , Bin Wang*
The ongoing outbreak of the novel coronavirus in China is associated with an alarming occurrence of pneumonia in infected people, while also resulting in substantial economic losses. The author proposes a preventative approach against coronaviruses to decrease the infection rate. Using concentrated human skin RNases along with ethanol or isopropanol to clean hands, as well as the skin around the nose, mouth, and eyes, would substantially reduce the chance for these RNA viruses to enter the human body.
41 A Rare Case Of Hand Angioleiomyoma , Miry A*, Tiabi E, Aissaoui A, Mouhoub M, Karich N and Bennani A
Angioleiomyoma is a benign neoplasm, occurring commonly in the lower limbs and exceptionally in the hand. This tumor is made of two components: smooth muscles and blood vessels. We report a case of angioleiomyoma of the hand in a 54 years-old female patient, who presented with a 3cm swelling on the dorsal aspect of her right hand. An excision of the nodule was performed. Histological and immunohistochemical features were compatible with the diagnosis of a benign Angioleiomyoma. Pain, found in 50% of cases, is the most frequent symptom. However, no specific features are presented by this tumor, explaining why it is rarely diagnosed pre-operatively. Since this lesion has no specific radiological characteristics too, pathological examination makes its diagnosis.
42 Pollen Allergens Of Some Road Trees, Shrubs And Herbs In Alexandria, Egypt , Wafaa K Taia*
Sixteen different wild herbs, shrubs and planted road trees pollen grains subjected in this study. The pollen morphology has been examined, described and photographed by SEM, as well as their mineral and protein contents have been investigated. The results showed that pollinosis is not due to special element or protein contents inside the pollen taxa. Protein type is more important than protein concentration. As well as, allergy is not restricted to trees, shrubs or herbs but it depends on the amount of pollen grains in the air and combination between several factors as pollen grain density, air pollution and humidity which rehydrates the pollen to excrete its contents. This work recommends the organization in planting the road trees and not over planting the gardens and parks, as well as choosing the most appropriate taxa that can absorb pollutants. Plant diversity is more important to minimize poillinosis and ensure better urban wildlife.
43 Strategy Of Health Care: Is Other Paradigm Possible? , Apanasenko GL*
A living organism submits to the laws of thermodynamics. His stability depends on his energy potential. New paradigm of health care: it is necessary to control energy potential, to prevent to the exit of individual from the «safe» zone of health. Physical activity is a factor that limits life and health of man.
44 Multiple Sclerosis And Trigeminal Neuralgia: A Well-Noted Association With Unknown Occurrence As A Presenting Symptom: Our Experience In Multi Centric Study , Luigi V Berra, Daniele Armocida*, Andrea Di Rita, Luca D Angelo, Valerio Di Norcia and Antonio Santoro
Objective: The association between trigeminal neuralgia (TN) and multiple sclerosis (MS) is well established. In many cases series the frequency of TN is reported in patients with MS but information regarding the frequency of trigeminal pain as a symptom of disease onset is lacking. We present a multi centric analysis of SM-patients affected by TN where we investigated the onset of symptomatology and a current literature analysis. Patients and Methods: We prospectively acquired clinical and radiological information of patients with MS and with TN that were visited at our clinics in two different departments. A pertinent literature review was carried out as well. We investigated the prevalence of TN in patients with MS and we noted whether facial pain was the symptom of MS onset. Results: A total of 718 patients with multiple sclerosis were analyzed, of which 63 presented TN. The neuropathic facial pain was the presenting symptom of MS in 3 patients, that constituted 0.4% of cases. The results reported in the literature confirm a frequency of 0.4-1% of the cases in which the first symptom of MS is TN and are like those observed in our study. Conclusions: Is important to investigate the rate of debut of TN in SM patients to set up the correct diagnostic and therapeutic program. Among the different types of neuropathic pain, TN in MS patients are a difficult to treat with a relevant impact on the quality of life. TN constitutes a clinical picture frequently associated with the MS. Nevertheless, TN as a clinical manifestation of the onset of MS is a rare occurrence and is just noted that is rarely the first symptom of disease.
45 Use Of Natural Products In The Prevention And Treatment Of Denture Stomatitis , Carolina Yoshi Campos Sugio, Maria Gabriela Robles Mengoa, Anna Clara Gurgel Gomes, Amanda Aparecida Maia Neves Garcia, Thaís Marchini de Oliveira and Karin Hermana Neppelenbroek*
Despite the wide variety of antifungal agents for the denture stomatitis (DS) treatment, they may induce hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic effects, allergic reactions and interactions with other medicaments, besides the emergence of antifungal resistance to the most commonly used classes of drugs. For these reasons, natural products present as an interesting therapeutic alternative. This narrative review summarizes the use of main natural products in the prevention and treatment of DS, which are obtained from propolis, Pelargonium graveolens, Equisetum giganteum, Punica granatum, and Melaleuca alternifolia. These substances are of ancient use in the medical field and, recently, have been widely reported in different dental specialties, mainly for their anti-inflammatory and antifungal action. Despite the favourable results obtained in the literature with such substances, the scientific evidence for the use of natural products in Dentistry, especially for the purpose of DS therapy is not conclusive, requiring further clinical studies to consolidate their application.
46 Pediatric Psoriasis: Clinical Features And Course , Elvina Murzina*
Psoriasis is fairly common dermatosis among children and adolescents, equally striking males and females. The article provides insight into clinical features and epidemiology of pediatric psoriasis in children aged 4-17. The disease was found to set in at any age, typically at the age of 9-10 years and have chronic course with durable exacerbation periods, lasting from few weeks up to 1-1.5 years. The highest number of psoriasis exacerbations takes place in autumn and winter months. Among the psoriasis triggers in children, stressful situations head the list. In children with psoriasis the extensive process prevails, plaque psoriasis is more likely to occur. The number of children with a localized type (scalp lesions) increases with age, whereas the manifestations of guttate and inverse psoriasis decrease in number.
47 Translational Nursing Science: Implementation Of A Patient Fall Reduction Strategy In The Emergency Department At A Community-Based Medical Center , William G Zic*
Current literature suggests that a multitude of fall prevention methods, practices and tools exist and are widely available for organizations to choose from. Although much patient fall reduction information is easily accessible, very few fall prevention tools are Emergency Department (ED) specific. Goal: The main goal of this project was to reduce or eliminate patient falls in the ED by implementing a customized set of Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) patient fall reduction guidelines. PICOT: For adult patients age 18 and over in the Emergency Department at a community medical center, how can the implementation of AHRQ Patient Fall Reduction Guidelines, compared to current practice, effect patient fall outcomes, over a three-month time period? Method: Falls in the ED were calculated using a patient fall calculation method (number of patient falls x 1000 / number of patients seen in the ED). The KINDER 1 Fall Risk Assessment Tool was used to quickly identify patients at risk for falls. During project implementation, one patient experienced a fall. The number of patients who met fall risk assessment criteria was 328 out of 3,323 adult patients. Patients age 17 or younger were omitted from project data collection and participation. When a patient was identified as a fall risk, additional patient fall interventions were implemented. Results/Outcomes: Prior to implementation of AHRQ guidelines, the hospital’s previous annual ED fall rate average was 1.06% The fall rate percentage at the completion of this project was 0.30% over a three-month time frame from January 2019 through March 2019. Fall rate comparison showed, with a 95% confidence interval, no major change in fall rate during the length of this project. However, there was a downward trend in patient fall rate that was well established. Nursing Implication: Additional research is needed that will compare quarterly fall rates over an extended period of time in order to better understand the underlying causes that contribute to patient falls and improved patient safety in the ED across various health systems.
48 A Characterization Of Humans As Meta-Symbolic And Meta-Interpreting Beings , Hans Lenk*
Cassirer ‘s characterization of the human being as the symbolic being (animal symbolicum is analyzed and criticized and extended here in a methodological manner. A comparison with wild and trained primates regarding using tools and establishing local cultures as well as utilizing symbolic gestures and sign languages shows that the human being cannot be characterized as the only symbolic animal. Instead, we as humans can be demarcated from primates by our capability of ascending and transcending to higher meta-levels of symbolization, interpretation, cognition and language. We are rather the meta-interpreting being (animal meta-symbolicum) and super-interpreting beings transand super-interpreting.
49 Tumor Cells Are Vitally Dependent Upon Ketolysis, Inhibition Of Succinyl CoA: 3-Oxoacid-CoA Transferase Should Block Them , Maurice Israël* and Laurent Schwartz
In tumor cells, ketolysis becomes the unique source of mitochondrial acetyl CoA. Indeed, the glycolytic acetyl CoA production is blocked (pyruvate kinase and pyruvate dehydrogenase are inhibited by phosphorylation). Whereas, the fatty acid degradation into acetyl CoA is also turned off by malonyl CoA, the product of acetyl CoA carboxylase, which forms with the synthesis of fatty acids, to automatically close down their degradation, by inhibiting the fatty acid mitochondrial transporter. Thus, inhibiting the ketolytic supply of acetyl CoA and the specific ketolytic enzyme: succinyl-CoA: 3-oxoacid-CoA transferase, should block the tumor. However, tumor cells are able to take-up acetate and convert it into acetyl CoA in their cytosol via an acetyl CoA synthetase and inhibiting this enzyme would make it difficult for tumor cells to survive.
50 Analysis Of Pattern And Management Of Mandibular Fracture In Children , Tahira Shaikh, Samreen Naz, Mir Jam Talpur, Salman Shams* and Preesa Salman
Introduction: Mandibular fracture relatively less frequent in children when compared to adults, which may be due to the child’s protected anatomic features and infrequent exposure of children to road traffic accidents. Mandibular fracture occurs in children mostly green stick fracture. Objectives: To assess the pattern of mandibular fracture in children and to compare the treatment results of two techniques (Conservative and IMF). Study design: Comparative Cross-sectional Study. Setting: Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery Department, Liaquat University Hospital Hyderabad. Duration: Study was carried out for two years Jan 2015 to Dec 2016 Methods: Mandibular fractures in children at Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department LUH were analyzed by age, gender, etiology, type, site, occlusion time elapsed in reporting fracture and patients were treated by conservative and IMF. Result: A total of 50 patients with mandibular fractures diagnosed by clinically and radiographically was included in this study. The mean age of the children was 7.58+1.54years. Out of 50 children, 80% boys and 20% girls were reported 56% children were injured due to fall followed by 30% sports related injuries, 12% road traffic accidents and 2% were others. Fracture of condyle 60% (30/50) was more common in children followed by symphasis 54% (27/50). Eighty percent cases were reported within 3 days while 12% were reported after 3 days. Intermaxillary fixation was the commonest management modality. Conclusion: The mean age of trauma was from 7.58+1.54years, 80% boys and 20% girls, commonest cause was falls, condyle is most fractured site and IMF is the most appropriate treatment of mandibular fractures in children.
51 Bisexuality In Republican Rome And The Güevedoces Of Salinas (Dominican Republic): The Search For A Retrospective Diagnosis , Mercedes López Perez*
The malformations of children and some disabilities, as well as strange natural phenomena, were considered by the Romans, especially in the Republican era, as wonders. The most striking example was the appearance of an androgynous or hermaphrodite, a human being who at birth had the monstrous appearance of having both sexes at the same time. The recommended rites or the atonement of the prodigy are the widest and most complete of the viri sacris faciundis school, which we know thanks to the Sibylline Books, the works of Titus Livius and Obsequens. Also, in the work of Diodorus of Sicily two cases of intersexuality are described, Heraides and Calo are two women who in adolescence or puberty undergo a genital transformation that ends up turning them into men. The main objective of this work is to explain these prodigies according to the modern terminology of teratology through retrospective medical diagnosis, and for this we will include the studies of Imperato McGinley in the Dominican Republic. In this place there are frequent cases of girls who develop male genitals (güevedoces) during adolescence. The absence of male genitals at birth is due to a deficiency of an enzyme known as 5-alphareductase, which normally converts testosterone into dihydrotestosterone. The comparison and analysis of Roman sources with cases of transformations of adolescents in the town of Salinas (Dominican Republic) allows us to understand this phenomenon more broadly, as well as to deepen the characteristics of the population that inhabited the Italian Peninsula in Republican Era.
52 Nutritional Status And Sugary Drinks Consumption In Children From 6 To 9 Years , Teresa Santos, Manuel Bicho and Ana Valente*
Introduction: Obesity is considered one of the most serious public health problems today. It has been linked to increased consumption of sugar from food and in particular from sugary drinks. However, the contribution of its consumption to the increased prevalence of overweight in children is still controversial. Objective: To relate the nutritional status with the frequency of consumption of sugary drinks in children from 6 to 9 years. Methods: Cross-sectional observational study in 267 children aged 6 to 9 years from four primary schools in Barcarena. Socioeconomic data were obtained by a questionnaire applied to carers. Nutritional status was assessed by BMI according to WHO and CDC criteria. The frequency of consumption of sugary drinks was assessed by a qualitative food frequency questionnaire. The association between nutritional status and the frequency of consumption of sugary drinks was assessed by logistic regression. Statistical significance was considered when p <0.05. Results: According to WHO criteria, 58% had normal weight, 24% pre-obesity and 18% obesity. The results obtained according to the CDC indicated 61.8% normal weight, 19.5% pre-obesity and 17.3% obesity. The prevalence of overweight was higher in boys. Belonging to the consumption class of iced tea, nectar and fruit juice “up to once a week” seems to favor the risk of obesity (OR = 1.95; p = 0.098). Conclusion: There is a tendency to associate the frequency of consumption of sugary drinks with nutritional status of children, being more likely that they are overweight when they belong to the consumption class of iced tea, nectar and fruit juice “until once a week”.
53 Ogilvie’s-Syndrome: A Rare But Real Postpartum Nightmare , Nesrine El-Refai* and Mohamed Galal Ibrahim
Acute Colonic Pseudo-Obstruction (ACPO) is a rare however fatal postpartum emergency. This mini-review article will highlight some details from both surgical and aesthetic point of view.
54 The Covid-19 Epidemic, China Containment Contexts And Risk Mitigation, Public Health Lessons Learned Is It Feasible For Europe & US , Hamid Yahya Hussain*
Despite the high morbidity and mortality rates of COVID-19 infection china witnessed during the first two months of 2020, and compared to the short time of the epidemic among Wuhan city population in Hubei territory, the response of the health system to the disaster in this country was significantly effective, despite what seemed clear in the early days that the virus was fierce to the point of conquering the capabilities of the country, and it is so explosive, we all had the feeling that China was on the verge of complete collapse within few weeks.
55 Training At Moderate Altitude And Under Normobaric Hypoxia Conditions As A Reliable Endurance Development Way , Radchenko AS*, Kolesnikov NV and Radchenko AA
This article is dedicated to an important problem of contemporary sports – the use of natural and artificial hypoxia in the training process. Briefly outlines the problem origin, the existing training strategies, adaptive reconstructions in the athlete’s body, the application of hypoxic training (HT). The prospects of HT relying on various sports and the need for correction (revision) of the existing principles for building the training process are discussed.
56 A Rare Case Of Perimesencephalic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage In A Postpartum Patient With Preeclampsia , Jessica C Morgan* and Nausheen Zaidi
Perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a subset of subarachnoid hemorrhage not associated with an aneurysm. Most cases of non-traumatic SAH are caused by a ruptured intracranial aneurysm, although about 15-20% of patients will have no identifiable lesion on angiography [1]. Perimesencephalic SAH is further differentiated from non-aneurysmal SAH due to its localized pattern of bleeding and benign course. The incidence of perimesencephalic SAH is estimated at 0.5 per 100,000 people per year, and unlike aneurysmal SAH, it has not been shown to have higher prevalence in women. Women account for 42% of perimesencephalic SAH cases [2]. SAH in pregnancy is a rare, but devastating event. One study from 2016 showed a prevalence of SAH in 5.8 per 100,000 deliveries, with 66.7% of SAH occurring in the postpartum period.
57 The Extraction Of DAM Enhance Antioxidant Capacity Of Mice In-Vivo , Yajiao Guo#, Mengni Duan#, Yi Fan, Qing Zhang and Jingxue Wang*
A mixture of functional complex extraction from Dendrobium Candidum and other Chinese herbs enhances. Plant polysaccharides are one of the most bioactive substances present in plants. Due to the broad-spectrum therapeutic properties and biosafety, natural polysaccharides isolated from plants have recently been attracted attention by more and more researcher. The present study was designed to investigate the possible anti-aging and intestinal flora effect of Dendrobium Candidum and Astragalus mongholicus (DAM) on the aging model mouse. In the experiment, 48 aging female Institute of Cancer Research mice (ICR mice) were randomly divided into the control group and low-mediumhigh dose groups (200,400,800 mg/kg/day). The results showed that gradually recovered the body weight, the activity of daily living, and organ indices of mice. To be specific, DAM obviously improved the activities of antioxidant enzymes in liver and spleen of ICR mice, including catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels when compared with those in control group mice.
58 Food Consumption Trends And Associated Factors In An Agricultural Community In Morocco , BarakatImane, KaliliAdil, MoustakimRachida, Elouafi Rachida, El MahriNadia, NaciriKaoutar, Arkoubi Idrissi Loubna, Sahel Khadija, Errabahi Naima, Elfane Houda, El-Jamal Sanaa, Chamlal Hamid, Daif Halima, Ahaji Azz El Arab, Mziwira Mohamed, Elayachi Mohammed and Belahsen Rekia*
Introduction: Morocco is currently experiencing a change in dietary habits, in particular that related to food preparation methods and eating location. The objective of this research was to study the factors associated with food consumption trends in an agricultural community from the province of El Jadida in Morocco. Methods: A survey was carried out in 2017 on 118 households using a structured questionnaire. We collected information about food practices that are concerning the culinary methods, the time devoted to cooking, the regularity and the location of having meals. Results: The majority of the study participants are aged of 30 years old and over (86.4%), live in rural area (66.1%) and belong to nuclear families (61.9%). The study data revealed that age is associated with the use of frying foods (p = 0.01), the number of meals taken per day (p = 0.04) and the out-of-home meals (p = 0.02). The area of residence was associated with the use of frying as food preparation method (p =0.01), the time spent in cooking (p = 0.02), the number of meals taken per day (p = 0.01) and the out-of-home meals (p = <0.01) In addition, the family type was associated with out-of-home meals (p = 0.01). Finally, the family as a source of information about food is associated with the reduction of time spent in cooking (p = 0.05) while the media is associated with both the reduction of this time (p = 0.04) and the reduced number of meals taken per day (p = 0.01). Conclusion and outlook: This research revealed a significant association of food trends with certain factors reported in the literature. The reported data shows the importance of taking steps to promote healthy eating practices, with a particular focus on educating young people.
59 Different Types Of Surface Modification Used For Improving The Adhesion And Interactions Of Skin Cells , Anna Sobiepanek*, Joanna Baran, Małgorzata Milner-Krawczyk and Tomasz Kobiela
Mammalian cells in the traditional 2D culture lack the complexity of 3D tissue architecture as well as the cell-cell or cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions, which are present in the body. Still they are one of the most accessible and popular models used in biomedical research. Simultaneously, the understanding of various cell interactions in the body brings a valuable source of knowledge for the continuous improvement of several research areas including new biocompatible materials, tissue regeneration attempts, devices of the Lab-on-a-Chip type or cell-based biosensors for different applications. In order to meet the needs of cell culture improvement and a better understanding of the physiological cell interactions, within years different cellular surface modifications with biomolecules or chemicals have been introduced. These modifications play an important role in the regulation of several processes in cells such as adhesion, proliferation, differentiation, interaction and signalling. In this review, we have described the typical surface modifications used for the cell culture of different skin cells with a brief specification of the mechanism of cell adhesion. The skin cells like keratinocytes, fibroblasts, melanocytes, but also cancer cells (especially melanoma cells) are the perfect models for studying adhesion mechanisms in vitro due to their mutual physiological interaction in the skin tissue.
60 Capillary (CE) And Cellulose Acetate (CAE) Electrophoresis Of Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Precipitated Serum Proteins In Patients With Subclinical Hypothyroidism (SCHT) , Castagnino Juan, Scaglia Hugo*, Lopez Mercedes, Colombani ME, Riesco Oscar and Ruffini Maiangeles
In patients with SCHT, TSH levels are increased with normal thyroid hormone values with or without the presence of antithyroid antibodies. In these cases, demonstration of a TSH without biological activity would avoid treatment. This characteristic of TSH could be due, among other causes, to the binding to an autoantibody (BIGBIG TSH). PEG has been used to precipitate Gamma (γ) Globulin. The objective of this study is to evaluate, in patients with SCHT, the proteins of the supernatant from PEG precipitation by CE and CAE, in order to corroborate the specific precipitation of the protein.
61 Extra Cardiac Manifestation Of Right Atrial Myxoma- Ascites A Rare Case , Zubin S*, Ravindra S, Divya S and Santosh Y
Right atrial myxoma is less commonly seen in our day to day clinical practice. Usually the most common site of myxoma is the left atrium. Ascites is a rarest clinical presentation of such myxoma. Many times, clinician is unable to diagnosis the cause of transudative ascitic fluid. One has to be highly suspicious arrive at the correct diagnosis of right atrial myxoma giving rise to ascites (transudative) in such situation.
62 COVID-19: Special Precautions In Dentistry , Adel Bouguezzi*, Imen Cherni, Sameh Sioud, Hajer Hentati and Jamil Selmi
A novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is associated with human-to-human transmission. Due to the unique nature of dentistry, most dental procedures generate significant amounts of droplets and aerosols, posing potential risks of infection transmission, the routes of transmission are direct contact, and droplet and possible aerosol transmissions. The aim of this article is to provide specific recommendations for dental practice and patient management protocol.
63 Ventro-Lateral Abdominal Hernia In Sheep And Its Surgical Correction Techniques - A Case Report , Haben Fesseha* and Friat Kidanemariam
An Ewe of eighteen-month-old and weighing 37kg was presented to Mekelle University Veterinary Teaching Hospital Mekelle, Ethiopia with a swelling in the right ventrolateral abdominal wall for the last two weeks. Clinical examination reveals dull, depressed, reduced appetite and weakness and confirmed right-sided ventrolateral abdominal hernia for the last two weeks. The case was handled surgically by means of herniorrhaphy using overlapping mattress suture techniques and synthetic absorbable polyglycolic acid. The ewe was completely recovered on the 20th day postoperatively. Successful management of ventrolateral hernia in ewe is discussed.
64 Using GH-Method: Math-Physical Medicine To Investigate Different Contribution Margins Of Fasting Plasma Glucose Vs Postprandial Plasma Glucose On HbA1C , Gerald C Hsu*
This paper displays results of the contribution margin calculation of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) vs. postprandial plasma glucose (PPG) on HbA1C. The dataset is provided by the author, who uses his own type 2 diabetes metabolic conditions control, as a case study via the “math-physical medicine” approach of a nontraditional methodology in medical research.
65 Prolonged Response Times In Obstetric Emergency Care Out Of Hospital In Yucatan, Mexico , Elsa María Rodríguez Angulo*, Yolanda Oliva Peña, Ricardo Ojeda Rodríguez and María Guadalupe Andueza Pech
Background: Shortening the response time in obstetric emergency care helps reduce deaths. The length of response times in the care so as the probabilities these times are occurring, are unknown in Yucatan, Mexico. This study describes the perceptions and beliefs of physicians regarding response times in the care of obstetric emergencies, so as the probabilities that these times are occurring. Methods: Cross-sectional design was carried out. Workshops using elicitation technique with panel of experts were developed. Four physicians in charge of the path transfer of pregnant women were the participants. Physicians´ perceptions and beliefs on response times in the path care of obstetric emergencies were studied using “The threedelay model”. Probabilities of these response times occurring was calculated. The median and their ranges were obtained. Probability diagrams were elaborated and adjusted to know the median occurrence of response times. Normal distribution curve was also graphed. Beta adjusted distribution lineal graph individual and group was built. Results: The longest response time perceived between the onset of the obstetric complication and the search for help was 30 days. The longest transfer response time perceived between their locality and the hospital was four and a half hours. The probabilities of the perceived response times occurring were between 15% and 80% for the moment the women start searching for help; and between 40% and 80% for the moment they are transferred. Conclusion: Response times perceived by physicians in the care of obstetric emergencies in Yucatan were prolonged. The probability of these response times been occurring is high. It is necessary to strengthen activities of health promotion in the first level of care. The transfer system of pregnant women should also be enhanced, so the delays in the response times are reduced and maternal and perinatal deaths prevented in Yucatan.
66 The Pandemic Of Novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Need For An Immediate Action , Mujib Ullah*
Coronaviruses belong to a large family of viruses. Coronavirus also called COVID-19 is a new disease that has not been previously identified in humans. The World Health Organization has announced that COVID-19 is a pandemic. Currently there is no specific vaccine or treatment for COVID-19. Current treatment for COVID-19 is only supportive (treating the symptoms). There are no antiviral or vaccine options currently. Therefore, it is time to bring collective efforts to treat or prevent a rapidly evolving pandemic of COVID-19.
67 Breast Cancer And Exposure To Hazardous Contaminants: A Minefield Of Feats And Challenges , Diana Evelyn Villa-Guillen*
Geographic heterogeneity of breast cancer prevalence suggests there are non-genetic factors related to cancer burden. Among those, residential exposure to pollutants, like hazardous waste sites, hazardous air pollutants, pesticides, and contaminated water sources, may contribute to breast cancer risk. This mini review discusses the main findings of several observational studies evaluating the association between historical exposure to contaminants and breast cancer development. The models used to evaluate breast cancer risk and hazardous contaminants are essential to reach a consensus in this highly debated field.
68 COVID-19: Present & Future , Sanwal Singh Mehta, Chanjiv Singh* and Avinash Vasu
This paper seeks to advance an open discussion on our response to the COVID-19 pandemic and the choices we face strategic, organizational and ethical. It summarizes the key problems the authorities will confront. It also outlines some of the questions we will be forced to answer. It then proposes three possible approaches we could take to answer these questions.
69 Racism: The Contagious Virus Of Human Origin , Emmanuel Chidiebere Edeh*
Often, we tend to forget about our own doing or worst, try to excuse ourselves to blame others. This undoubtedly has been the case of the deadliest and the most contagious virus ever know to human beings. Racism like any other virus finds its way to our biological codes and seeks to establish itself. As a virus it alters the normal bio code of the victims to code for itself. For instance, viruses are known to alter the RNA/DNA of their host to code for themselves leaving the host’s system weak and susceptible to diseases or other infections. In the same vein, racism virus makes the victims vulnerable to health risks, social and political abuse. Racism cannot be blamed on monkeys and bats or other animals. Racism is of human origin and affects only human beings, as such animals could heave a sigh of relief from human finger pointing.
70 COVID-19 And United States Prison Population , Hina Akbar*
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV-2) also commonly known as COVID-19 pandemic is challenging and, in many cases, an overwhelming situation for the medical community as new knowledge is reported every day. As of May 15, 2020, more than 4 million confirmed cases of COVID-19, including more than 285 000 deaths have been reported to WHO [1]. It is a novel infectious disease that primarily involve the respiratory tract and the lungs however can also involve multiple other organs as it progresses. Most recent data also point towards a Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children and adolescents [1].
71 Mathematical Modeling Approaches To Understanding Severe Acute Respiratory Syn-Drome Coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV-2) DNA Sequences Linked Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) For Discovery Of Potential New Drugs , Mohammad Reza Dawoudi*
The novel coronavirus called SARS Coronavirus-2 is associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome. At present, in-tensive care unit treatment and specialized treatment have been not available [1]. Mathematical modeling approaches to understanding the evolution of the DNA sequences of SARS0CoV-2, is an efficient way to design biochemical components interacting with the virus DNA structure. This study aimed to identify specific sets of nucleotides partially “mirror repeats” sets of nucleotides in DNA sequences of SARS0CoV-2. It is suggested that understanding of the “mirror repeats” (Generalized Smarandache Palindrome Sequence (S. Palindrome)) (Dawoudi 2018) sets of nucleotides can be informative in revealing virus gene functions. Under-standing more about coronavirus genome functions and transcriptomic level might allow drug designer to design exact treatments.
72 The Epidemiology Of COVID-19 Novel Corona Virus To Possibly Control The Disease And Other Factors Relating To Health Around The World , Ahsan Ali Siddiqui*
Background and Objective: The main Aim and objective of this Article is to focus on Prevention and Control of COVID-19 novel corona virus. This article would also discuss the people with other illnesses are more Vulnerable to get COVID-19 Complications leading to severe conditions of Morbidity and later Mortality. Methods: The Author of this Article has done Literature Review, Comparison and Critical analysis of more than 20 Published Articles and other reviews. Author has chosen the Comparative Literature review as methodology for this research article. The purpose is to show that Randomly chosen articles are in favor of immediate Preventions implication against Pandemic of COVID-19 Novel corona virus. SPSS 19 software is used to show Diagrammatic presentation for the results and analysis. Results: Author of this articles has selected randomly 15 Articles from PUBMED and other sources for review and critical analysis about the Articles to focus on Prevention and Control of COVID-19 novel corona virus. First part of the table and SPSS1 Diagrammatic presentation shows that all 15 articles focus on implementation of policies and methods for Prevention and Control of COVID-19 novel corona virus. SPSS2 Diagrams shows the Percentages% agreed of the Prevention and Control of COVID-19 novel corona virus where 10 Articles fully 100% qualified but 5 articles are below 81% which is low in percentage. Conclusion: Current Pandemic of COVID-19 has taught us that we in the twenty first century is not ready to provide health care to vulnerable community such as elders, children and sick people with chronic illness. Such vulnerable people with bad health and low socio-economic status are more prone to get effected by COVID-19 novel corona virus. More serious work needed to be done by Global health agencies and world organizations such as WHO, CDC, UN, UNESCO, UNHCR others. Governments and health departments has to make useful health policies to implement in deadlines with serious accountability to fight against any Epidemic or Pandemic.
73 Laboratory Mouse & COVID-19 Research , Gabriel Melo de Oliveira*
SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) rapidly spread and led to an outbreak in China and then became a global health emergency. The scientific community importance around the world is evident by investigation for new knowledge, treatments and a vaccine against COVID-19. An important biomodel in this intense research is mouse lab. However, standard murine models, currently available, are resilient to COVID-19 infection experimental. Thus, laboratory animal science researchers’ mice transgenic (humanized) developed and enable this biomodel susceptible, therefore, able to collaborate in efforts to control this tragic pandemic. In this review, the objective was to summarize, mainly by the most important animal laboratories, specialized in breeding and genetic manipulation science and to demonstrate to the researchers the possibilities of developing in vivo assays using the mouse lab biomodel in pre-clinical trials against COVID-19.
74 Investigation And Analysis On The Pathogen Of Calf Diarrhea In Henan Province , Yan Lei, Zhao Yuxi, Liu Huan, Yan Yuefei, Ren Xiaoli, Xue Yongkang, Liu Xiaoman, Zhang Zhen*
In order to understand the prevalence of various pathogens of calf diarrhea in Henan Province, C. parvum, BVDV, E. coli K99, MAP, BCoV, BRV antigens or antibodies were detected in feces and blood samples of 132 calves with diarrhea under 6 months in Henan Province by ELISA method. The results showed that the average positive rates of C. parvum, BVDV, E. coli K99, MAP, BCoV and BRV were 28.03%, 6.82%, 6.06%, 5.03%, 3.79% and 2.27%, respectively. The prevalence of C. parvum, BVDV, E. coli K99, MAP, BCoV and BRV exists in most areas of Henan Province, especially in central, southern and northern Henan. In addition to the single infection types of C. parvum, BVDV, E. coli K99, MAP, BCoV and BRV, there are also many kinds of mixed infection types. The proportion of single infection and mixed infection is 17:3. There are many types of mixed infection and the situation is complicated. The infection of MAP in diarrhea calves in Henan Province was reported for the first time. The results showed that there were a variety of single and mixed infection of calf diarrhea in Henan Province, and the single and mixed infection of C. parvum was more serious, which provided a reference for comprehensive prevention and control of calf diarrhea in Henan Province.
75 COVID-19 Pandemic And Public Health Preventions To Reduce The Infection, Incidence And Distribution Among The Community , Ahsan Ali Siddiqui*
Background and Objective: The Author of this Article wants to show the importance of the Public Health Intervention, Preventions against the COVID-19 novel corona virus. The use of WHO methods of Preventions such as Isolation & Quarantine, Using PPE, washing hands regularly, Cover the mouth during cough would help to control COVID-19 Pandemic. Methods: The Author of this article has randomly selected 15 Articles from PUBMED and other sources on net with the word using “Public Health Preventions for COVID-19”. The Author relies on Conceptual Literature Review for the Methodology of this article. Where the groups of Articles are reviewed and analysed to find out the answer of the Question “Study favor or Ignores the Public Health Preventions to reduce the Infection in the Article”. The Table 1 is created to Analyse the 15 randomly selected Articles and the results has been presented By SPSS software diagrammatic presentation. Results: According to the SPSS Diagrammatic presentation, the results of 15 randomly selected articles indicates that all 15 articles favor Public Health Preventions to reduce the COVID-19 Infection. Secondly, 10 articles agreed 100% on Public Health Preventions to reduce the COVID-19 Infection in the community and 5 articles shows lower percentages. The given Table 1 clearly gives the information and references of 15 randomly selected articles for the study discussed here “Study favor or Ignores the Public Health Preventions to reduce the Infection in the Article”. Conclusion: Global Health and other organizations such as WHO, UNHCR, UN, UNESCO, UNICEF did not act fast to Prevent and Control the COVID-19 Pandemic. Other Governments of the countries in the world act very slowly for the warnings given by WHO and other scientists. Later since November 2019 till now approximately 350,000 people have lost their lives due to COVID-19 and approximately 5 Million people are infected by this COVID-19 disease. Lessons should learn from COVID-19 Pandemic and it is not over yet as scientists predicts that COVID-19 is with us for next couple of years. The vaccine of COVID-19 is under development and there is not exact treatment for COVID-19 by medical sciences till now.
76 The Possible Influence Of Microbiota On Food Compulsion , Rachel Arantes, Emília Alves, Manuel Bicho and Ana Valente*
Introduction: The intestinal microbiota performs numerous functions in the body: appetite and satiety control, neurotransmitter production and other metabolites. The cepas that compose it are directly influenced by the diet. Certain microorganisms may act on dopamine neurocircuit towards a search for substances that promote the feeling of pleasure which leads to a compulsive addiction and impulsive behaviours as reward. There is plenty information about healthy foods and how to balance the diet to maintain health and longevity. However, it is still very difficult to change unhealthy eating patterns, and the patient is given full responsibility for those behaviours by being asked for “self-control” and “willpower”. Is this the individual’s own desire or is he stimulated by something else that he is not aware of? Aim: Try to understand the relationship of the microbiota with its host, as well as the microorganisms present in the gut may induce the food preferences. Methodology: For this review work, an extensive search was carried out using several online databases, namely SciELO, PubMed and Google Scholar. Research was also carried out on several websites of international and governmental organizations. Using the keywords “Obesity gut microbiota compulsive eating” produced 4,700 results between the years 2015 and 2019. In the present work, only articles and documents that could be consulted in their full content were used. Conclusion: Alteration of the intestinal microbiota, mainly due to phylum imbalances, can lead to nutritional unbalance such as obesity, food dependence or compulsive eating. Although further studies are needed, to understand how the microbiota may play an important role in controlling eating disorders.
77 Does Robotic Knee Surgery Benefit A Patient’s Recovery After TKA Surgery Compared With Conventional Methods? , Patrick Wilson, James Sires and Christopher Wilson*
Introduction: Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA) is a very common procedure in the treatment of painful osteoarthritis of the knee. However, despite this, up to 20% of patients report dissatisfaction with the outcome of their procedure. Robotic TKA has been developed to improve the accuracy of the surgical procedure and improve intra-operative ligament balancing, which may improve patient function and satisfaction. The aim of this study was to evaluate if patients that underwent robotic TKA are more satisfied and have improved patient reported outcomes compared to those undergoing conventional TKA methods in the short-term. Methods: Oxford knee score (OKS) and patient’s satisfaction questionnaires were sent to 27 Patients who were approximately 6 months post robotic TKA surgery. The results from these surveys was compared with similar data obtained from a cohort of 20 age and sex matched patients who have had conventional non-robotic TKA surgery in the same hospital using the same implants. The data was then analysed to allow comparisons to be made regarding oxford knee scores and patient satisfaction between the 2 groups. Results: Responses were obtained from 20 patients that underwent robotic TKA, which were compared with results from 20 patients that underwent conventional TKA. The average age in the robotic group was 73.6 with a range of 60 – 95 and the average age in the conventional group was 74.6 with a range of 56 – 90. The mean OKS was highest in the robotic group (32.3 vs 26.4). The difference in these values was statistically significant, p value = 0.039. A higher percentage of the robotic group had an oxford knee score > 30, (70% vs 40%) with a p value = 0.059. When analysing pain, 40% of patients for robotic knee surgery reported no pain, compared with only 5% of patients in the conventional group. This result was also statistically significant with a p value of < 0.01. Conclusion: Robotic knee surgery does benefit a patient’s recovery postoperatively compared with traditional knee surgery. Overall, robotic arm assisted Total Knee Arthroplasty was associated with improved patient satisfaction, decreased pain and improved early functional recovery compared with Conventional Total Knee Arthroplasty
78 The Recent Management And Treatment Of COVID-19 Novel Corona Virus “Better Use Of Science, Better Treatment For COVID-19 Patients” , Ahsan Ali Siddiqui*
Background and Objective: The main Aim of this article is to highlight the latest Prevention, Treatment and Vaccine development of COVID-19 recently in Mid-2020. Currently there is no proven treatment of COVID-19 and still no Vaccine available for public. Some of the Antiviral drugs has shown promising results in treatment but more Scientific, Medical research is needed to find the Treatment as earliest as possible. Methods: The author of this article has done literature review, comparison and critical analysis of more than 20 Published articles and other reviews. Author has chosen the Comparative Literature review as methodology for this research article. The purpose is to show that Randomly chosen articles are in favor of availability of prevention, treatment and vaccine development of COVID-19 as soon as possible to Treat the ill. SPSS 19 software is used to show Diagrammatic presentation for the results and analysis. Results: The SPSS Diagrammatic Presentation shows that firstly 13 Articles agreed 100% and 2 Articles did not, that there is urgent need of better Management and Treatment of COVID-19 novel corona virus. Second SPSS Diagram shows that All 15 Articles Favors the Importance of Urgent Recent Management and Treatment, Vaccine for the COVID-19 novel corona virus. There are some pictures, CT Scans and names of the Medicines involves in the Latest Treatment of the COVID-19 included in this Article. Conclusion: Current Pandemic of COVID-19 has taught all the Global Health authorities such as WHO, UN, UNESCO, UNICEF, UNHCR, EU Others and all Governments of 200 countries that we were not ready for COVID-19. Although Developed Countries such as USA, UK, France and countries of EU spends Billions of US Dollars on their Health System but it did not stop the Deaths of COVID-19 Pandemic in their countries and they are actually affected the most in this world. The reason is, there is no current Vaccine, proven Treatment for COVID-19 to this date and still research is going on to find the right Treatment or Vaccine for COVID-19. More hard work needed in Medical Sciences to find out the Proven and approved vaccine and treatment for current pandemic or for preparation for Future Epidemics.
79 Effect Of Cognitive Load On Postural Stability , Kristyna Rusnakova*, David Gerych and Miloslav Stehlik
Postural stability is the dynamics of the postural control system associated with maintaining balance during quiet standing. Postural control during normal upright stance in humans is a well-learned task. The control of posture is affected by physiological factors such as the muscular and the skeletal system, fatigue, or psychological factors such as the anxiety arousal, state of mind, attention and cognitive load. This study investigates the effects of cognitive load on postural stability in airborne units of czech army. Postural sway using static posturography was assessed in 18 pilots before and after cognitive load. Postural stability was quantified using force plate measures of center of pressure (COP) and center of gravity (COG), cognitive load was assessed by selected tests for spatial abilities while obstructing listening loud sound (crying baby). Each standing trial was performed with eyes open and eyes close for 60 s. Results showed that cognitive load led to less body sway, while individuals had a smaller ellipse area of center of gravity after cognitive load compared with a default situation. In conclusion, control of body sway and cognitive functioning are to some extent related, cognitive load can arouse concentration and can affect postural stability.
80 Efficacy Of Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) Gel In Bone Regeneration Of Periapical Cystic Lesion” , Sonam Nankani, Suneel Kumar Punjabi, Naveen Khawaja and Salman Shams*
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of Platelet rich plasma gel in bone regeneration of periapical cystic lesion. Study Design: Experimental case series. Place and Duration of Study: Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery Department, Institute of Dentistry, Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences, Jamshoro/ Hyderabad, from May 2017 to January 2018. Methodology: Data was collected from Outpatient Department patients of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery Department, Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences Jamshoro/Hyderabad who fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Root canal therapy of involved tooth. After that Blood sample of patient with help of 10cc disposable syringe and draw 10 ml blood intravenously. For 10 minutes blood sample was centrifuged and then Platelet rich plasma gel formed. After getting the gel is stable within anti-cogulated condition and stored as 8 hours at room temperature. With the help of 18-gauge needle Platelet rich plasma gel will subsequently introduced immediately into the bone cavity to fill up the empty space completely. Platelet-rich rich plasma (PRP) gel application and assessed the measurement on pre and post periapical radiograph that is with the help of ruler will recorded on proforma at 2nd week, 4th week, 12 weeks, and 24th week Results: The total number 45 patients were included in this study to treat the periapical cystic lesion with Platelet rich plasma gel for healing. Mean defect size was 3.88±1.25cm after 1st week it was observed 3.19±1.06cm than at 4th week followup it was 2.46±0.87cm and at 12th weeks defect size was 1.39±0.61cm it was also reduced at 24th week which was observed in 0.53±0.32cm. At 24 weeks mean defect done fill was 95.95±1.91% which is showing rapid healing. Conclusion: The result of this study concluded that platelet rich plasma gel (PRP gel) was highly effective in healing of cystic bony defect resulting from enucleation of periapical cyst in speedy motion by clinically and radiographically.
81 The Role Of Medical Sciences To Save Lives Of Mankind From Communicable And Non-Communicable Diseases Including Current COVID-19 Pandemic , Ahsan Ali Siddiqui*
Background and Objective: The main Aim of this article is to show the Importance and role of medical sciences to save lives of mankind from Communicable and Non-Communicable Diseases including current COVID-19 Pandemic. This Article includes various Articles references discussing the Diseases such as Hypertension, Diabetes, Cancer, Tuberculosis, Avian Flu and COVID-19. Methods: The Author of this article has randomly selected 15 Articles from PUBMED, Other Different Medical Sciences Journals with the word using “medical sciences to save lives of mankind”. The Author relies on Conceptual Literature Review for the Methodology of this article. Where the groups of Articles are reviewed and analyzed to find out the answer of the Question “Study favors or Ignores role of medical sciences to save lives of mankind from Communicable and NonCommunicable Diseases including current COVID-19 Pandemic”. The Table 1 is created to Analyze the 15 randomly selected Articles and the results has been presented By SPSS software diagrammatic presentation. Results: Author of this Article has used SPSS 19 Software to present the results. First SPSS Diagram shows that All selected 15 Articles favors the Importance of role of medical sciences to save lives of mankind from Communicable and NonCommunicable Diseases including current COVID-19. The Second SPSS Diagram shows that 15 Articles agreed 100% for the Importance of role of medical sciences to save lives of mankind from Communicable and Non-Communicable Diseases including current COVID-19. Conclusion: This Article teaches us the lesson that Technology in Medical Sciences and Inventions, Discovery of new Medicines and Surgical Instruments are Blessings for Mankind. Latest Technologies such as MRI Scans, CT Scans, Chemotherapy, Radiotherapy, Nuclear Technology, X rays/ Ultrasound, Latest Laparoscopic surgery, Endoscopy, Angioplasty others are treating more ill patients than ever before. But more Medical research is needed to find the Treatment for COVID-19 Pandemic, Ebola, MERS, Avian Influenza, Swine Flu and other Viral diseases. Urgent research institutes needed to build up for the discovery of new Vaccines when needed in times of COVID-19 Pandemic.
82 The Use Of Latest Medical Technology And Taking Benefits From Technology To Treat Various Medical Diseases Including Covid-19 In The Current Pandemic , Ahsan Ali Siddiqui*
Background and Objective: The Main Aim of this article is to highlight the advancement of Medical Technology and technique in the twenty first century. The use of Latest Medical technology to serve the ill and sick people. Methods: The Author of this Article has done Literature Review, Comparison and Critical analysis of more than 20 Published Articles and other reviews. Author has chosen the Comparative Literature review as methodology for this research article. The purpose is to show that Randomly chosen articles are in favor to use Latest Medical Technology and taking benefits from technology to treat various medical diseases including COVID-19. SPSS 19 software is used to show Diagrammatic presentation for the results and analysis. Results: Author of this Article has used SPSS 19 Software to present the results. First SPSS Diagram shows that All selected 15 Articles favors the Importance of the use of Latest Medical Technology and taking benefits from technology to treat various medical diseases including COVID-19 in the current Pandemic. The Second SPSS Diagram shows that 15 Articles agreed 100% for the Importance of the use of Latest Medical Technology and taking benefits from technology to treat various medical diseases including COVID-19 in the current Pandemic. Conclusion: Latest Inventions in Science and Medical Technology are Blessing for all the Living being on this Planet Earth. From Human beings to Animals all are getting benefits to enjoy better health in twenty first century by modern treatment and surgical procedures for humans and Animals. The Human Doctor and Veterinary Doctor are getting modern medicines and technology to save the lives of their patients. Latest Medical Inventions for example Nuclear Medicine/ Nuclear scan, CT Scan, MRI Scan, Laparoscope Machine, Imaging Machine, Ultrasound, X Rays, ICU Facility with Ventilators, Endoscopy Instruments, Others are helping the Doctors and Patients to provide and receive latest Treatment for the ill and sick. Although the Advancement in Medical Technology and Sciences still a lot of Research and hard work needed as still scientists could not find the appropriate and proven treatment and Vaccine of COVID-19.
83 Potential Role Of Nitric Oxide (NO) And Silver/Silver Nanoparticles In The Treatment Of COVID-19 Infections , Tejvir Singh and Gordon McKaya*
This short article provides an opinion on two potential opportunities that could be applied for the treatment of the virus COVID-19 and other similar viral pandemics that may attack humankind in the future. The two approaches are the use of nitric oxide and silver nanoparticles as therapeutic agents. This discussion focuses on the properties and characteristics of these two agents and why they present a potential treatment for COVID-19.
84 Hemostatic Effect Of Platelet Rich Fibrin Versus Tranexamic Acid After Tooth Extraction In Patients Under Anticoagulant Therapy , Munawar Din Larik, Syed Ghazanfar Hassan, Sajid Ali Majeedano, Wajid Ali Rajper, Waqas, Babar Abro and Salman Shams*
Objective: The compare the efficacy achieved by platelet rich fibrin versus tranexamic acid dressing placed in bony socket after tooth extraction in patients who are taking anticoagulant drugs. Study design: Experimental study. Place and Duration of study: Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences, Jamshoro / Hyderabad, from 13th April 2017 to 12th April 2018. Methodology: All 84 patients were divided into 2 equal groups by lottery method, group-A and group-B. In group A, after the tooth extraction, socket was filled with dressing of 4.85% tranexamic acid (TXA). In group B, a platelet rich fibrin (PRF) extracted from the autologous blood and stabilized in the post extraction socket with sutures. Post-extraction site was monitored for one week to assess and record the bleeding from tooth socket on 1st two hours before dismissal, 2nd, 3rd, 5th and 7th days postoperatively. In case of no bleeding from socket on 7th postoperative day, positive efficacy was considered. Results: There were 84 patients in total. Males were 50/84 (59.5%) while females were 34/84 (40.5%). Efficacy in Group A (Platelet rich fibrin) was found in 41/42 (97.61%) patients while in Group B (Tranexamic acid) it was found in 39/42 (92.86%) patients. When the Chi. square test was applied to see effects between efficacies in both groups, it was found that there were no significant association between both groups having p-value 0.306. After the stratification of gender, and duration of anticoagulant use, the efficacy was not found significant among both groups. Conclusion: In conclusion, the efficacy achieved by platelet rich fibrin in much better then tranexamic acid dressing placed in bony socket after tooth extraction in patients who are taking anticoagulant drugs.
85 The Role Of Non-Invasive Ventilation (NIV) In The Era Of COVID-19 Pandemic , Ahmed M Abbas*, Mohamed M Abdelkarem, Mohamed A Salah, Ahmed S Sedik, Hossam Aldein Samir, Zakria Y Elessemy, Emad Zarief Kamel
With the current emergent situation of Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic all over the world, the need for ventilators increases every day. About 1-3% of COVID-19 patients can develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) that ranges from mild to severe [1]. So, the shortage of mechanical ventilators is expected to be a critical problem in many countries. Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) may help in the Management of COVID-19 patients. It does not replace invasive mechanical ventilation but can provide a bridge to it [2]. In China, more than 50% of treated patients required NIV or High Flow Nasal Cannula [3]. However, the World Health Organization (WHO) reported NIV as a high-risk aerosolgenerating procedure, increasing the risk of infection transmission, especially to healthcare providers [4].
86 A Comparison Of Acute Renal Dysfunction Following On-Pump Versus Off-Pump CABG , Josiah Miner Njem*, Chidiebere Peter Echieh, Udgeath Dhir, Simon Jekat Yiltok and Mark Mawuto Tettey
Background: Coronary artery by-pass surgery (CABG) has traditionally been performed with the use of cardiopulmonary by-pass (on-pump CABG), with cardioplegic arrest. In the mid-90s surgeons began to perform the procedure on a beating heart, without the by-pass. This was an attempt to reduce a number of complications related to the cardiopulmonary bypass machine used for extracorporeal circulation during on-pump CABG. Aim: To compare acute renal dysfunction after first isolated Off-pump versus On-pump coronary artery by-pass graft surgery (CABG) and to determine if there is a difference between the two groups. Methodology: The study was carried out at the Heart Institute, Medanta Hospital, New Delhi India. The patients were randomized to undergo on-pump or off-pump coronary by-pass surgery and were prospectively followed. Preoperative and post-operative (24 hours, 48 hours and one week) serum creatinine and urea were recorded. Patients with preoperative serum creatinine greater than 1mg/dl and urea greater than 20mg/dl, as well as those having combined CABG and valve surgery were excluded. Results: A total number of 288 patients had CABG surgery (154 had Off-pump CABG while 134 had On-pump CABG). Eighty seven percent were male while 12% were female. There was a rise in creatinine from the preoperative mean baseline for both groups. The average rise of preoperative creatinine for on-pump was 0.4mg/dl compared to 0.01mg/dl for off-pump and this was statistically significant. The serum creatinine however, dropped to 0.84mg/dl for the on-pump and 0.73mg/dl for the off-pump groups by one week. The urea level for both groups also rose steadily for the one-week period. This elevation in serum urea was, however, statistically significant for the on-pump group. Conclusion: This study has shown that on-pump CABG causes significant acute renal dysfunction compared to off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery
87 Vitamin D – Too Little, Or Too Much In The Elderly And The Obese? , István G Télessy*
Vitamin D deficiency became a very popular theme in the medical literature. Thank the global scientific research activity, much is known about vitamin D (VD) however, the sphere of indication of supplementation and the dosage is still a matter in dispute, especially in some groups of patients. A lot of assessment support that more than half of the population is in VD deficit and supplementation is needed. Due to uncontrolled information (internet) and the free availability of VD-containing products, the recommended daily dose is often much less or even more than needed. The risk for hypervitaminosis is existing burden however the symptoms are rarely recognized by the population. This mini-review discuss the main facts and focus to the evidence-based optimal dosage of vitamin D in elevated age and in individuals living with overweight/obesity
88 A Systematic Review On Challenges Faced By Family Caregivers Of Cancer Patients , Mehrnaz Keramatikerman*
Objective: The cancer is one of the deadliest illnesses in the world which may last for a long period of time and require special medical attentions. The family of cancer patients as primary caregivers play a key role in taking care of the patient by spending long hours at home or hospital. They may suffer various challenges during their role as a caregiver which includes various challenges. Methodology: A systematic review conducted on databases encompasses PubMed, Science Direct, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar from establish of database to by following the collective strategy of Cochrane Collaborative Group. Results: A review on different challenges that are faced by family caregivers of cancer patients it was revealed that financial hardship, depression, isolation, emotional and physical burdens, time management, privacy insufficiency, and sleep deprivation. Whilst all challenges and associated difficulties have been reviewed and acknowledged in the literature, it has been revealed that less consideration has been paid on emotional burden as one of the key challenges for family caregivers. Conclusion: The literature review revealed that there are no sufficient interventions conducted to ease difficulties occurred for the family caregivers during various cancer stages and/or after the patient death. Furthermore, it was also revealed that there is almost no support for caregivers to recover and adapt to the current condition. They may suffer from major depression many years and affect other member of family. Also, official supports from relevant authorities are recommended to form groups to follow up with families and to ease some of those challenges.
89 Breast Cancer Prognosis And Exposure To Hazardous Contaminants: An Observational Retrospective Study At Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico , DE Villa-Guillen*, E Avila-Monteverde, JH Gonzalez-Zepeda, LF Munguia-Ibarra, B CorralVillegas, KG Aguilar-Gutierrez, C Rojas-Camarena, LC Durazo-Cons, CD Luque-Morales, WB Aguilar-Peraza, JA Cordon-Guillen, E Ruiz-Bustos and JA Villa-Carrillo
Breast cancer prognosis is related to genetic and non-genetic risk factors. Distinct models for risk prediction have been reported to evaluate the 5-year overall survival at the time of diagnosis. However, those models do not account for non-genetic risk factors, like residential exposure to hazards. In this work, the residential exposure to hazards (gas power plants (GPP), residual water sites (RWS), hazardous air pollutants (HAPs)) has been included for assessing prognosis. We hypothesize that there is a statistically significant association between a 5-year breast cancer prognosis and residential exposure to hazards at Hermosillo city. The main findings include the association between 5-year prognosis and residential exposure to hazards in Hermosillo residents. Association models developed included, in addition to hazard exposure, the variables of age, high cholesterol and triglycerides, previous cancer(s), diabetes mellitus type 2, menopausal status, and the 5-year prognosis as the response variable. CMH test included the variables of residential exposure and 5-year prognosis in combination with one of the remaining risk factors. Non-significant models developed included hazard exposure, and the variables of familiar history of cancer, presence of chronic illness(es), presence of elements of metabolic syndrome, hypertension, elevated HDL-cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol. The conclusions of this work are that the associations between residential exposure to hazards, in combination with other variables (age, previous cancer(s), diabetes mellitus type 2, and menopausal status), predict for a poor 5-year prognosis. Models including the factors of older age, the presence of previous cancer(s), and postmenopausal status; predict a poorer 5-year prognosis (overall survival of 69 % or less).
90 COVID-19: Implemented Recommendations And Consequences , Ahmed M Abbas*, Abdelrahman G Ramadan, Karim O Sleem, Mohammed H Abdelhafez, Eshak N Youssef, Zeinab M Bakr and Mohamed O Omar
Pandemics such as the novel Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) claimed the lives of many people worldwide and resulted in human catastrophes throughout the history. Nevertheless, previous recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO) in addition to changes in hygienic habits may have resulted in improved responses. This review illustrates the implementation of these recommendations on the ongoing pandemic of COVID-19. Moreover, it emphasizes on the economic consequences of this pandemic in addition to its impact on healthcare professionals.
91 Possible Treatment Of COVID-19 In Current Pandemic And Successful Treatment Of Other Medical And Surgical Diseases By Using Modern Medical Science And Technology , Ahsan Ali Siddiqui*
Background and Objective: To highlight the importance of Latest Medical science inventions and their use to benefit the living beings. Methods: The Author of this Article has done Literature Review, Comparison and Critical analysis of more than 20 Published Articles and other reviews. Author has chosen the Comparative Literature review as methodology for this research article. The purpose is to show that Randomly chosen articles are in favor of Possible Treatment of COVID-19 in current Pandemic and successful treatment of other Medical and surgical diseases by using Modern Medical science and Technology. SPSS 19 software is used to show Diagrammatic presentation for the results and analysis. Results: Author of this Article has used SPSS 19 Software to present the results. First SPSS Diagram shows that All selected 15 Articles favor the Importance of Possible Treatment of COVID-19 in current Pandemic and successful treatment of other Medical and surgical diseases by using Modern Medical science and Technology. The Second SPSS Diagram shows that 15 Articles agreed 100% for the Importance of Possible Treatment of COVID-19 in current Pandemic and successful treatment of other Medical and surgical diseases by using Modern Medical science and Technology. Conclusion: To conclude, modern Medical science inventions and latest treatment has helped the people to live longer and enjoy healthy life as compare to past decades. Although still there is no Vaccination or treatment available for COVID-19 Pandemic but due to Medical science and technology still supportive treatment is available. Currently Dexamethasone, Remdisivir, Favipiravir, Azithromycin and Plasma therapy has shown some promising results against COVID-19 Novel Cov. Preventions such as Hand washing for 40 seconds, Isolation, wearing mask N95 others in crowded places also help to reduce the numbers of COVID-19 Cases.
92 Fish Based Fortified Foods- A Glimpse Towards Future Potential , Niladri Chakraborty and Asit K Saha*
Fish is an important source of good quality protein and lipid contents for most parts of the world. It is considered as an excellent supplementary food item to meet the requirements of essential amino acids (particularly lysine) for us. It also contains good lipids (such as triglycerides, phospholipids, cholesterol and cholesteryl esters) and fat-soluble vitamins (A, D and E) either in small or large percentage (in cod, halibut and shark). Fish contains SFA (saturated fatty acids), MUFA (monounsaturated fatty acids), PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acids), EPA (ω-3 eicosapentaenoic acid), DHA (ω-3 decosahexaenoic acid) and ω-6 arachidonic acid. So, to avoid coronary disease among men it has been recommended to have the intake in the diet at least 2 to 3 serving times per week [1]. The presence of TMAO (trimethylamine oxide), high content of NPN (non-protein nitrogen), variable lipid content with high degree of unsaturation and high amount of ω-3 fatty acids, low carbohydrate content with high pH (=6), termed as “low-acid food” (as pH≥4.5).
93 Comfort Care Decision In An Infant With Medical Complexity , Shabih Manzar*
Children with medical complexity account for approximately 10% of pediatric admissions. Many of the problems of the infants with medical complexity are noticed or projected in the neonatal period. The role of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) staff is therefore very important in these cases. Infant with medically complexity and those who are technology-dependent may benefit from an early comfort care discussion. We present a case of such an infant in whom a comfort care decision was made in the NICU resulted in a peaceful death, saving the infant from many invasive life-sustaining procedures and interventions.
94 Research Models In Biomedical Sciences: Advantages And Limitations , Isadora Sousa de Oliveira, Gabriel Melo Alexandre Silva, Francielle Almeida Cordeiro, Ernesto Lopes Pinheiro Júnior, Isabela Gobbo Ferreira, Felipe Augusto Cerni, Umberto Zottich and Manuela Berto Pucca*
Research models are routinely used in the biomedical field when we are talking about assays. All these models have advantages and limitations and should be chosen carefully, to avoid, mainly, mistakes in ethical practices. However, it is a great challenge for researchers picking and classifying their experimental models due to the lack of clear literature definition or guidelines. Here, we pioneer describe the overall definition of the main research models and give a gamut of examples from the biomedical field. This review also provides recommendations for aligning experimental practices to meet the necessity of assessing an international research model classification.
95 Myofibromatosis With Extension To The Submandibular Gland, Clinical Case Report , Nadia AH Fortes*, Jessica C da Costa, Gizela Mazive, Telmo Macule, Gonçalves Ussene, Brian R Januário and Bento Manhique
Myofibromatosis is a rare fibrous childhood tumor, with variable clinical behavior whose treatment is challenging in a country with scarce resources. The objective of this work is to report a clinical case of myofibromatosis in a child with the involvement of the right submandibular gland, whose treatment was surgical with satisfactory results, although periodic controls are mandatory due to the possibility of recurrences rarely described.
96 Comparison Of Outcome Of Close Reduction Versus Open Reduction In Treatment Of Comminuted Mandibular Fracture , Sajid Ali Majeedano, Kashif Ali Channar, Wajid Ali Rajper, Munawar Din Larik, Muhammad Hassan Khoso, Faiz Muhammad Khoso and Salman Shams*
Objective: To assess the efficiency of open reduction & internal fixation versus close reduction with maxillomandibular fixation for the treatment of Comminuted mandibular fractures. Study Design and Duration: This comparative study was carried out at Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery Department, Liaquat University of Medical & Health Science Jamshoro/Hyderabad, from November 2017 to October 2018. Material and Methods: Total 60 patients after diagnosis of Comminuted mandibular fracture with age range from 18 to 45years of either gender were included. All the patients were divided in two groups, Group A was treated with open reduction with internal fixation and Group B was treated with closed reduction with maxillomandibular fixation. Each patient had called for follow-up after 2nd week, 4th week, and 6th week. On follow-up postoperative infection, malocclusion, non-union/malunion of fracture fragments, facial asymmetry, exposed plates and sequestration of devitalized bone were documented Results: Total 60 patients were included and divided in 2 groups, in patients of group A mean age was found 32.22±5.12 years and mean age of the patients of Group B was 30.34±4.55 years. Males were found in the majority i.e 51 out of 60 patients while female were 9. Open reduction with internal fixation showed significant better outcome as compared to close reduction in the terms of complications, p-value 0.03. Conclusion: It was concluded that the open reduction with internal fixation is most effective reliable management technique with very low rates of early and late complication for the treatment of Comminuted fractures of the mandible as compared to close reduction.
97 The Helpful Role Of Medical Sciences And Technology For The Treatment Of Medical/Surgical Diseases And The Epidemiology Of COVID-19 Novel Corona Virus , Ahsan Ali Siddiqui*
Background and Objective: The main Aim of this Article is to discuss the success of Latest Medical technology Treatment, Inventions to provide the best health services to sick and ill with different medical/surgical diseases. This Article is also providing details about the origin of the COVID-19 and the distribution among the community. Which part of community in Age, Gender, race and with chronic illness are more vulnerable to get COVID-19. Methods: The Author of this Article has selected various Randomly selected Publications to discuss the success of Latest Medical technology Treatment, Inventions to provide the best health services to sick and ill with different medical/surgical diseases. Article also discusses the epidemiology of COVID-19 its Incidence Distribution and Control measures. The Author has focused on Literature Review of the Articles discussing the use of latest medicines and modern medical technology to treat sick patients including COVID-19 patients. The Preventive methods on Educating local population and providing Personal Protective Equipment’s for Health care workers and Front-line staff, Security staff and other organizations. Results: The Author of this Article has represented the Review of 20 Different Articles about two things. Firstly, after data collection of 12 Randomly selected Articles that 9 Articles fully support of immediate Governmental actions against the Pandemic COVID-19. Second, all 10 randomly selected Articles discusses the Preventive measures about the COVID-19. The Author has used SPSS 19 software for Diagrammatic presentation of the data and for results. Conclusion: As we could compare Previous century with current modern era of Medical Sciences and latest inventions. Sick patients are getting more better medicines and latest treatment/ surgical procedures and they are living longer than ever before. The availability of health services and latest medicines has made our life easier and solving the small health problems easier than ever before. Getting free prescriptions from pharmacies in some countries with easily buying medicines is making good effect in the community
98 Early Results Of The Attune Knee System: A Minimum 2 Year Follow Up Observational Study , James Sires*, Stephanie Lennon, Mark Inglis, Anh-Minh Nguyen and Christopher Wilson
Background: The ATTUNE Knee System was designed to improve patient outcome and satisfaction. The aims of this study were to assess patient outcome after receiving an ATTUNE total knee replacement (TKR) and ensure early results were comparable to other TKR systems in Australia. Methods: 332 ATTUNE TKR’s were performed locally, mean follow-up was 2.6 years (2.0 to 3.2). Revision data was collected on all ATTUNE TKR’s. ATTUNE TKR’s performed at our university teaching hospital (n=162), had patient reported outcome measured using the Multi-Attribute Arthritis Prioritisation Tool (MAPT) questionnaire. Results: Revision rate of the ATTUNE TKR was similar to national rates (1.6% vs. 2.1%) (p=0.508). Postoperative MAPT scores were significantly lower after TKR (n=87) (median 63.4 vs. 0.0) (p<0.001). A total of 82 (94.3%) people had an improved MAPT score post-TKR. Conclusion: Our findings suggest the ATTUNE TKR has comparable revision rates to other TKRs currently available in Australia. Furthermore, patient reported outcome was good 2.4 years postoperatively
99 Factors Affecting Maternal Attitude In Receiving The Hepatitis B Vaccine For Their Infants Or Children , Sunil Kumar* and Vandana Bhagat
Background and Objective: Hepatitis B is a viral infection that can cause severe complications, including damage to liver, cirrhosis, liver cancer and even death. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) (2016), globally, 240 million people are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV). Hepatitis B can be prevented with a safe and effective hepatitis B vaccination, but the maternal attitude towards the safety of vaccination can affect their choice to get their infants vaccinated or not. Therefore, this literature review used a systematic approach to understand the factors affecting the maternal attitude towards getting hepatitis B vaccine for their infants or children. Methods: This study searched scientific and biomedical databases, including PubMed, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, ProQuest and Web Science from 1990 to 2020 to identify relevant peer-reviewed articles. Grey literature on Hepatitis B was identified through accessing websites such as the World Health Organization, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Department of Health, Australia. Results: From a pool of 343 articles, 12 met the eligibility criteria. Evidence suggested that parents with higher knowledge of hepatitis B vaccine and high education level were more likely to receive the hepatitis B vaccine to their children. Parents with high education level showed higher access to immunization information than parents with lower education. Parents who seek the information on vaccination from the physician were in more favour of vaccinating their infants than the parent who searched the internet for hepatitis B vaccination information. Conclusion: This study identified that a trustworthy source of information and vaccination safety awareness among parents is associated with increased hepatitis B vaccine uptake among infants. Health education during pregnancy and visit to physicians and proper communication between the health provider and parents can be useful to improve the immunization status among infants
100 The Effects Of Solar Activity And Geomagnetic Disturbance On Human Health , Abdullrahman H Maghrabi* and Marwa A Maghrabi
Heliobiology is a new branch of science that deals with the influences on human health caused by solar activity and investigates the possible mechanisms to explain the reported associations. In the last decades, many researchers have considered geomagnetic storms, cosmic rays, and solar flares to be hazardous to human health. They have established that these space weather indicators could play a role in regulating external factors in human health. Heliobiological results have attracted scientists from various branches of science to do more work in this field. In this short paper, the concepts of solar activity, space weather, and heliobiology will be briefly introduced and discussed. The main findings of the effects of solar activity on human health will be summarized.
101 The Use Of Keratin As Potential Biomaterial For Bio- Dental Applications , Lavanya Ajay Sharma, Robert M Love and Ajay Sharma*
For a century, keratins extracted from different sources are being used for medical, cosmetic and textile applications. The excellent bioactivity and physiochemical properties of these protein extracts have recently led to the popularity of a keratin as biomaterial. Like other naturally derived biomaterials, keratins have the potential to form a defined, three-dimensional microstructure that supports cell infiltration, proliferation, and cell-guided tissue formation. In addition, the natural abundance, intrinsic biocompatibility, and mechanical durability of keratins have shown promise in the field of biomaterials in diverse biomedical applications. This mini review summarizes the biological properties, explores in brief the extraction methods and advances of keratin as a biomaterial in various biomedical and dental applications.
102 Assessment Of Post-Traumatic And Postoperative Inferior Alveolar Nerve Function In Mandibular Angle Fracture , Hafsa Maqbool, Musarat Abro, Syed Ghazanfar Hassan, Hira Yousuf, Suneel Kumar Punjabi and Salman Shams*
Objective: To assess the inferior alveolar nerve function post-trauma (post-injury) and post-surgery (open reduction and internal fixation). Study Design: Descriptive Cross-Sectional Study Place and Duration of Study: The Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Institute of Dentistry, LUMHS, Jamshoro (From February 2018 – December 2018) Methodology: Total 56 patients having fracture of angle of mandible were included. Inferior alveolar nerve function was assessed by Two-point discrimination method at post-injury (pre-operatively), and after mandibular fracture treatment with open reduction and internal fixation and at follow up visits i.e. at 1st week, 4th week, 8th week, 12th week and at 16th week. Categorical variables were expressed as frequencies and percentage and for continuous variables, mean and standard deviation were measured. Results: There were 67.8% male and 32.2% female patients. Of which 30.2% patients aged 21 to 30 years, 51.9% aged 31 to 40 years, and 17.9% aged 41 to 50 years. It was observed that 58.9% patients had right sided fracture and 41.1% patients had left sided fracture. Preoperatively inferior alveolar nerve assessment showed intact in all patients. Postoperatively at 16th week 91.1% were positive at lip and 89.3% were positive at chin. Conclusion: Fractures of angle of mandible play a major role in the neurosensory deficit of the Inferior Alveolar nerve. Fracture site was related to effects too. The IAN deficits do not affect by age and sex
103 Can COVID-19 Cause Parkinson’s Disease Years Later? , Marcos Altable* and Juan Moisés de la Serna
As COVID-19 advances around the world, there are several points that the current COVID-19 pandemic may influence on the global burden of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Preliminary studies have suggested that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is the etiologic agent of COVID-19, may have potential neurotropism in humans, although this feature has not yet been conclusively demonstrated. (one). Like other respiratory viruses, SARS-CoV-2 can reach the central nervous system (CNS) through the blood or peripheral nerves, such as the nerve endings of the olfactory epithelium of the nasal passages [1-3]. The hypothesis of the olfactory pathway for SARSCoV-2 neuro invasion is supported by the fact that several patients with COVID-19 infection have experienced decreased or total loss of smell (hyposmia/anosmia) and altered taste or dysgeusia. The exciting aspect of this route (from the nasal cavity to the olfactory bulb, then to the cerebral cortex and finally to the brain stem) is the possible presence of the virus in the brain stem, which contains the nuclei of neurons responsible for respiration control. In fact, more than half of the patients with COVID-19 infection show respiratory distress [4].
104 Knowledge, Beliefs And Preventive Behaviours Regarding Osteoporosis Among Female Health Colleges’ Students At King Abdulaziz University , Ensherah Saeed Althobiti*, Elham Abdullah Al Nagshabandi and Asma Hamdi Mohamed
Osteoporosis is a disease in which the density and quality of bones reduce. It is a silent thief, producing no symptoms until a fragility fracture occurs. Aim: This study aimed to assess the osteoporosis knowledge, beliefs, and preventive behaviours among female health colleges’ students at King Abdulaziz University. Materials and Methods: Design: A cross sectional descriptive design. Setting and sample: 299 female students were recruited from four female health faculties (nursing, dentistry, applied medical and medical rehabilitation sciences) at King Abdulaziz University in Jeddah. Tools for Data Collection: Four tools were used including: characteristics assessment questionnaire, osteoporosis knowledge assessment tool, osteoporosis health belief scale and osteoporosis preventing behaviours survey. Results: 52.5% of the study participants had moderate level of knowledge regarding osteoporosis with satisfactory level of knowledge regarding osteoporosis symptoms and risk of fracture (60.4%). While, there was unsatisfactory level of knowledge regarding osteoporosis risk factors, preventive measures and availability of the treatment (43.4%, 38.3% and 36.6% respectively). The beliefs of perceived susceptibility and seriousness of osteoporosis were low (53% and 57% respectively). Also, there was inadequate level of practicing osteoporosis preventive behaviours. Additionally, there were significant positive correlations were found between physical activity and perceived benefits of physical exercise and calcium intake and health motivation. In addition, significant negative correlations had been detected between physical activity and both of barriers to exercise and calcium intake. Finally, there was highly significant positive correlation between students’ knowledge regarding osteoporosis and their health beliefs. Conclusion and recommendations: Moderate level of students’ knowledge regarding osteoporosis was noted. Susceptibility and severity perception toward osteoporosis were low. Practices towards preventing osteoporosis were inadequate. Therefore, the researcher recommended to provide health education and prevention programs about osteoporosis targeted university students to narrow the gap between knowledge and practices.
105 Mouse Lab Behaviour: How To Listen To Their Preference During Maintenance In House Facilities , Thaís Veronez, Miguel Brück, Maria Inês Doria Rossi and Gabriel Oliveira*
Mouse phylogeny, evolution and natural behaviour enable a new methodology for testing inputs, materials and equipment that are adequate/comfortable for the animals during their maintenance in house facilities. We developed an ICS prototype, capable of comparing two types of objects/materials based on “listening” the animal. The efficiency of the ICS can be demonstrated through the evaluation of basic materials in house facilities, such as chow, water decontamination process, floor/bed type and environmental enrichment objects. Our results demonstrate that while infant and young mice prefer commercial unprocessed chow over autoclaved one, adult mice show no preferences. Regarding water consume, at any age (4, 6 and 8 weeks of life - wko), differences in the water decontamination process - filtered or autoclaved – were observed. However, in relation to the floor/bed, at all ages, wood shavings were preferred (90%) over pine flakes. Finally, the environmental enrichment categories preferred are those that offer shelter and nesting possibility. Our results showed that ICS uses adequate evaluation parameters, allowing the handler to “hear” the mouse’s preference, and through screening tests insert material/object(s) in its routine that significantly minimize distress and suffering.
106 Clinical And CT Features Of Critically Ill Patients Requiring Ventilation Who Recovered From COVID-19 Pneumonia , Yu Fang, Jingjun Yan, Shuchang Zhou, Gaotan Ke, Dayong Li, Zhigang He and Shanshan Yu*
Objectives: To investigate the clinical and CT features of critically ill patients requiring ventilation who early recovered from COVID-19 pneumonia. Methods: The clinical, laboratory and CT features of COVID-19 patients at Tongji Hospital in Wuhan from Jan 31, 2020, to April 20, 2020, were retrospectively analyzed. Patients who required ventilation during treatment were defined as group 1. Meanwhile, patients who received conventional oxygen inhalation therapy in the same wards were defined as group 2. The clinical characteristics and follow-up CT images were collected and compared between the two groups. Results: A total of 160 discharged patients were included, of whom 43 were in group 1 and 117 were in group 2. The average age of patients in group 1 (61.9 ± 14.6 d) was significantly higher than that in group 2 (p=0.004), and the proportion of patients with complications in group 1 was markedly higher than that in group 2 (38 [88.4%] vs 54[46.2%]). Compared to patients in group 2, patients in group 1 more frequently had lymphopenia, with higher levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, ferritin. In group 1, 27 patients (62.8%) showed ground-glass opacities (GGOs), and 42 (97.7%) showed signs of fibrosis. Patients in group 1 experienced longer hospital stays than those in group 2 (52.5 ± 12.8 d vs 17.7 ± 10.3 d, p<0.001). Conclusion: Critically ill patients who required ventilation assistance for COVID-19 were older, worse laboratory test results. A great majority of patients showed pulmonary fibrosis on chest CT when they were discharged.
107 The Portability Of Health Care Services Between Guangdong And Macao , Chan Kin Sun, Zhang Rui*, Siu Yeung Fai, Wei Hang
In the context of the development of a healthy city, the use of medical electronic vouchers, the remarkable results of smoking control policy, and the relatively ideal preventive medicine and the control of COVID-19 pandemic, Macao has a sound healthcare system. According to Macao’s micro-economy and newly introduction of faculty of medicine in local university, Macao SAR Government has to coordinate medical resources with Guangdong Province in the future, in order to enable local residents to obtain more comprehensive and convenient medical services, i.e. the portability of medical services. Medical doctor resources are an important part of the medical service system and an important factor of the level of medical service. This study uses PEST as the analysis framework to summarize the factors for the development of cross-city medical care and multiple location practice of doctors, so as to conclude that the implementation of medical services in Macao can be. In the direction of portability of medical services, the research results are also summarized by PEST, including the related law amendments (Politically); the importance of the equal status of patients for promoting the marketability of medical service in the Greater Bay Area (Economically); the establishment of an open collaboration mechanism (Socially); the establishment of a professional and patient unified management platform (Technically).
108 Assessment Of Maxillofacial Trauma By Facial Injury Severity Score (FISS) System , Maya Madhuri, Suneel Kumar Punjabi, Anil Kumar, Azra Khan, Kashif Ali Channar and Salman Shams*
Objective: To assess severity of maxillofacial trauma with help of Facial Injury Severity Score (FISS) System. Subject and Methods: This is a Cross sectional study conducted at Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department of Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences, Jamshoro/Hyderabad, Pakistan from August 2017 to August 2018. Data was collected from 167 patients admitted in Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery Department, Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences, Jamshoro/ Hyderabad, who met inclusion criteria. The FISS score was taken as the sum of all individual scores then final score was done and grouped according to mild, moderate and severe injuries. Results: Minimum age was found 18 years and maximum age was 60 years with mean and standard deviation of the age was 37.29 ± 12.65 years. The minimum FISS Score was 1 and maximum was 14. Males were 100/167 (59.9%) while females were 67/167 (40.1%). There was no significant association found between Severity Score and all effect modifiers like gender and age. Conclusion: It was concluded that in maxillofacial trauma the minimum FISS Score was 1 and maximum was 10 at Liaquat university hospital Hyderabad, Pakistan. The Severity of FISS score was found Moderate (FISS score 4-7). There was no significant association found between Severity Score and effect modifier like and gender
109 Low-Dose Aspirin For Preventing Preterm Birth: A Meta-Analysis , Fuchuan Wang*, Wei Yi, Li Li, Mingfang Zhou, Xiuzhen Cao, Juanjuan Yao and Xuemei Liu
Objective: Preterm birth (PTB) remains a leading cause of neonatal mortality and is a disproportionately high burden. Aspirin is increasingly used to prevent PTB, so it is necessary to further evaluate the effect of different doses of aspirin in different gestational weeks on PTB. Data Sources: A systematic literature search of the PubMed, Embase, Medline, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the Cochrane database (from database inception to 1 March 2020) for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that examined treatment with aspirin versus placebo for PTB. Methods of Study Selection: Selection criteria included studies evaluating the effect of aspirin compare with placebo on PTB. Using EndNote, three authors screened abstracts and two screened full articles for inclusion. Main Results: Three authors extracted data from each article and analyzed the data using a descriptive approach. Thirty-one RCTs were included in the meta-analysis. Aspirin reduced the incidence of PTB (p<0.00001; risk ratio (RR)=0.89). And then we do a stratified analysis. Low dose aspirin, commenced ≤13 weeks gestation (p=0.0006; RR=0.83), commenced ≤20 weeks gestation (p<0.00001; RR=0.83), commenced >13 gestation weeks (p=0.001; RR=0.91), >20 gestation weeks (p=0.50; RR=0.94), aspirin significantly reduces the incidence of PTB; however aspirin did not decrease the incidence of PTB if it commenced>20 gestation weeks. According to the different dose of aspirin we further stratified all studies, received 60mg aspirin (p=0.007; RR=0.92), received 75mg aspirin (RR=0.52, P=0.008), received about 80mg aspirin (p=0.006; RR=0.86), received 100 mg aspirin(p<0.00001; RR=0.34). According to the comparison of different low dose of aspirin, perhaps 100mg is the best dose to prevent preterm birth. Conclusion: The effect of aspirin on PTB was significantly related to the gestational age and dose of intervention. According to our analysis of the literature, aspirin is recommended to prevent PTB at a dose of 100mg and before 20 weeks of gestation. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42020148741.
110 Rare Presentation Of A Facial Giant Cell Tumor: A Case Report , Nádia AH Fortes*, Nema Walle, Yaima Perez, Brian René Januário and Bento Manhique
Giant Cell Tumors (GCT) are benign bone neoplasms, of mesenchymal nature, with uncertain biological behavior, uncommonly located in the craniofacial skeleton. These tumors have a high probability of recurrence after surgical treatment. We intend to report a case of GCT of grotesque dimensions located simultaneously in the mandible, jaws, right malar bone, palatal bones, and maxillary sinus walls, in an 18-year-old melanodermic male patient with 10-years evolution, that was observed at the Central Hospital of Maputo-Mozambique. In which a radical and oncological surgical treatment would be necessary considering the cure of the patient with the lowest possible toxicity in the short and long term, preserving the function and aesthetics of the patient, without excluding periodic postoperative follow-up. In conclusion, it is a challenge to approach this specific clinical case of a tumor with this type of presentation given Mozambique’s unfavorable health care conditions.
111 Post-Transplant Cyclophosphamide In Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation For Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis , Shunqiao Feng, Lin Han, Xiaodai Cui, Junhui Li, Zeliang Song, Zhaoxia Zhang, Xiaodong Shi and Rong Liu*
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has the potential to cure refractory multisystem Langerhans cell histiocytosis (MS-LCH). However, a post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) regimen has never been applied for refractory MS-LCH. The objective of this article is to report the successful use of PTCy after reduced-intensity conditioning haploid HSCT in a 22-monthold girl with refractory MS-LCH and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). Her clinical symptoms were recurrent fever, polydipsia, diuresis, rash, and hepatosplenomegaly. She failed to respond to chemotherapy but was finally cured by haploid HSCT with PTCy regime. This case enriched our knowledge of the management of graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis in LCH patients, which has not been reported before.
112 Comparison Of Tocilizumab And Convalescent Plasma Therapy For COVID-19: A Systematic Review , Steffi Rose Mathew*
Background: The current pandemic referred to as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has identified the causative respiratory pathogen as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). High viral load leads to cytokine storm (CS) and other symptoms that leads to severity, mortality and infectivity of patients. Methods: A review of databases PubMed and Google Scholar was conducted from May 25 to June 16, 2020. After exclusion of systematic reviews, studies on other treatment strategies, meta-analysis and articles not related to COVID-19 treatment, 21 clinical studies on COVID-19 infection of tocilizumab (TCZ) and convalescent plasma (CP) were identified and included. Results: 13 TCZ studies demonstrated benefit in reducing interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP), thereby attenuate CS in severe cases and 7 CP studies demonstrated benefit in decreasing viral load, IL-6 and CRP in critically ill patients. A combination study of TCZ and CP were included which showed significant benefit of CP. A total of 151 patients were treated with TCZ and 55 were treated with CP. A single study of both showed results similar to control group, but CP had a positive impact on infection. Conclusion: TCZ can attenuate CS while CP can decrease viral load, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and inflammatory markers. CP has better benefits in comparison to TCZ and can be used in both early and severe stage of infection while TCZ is more appropriate in the severe stage. Both drugs may be potential candidate in alleviating severity, mortality and infectivity in COVID-19 infection.
113 Anticoagulation In COVID-19 “Benefit Exists But We Need Trials” , Hugo Costa*, Miguel Jacob, Rafaela Pereira, Roberto Calças, Sofia Ribeiro, Nuno Mourão, Luís Vicente, Javier Moreno and Daniel Nuñez
The pandemic we are facing has been devastating in some regions of the globe, not only because of the rapid spread, but also because of the unpredictability form of presentation and course of the disease. In fact, COVID-19 in its most severe form (SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia) and its systemic consequences have been described by several colleagues on the ground. The variety of multiorganic consequences, particularly cardiovascular, and the little expected response to therapeutic strategies as in the case of ventilation, makes us realize that knowledge about the virus is still scarce.
114 Comparison Of Sodium Concentration Between Ham Dry Cured With NaCl And A KCl/NaCl Mixture , Reinaldo Letelier*, Fernando González, Pedro Melín, Pedro Hernández, Rodrigo Nova, Paula Gädicke and Fernanda Larenas-Muñoz
Cured products are popular in developed countries; however, due to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, associated in part with higher sodium consumption in the human diet, it is convenient to explore alternative food preservation methods without altering the chemical properties of ham. Legs of pigs (corresponding to the pelvic member) from the same batch raised in an extensive production system were processed using the traditional method of cured ham. The left legs were cured using a treatment with NaCl (treatment A), while a mixture of NaCl / KCl (treatment B) was used for the right legs. Changes in weight, Na and K concentration, as well as pH were evaluated and compared at the end of the process. The inclusion of KCl produces a decrease in Na (p < 0.05) and an increase in K (p < 0.05). It was recorded 11.11 ± 1.467% Na and 1.59 ± 0.161% K in treatment A and 8.74 ± 1.156% and 3.89 ± 0.542% K in treatment B. Regarding pH, the values for treatment A were 5.36 ± 0.064 and 5.48 ± 0.101 for treatment B (p > 0.05). This indicates that it would be possible to replace sodium chloride (NaCl) with potassium chloride (KCl) at 25% in the preparation of artisanal ham enables the production of healthier foods for many occasions. This also allows us to replace sodium with other salts without altering the distinctive properties of the final product.
115 Better Outcomes In High-Power Short-Duration Compared To Low-Power Long-Duration Atrial Fibrillation Ablation In One-Year Follow-Up , Fabricio Vassallo*, Lucas Luis Meigre, Eduardo Serpa, Carlos Lovatto, Christiano Cunha, Hermes Carloni, Aloyr Simoes, Karla Meira, Flávia Pezzin, Orly Lacerda, Walter Batista, Alberto Nogueira, Dalton Amaral and Dalbian Gasparini
Introduction: Different results are described after atrial fibrillation ablation and multiples predictors of recurrence are well established. Objective: Evaluate and analyze if patients submitted to first time atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation with high-power short-duration (HPSD) have better outcomes compared to low-power long-duration (LPLD). Methods: Observational, retrospective study, 144 patients submitted to HPSD and LPLD ablation. HPSD: 71 patients, 50(70.42%) males, mean age 59.73 years, 52(73.24%) hypertension, 44(61.97%) obstructive apnea, 23(32.39%) arterial disease, 20(28.17%) Diabetes, and 10(14.08%) strokes. CHADS2VASC2 2.57. CT: 73 patients, 50(68.49%) males, mean age 60.7 years, 53(72.60%) hypertension, 41(56.16%) obstructive apnea, 28(38.36%) arterial disease, 14(19.17%) Diabetes and 8 (10.96%) strokes. CHAD2SVASC2 2.22. Results: Recurrence occurred in 33 patients (22.92%) at 12 months follow-up, of these, HPSD with 9 patients and LPLD with 24 patients. At the end of study 62 (87.32%) of 71 HPSD patients were in sinus rhythm comparing to 49 (67.12%) of 73 patients in LPLD (P of .0039). Conclusion: HPSD compared to LPLD showed a superiority in maintaining sinus rhythm at 12 months and a significant lower recurrence rate. Also, lower procedure time, esophageal heating and radiofrequency time was significant lower in HPSD technique.
116 Icariin Attenuates Serum Deprived-Induced Premature Senescence In Rat Annulus Fibrosus Cells And Ameliorates Disc Degeneration In Vivo , Xiangyu Deng*, Sheng Chen, Hang Liang, Dong Zheng and Zengwu Shao
Purpose: To explore the effect of icariin, a traditional chinese medicine, on serum deprived-induced premature senescence in rat annulus fibrosus cells in vitro as well as it’s possible mechanism and IDD in vivo. Methods and Results: Rat annulus fibrosus cells were separated from intervertebral disc of 200g rat with sterile surgical instruments and they were used for all experiments after 3 passages. The rat annulus fibrosus cells were divided into three groups: A (blank control: 10% fetal bovine serum of F12 DMEM); B (2% fetal bovine serum of F12 DMEM); C (2% fetal bovine serum of F12 DMEM + 20 µM icariin). We detected cell proliferation, SA-β-Gal activity, cell cycle, and the expression of matrix macromolecules (aggrecan and collagen I) and senescence markers (p16 and p53). All results supported each other and showed a remarkable protect effect of icariin which can attenuate serum deprived-induced premature senescence in rat annulus fibrosus cells in vitro. We also found the variation of ROS/NF-κB pathway which indicated that ROS/NF-κB pathway was at least partly included in this protect process. Meanwhile, in a rat model, we observed protect effect when rat accept the intervention of icariin intraperitoneal infection every other day. These protect effect have been verified by HE stains and immunohistochemistry stain. Conclusion: These results reveal that icariin could protect against serum deprived-induced premature senescence of rat NP cells through ROS/NF-κB pathway and ameliorate disc degeneration in vivo and suggest that icariin can be a new therapeutic candidate for treatment of IDD
117 Utility Of Cell And Molecular Biology Research For The Diagnosis And Therapy Of Oral Premalignant Lesions , Doinița Temelie-Olinici, Carmen-Elena Cotrutz*, Ana Emanuela Botez*, Laura GheucăSolovăstru, Vasile Bogdan Grecu, Laura Stoica and Oana Mihaela Condurache Hritcu
Introduction: Premalignant oral lesions represent one of the most important risk factors for the development of oral scuamoous cell carcinoma, the sixth most common malignancy diagnosed worldwide. The characteristic phenotypic and molecular variability of these lesions condition the early identification of the risk of malignant transformation, with a significant impact on prognosis and quality of life. Accurate and complete description of cell interactions involved in the carcinogenic cascade requires the use of the results of cell and molecular biology research. In this regard, this paper aims to evaluate the intricate role of molecular markers in assessing the progression of the most common premalignant oral lesions. Materials and Methods: To achieve these aims, oral mucosal fragments were collected from 53 patients diagnosed with leukoplakia, erosive oral lichen planus and erosive actinic cheilitis. After an anatomopathological diagnosis was made, the tissue fragments were processed by immunohistochemical and ELISA techniques to perform a correlation and comparative study of ezrin, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2). Results: IL-6 and Cox-2 levels were higher in premalignant lesions than in normal oral mucosal epithelium. Ezrin immunoreactivity was more intense at cytoplasmic level in premalignant lesions compared to normal mucosa, where expression was only identified at membrane level. Discussion: Intensity of ezrin immunopositivity also correlates with increased IL-6 expression, revealed by the biochemical study, indicating the influence on NF-κB signaling pathway. Cytoplasmic ezrin overexpression is associated with elevated Cox-2 levels in dysplastic lesions. Conclusions: The identification and characterization of the molecular profile of premalignant oral lesions allows their correct and complete staging and the improvement of personalized therapeutic management.
118 Approach Of Intern Doctors To Antibiotic Prescription For Sore Throat , Mohammad Abdullah*, Ayesha Malik, Manahil Chaudhry, Sara Qaiser, Arsalan Nizam, Noreena Iqbal and Tehreem Fayyaz
Objective: While former studies have investigated the approach of general practitioners (GPs) to antibiotic prescription, there is scarce evidence on the prescription trends for young, primary care doctors despite their cardinal role in the overall practice of antibiotic administration. The research aimed to study the approach of young doctors towards antibiotic prescription for a commonly encountered ailment, sore throat. Methods and Materials: A cross-sectional study of the interns’ clinical approach was conducted at CMH Lahore Hospital. A questionnaire containing four clinical vignettes, each with various presentations of sore throat was given to interns chosen by random, convenience sampling and 80 interns with a minimum clinical experience of 6 months participated in the study. Results: Vignette 1, a child with tonsillitis had a good overall pick by 86% interns, and 93% of them correctly pursued to prescribe antibiotics. Vignettes 2 and 4, an adult and child with probable viral, upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) had a lower but noticeable prescription rate of 11% and 10%, respectively. Vignette 3, a supposed case of glandular fever was correctly inferred by nearly half (57%) of the interns, however the antibiotic prescription rate high at 59%. There was no difference in prescribing rates between male and female interns. Conclusion: Young primary care doctors frequently prescribed antibiotics despite the underlying etiology. It can be inferred that young doctors lacked knowledge of the pathophysiology of various presentations of sore throat, e.g., bacterial, viral, as well as the latest guidelines on antibiotic administration.
119 Mortality By Lesions Caused By Transit On The Tri- Country Border Shared By Brazil, Paraguay And Argentina , Eduardo Wolfgram, Thiago Luis de Andrade Barbosa and Ludmila Mourão Xavier Gomes*
Purpose: To analyse the lesions caused transit (LCTs) mortality trend on the tri-country border shared by Brazil (Paraná), Argentina and Paraguay. Methods: A retrospective time-series study between 1996 and2015 carried out in 17 municipalities of Paraná, located on the border with Paraguay and Argentina in comparison with non-frontier region. There was a calculation of mortality rates and verified the mortality trend through polynomial regression. Results: The behavior of mortality rates by LCTs throughout the period was increased in all the regions studied, comparing the first to the last year of the time-series analysis. Only the border region showed an increasing, however without statistically significant trend (p=0.238). There was a higher risk of death by LCTs in men in all age groups, especially among younger age groups (20-29 years). The trend of motorcyclists’ mortality stood out with the greatest increase among causes of death by LCTs at border region (p< 0.001) and non-border region (p< 0.001). Conclusion: Deaths by LCTs remains as an important public health problem involving the studied regions, serving as a subsidy for the adoption of new public policies and the continuity of others, especially with the motorcyclists’ group.
120 Non-Dipping Blood Pressure Variations In Juvenile Kazakhs Are Derived From Increased Sympathetic Activity And Decreased Parasympathetic Activity Particularly Decreased Daytime Physical Activity , Hiroshi Kawamura*, Yukio Ozawa, Yoichi Izumi, Yuji Kasamaki, Tomohiro Nakayama, Hiromi Mitsubayashi and Yuhei Ichimaru
A large number of adult Kazakhs are reported to have hypertension and to exhibit non-dipping blood pressure variations (BPV). The purpose of this study was to determine whether such non-dipping variations also exist in juvenile Kazakhs. This study aimed to clarify the mechanisms responsible for these non-dipping type BPV by examining the autonomic function and physical activity of juvenile Kazakhs. Briefly, we selected clinically healthy Kazakhs who were aged between 9 and 10 years old from the Xinjiang Autonomic Region of the People’s Republic of China. All subjects were active and underwent routine physical, blood, and urine examinations. We also performed ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. We assessed the subjects’ autonomic function by performing a frequency domain analysis of their heart rate variability (HRV) and monitored the subjects’ physical activity with accelerometery. We analysed systolic blood pressure (SBP) variations with the maximum entropy method (MEM). MEM analysis revealed that the SBP variations of the non-dipping juvenile Kazakhs exhibited a 24-hr periodicity (0.04 1/hr) with a very weak power spectral density. The non-dippers had higher low-frequency/high-frequency (LF/HF) ratios and lower HF/(LF+HF) ratios than the dippers. Neither the 24-hr physical activity scores nor the night-time physical activity scores of the non-dippers and dippers differed significantly. However, the daytime physical activity scores of the non-dippers were lower than those of the dippers. These differences in autonomic function and physical activity might contribute to the generation of weak circadian variations in SBP in juvenile Kazakhs. Thus, these alterations might ultimately lead to the non-dipping SBP variations observed in non-dipping juvenile Kazakhs.
121 EGYPTONA: Proposal Promising Drug To Control Of COVID-19 Infection , Tamer Ibrahim Abdel-Wahab, Sherif Ibrahim Abdel-Wahab, Eman Ibrahim Abdel-Wahab and Manal M Adel*
EGYPTONA is a promising Egyptian treatment for COVID-19 patients. The objective of this study was to find out an active drug to control COVID-19 infection. COVID-19 virus attacks the human cell based on the levels of iron (Fe2+), magnesium (Mg2+) and zinc (Zn2+) in the blood. EGYPTONA drug included four chemical compounds to biological control of COVID-19 in the human blood: hepcidin hormone regulators + inhibitors block the release of virions after budding from the host cell + mixture of magnesium chloride hexahydrate with zinc gluconate + clopidogrel bisulfate. Although the proposed antiviral drug (EGYPTONA) is a promising active drug to control of COVID-19 in the human blood, this drug needs clinical trials to determine the effective and appropriate dose of EGYPTONA drug to reduce the expected side effects.
122 The Correlation Between Community Care Centres And The Social Interaction Among The Elderly , Miao-Fen Lin, Yi-Wen Chiu* and Chi-Hsuan Lung
“Aging in place” is a common strategy to cope with the problem of aging and advocate the promotion of social interaction among the aged people. Taiwan is also looking forward to the active aging of the elderly through the participation of community activities. The purpose of this study is to explore the impact of participation in community care centres on social interactions among the elderly. This study used a cross-sectional questionnaire to collect data. A total of 92 valid samples were analysed with SPSS 22.0. Research has shown that social interactions are significantly better for older people who have jobs, who participate in health promotion activities, and who participate more frequently and for longer periods of time. Community based care centres can promote better social interactions for the elderly. We should properly plan and design a variety of courses to enable the elderly to continue to actively participate in society.
123 Measurement Reliability And Precision Of Anthropometric Measures For The Estimation Of Whole-Body Density In Professional Football Players , Mills CD*, Cooper SM, De Ste Croix M and James D
Introduction: It is not uncommon to encounter measurement reliability issues, yet when they are required to develop practical calibration models to estimate whole body density the reliability of anthropometric measures is imperative. Materials and Methods: Data was gathered from n=206 male professional footballers ( ±s; age = 24.1±5.4 years, body mass = 78.8±8.4 kg and stretched stature = 180.1±7.0 cm). Reliability of n=28 anthropometric variables (skinfolds, girths, breadths, depths, widths, residual lung volume, air displacement plethysmography and hydrostatic weighing) was investigated by applying Technical Error of Measurement (TEM%) and the Limits of Agreement (LoA) method. Results: TEM% indicated a range of 6.5-1.0% and 3.8-0.6% and the study’s a priori criterion was set at ±3.8% for LoA and were statistically significant (P < 0.001). The contentious measurements of the iliac crest, supraspinale and anterior thigh skinfold, chest and hip girth and biiliocristal breadth indicated z scores values for R2 between 0.006-0.022% and exhibited significant bias (P=< 0.05) and possible heteroscedasticity issues with highest r values of 0.611 and R2 (%) coefficients of 37.3%. Discussion: Test-retest values demonstrated agreement and reliability to be of practical use with this population.
124 Sclerostin In Oral Tissues: Distribution, Biological Functions And Potential Therapeutic Role , Fangyuan Shuai, Aileen To, Yan Jing and Xianglong Han*
Sclerostin is a well-known osteogenic negative regulator whose biological functions have been widely studied in bone homeostasis. Targeting sclerostin via monoclonal antibodies was shown to be a powerful strategy for bone-related diseases. Traditionally, sclerostin was known as an osteocyte-specific glycoprotein. However, in recent studies, it has been shown that in addition to osteocytes, there are other cell types in oral tissues that can produce sclerostin. Sclerostin regulates the formation of dental and periodontal structures and is also involved in various physiological and pathological events in oral tissues. Thus, sclerostin modulation has been determined as a possible treatment strategy for periodontium-related diseases. To develop the therapeutic potential of sclerostin and its antibodies in the field of dentistry, researchers must clearly understand the functions of sclerostin in oral tissues. In this review, we highlight the existing awareness of sclerostin’s functions in oral tissues; the roles it plays in dental and periodontal diseases and treatments; and the therapeutic potential of sclerostin and its antibodies for oral applications.
125 Overcoming The Bottleneck In COVID-19 Detection: A Machine-Learning Approach To Improve Accuracy Of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) Detection Sensitivity , Roya Jafari, Zahra Esmaeilbeig and Mohammadreza Nemati*
In late 2019, coronavirus disease (COVID-19), emerged in Wuhan city, Hubei, China and claimed a large number of lives and affected billions all around the world. Accurate and scalable devices are essential for screening, diagnosis and monitoring of COVID-19 patients. In this Article, we first investigate the Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) method and its limitations in detecting the positive COVID-19 cases. Afterwards, we demonstrate a machine learning model to determine the optimal parameters for designing an EIS method.
126 Functional Decline Status For The Development Of Aspiration Pneumonia In Elderly Patients With Femoral Neck And Trochanteric Fractures , Takuro Morita*, Toshihiro Higashikawa*, Manabu Moriyama, Hiromi Inujima, Masahiro Hangyou, Kimiko Usuda, Shigeto Morimoto, Masashi Okuro, Tadami Matsumoto, Kenji Shigemoto, Kenichi Goshima, Tsugiyasu Kanda , Daisuke Usuda, Shigeki Takashima and Takeshi Sawaguchi
Aspiration pneumonia (AP) has been recognized as one of the most common postoperative complications after hip surgery in elderly. The objective of the present study was to evaluate risk for postoperative complications of AP in elderly patients with femoral neck fractures. We recruited 221 female patients (age 84.9 ± 7.1 years) with a history of hip surgery carried out at Toyama Municipal Hospital. AP occurred in 11 out of 276 cases (3.99%). Fisher’s exact test have found significant differences in gender, serum albumin level, cognitive impairment, and history of osteoporosis, between AP and non-AP groups. Subsequently multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to investigate the risk factors for AP, including age, body mass index (BMI), serum albumin, cognitive impairment, and activities of daily living (ADL). Univariate odds ratio showed significant differences in age and cognitive disorder, although adjusted odds ratio of these variables showed no significant association with AP incidence. This study suggested that serum albumin and cognitive function seemed to be the weak risk factors for AP but were necessary to assess under adjustment of confounding factors, including age, gender and BMI. Taking account of cognitive functional assistance seemed to be important for the postoperative management of AP, especially in elderly patients receiving surgery of femoral neck and trochanteric fractures.
127 Relationship Between GDF5 +104T/C Polymorphism And The Susceptibility Of Lumbar Disc Degeneration: A Meta-Analysis , Xiangyu Deng, Hang Liang and Zengwu Shao*
Lumbar disc degeneration (LDD) is a multifactorial and chronic disease with a complex genetic background. Previous studies have reported the strong association between growth differentiation factor 5 (GDF5) +104T/C polymorphism and the risk of LDD in different ethnic populations. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between the GDF5 +104T/C polymorphism and the susceptibility of LDD by a meta-analysis. Potentially relevant studies were selected by electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Web of science, the Cochrane Library Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure) up to 10th April 2017. Summary odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of association between the GDF5 +104T/C polymorphism and LDD risk. Six case-control studies, including 1107 LDD cases and 4353 controls, were included. The combined results showed that GDF5 +104T/C polymorphism was significantly associated with increased susceptibility to LDD at the allele level (T vs. C: OR = 1.52, 95%CI = 1.21-1.90) and genotype level (TT vs. CC: OR = 2.43, 95%CI = 1.81-3.25; TC vs. CC: OR = 1.84, 95%CI = 1.37-2.47; TT+TC vs. CC: OR = 2.14, 95%CI = 1.61-2.84; TT vs. TC+CC: OR = 1.42, 95%CI = 1.01-1.99) in the overall population. After stratified by ethnicity, we found a strong significant association (OR = 1.80 to 3.70, all P <0.05) in Asian population and weaker associations (OR =1.20 to 1.64, all P <0.05) in Caucasian population. This meta-analysis suggests an increased risk of GDF5 +104T/C polymorphism against intervertebral disc degeneration among populations especially in Asians.
128 Segmentation Analysis Of Impact On Glucoses Via Diet, Exercise And Weather Temperature During COVID-19 Quarantine Period (No. 312) , Gerald C Hsu*
In this paper, the author described his special segmentation analysis of impact on his glucoses via diet, exercise, and weather temperature during the COVID-19 quarantine period of 209 days, from 1/19/2020 through 8/14/2020. He segmented his carbs/ sugar amount, post-meal walking step, and ambient weather temperature into low range and high range. Then, he calculated the associated glucose values for each range. In the quarantine period, his finger PPG is approximately 109 mg/dL and his sensor PPG is around 119 mg/dL. His average carbs/sugar intake amount is 12.2 grams (exceptionally low) and his post-meal walking is 4,305 steps (sufficiently high). The ending measured glucoses contributed by his two ranges of diet and exercise (low ranges and high ranges) are sufficient and matched with his previous findings. As expected, the weather temperature provides no significant variances on glucoses due to the mild weather pattern and its low contribution of ~5% to glucoses. In this investigation, the majority of his glucose readings are normal, which are below 120 mg/dL. This is due to his diabetes control that reached its best performance period over the past 25 years of having diabetes. The relationship between inputs, diet and exercise, and outputs, finger PPG and sensor PPG are not fundamentally different from his previous findings; however, the deviations between the low range and high range of diet and exercise during this period are relatively small. The usage of the segmentation modelling and analysis has its own merit and can definitely be beneficial for data analyses from his other periods or from other T2D patients.
129 Resilient Keys To Burnout Prevention In High School Teachers , M Inmaculada Vicente de Vera García*
Introduction: The incidence of developing burnout syndrome in teachers is higher in those who work with adolescent students (12-18a), given the time of life changes. Resilience is the ability of people to overcome life’s difficulties. The objective of the study is to measure the levels of resilience and exhaustion expressed in high school teachers in relation to some sociodemographic and socio-labor variables. Method: It is a descriptive cross-sectional design. The invited sample consists of teachers (N=1,268) in the 2017/18 academic year. Through voluntary participation, the acceptance sample is formed with n=167 teachers (13.17%). Results: There are high scores in efficiency suggest a positive self-assessment of work by teachers and its influence as a protective factor against the feeling of being burned. Discussion and Conclusion: It is confirmed that positive emotions mitigate vulnerability to work stressors, favoring the emergence of resilience. The resilience evidence of the respondent group increases with the vital conditions that provide emotional and labor stability: marital status (stable couple or other options), having children, job stability, type of employment contract, etc. It is necessary to assess other influential factors in relation to the organization of the school itself and the social pressures it receives.
130 Expression, Regulation And Functions Of MicroRNAs In Autoimmune Hepatitis , Xiaoyan Chi*, Qingrong Huang, Yanmin Li, Xiaoguang Yang, Jiang Feng and Juhua Zhou*
Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a rare severe liver disorder, which affects both children and adults worldwide. Studies have shown that AIH may result from the abnormal body’s immune system, which attacks own liver, and causes inflammation and liver damage. However, the exact cause of AIH is unclear. Recent studies have demonstrated that epigenetic regulations including microRNAs (miRNAs), long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), DNA methylation and histone modifications play an important role in disease pathogenesis. In this review, expression, regulation and functions of miRNAs in AIH were discussed. It has been shown that specific miRNAs such as miR-21, miR-29a, miR-122, miR-155, miR-221 and miR-223 are involved in the control of cytokine production and regulation of proliferation, apoptosis and functions of liver-infiltrating mononuclear cells, which may be responsible for AIH development. The results may provide insights into the basic mechanisms underlying the dysregulation of miRNAs in AIH that could lead to development of strategies for epigenetic and pharmacologic intervention. Thus, such studies may lead to establishing a rapid diagnostic and prognostic method for early detection and effective treatment of AIH to prevent liver cancer. However, the underlying mechanisms in the expression, regulations and functions of miRNAs in AIH have not been understood and further studies will be necessary.
131 Screening Of The Potential Phytochemicals From The Capparis Decidua Fruit Extract Using GC-MS , Devki, Garima Sharma and Rashmi Sisodia*
The aim of the present study was to investigate the medicinal phytochemicals from the Capparis decidua (C. decidua) fruit extract by gas chromatography –mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis. For this purpose, fruits were collected from Jhunjhunu district, Rajasthan, India. After collection they were washed, shade-dried and powdered. The methanolic extract was then prepared by soxhalate method. Fruits of C. decidua extract were analysed for the phytocompounds present in it using GC-MS. Identification was done by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) library. Fatty acid, phenolic and heterocyclic compounds were identified. These compounds isolated from the GC-MS analysis of methanolic extract of C. decidua fruit are known to be responsible for the antibacterial, antidiuretic and anti-inflammatory activities, therefore of importance in the pharmaceutical industries.
132 A Comprehensive Literature Reviews On National Fitness Policy And Individual Factors For Physical Exercise In China , Zhou Yibei, Jiang Wenjing and Chan Kin Sun*
It is widely proved that physical inactivity would lead to chronic disease and be classified as a major non-communicable disease. The Central Government of China has already been aware of the negative impacts of physical inactivity and delivered various national fitness policies to reduce them. The study delivers intensive literature reviews on individual factors about physical exercise in China to improve national fitness policies. Generally speaking, individual factors can be further divided into three categories, including demographic characteristics (gender, age, income, education, and household register), health status (self-rated health, height, and genetic predisposition), as well as, economic status (income level and vocational factor). Based on the literature reviews, the study will highlight two problems in the research area, like a lack of systematic analysis of the factors for physical exercise, and a lack of comprehensive and typical study
133 Where Are We Standing With Childhood Cancer In Middle- And Low-Income Countries? , Roberto Rivera-Luna*, Alberto Olaya-Vargas and Armando Martínez-Avalos
Childhood cancer worldwide constitutes an ever-growing health problem. It is estimated every year, between 175,000 and 250,000 children will be diagnosed with cancer throughout the world. However, these numbers may well be underestimations given the lack or substandard cancer registries especially in the middle- and low-income countries (MLIC). Nearly 80 to 90% of these cases are seen in MLIC, where overall survival is close to 50%. Three fourths of global childhood cancer-related deaths happen in resource-limited countries [1].
134 Dancing With Glia: The Role Of Astrocytes, Microglia And Oligodendrocytes And Their Relation With Neurons In Neuroinflammation And Aging , Macarena Lorena Herrera, Franco Juan-Cruz Dolcetti, Eugenia Falomir-Lockhart, Leandro Gabriel Champarini, Jerónimo Pennini, Claudia Beatriz Hereñu and María José Bellini*
This review provides an original overview of glial cells functions on the central nervous system and their relationship with neuroinflammation. We decided to correlate astrocytes, microglia and oligodendrocytes functions with neurons interplay, and refer it to Tango genre and dance. Furthermore, this revision summarizes studies that support the roles of glial cells in neuroinflammation under different conditions, such as aging and main neurodegenerative diseases in particular, Parkinson’s Disease and Alzheimer’s Disease.
135 Biomechanical Evaluation Of Short Implants For Prostheses: Review Article , Delal Bozyel* and Simge TaÅŸar
Short implants are a successful alternative for patients who require adjunctive therapy, such as bone graft, before longer implants are placed. This also provides the advantages that the treatment is less invasive, more cost effective, and less tiring for the patient. Short implants can expand the limits of current implant treatments. This review aims to biomechanically prosthetically examine short implants.
136 Estimating The 5-Year Breast Cancer Prognosis In A Cohort Residentially Exposed To Hazards At Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico , DE Villa-Guillen* and JA Villa-Carrillo
Oncologists in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico, evaluate breast cancer prognosis based on tumor characteristics and breast cancer risk factors. Some risk factors are age, menopausal status, prior cancer, diabetes mellitus type 2, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. The estimation of 5-year overall survival, though, could be influenced by other modifiable risk factors not accounted for in clinical files such as environmental exposure to contaminants, residential exposure to hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), and residual water sites (RWS). We hypothesize that residential exposure to hazards can be added for improving the current criteria of using the variables; previous cancer condition, age, menopause, diabetes mellitus, high triglycerides and high cholesterol, for breast cancer prognosis in predicting the 5-year overall survival. The main result obtained by principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that the variables are positively correlated with the first dimension two by two. That means that size effect is observed where some patients have high values, while others have low values regardless of the variables. The previous statement means that, if a patient has a high value in one variable, then the value tends to be high for the others. The main findings obtained by correspondence analysis is that residentially exposed women with prior cancer(s), diagnosed at an older age (≥ 60 years) had an overall unfavourable 5-year prognosis (survival rate of 69 % or less). This work considers the inclusion of hazard exposure for the estimation of breast cancer prognosis 5-years post-diagnosis in women in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico.
137 Breast Cancer Period Prevalence In A Hazard-Exposed Cohort At Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico: A Report From 2013-2019 , DE Villa-Guillen*, M Jara-Marini, AI Valenzuela-Quintanar, G Caire-Juvera, I Anduro-Corona, E RuizBustos and JA Villa-Carrillo
Breast cancer is the leading cause of female cancer-related deaths in Mexico. Residential exposure to industrial-derived hazards may increase cancer risk. Hermosillo is one municipality with high breast cancer prevalence in Sonora, Mexico. However, the relationship between breast cancer and hazards needs further investigation. This retrospective observational study evaluated the associations between breast cancer period prevalence (years 2013-2019) and residential exposure to potentially hazardous sites (PHS) in Hermosillo. Clinical data (n=912) of breast cancer cases were collected from 6-year-old files. Cluster analysis identified regions of period prevalence. Proximity analysis classified neighbourhoods by PHS-exposure, then calculated odds ratio (OR) for breast cancer risk. Age distribution analysis evaluated the risk for PHS-exposed vs non-PHS-exposed groups. Six neighbourhoods classified as high-high breast cancer clusters. Highly industrialized neighbourhoods (≥ 7 industries vs ≤ 6 industries) presented higher risk (crude OR = 1.69), as well as those in proximity to a gas power plant (≤ 4 km vs ≥ 4 km, crude OR = 1.55) or to a residual water site (≤ 3 km vs ≥ 3 km, crude OR = 1.45) (all p-values < 0.0001). Age distribution analysis showed an older population in the PHS-exposed group. Larger cohorts will confirm our findings.
138 Mental Consequences Of Covid-19 On Medical And Nursing Staff , Gianluca Isaia*, Enrico Brunetti and Mario Bo
Covid-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on the population worldwide and especially on health workers that were required to increase their work fighting against an unknown virus. Several studies have been published since March 2020 on this topic outpointing psychological consequences on this specific population. Covid-19 represented an acute, sudden and disruptive event that marked everyday life forcing doctors and nurses to radically change their work and family routine.
139 Body Composition And Proportionality Of Base And Top In Acrobatic Gymnastics Of Young Portuguese Athletes: Short Report , David Paulo Ramalheira Catela*, Mafalda Nogueira Serôdio and Ana Paula de Lemos Teixeira e Seabra
In acrobatic gymnastics there are specific morphological functional differences between bases (B) and tops (T). Previous studies show that T are significantly less tall, lighter and with less fat mass; and, that the competitive level influences these differences. In this study, weight, height, experience and competitive level was collected, and weight index (WI), lean body mass index (LBMI), body mass index (BMI), and percentiles 5 and 95 were estimated for 64 athletes (11.73 ± 2.76 years of age, 148.77 ± 16.56cm in height, 40.49 ± 12.59kg in weight, BMI = 17.79 ± 2.47, WI = 98.87 ± 2.66, 4.64 ± 2.91 years of experience, 24 T, 7 boys). The results revealed: i) no significant differences between genders; ii) a significant difference between T and B in height and weight, with a proportion from T to B of 87.44% and 62.83%, respectively; iii) a significant difference between T and B in BMI and LBMI, with a proportion from T to B of 63.52% and 117.74%, respectively; iv) no significant difference between T and B in WI; v) a significant inverse association between competition level and WI; vi) a LBMI of B and T significantly higher than the normal median value. Therefore, in young acrobatic gymnasts there is already a higher lean mass, mainly in B, and a lower fat mass, that evolves with competition level. WI and LBMI are important for the morphological profile of young athletes. Representative sample size in males and direct anthropometric collections are required.
140 Effect Of Slow Diaphragmatic Breathing Technique On Heart Rate, Blood Pressure And Peripheral Oxygen Saturation In Hypertensive Elderly , David Paulo Ramalheira Catela* and Cristiana Isabel André Mercê
Slow breathing can be used as a complement for hypertension treatment. The aim of the study was to verify the effect of a breathing technique on cardiac autonomic function in elderly (N = 22, 76.36 ± 7.93 years old, 13 women); thirteen had optimal to Normal High Blood Pressure (ONH group) and nine had Mild to Moderate Isolated Systolic Pressure (MMS group). In both groups, vital signs were collected in two breathing conditions: i) Baseline (B)- participants breath at their normal pace; ii) Diaphragmatic (D)- participants breath at a slow pace, predominantly abdominal. Considering all participants, results revealed that during D condition Respiratory Frequency (RF) and Heart Rate Frequency (HR) were significantly reduced, and Peripheral Oxygen Saturation (SpO2 ), High Frequency (HF) and Heart Rate Variability Index (HRVi) significantly augmented, a significant reduction of. In D condition, both groups significantly augmented SpO2 . Additionally, in B condition, MMS group had significantly less SpO2 than ONH group; but, in D condition no significant difference was found between groups. Similarly, in B condition, MMS group had significantly higher Diastolic Pressure (DP), but in D condition no significant difference was found between groups. Also, compared to B condition, in D condition MMS group significantly reduced Systolic Pressure (SP), DP and Pulse (P- the difference between SP and DP). Consequently, during the D breathing, MMS subjects benefited of better blood pressure and peripheral oxygenation conditions, with probable enhancement of Heart Rate Variability (HRV). Results of this study support the hypothesis that an easily learned diaphragmatic breathing technique, inexpensive and non-intrusive, can help elderly with isolated systolic hypertension, to remediate its effects on vital signs, as a non-clinical complementary treatment.
141 Scoping Review Nurse’s Knowledge And Practices Regarding Wound Dressing At Primary Health Care Center , Nourah Yousef Aldousari*, Nahed Ahmed Mersal and Ruba Maatouk Alharazi
Background: Wound care is one of the significant nursing responsibilities that requires excellent skills and knowledge to minimize complications, such as infection, an amputation, or, in severe cases, even death. Effective wound dressing promotes wound healing, minimize hospitalization and saving costs. Objective: This scoping review aimed to provide an overview of the knowledge, practices, and attitude regarding wound dressing among nurses who responsible for wound dressing in PHC, hospitals and clinical setting. Methodology: CINHAL, PubMed, MEDLINE, ProQuest, Cochrane Library, and Science Direct databases were searched to cover published research in the period between 2015 to 2020. 15 articles out of 3153 were analysed. The following searching terms were used: nurse’s knowledge (or / and)/nurse’s practice AND wound dressing OR wound care OR wound management AND primary health care center OR hospitals OR clinical setting OR healthcare facility. Results: The majority of the articles demonstrate that the nurse’s knowledge regarding wound dressing was insufficient in various domains. The results may explain the unsatisfactory level of nurse’s practice in wound dressing by most nurses. The finding also recommends that updating nurses’ knowledge by frequent wound management courses and clinical training has a positive effect on safe wound dressing practice. Conclusion: There were insufficient wound dressing practices among the registered nurses, although the majority of the nurses enrolled in studies who had clinical experience and attended training programs. In addition, the unsatisfaction of clinical practice of wound management and the reasons that most of the participants are not performing standard dressing protocols are due to significant barriers for practicing the proper technique of wound dressing such as time-consuming procedure, heavy workload, lack of adequate staff to assist in dressing procedure and lack of sufficient supplies. Therefore, further research required more attention to identify and implement effective strategies to enhance health professional knowledge regarding wound dressing management.
142 Drug-Drug Interaction Extraction Based On Bidirectional Gated Recurrent Unit Networks And Capsule Networks , Shanwen Zhang, Wenzhun Huang* and Yun Zhang
Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) often result in unexpected side effects even death. DDI extraction (DDIE) is an important topic in the field of biomedical relationship extraction and has attracted great attention in natural language processing. The existing methods mainly emphasize the influence of entity, location and other information on DDIE, the maximum pooling of convolutional neural network (CNN) and Recurrent Neural Network results in the loss of feature information, and their extraction performance in long and complex sentences is still unsatisfactory. In this paper, a Gated Recurrent Unit and Capsule Networks (GRUTC) model is constructed for DDIE. Firstly, the original sentence sequence and the shortest dependency path (SDP) sequence are computed from the corpus and are input into two independent bidirectional Gated Recurrent Unit networks (Bi-GRU) to learn its semantic information and context information. Secondly, the extracted feature vectors are concatenated and input to the capsule network. Aiming at the problem of information loss caused by pooling strategy of CNN, the dynamic routing mechanism is employed to dynamically determine the amount of information transferred from low-level capsules to high-level capsules, so as to make full use of the high-level characteristic information and improve the DDIE effect. The experimental results on DDIExtraction2013 corpus show that the proposed method can effectively improve the performance without using any artificial features, and the F1-score is 73.7%, reaching the current advanced level.
143 Efficacy Of Ginger Use For Chemotherapy Induced Nausea And Vomiting In Cancer Patients: Scoping Review , Nourah Aldousari*, Nada Aljehani*, Areej Hadad, Fatimah Alharthi, Aishah Magrabi, Monirah Alhawsawi and Elham Abdullah Al Nagshabandi
Background: Chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting are the main undesired side effect that distress around 70 % to 80% of cancer patients. Ginger is often advocated as beneficial for nausea and vomiting, whether the herb is truly efficacious for this condition or not it is still a matter of debate. Objective: This scoping review is conducted to assess the effect of ginger usage on nausea and vomiting induced by chemotherapy amongst adult patients with cancer. Methodology: Databases searched include MEDLINE, CINHALE, PubMed and Google scholar for related articles between 2012 to 2019 was performed. After extensive review,188 studies were retrieved from the databases and only 15 studies found eligible according to applied inclusion and exclusion criteria. (14 randomized controlled trails, 1 pilot study) with a total of 1974 patients with different cancer types receiving emetogenic chemotherapy. Results: The majority of available evidence demonstrates that ginger is an effective, inexpensive and safe treatment for nausea and vomiting. Conclusion: Ginger supplementation can be potentially efficient effects on the patients who receives chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. The results of this scoping review provide significant suggestions for further research using standardized ginger products and reflective larger sample sizes to confirm the efficacy of ginger extract supplement and optimal dosing regimens.
144 Effect Of An NTPDase Inhititor On Leptosphaeira Biglobosa In Brassica Napus , Songbai Rong, Qiangsheng Li, Fengxiang Chen, Xinjie Wu and Mingguang Chu*
Leptosphaeria biglobosa, which causes blackleg on canola and vegetable crucifers, is an important pathogen in China. Germination of fungal spores and hyphal growth play a key role in fungal infection and development of the disease. The current study examined the effect of the NTPDase inhibitor chlorpromazine (CPZ) on morphological changes in the fungus Leptosphaeria biglobosa. The conidial germination, rate of hyphal growth and pathogenicity of the blackleg were investigated after pretreatment of the fungus with different concentrations of CPZ. The study demonstrated that various aspect changes of the fungus were significantly affected by the CPZ, indicating NTPDase is essential in the infection of Brassica napus cultivars.
145 A Final Laboratory Validation Study And Comparative Performance Evaluation Of The Abbott ID NOWTM COVID-19 Assay In A Coastal California Tertiary Care Medical Center , Stewart Comer* and David Fisk
The Abbott ID NOWTM COVID-19 assay is a rapid molecular diagnostic test particularly designed for on-site, rapid turnaround point of care (POC) testing. The utilization of rapid diagnostic tests is integral to optimizing workflow within the hospital and/or procedural-based clinics. The capability to provide both rapid disposition and correct patient classification during this COVID-19 pandemic is critically important with broad infection control implications for both patients and healthcare staff. A tightly controlled, extended laboratory validation was performed at our medical center to determine the negative test agreement of the Abbott ID NOWTM compared with the BD MAXTM analyzer and/or Hologic PantherTM, laboratory-based, two target, molecular analyzers with a sensitive level of detection (LoD). This article is a follow-on evaluation from a preliminary smaller data-set study in which 117 patient’s results were included. The current data set includes a sample size of 1304 patients (over a 10-fold increase) allowing for a more robust statistical power analysis. There was strict adoption of the procedures listed in the Abbott ID NOWTM Instruction for Use (IFU) [1] insert delineating preferred practices for “optimal test performance” that also incorporates the revised Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) amendment of 17 September 2020 allowing for the use of dry nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs. Our institutional experience demonstrates an overall negative agreement of 1163 of 1178 (98.7%). Of interest, however, 11 of the original discordant results in the April to August time frame were able to be retested and 55% of the original ID NOWTM false negatives with nasal swabs that were retested with NP swabs proved to be positive, and 45% that remained false negatives (FN) even with NP swabs had Ct values > 35. As such, one could hypothesize that if dry NP swabs had been implemented months ago, that the negative test agreement could be as high as 99.4%, which equates to a 99.1% concordance similar to a previously reported correlation study [2]. It also demonstrates a LoD cutoff inflection point where sensitivity diminishes appears to be a Ct value around 35.
146 Dyslexia And Dyscalculia , Paul TE Cusack* and Saint John
In this paper, we hypothesize what may be the root cause of dyslexia and dyscalculia. The problems appear to be with encoding information from the declarative memory. The ACT* Model of the mind is used to calculate some parameters essential to a normally working mind. It is estimated the as much as 6% of the population suffers from dyscalculia.
147 The Emerging Role Of Platelet-Activating Factor On The Regulation Of Embryonic Ploidy Via Apoptosis , Sparsha Saxena, Harrison Lapin, Renee J Chosed and William E Roudebush*
Sea Urchins have been one of the principal animals of choice to study the mechanism’s regarding fertilization and embryo development. A key influencer of events during embryo development is apoptosis, which can assist in modifying chromosome normality. Platelet-activating factor (PAF), a potent phospholipid, is produced by spermatozoa and early embryos and is required for fertilization and development. PAF has profound effects on fertilization and early embryo development including, but not limited to, apoptosis. This review will look at the significant relationship between PAF and apoptosis during early embryo development with emphasis in the sea urchin and to suggest next steps for study
148 COVID-19 And Promising Expected Vaccines , Ebtehal M Fawzi, Sheima A Elbasheer*, Alaa A Elhussein, Ahmed O Abuelhassan, Abdelmonem M Ali, Alfatih Aboalbasher Yousif, Nagia S Ahmed and Mayada Kh Ali
Background: In spite of all precautionary measurements have been done to control the spread of SARS-COV2, the mortality and morbidity have increased, and the need for an effective vaccine is growing daily Aim: In this review, the authors provide an overview of the current COVID-19 vaccines under the spotlight. Conclusion: Despite of the urgent need for a COVID-19 vaccine, several practical and technical issues remain, but recent vaccine developments by many companies and organizations seem promising and could make us closer to reduce mortality and morbidity rates.
149 To Assess And Compare Dental Consultancy Charges Of Different Geographical Areas Of The Metropolitan City Karachi , Maryam, Qaiser Ali Baig, Esha Abrar, Ashar Afaq, Wajiha Anzar and Salman Shams*
Objectives: To identify consultation and also procedure charges in accordance with experience and qualifications and to assess variations in these consultation charges according to different geographical town of Karachi.To assess charges in public private sectors also according to different geographical towns of Karachi. Study Design: cross-sectional survey. Setting: Towns of Karachi city Study Duration: 4 months Methodology: The data was collected by means of questionnaire, 200 hospitals clinics and polyclinics were assessed. Results: It showed there were more male practitioners than females. The consultation charges range from free consultation to few thousand rupees. Similarly, the procedural charges also range in between public private and within them as well. The public sectors are charging lesser in compare with private sectors, the most economical towns were Safoora Goth, Mahmoodabad and Sadder whereas Defense and Bahadurabad were the most expensive townswhere p value found significant (0.015). Conclusion: Variations in the prices for healthcare having larger impact on overall health. Policymakers should focus on measures within an integrated approach.
150 Current Status Of Pharmaceutical Care For Elderly Patients In Mainland China , Zhao Yin, Xuedonzg Jia, Fangying Si, Wan Zhang, Jian Kang, Xiaojian Zhang, Shusen Sun and Shuzhang Du*
Purpose: As the aging of Chinese population, health care services for the elderly are becoming increasingly important concerns in China, which has led to the development of pharmaceutical care for elderly patients in mainland China. However, the current status is not thoroughly discussed before. The present study aims to describe the history, current status and the future directions of pharmaceutical care for elderly patients in mainland China. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was undertaken using several databases: Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and wanfang following the guidelines for narrative reviews. The search period was from inception of data bases to December 01, 2020. 11 studies are included in this narrative review related to pharmacist-provided geriatric pharmaceutical care. Findings: The modern national health system of mainland China lay the foundation of pharmaceutical care for elderly patients and promoted its development. Up to now, Chinese clinical pharmacists have provided pharmaceutical care for elderly patients in areas of medication therapy management (MTM), management of medications for infectious diseases and specialty pharmacy services. Implications: Pharmaceutical care for elderly patients in mainland China has achieved progresses, however, challenges remain. Better education system, training system and career ladder system should be built to improve the competencies of clinical pharmacists and provide better services for elderly patients.
151 MicroRNA As A New Blood-Borne Novel Biomarker For The Earlier Diagnosis Of Lung Cancer , Muhammad Siraj*, Imdad Khan, Usama, Suliman Khan, Tawab Khan and Kamran Khan Yousafzai
Throughout the world, lung cancer is the first leading cause of cancer-related death, estimating roundabout 1.6 million cancer deaths occur annually. Lung cancer with its highest incident and deaths/mortality all over the world due to its limited diagnosis and treatment strategies. The earlier diagnosis of lung cancer plays an important in its treatment. There are different techniques used for the diagnosis of lung cancer including sputum cytology, different nanoparticles, and biomarkers such as CYFRA 21-1, NSE, SCC, CEA, ProGRP, Tumor M2-PK, miRNA. The main objective of this study is the role of miRNA as a novel biomarker for the earlier diagnosis of lung cancer. MicroRNAs are a very effective diagnosis marker for the earlier detection of lung cancer with high specificity and sensitivity about 96.6% and 86.2% respectively
152 Brain Stimulation Therapy In Patients With Parkinson’s Disease , Bender TB and Bykov YN*
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is wide-spread nosology around the globe. Clinical features of PD consist of motor and non-motor disorders. Motor disorders include such symptoms as tremor, hypokinesia, rigidity, postural instability. Non-motor disorders include cognitive and emotional impairments, sleep disorders and vegetative disturbance. There are medication and non-medicated methods of treatment in Parkinson’s disease. Brain stimulations may be perspective methods in complex therapy of PD patients.
153 Atypical Melanoma Misdiagnosed As Viral Meningoencephalitis: A Case Report , Weijun Tang and Lirong Wu*
As a rare disease with diverse clinical symptoms, primary intracranial malignant melanoma is usually misdiagnosed. We describe a patient who presented intracranial hypertension with abnormal signals in the left temporal lobe. The result of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis was consistent with the signs of viral meningoencephalitis, so antiviral and nutritional support was given, his headache relieved with normal intracranial pressure. The symptoms of the patients were repeated, and the left temporal lobe lesion was unknown. Surgical biopsy confirmed it was malignant melanoma lastly. This case highlights the brain biopsy in facilitating a highly accurate diagnosis rate.
154 A Scoping Review On Palliative Care: Knowledge And Attitude Of Nurses , Nada Mohamad Aljehani*, Nahed Ahmed Mersal and Fatmah Alsharif
Background: Palliative care is an essential aspect of care for advanced life-threatening illnesses. It involves holistic care that helps improve the quality of life for chronically ill patients. Palliative care is not meant to cure disease. Instead, it focuses on alleviating the burden of symptoms, easing the discomfort and stress that accompanies living with a life-threatening disease. The attitudes and knowledge of nurses play a vital role in the delivery of palliative care. Nurses should have a positive attitude and a good knowledge of palliative care. This review aims to identify, synthesize, and appraise the relevant evidence on nurses’ level of knowledge and attitude toward palliative care and factors associated with such knowledge and attitude. Methods: A literature search was conducted using several databases: CINAHL, PubMed, MEDLINE, and ScienceDirect. The search was limited to publications written in English between 2016 and 2020 using the search terms “nurses’ knowledge,” or / and “attitude” AND “palliative care.” Results: 12 studies were identified, analyzed, and synthesized in this review. All studies were quantitative, cross sectional. The finding demonstrates a general lack of sufficient knowledge on palliative care among nurses; however, nurses’ attitudes toward palliative care were positive. Factors found to affect nurse’s knowledge and attitude regarding palliative care included age, educational level, years of experience, and education/training in palliative care. Conclusion: This review demonstrates a gap on nursing knowledge about palliative care. Nurses have inadequate knowledge of palliative care, suggesting a need for increased attention to this subject. It is necessary to Incorporate palliative care education/ training in nursing curricula and establish regular/continuous professional education courses on palliative care by the national health policies. In contrast to the negative findings regarding knowledge, nurses’ attitudes towards palliative care were favorable. The need to implement strategies to improve knowledge as well as attitudes is necessary. Therefore, further research is required to develop interventions that improve knowledge and attitudes toward palliative care among nurses.
155 Conditions At The Central Nervous System Level Due To The Use Of Psychopharm To Increase Academic Performance , Juan Farak Gómez*
A high increase has been observed in the last decades in the tendency of some young university students towards the consumption of some psychotropic drugs in order to increase their academic performance; which are substances that can significantly alter the functions of the central nervous system (CNS); specifically, brain and spinal cord [1].
156 Exploring Potential Synergism Between Darunavir/Cobicistat And Ribavirin For The Treatment Of Covid-19 Patients: A Retrospective Comparison Study , Reem Elajez*, Oraib Abdallah, Shaikha Alnaimi, Eman Elmekaty, Safae Abuyousef, Eiman Abdelfattah Arafa, Raja Barazi, Rola Ghasoub, Mohammed Abu khattab and Moza Al Hail
Objective: Exploring potential synergistic effect of darunavir/cobicistat (DRV/COBI) plus ribavirin (RBV) in COVID-19 treatment. Methods: Retrospective, observational comparison study conducted in Qatar. Adult patients with confirmed positive SARSCoV-2 who received either DRV/COBI or DRV/COBI+RBV were included. Primary outcome was time to viral clearance, while secondary outcomes. include clinical improvement (resolution of fever/tachypnea), development of acute respiratory distress syndromes (ARDS) and 28-days all-cause mortality, and incidence of adverse reactions. Results: Sixty-four patients were included (41 received DRV/COBI and 23 received DRV/COBI+ RBV). Mean age of patients was 48.4±14.6 years with predominant male gender (58/64; 90.6%). Median time from starting therapy till viral clearance was 11 days in DRV/COBI+RBV vs. 16 days in DRV/COBI groups (P=0.295). At day-28, viral clearance was observed in 82.6% (19/23) and 73.2% (30/41) in DRV/COBI+RBV and DRV/COBI groups, respectively (P=0.392). Patients receiving DRV/COBI+RBV did not achieve faster resolution of fever or tachypnea compared to those receiving DRV/COBI. Three patients in DRV/COBI+RBV group developed ARDS, while none in DRV/COBI group. Frequency of hemoglobin drop of ≥2g/dl was significantly higher in DRV/COBI+RBV group than in DRV/COBI group (34.8% vs. 7.9%, P=0.008, respectively). Conclusion: Use of darunavir/cobicistat plus ribavirin was not associated with faster viral clearance or better clinical outcomes.
157 Diffusion Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging Revealed Changes In The Somatosensory And Motor Cortex Of A Mild Relapsing-Remitting Experimental Autoimmune Encephalitis Mouse Model , Othman I Alomair, Nematullah Khan, Maree T Smith, Ian M Brereton, Graham J Galloway and Nyoman D Kurniawan*
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is debilitating disease affecting the central nervous system (CNS). MS pathology has been primarily associated with demyelination and neuroinflammation in the CNS white matter (WM) structures. Recently, clinical studies using high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have reported diffuse pathological changes observed in the grey matter (GM) regions. This study aims to investigate neurological changes underpinning disease development in mild experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE) mouse model of relapsingremitting MS using magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). Relapsing-remitting EAE disease was induced in C57BL/6 mice using myelin oligodendrocyte protein (MOG35-55) emulsified in saponin (Quil-A) adjuvant and pertussis toxin. The animal clinical scores were monitored throughout the disease and prior to fixation at acute and chronic relapsing stages. Ex-vivo brain samples were imaged using conventional MRI and DWI at 16.4 Tesla. MRI relaxation and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters were evaluated to assess structural changes and the results were correlated with BlackGold II myelin staining. Acute EAE mice showed increases in mean and radial diffusivities within WM structures the corpus callosum, external capsule and hippocampal commissure. Chronic EAE mice showed extensive reductions in fractional anisotropy in vital GM structures such as the motor cortex, somatosensory area, and rostral hippocampal regions, as well as in part of the WM anterior cingulate and external capsule. DTI findings were confirmed by a notable reduction in myelin staining and correlated with adverse clinical scores in chronic animals. This study presented for the first time the use of ex-vivo ultra-high-field MRI to detect mild EAE pathology in GM somatosensory and motor cortex using DTI MRI, providing invaluable insight into neuropathological evolution during the relapsing-remitting disease.
158 Exploring The Synergistic Effect Of Celery And Chinese Kale On Antioxidant And Anti-Pancreatic Lipase And Anti-Acetylcholinesterase Activities , Jurairat Khongrum*, Pratoomporn Yingthongchai and Suriya Tateing
It has been well known that vegetables provided numerous health benefits and mixed recipe derived local vegetables have been used in traditional folklore. Therefore, this study aimed to observe the synergistic effect of the mixed water extract of Celery and Chinese kale on chemical compositions using GC-MS analysis and the biological activity including antioxidant activity and inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and suppressed pancreatic lipase by in vitro study. The GC-MS analysis of the chemical compounds showed the presence of Pyrrolidine, N,N- Dimethylaminoethanol, 2,3-Butanediol, Dimethyl trisulfide, Pentane, 3-methyl-, 3H-1,2,4-Triazol-3-one, 1,2-dihydro-, p-Cresol, 3-Butylisobenzofuran-1(3H)-one, Senkyunolide, n-Hexadecanoic acid, and Phytol. The Mixed extract significantly increased in total phenolic compound but no different in flavonoid content when compared with the extract alone. The biological activity showed that the potentials of antioxidant activity, inhibited pancreatic lipase activity and Anti-AChE activity of the mixed extract significantly increased than extract alone. The combination between celery and chinese kale extract showed high potential in antioxidant activity, inhibition of pancreatic lipase and AChE activity due to its syngenetic effect. Therefore, the combined extract is suitable for developing the functional food with positive health effects that extend beyond their nutritional value such as nutraceuticals products with mitigating hyperlipidemia and improving cognitive function.
159 Mondor’s Syndrome , Sebastián Hernández Manzanera, Vivian M Laguado Castro, Nelson Mora, Patricia Pérez and Tatiana Roldan Ovalle*
Mondor’s Disease is a rare pathology, known as a superficial thrombophlebitis of the chest wall, benign and self-limiting, with a resolution that takes between 6 weeks to 6 months. It is more commonly observed in women than men. In most cases, it is idiopathic, and doesn’t require specific handling, however, occasionally it can be a manifestation of other serious systemic pathologies. We report the case of a 34years old man, in emergency room with pain in a descendent path at the level of the right anterior axillary line and feeling of induration. His diagnosis was confirmed by echography, and associated systemic compromise was ruled out.
160 The Deep Lymphatic Anatomy Of The Foot , Rui Ma, Chuan Xiang Ma, Wei Ren Pan*, Fan Qiang Zeng, Zhi Qiang Qiu, Mei Ying Liu and Zhi An Liu
Background: Detail of the deep lymphatic anatomy of the foot remains the least described in medical literature. Methods: Eight feet were harvested from four unembalmed human cadavers amputating above the ankle. A small amount of 6% hydrogen peroxide was used to find the deep lymphatic vessels around the dorsal and plantar metatarsal vessels. A fine needle was inserted into vessels and injected with a barium sulphate compound. Each specimen was dissected, photographed, and radiographed to demonstrate the deep lymphatic distribution of the foot. Results: Deep collecting lymph vessels of the foot were found in the deep tissue of the dorsal and sole of the foot, they were: Dorsal metatarsal lymph vessel (DMLV); Lateral tarsal lymph vessel (LTLV); Central tarsal lymph vessel (CTLV); Medial tarsal lymph vessel (MTLV); Dorsalis pedis lymph vessel (DPLV); Anterior lateral malleolus lymph vessel (ALMLV); Plantar metatarsal lymph vessel (PMLV); Deep plantar arch lymph vessel (DPALV); Lateral plantar lymph vessel (LPLV); Medial plantar lymph vessel (MPLV); Medial calcaneus lymph vessel (MCLV); Medial malleolus perforating lymph vessel (MMPLV). Each vessel ran concentrically, then merged successively and finally drained into the anterior or posterior tibial lymph vessels. Conclusion: The deep lymphatic distribution of the foot has been presented. The results will provide an anatomical basis for clinical management, educational reference, and scientific research.
161 Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors For Esophageal Cancer , Toshiharu Hirose and Shun Yamamoto*
Esophageal cancer (EC) is the seventh most common cancer, and patients with advanced EC have a poor prognosis. Recently, nivolumab and pembrolizumab, two immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) that inhibit programmed cell death protein 1, have begun to be used for the treatment of advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Based on the ATTRACTION-3 and KEYNOTE-181 trials, the use of nivolumab and pembrolizumab (only in programmed cell death ligand 1-positive cases) was approved for treatment by the US Federal Drug Administration for the treatment of patients with advanced ESCC. In addition, the CheckMate-577 and the KEYNOTE-590 trials have shown survival benefits for postoperative nivolumab in patients with resectable EC and for first line pembrolizumab plus doublet chemotherapy in patients with advanced EC, respectively. Many trials to evaluate ICI-containing treatments are ongoing, and these new treatments are expected to improve the clinical outcomes of patients with EC.