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madarat tarikhia

ISSN(p):2676-1939 | ISSN(e):2716-9057
Journal Papers (20) Details EMAIL
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1 The activity of the association of the Algerian Muslim scholars in Hodna through Albasair from 1919 to1954(education as a model)   , djouiba abdelkamel hadjrasi khadhra  
By the beginning of the 20th century, Algeria witnessed an intellectual, journalistic and educational movement that largely contributed in boosting the political and cultural scene. This Islamic and intellectual movement had been led by many scholars and figures from all over the nation mainly the province of El-Hodna which had a leading role. They worked at raising the intellectual and scientific level as well as patriotism in order to push the region to be in concordance with the national changes adopted to face colonization. The 1930’s is considered as the most important period for the cultural advance that El-Hodna had witnessed. This concured with the emergence of the, educational, journalistic, intellectual, political and social reformations led by the Association of Algerian Muslim Ulemas in in this region. Despite their lateness, the reformations promoted the intellectual revival forward, moreover, they played a crucial role in raising the patriotic consciousness and the intellectual level which paved the way for the appearance of the national movement in the region. It contributed also in the appearance of some organizing structures for the reformation, such as, the educational schools, the cultural clubs, the free mosques and the media that delivered society from the restrictions of ‘Å£uruqiya’ and the oppression of the colonizer hence, being aware about the world and the patriotic life in order to take part in the national, cultural and political life.
2 The Italian Exile Policy Towards the Libyans During the First World War   , Nasserildin Alarbi  
The history of Libya is full of heroism and glory throughout the ages and in various fields. The colonial period of 1911 - 1942 certainly confirmed this through the great number of the battles that the Libyans fought against the Italians, one of the first policies used by Italy is the policy of exile to the prisons of the Italian islands. In this study, I tried to shed a light on the exile policy adopted by the Italians towards the Libyans during the First World War, and to highlight the various proceduers adopted by the Italians in order to consolidate Libya as Italian and to eliminate all forms of resistance movements. To carry out this study, I have raised the following problems:    - What are the most important attitudes of the Italian politicians towards the Libyan resistance movement?  - How did the Italian government deal with the various crises experienced by Libya from the beginning of the occupation until the First World War? - What is the policy that the Italians have followed in Libya with the Mujahideen? How did the process of the exile begun?  - Why has the exile increased during the World War I?  In my study of this topic, I followed the descriptive historical analytical approach, which is based on the description and analysis of the material in accordance with developments in the specific period of the topic. In order to answer all questions, and in view of what we have gathered from a scientific material, we divided the research into an introduction, three chapters and a conclusion.  - Chapter I: Introduction We described the beginning of the Italian occupation of Libya and the most important policies that have been adopted. - Chapter II: We discussed the Italian exile policy towards the Libyans through its methods, means and its dealings with various Libyan resistance.  - Chapter III: dealing with the exile operations during the period from (1911 -1918) the end of the First World War. Finally, the conclusion is a summary or a set of conclusions reached by my research on this topic.  
3 بعض معاملات أوقاف المياه ببلاد المغرب الإسلامي من خلال النوازل الفقهية   , خيرة سياب
      The Waqf is an important source for the beneficiaries. It is the act of a good deed under the influence of religious reason, which indicates the importance of solidarity among members of society. The manifestations of the Waqf aspects are stand out in its consequences, among the most important endowments that carried out the issues of Books of Vices through many texts and variety, the Waqfs of water. Thus, this paper attempts to note, through some of the issues of this type of waqf, the value and intensity of the texts in the Book of Vices, which talked about an integrated system dealing with water issues and social partnership. This led their owners of the standing and beneficiaries to seek help from the Moftin in their rude dispute around, by following an inductive historical approach to guide the research of our heritage of books of vices, which are still fertile texts in this and other fields.      The Waqf is an important source for the beneficiaries. It is the act of a good deed under the influence of religious reason, which indicates the importance of solidarity among members of society. The manifestations of the Waqf aspects are stand out in its consequences, among the most important endowments that carried out the issues of Books of Vices through many texts and variety, the Waqfs of water. Thus, this paper attempts to note, through some of the issues of this type of waqf, the value and intensity of the texts in the Book of Vices, which talked about an integrated system dealing with water issues and social partnership. This led their owners of the standing and beneficiaries to seek help from the Moftin in their rude dispute around, by following an inductive historical approach to guide the research of our heritage of books of vices, which are still fertile texts in this and other fields.  
4 Miguel de Cervantes and the Islamic-Christian struggle in the Mediterranean during the XVIth century   , ouafa el- masmoudi
The writer Miguel de Cervantes witnessed the conflict between Christianity and Islam during the sixteenth century, from his participation in a serie of battles between the two sides, and from his experience as a captive in Algier. This writer immortalized this conflict in his writings, especially the novel “Don Quichotte”, in which he recorded both the Battle of Lepanto and the Battle of the Gouletta events, as well as the lives of the Christian captives and their suffering, and the associated depletion of the human and financial strength of the Europe.  
5 Supply of the Liberation Revolution in Tebessa region 1954-1958   , براهمي نصيرة
The operation of the supply was of great importance in the armed struggle and the national liberation army could not complete its revolutionary activities if the supply stopped. Therefore, the leadership of the revolution gave great importance to the process by regulating the rules that it strictly conducts and determining the powers of the people from the sources of catering in Tebessa. At the beginning of the revolution, the supply was imposed on the people. Their houses and farms were the centers of supply of the mujahideen, and those assigned to them did not abide by a certain method. They worked according to the available conditions. What is important is that their movement in the framework of confidentiality is quick and strategic. Later, the supply was organized according to the provisions of the rules of the conference of the fasting, so there is a so-called supply officer, who oversees all stages of the supply of procurement, transport, distribution and storage as well as rules governing the most functions and obligations of the supply committees the establishment of the camps and the imposition of state of emergency and the bombing of villages and dwawir and the establishment of prohibited areas and the construction of an electrified dam and follow the policy of the burning  land.  
6 The aspects The Rasail ikhwan  l safa wa khillan al wafa Epistles of the Brethen of Purity and Loyal Friends   , alaa yacine diab
  ikhwān al-á¹£afāʾ are still anonymous, and opinions are still conflicting about what they are, and the researchers have presented many hypotheses trying to find their knowledge. After the brief  presentation of these  hypotheses, I will present my hypothesis that the son of the muqafa is the author of the letters, and then the letters were signed by Abu Hayyan al-Tawhidi. He completed their construction. Upon completion, it was announced in the Council of Minister Ibn Saadan. They have joined the Brotherhood of Siva, and I will try to support my opinion with all the evidence I have.  
7 System of government and administration in Medea during the colonial period 1840-1940.   , mohammed boutibi
 The period of the French occupation in Medea is one of the historical episodes of the region, lost in the Arabic literature, so we tried to write the history of Medea during the colonial period by addressing an important aspect of the French policy in Medea.  In this study, we discussed the administrative division and the system of governance in Medea from 1840 until 1940, to manage the affairs of the region and the rules of control.  
8 The phenomenon of foot kissing in the Ottoman era (699-1342 AH / 1300-1924) in the manuscripts   , ahmed sami badawi zid
The research deals with the phenomenon of kissing the feet in Ottoman era in the light of the manuscripts. The research deals with the history and idea of kissing the feet before the Islamic era and then through the Islamic era and through the photocopies of the manuscripts the Ottoman in Turkey. The research presents the idea of kissing the feet and their shapes and purpose. In Ottoman school.  
9 الهيئات والأحزاب السياسية ودورها في نشر الوعي الوطني بالقضية الليبية بالداخل (1943-1949Ù…)   , أميرة المقطون بن نصير
Many leaders of the country and leaders of the resistance and a large number of the people of Libya to migrate to neighboring countries because of the policy of fascist and arbitrary, and there are large Libyan communities in most of the neighboring countries of Libya, Italy has tried through its ambassadors and consuls to impose their authority on them, and despite all the difficulties and obstacles that have been exposed But the educated group of them was able to show their activity. The right time came for them when the Second World War took place on September 3, 1939, which Italy entered along with the Allied Powers on June 10, 1940. Meanwhile, political bodies and parties formed a central axis in the crystallization The national awareness of the importance of the Libyan cause and the independence of Libya both inside and outside the country, and the roots of the political struggle, and resulted in the outputs of the unity and independence of the country, despite the differences in ideologies and views among its members, and through this research we will highlight the most important bodies and political parties Which left its mark clear and clear on the Libyan arena, and the role played by the local level until the unity and independence of Libya, and the research will be divided into two axes, the first dealt with the most important bodies and political parties that were formed in the tenderness and Tripoli and Fezan, In its role in spreading national awareness at home, and a conclusion to the main findings of the research and the list of sources and references.  
10  Historical Writing and the National State in Tunisia and Algeria (1956-1970): Academic dimensions and national state building bets   , محمد البشير رازقي
The process of writing, especially historical writing, is a civilized and nascent product of its age and its historical contexts. Through this article, whose main problem was the relationship between historical writing in Algeria and Tunisia between 1956 and 1962, the importance of the history of national nation building during the twentieth century, whether in Tunisia or Algeria, has emerged. In addition, that the historical process in Tunisia and Algeria between 1956 and 1962 was strongly intertwined with the conditions of national state building. The historian, as he contributed to the building of the state, is also immersed in crises and tensions through his integration into the political work itself or in opposition or consulting or cognitive theorization through his study of the past to understand the present and a good outlook for the future. We have noted some differences between the Algerian historical experience and the Tunisian historical experience. The Algerian mythology has focused heavily on political history, especially the period of the war of liberation. Unlike the Tunisian one, which was actually started through the study of the Middle Ages (the Aghlabids, the Fatimid’s ...), and we cannot separate the Tunisian historical school bet when studying this independent state from the Abbasid position in the Orient. In the wake of the intensification of the Nasserite Bourguiba conflict between those who call for nationalism and Arabism and those who call for a narrow Qatari, "Tunisian" or "Tunisian identity".  
11 الشيخ محمد بن يوسف السنوسي صورة من واقع المشهد الثقافي في حاضرة تلمسان   , خالد بلعربي
This article attempts to expose a prominent scientific figure who lived in the erea of Zianide during the ninth century AH fifteenth century AD, this personality is represented by the world jurist Abu Abbas Ahmed bin Mohamed Ben Zakri Tlemceni, , like other Tlemcenian scientists during this historical period where the cultural mobility reached, we will look at these.  The scientific personality in terms of its origin, the collection of science, and its testimony science, and then the most important works that  Leaving them, which express despite the abundance of knowledge  
12 المدرسة الفرنسية- العربية للذكور بجرجيس(الجنوب التونسي) 1887 – 1955 : التعليم والتدريب المهني والارتقاء الاجتماعي   , الحسين بوحبيل 
The French educational policy represented one of the most powerful ways of sustaining colonization in Tunisia. The State of Protection sought to have an educational policy that could play a role in improving the State’s image by highlighting its humanistic and civilized face in order to legitimize its colonial actions. Hence, the main aims behind establishing schools were to create a new generation of Tunisians who would accept the French language and civilization and keep them away from resistance and from all forms of rejection. However, the Franco-Arabic school did contribute to teaching a number of Tunisians and to professionally training some others. It also contributed to the social uplifting of those who got permanent jobs at the local or colonial administrations, which enabled them to easily climb the social ladder.  
13 مساهمة في دراسة التاريخ الاجتماعي لليهود بالجنوب المغربي خلال الفترتين الحديثة والمعاصرة: التكافل الاجتماعي نموذجا.   , مبارك رحال 
The present article revolves around the forms of social solidarity between Jewish and Muslim families in the south of Morocco during the modern and contemporary periods. It has been known that the region periodically suffered from famine and epidemics caused by climate change or wars. These conditions have led to the emergence of symbiotic habits in social, economic and security fields, whether among Jewish themselves or between Jews and Muslims. The Researcher tries to investigate this issue by analyzing three main axes. In the first axis, the focus is on the religious dimension and its role in establishing a culture of solidarity between Jews and Muslims. The second one analyzes how the oligarchic economy has contributed to strengthening cooperation between the two communities. When it comes to the last axis, it discusses the importance of security cooperation and its role in protecting the rights of the Jewish minority in southern Morocco. The article end with summarizing how social solidarity played a significant role in creating a cohesive society in the times of crisis and adversity.  
14 The reality of training during the Algerian revolution 1956-1962   , hemri aissa
The Revolution Command gave a great importance to the military training ,because it has considerable position during the the national struggle's stages , and to develop combat operations and achieve great results in ensuring victory during the battles, the Revolution Command focused on the formation of the Liberation Army soldiers, which based primarily on guerrilla warfare as a strategy against the French army, as a military legacy during the popular resistance and its embodiment during the revolution, aim to achieving independence and national sovereignty.  
15 The migration of bani salim and her in the province of berqa   , رجعة فضيل الغناي
The study deals with The migration of bani salim from Egypt to the province of barqa at the fifth century AH       11th AD,Following the tribe and the reasons of migration and stability,not to stand on the most important branches and successor of Atarabad century                                  
16 حواضر إقليم الزاب الكبرى في العصر الوسيط من خلال كُتب الجغرافيا البلدانية دراسة تاريخية   , أسامة الطيب جعيل
   the Zab is one of the most important regions in history of Maghreb, This vast geographical area, known as the province of Numidia, has witnessed historical events especially after the Islamic conquest and the calling of khawarij in region and external vocation in metropolis and cities , The province did not know the stability of capital during the Middle Ages as a result of the political situation of the country, where the capitals changed five times starting from the first capital Adhana, and tobna, msila,  then the castle of Bani Hammad and finally the city of Biskra after shrinking area of the province to include the villages of Biskra only.  
17 the aspects of social solidarity for the Almoravid era's suffism in Morocco and Andalusia.   , هشام البقالي 
The article attempts to present aspects of the daily life of the Sufi Muslims in Morocco and Andalusia. This group has participated in the community before its joys, and we find them immersed in helping those in need and doing everything in their power to do so.  
18 عائلة "الجبادار" الفنية   , إيمان محمد العابد ياسين
Aljabadar family is one of the most important and prominent artistic families that played a leading role in promoting the artistic life in Iran throughout the 18th - 20th centuries. This family has produced a large number of famous artists who have influenced the art scene in various artistic products belong to many pioneers of artists for nearly four successive generations. Each generation derives from its predecessors the innate talent through which it has passed on genetic genes. then develops its innate talent through study, learning and training by the masters of the arts Enlightened them. This research is one of the Arab studies that interested in research and exploration in the roots of the artistic families and trace their descendants and genealogy, while shedding light on the nature of the links between their sons, and the result of this type of research to reveal many important results that are expected to be A survey of researchers interested in tracing the biographies of artists, and therefore recommended the need to direct the efforts of researchers about such families art in recognition of the efforts of their sons in the history of art filled with many names of these bright stars hidden behind their masterpieces. This research is a link in a series of research that deals with the depth of the biographies of many of the leading artists in various fields of art, who have rarely focused the interests of researchers around them, while they directed most of their interest to study their works of art, deliberately or without looking for these artists , And the reason for this trend in my own view is the difficulty of searching for such great and respected professional figures, because of the conflicting opinions and information on many of them and many modern researchers are now seeking to study what produced by these In spite of my desire to search for a group of leading artists, whom we can consider to be unknown soldiers on the artistic track, they presented us with a list of leading artists. The essence of their genius and talents is to present themselves, except through the signatures of some of them. Through their studies and comparisons, it is possible to identify a number of them, in addition to collecting information related to them from different historical sources, Many of them are unknown to researchers in various technical fields. This research is a result of a series of studies on the biography of a number of Iranian painters, which proved through the study and comparisons an existence of family ties between them, which led me to culminate in this research, which emphasizes the presence of whole families of talented artistes in various artistic fields, generation after generation.  
19 إسهامات جمعيّة العلماء المسلمين الجزائريين في الدّفاع عن العدالة الاجتماعيّة من خلال مجلّة الشّهاب (1931-1939)   , كوثر هاشم
This study deals with the contribution of the Association of Algerian Muslim Scholars in the national social movement during the colonial period and its role in defending the Algerian issues in its social and economic dimension, such as the cultural, religious and political aspects, especially the issue of social justice, which is one of the highest human values ​​that Algerian society has missed. The fierce colonial system since 1830, and the growing pace of awareness in Algerian circles, the latter sought to achieve justice in all areas, as a cornerstone of reform and positive change for the Which was adopted by the Association of Algerian Muslim Scholars in its struggle against various French policies, which will be the subject of our research, by taking into account the contents of Al-Shehab Magazine between the years 1931-1939, which is one of the most important sources that combine the enormous momentum of the history of the Assembly and the path General resistance.  
The city of Kalea Seghira is very rich by its terroir, its position, its history and its exceptional heritage. Only this city is paradoxically little studied. My contribution to know better her will focus on a recent discovery around this city. This is to present an unpublished discovery of an ancient farm located a few kilometers west of the city at a place called "Ennagar". This farm contains olive trees with an immense trunk that proves their ancient age. Remains related to water management and a preliminary collection of ceramics bear witness to occupation from antiquity to the Islamic period. Even though this material culture is worthy of a thorough record. My investigations allowed me to put this farm essentially olive with a literary testimony to which little attention was given to the olive trees planted by the Punic General Hannibal throughout the Sahel region. This discovery confirms that this textual testimony is not myth. Moreover, this exploitation would be in some of the testimonies of the very complex Carthaginian system. It has an original military and security aspect related to the systems of Phoinikoi Tapoi literally Phoenician Fosses that pass further west not far from this area. This farm also reveals a demographic aspect by fixing farmers at the margins of the territories of a large city such as Hadrumète. This mainly olive-growing operation also has an undoubted economic vocation for managing and making profitable the peripheral territories of the Punic era. The publication of this Punic farm enriches this file on our knowledge of this culture especially in the famous region of Byzacène became the Sahel one of the historical fiefs of Carthage and in the hinterland of the city of Hadrumète major Punic city.