1 Crude Oil Remediation using Matlab Integrated Agricultural Best Management Practice to Improved Soil Nutrients , Ukpaka CP* and Nkakini SO
Mathematical model of least square method was applied in the monitoring, predicting and simulation of the crude oil remediation using matlab integrated agricultural best management practice to improved soil nutrients. The matlab computer program language was considered in the mapping system layout of Cell B1: Crude oil polluted soil + Dried poultry manure, Cell B2: Crude oil polluted soil + Dried goat dung and Cell B3: Crude oil polluted soil + Fine saw dust. The equation of the function determine from the model simulation yield the following mathematical expression after the determination of the function coefficients of a, b and c as well as the results obtained are presented as 0.015 1.11 8.9 2 yB1   x  x  , 1.12 3.9 2 yB2  0.02x  x  and 0.02 1.77 6.25 2 yB3   x  x  . The problem was resolved using matrix of 3x3 method and results obtained revealed the significant of the techniques in monitoring, predicting and simulating the improved soil concentration through the mechanism of matlab integrated agricultural best management practice
2 Petroleum Feed Stock for Present Needs and Future Challenges , Prasad DMR* and Sathiyamoorthy D
Petroleum and petroleum derived products are inseparable part in human life. The variety of petroleum products ranges from cosmetic to industrial chemicals. Hence it is impossible to sustain the human life without the petroleum products.
3 Formation Damage Evaluation of Produced Water ReInjection Using an Advanced Software in Vertical and Horizontal Wells , Elkatatny SM*, Farid A, Mohamed I, Abou-Sayed OA and Block GI
Produced water re-injection (PWRI) is often the safest and most economical method for disposal of produced water in the oil industry. Two key issues that affect the management of PWRI are the formation damage and the constrained pumping pressure at the wellhead. A simulator was developed to handle the design of single-zone or multi-zone water injection in multi-layered reservoirs. The simulator can accommodate both vertical and horizontal wells operated under matrix and/or fractured regimes. It is also able to account for the impact of formation damage and user-defined wellhead pressure constraints. Results obtained from the simulator showed good agreement with known injection behaviors. For vertical wells, injection conformance depends on KH (permeability-thickness) and the minimum horizontal stress; in the case of multi-fractured horizontal wells, the outermost fractures (those near the tip and the heel of the horizontal well) are longer than the fractures in the middle. Lastly, by constraining the maximum allowable surface pressure, frictional pressure drops in both the wellbore and fracture cause the injection rate to decline, which in turn affects both the fracture geometry and the maximum disposal volumes.
4 Determination of the Rheological Parameters of Invert Emulsion Drilling Fluid in Real Time using Non-Linear Regression Technique , Elkatatny SM*, Zidan K and Mahmoud M
Rheological parameters are the key factor for hydraulic calculations and hole cleaning efficiency in the drilling operations. Rheological parameters include mud density, plastic viscosity, apparent viscosity, and yield point. Rheological parameters should be measured or estimated during the real operation to determine the actual equivalent mud circulation density, surge and swab pressures, hydraulic calculations, and hole cleaning efficiency. The mud rheological properties can be obtained from laboratory measurements. These measurement scan be divided into two types; the first one is simple testing such as mud density and Marsh funnel viscosity. The second set of experiments is the rheological properties measurements. Onsite, Marsh funnel viscosity and fluid density are measured frequently (every 10 to 20 minutes) to monitor the change of the drilling fluid properties while as the rheological properties are measured twice a day. In this paper a new model was developed to estimate the rheological parameters of invert emulsion-based drilling fluid using Marsh funnel viscosity and mud density. Multiple nonlinear regression technique was used to develop the new model. 6,000 data points from field measurements of the Marsh funnel viscosity, mud density, plastic viscosity, and yield point, were used in this study to develop the new model. The new model can be used to predict the following properties of the drilling fluid; viscometer readings at 300 and 600, plastic viscosity, yield point, apparent viscosity, power law index, and consistency index. All the previous parameters will be predicted using only Marsh funnel time and drilling fluid density. The developed models consists of six correlations that can be used to estimate the rheological properties with an average absolute error less than 4% and a correlation coefficient greater than 0.95 based on the Marsh funnel time and drilling fluid density. These correlations can be used to prepare the input parameters for hole cleaning and hydraulic calculations in real time. Applying this inexpensive technique will help drilling engineers predict any problem before it happens such as pipe sticking, sage issues, and loss of circulation.
5 In-situ Generation of CO2 to Eliminate the Problem of Gravity Override in EOR of Carbonate Reservoirs , Abdelgawad KZ and Mahmoud MA*
Carbon dioxide (CO2) injection into hydrocarbon reservoir is reported by many researchers to be one of the best enhanced oil recovery techniques. CO2 for enhanced oil recovery has favorable characteristics such as miscibility between CO2 and oil under most reservoir conditions, intermediate component extraction and heavy oil viscosity reduction which is named CO2 flooding process. As a result of viscous fingering and gravity override, sweep efficiency decreases and significant amounts of oil are left behind during CO2 flooding. Foaming was used to increase the injected CO2 viscosity but a lot of problems were encountered with the foaming agents such as stability and thermal stability, etc. In this paper we will introduce a new method of generating CO2 in-situ in carbonate reservoirs during enhanced oil recovery processes. The generation process includes the injection of low pH HEDTA or EDTA chelating agents followed by sea water, high pH chelating agents, or low salinity water. First the low pH chelating agent will react with the carbonate rock and produce CO2 that will diffuse to the oil and increases the oil mobility and in turn more oil will be produced. The chelating agents used are H2Na2EDTA (pH = 4.5), H3HEDTA (pH = 2.5), and H2NaHEDTA (pH = 4). The acid part which contains the hydrogen ions will attack the carbonate rock and produce CO2 that will increase the oil recovery, and then the high pH chelating agent or even sea water can be used to displace the low pH chelating agent and CO2. The experimental results showed that about 90% of the oil in place was recovered from the carbonate cores without using of surfactants or any other additives. The new method will eliminate the problem of gravity override which is the main problem of CO2 EOR. The chelating agent can be placed in the whole reservoir by introducing a low reactive form of these chemicals or by encapsulating these chemicals to start reacting with the reservoir after the placement is complete. The reaction of the encapsulated chemicals can be triggered by temperature or any other triggering mechanism.
6 The Potential of Nanotechnology in Petroleum Industry with Focus on Drilling Fluids , Irfran Y, Sui D, Agista MN and Zhixin Yu*
This paper aims at highlighting potential benefits that can be achieved by using nanotechnology and nanoparticles in petroleum industry particularly in the field of drilling fluids. Firstly, it throws light on the application of nanotechnology in different disciplines of oil and gas industry such as exploration, drilling, reservoir protection, hydrocarbon recovery and processing, which is extensively covered in this paper. Several revolutionary changes can be made in drilling industry with the help of nanotechnology. It can bring benefits to the industry in various manners such as improving the quality of mud cake, decreasing the frictional resistance in the well, minimizing the risk of pipe sticking, establishing borehole stability, preventing reservoir from formation damage, and augmenting the recovery of oil and gas. Researchers have tested the application of nanoparticles in drilling fluids and have concluded with very promising results in terms of reduction in torque and drag, stabilizing the well bore, controlling fluid loss and improving hole cleaning efficiency. A comparison between conventional and nanodrilling fluids is presented to illustrate the impact of nanoparticles in drilling fluids
7 The Potential of Nanotechnology in Petroleum Industry with Focus on Drilling Fluids , Irfran Y, Sui D, Agista MN and Zhixin Yu*
This paper aims at highlighting potential benefits that can be achieved by using nanotechnology and nanoparticles in petroleum industry particularly in the field of drilling fluids. Firstly, it throws light on the application of nanotechnology in different disciplines of oil and gas industry such as exploration, drilling, reservoir protection, hydrocarbon recovery and processing, which is extensively covered in this paper. Several revolutionary changes can be made in drilling industry with the help of nanotechnology. It can bring benefits to the industry in various manners such as improving the quality of mud cake, decreasing the frictional resistance in the well, minimizing the risk of pipe sticking, establishing borehole stability, preventing reservoir from formation damage, and augmenting the recovery of oil and gas. Researchers have tested the application of nanoparticles in drilling fluids and have concluded with very promising results in terms of reduction in torque and drag, stabilizing the well bore, controlling fluid loss and improving hole cleaning efficiency. A comparison between conventional and nanodrilling fluids is presented to illustrate the impact of nanoparticles in drilling fluids
8 An Overview of Acidizing Procedures in Fractured Carbonated Reservoirs , Davarpanah A*, Nassabeh MM, Zarei M, Valizadeh K and Momeni M
Oil production and Drilling of an oil field formation is the only convenient way to transfer the oil from the reservoir to the well head surficial facilities. According to the various stages of drilling operations, formation damages are playing an important role in reducing the rock permeability. In this occasions, the accurate measurements must be taken to increase permeability of the fractured carbonated reservoirs. Therefore, oil could be easily moved through the formation layers and cracks. Moreover, steep rising in the rate of oil production may be another method of stimulating the well. The greatest appeal technique for optimizing the recovery factor in terms of increasing the productivity rate is the acidizing procedures that administered to the carbonated reservoir rocks. In this research, the techniques of acidizing due to increasing the permeability of the reservoir rock is being investigated and the differences between the types of applied methods are being demonstrated. That is to say that, these performances might cause to erode the welfare of a reservoir rock or erode a segment of the rock which collapse the acidizing channels. Consequently, acidizing could be applied to eliminate the emulsion which was formed in the open and close channels to block out water trapped in the rock. This method in carbonated reservoirs when the fracture produce by Heavy liquids could reduce the acid pressure.
9 The Multi-Inhibitive Drilling Fluids for Coalbed Methane Formations , Xiujuan Tao, Shuaishuai Nie, Rui Peng, Zheng Zhang,Ting Liu and Lihui Zheng*
In order to control the wellbore stability in the CBM drilling process, the drilling fluid with strong plugging, clay hydration inhibition and anti-collapse properties should be comprehensively considered. The multi-inhibitive CBM drilling fluid was prepared by introducing sodium formate, which is an excellent inhibitor, into the fuzzy ball drilling fluid. Laboratory evaluation experiments showed that the prepared multi-inhibitive CBM drilling fluid based on fuzzy ball and sodium formate, displayed favorable multi-inhibitive properties, not only for its excellent inhibition performance on clay hydration, but also for its strong plugging and anti-collapse abilities. The results showed that the specific surface area and grain size of clay particles were almost unchanged, when the concentration of sodium formate was 30%. Besides, the prepared drilling fluid can effectively plug fractures in coal plugs as the injection pressure increased to more than 20MPa after plugging. Moreover, the uniaxial compressive strength of coal plugs increased by 43.3% after the displacement of the prepared drilling fluid. During field applications in more than 40 CBM wells such as Well-X, Well-Y and so on, the results showed that the prepared multi-inhibitive drilling fluid can successfully maintained the wellbore stability during drilling in CBM wells.
10 Dual Benefit of CO2 Sequestration: Storage and Enhanced Oil Recovery , Mahmoud M* and Elkatatny SM
Carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration is usually implied in geological formations because; they can provide the pore volumes needed to store large amount of CO2; they have adequate permeability required for efficient injection; and they are widely distributed geographically. They also possess the seal (Cap rock) needed to keep the stored CO2 in place. Of all the sedimentary formations, saline aquifers have the largest global sequestration capacity. Saline aquifers might exist at the bottom of an oil reservoir that acting as a pressure support to the oil reservoir. CO2 can be sequestered in saline aquifers underlying oil reservoirs or in saline aquifers that are located away from the oil reservoirs. In this study the dual benefit of CO2 sequestration will be introduced in which the CO2 will be injected in saline aquifers underlying oil reservoirs. The CO2 will be injected in the aquifer at the bottom part using different well schemes (horizontal and vertical wells). Numerical reservoir simulation software was used to build the reservoir and aquifer models and to carry out the CO2 injection and oil recovery. The injected CO2 will migrate from the aquifer to the oil zone and the oil will be produced through oil producers. Different combination between CO2 injectors and oil producers will be used to maximize the amount of stored CO2 and the oil recovery. The simulation results showed that CO2 can be stored in saline aquifers underlying oil reservoirs. The saline aquifer will start releasing CO2 to the oil zone after it gets saturated with CO2. The aquifer dissolved 5% of its volume CO2 and after this saturation whatever CO2 injected migrated to the oil zone and reduced the viscosity of oil and increased the oil recovery. Horizontal well gave better storage capacity and also gave better recovery compared to vertical wells. The oil recovery increased by 75 % of the residual oil using this method after seawater injection.
11 A Perspective on Transportation of Waxy Crude Oil , Yingda Lu* and Jinjun Zhang
Among the most important energy sources, oils account for 70% of global energy demand and will continue to play a leading role in the energy supply mix [1]. Once produced out from reservoir, crude oils are typically transported in pipelines to downstream facilities for refining and further processing. A majority of the crude oils produced worldwide contain wax and they are known as waxy crude oil [2].
12 Adiabatic and Non-Adiabatic Reactors , Elnashaie SSEH*
In Petroleum Refining many adiabatic and nonadiabatic reactors are used. These reactors need to be modeled for design, optimization and control. In this paper the homogeneous version is considered where mass and heat transfer resistances between fluid and catalyst are negligible.
13 A Brief Review of the Minimal-Effort Time-Lapse Seismic Concept , Houston LM*
Multiple, time-separated/time-lapse 3-D (TL 3-D) seismic surveys are becoming increasingly used as means of monitoring petroleum reservoir production. Typically, the separate monitoring surveys are all performed in a manner very similar to the original, exploration survey, this is not always the most efficient manner in which to collect the information necessary to make production decisions. Once the petroleum signature is recognized in the original (exploration) survey, considerable information is available to allow the monitoring survey(s) to be designed so that the production can be monitored in a, manner more efficient than simply repeating an exploration grade survey. Empirical and mathematical techniques are being developed to determine the minimal effort (most efficient) TL 3-D schemes. These minimal effort schemes promise to reduce costs for reservoir monitoring and to allow TL 3-D monitoring to be applied cost effectively to smaller reservoirs. The demand for Minimal Effort TL 3-D (ME TL 3-D) surveys will likely result in a new breed of specialized (faster, better, cheaper) seismic crews.
14 Anisotropic Rock Physics Model Based Statistical Inversion , Xiaoyang Wu*
Fracture detection using seismic response is typically carried out using methods which do not depend on details of the underlying anisotropic rock physics. Such methods may include ellipse fitting of a suitable seismic attribute followed by the assumption that the ratio of major to minor axes is proportional to fracture density. Other methods are based around fitting amplitudes to the Ruger (1998) equation, and assuming that the “anisotropic gradient” term is a fracture indicator.
15 Selection of Amine in Natural Gas Sweetening Process for Acid Gases Removal: A Review of Recent Studies , Saqib Yar Khan, Mohd Yusuf* and Ateeque Malani
Natural gas (NG) plays an important role in different industrial and commercial sectors in India; especially in power generation and fertilizers industries. Raw natural gas coming from reservoirs to a process plant is rich in carbon dioxide & hydrogen sulphide, which not only corrode pipelines when reacted with water but also reduces the net heat content of sales gas. To meet the sales gas specification it is important to minimize CO2/H2S content. Several alkanolamines have been used for acid gas removal from natural gas. The aim of this article is to provide an overview on application of monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), methydiethanolamine (MDEA) and mix composition. These alkanolamines on gas sweetening process to minimize the CO2 content and maximize heat content in sales gas.
16 Phase Separation of Asphaltene Dissolved in Toluene Leads to Nuclei Formation Promoted by the Very Low Solubility of Fraction A1. Soluble Fraction A2 Hinders Nuclei Flocculation , Sócrates Acevedo*
Sudden aggregation of asphaltenes in toluene at room conditions is the consequence of reaching solubility concentration (close to 90 mg L-1) of the very low soluble asphaltene component A1 [1-3]. Thus at concentrations close to about 90 mg L-1 solid phase separation occurs with formation of nuclei where although type A1 molecules prevail, the nuclei contain enough A2 type molecules to keep them in solution.
17 Novel Membrane Reactors for Catalytic Reactions to Maximize Production and Minimize Pollution (MPMP) in Petroleum and Petro-complex Compounds , Elnashaie SSEH*
One of the main techniques for pollution control and achieving green technology is to achieve MPMP. Almost all catalytic reactions in the Petroleum refining and Petrochemical industry are reversible and therefore their conversion is limited by the thermodynamic equilibrium
18 Novel Membrane Reactors for Catalytic Reactions to Maximize Production and Minimize Pollution (MPMP) in Petroleum and Petro-complex Compounds , Elnashaie SSEH*
One of the main techniques for pollution control and achieving green technology is to achieve MPMP. Almost all catalytic reactions in the Petroleum refining and Petrochemical industry are reversible and therefore their conversion is limited by the thermodynamic equilibrium
19 Energy Saving and Management in the Process Industries with the Aid of Recent Development in Science and Technology , Kazi SN*
In the wake of growing enhancement in energy demand, Scientists and Engineers are concerned about developing newly efficient and environmental friendly equipment for the process plants. Petrochemical plants use huge quantities of heat transfer liquid for cooling or heating of fluids in the process stream
20 Sensitivity Tests of Parameters in Laboratory Polymer Flood Analysis , Vulin D*, Gaćina M, Borovina A, Bošnjak I and Smajla I
The results of preliminary polymer flood laboratory study, including the matched coreflood simulation model results were shown to decide about analytical procedure for more detailed polymer flood study. The coreflood model is confirmed as feasible by comparing the recovery after waterflood period and after the polymer flood period. Sensitivity analysis of fluid compressibilities, parameters that affect polymer solution rheology, relative permeability and polymer adsorption index was perfumed both in laboratory and by simulation model. The results shown how different parameters affect recovery and additional recovery from polymer flood versus time. This method helped to speed up the assessment of critical parameters which should be measured and analyzed in more detailed study.
21 Synthetic Microbial Community for the Bioremediation of Petroleum Contamination , Jing Chen*
Environmental contamination is always a research topic in petroleum industry, because it is hard to totally avoid oil spill in the field ground and during the transportation. Sometimes, the contamination scale can be huge and significant in the worst case, like the massive Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in 2010 [1].
22 Recent Technologies in Mitigating Oil Spill Accidents , Bani-Hani EH and El Haj Assad M*
Crude oil is a main source of power in the developed nations. Many sectors depend on it such as industry and power generation. Thus the need for crude oil is high. Despite the crude oil is considered non-renewable, a need to explore new sites such as off shore is now very popular. These sites include oil handling under sea level. Thus, an emergency plan should be prepared before dealing with any activity including crude oil or any of its components, examples of such activities as oil refining, storing, transporting, exploring and oil well drilling. These components have severe effects on the environment and its elements. Thus, the new developments and technologies in the response in emergency situationsin the case of oil spill accidents should be followed. This study shows the up to date developments in the field of discovering the oil spill locations, the new technologies in minimizing the harmful effects of spilled oil, and rehabilitation of the contaminated sites in the case of oil spill in water bodies. It is shown that the new developments in mitigating oil spills starts from monitoring the activities that handling crude oil and preparing emergency plans for worst possible scenarios. Following the international laws in dealing with crude oil helps a lot in preventing and mitigating the oil spill accidents. New developments in containing the oil spills are in using booms that are fabricated from high absorbing materials and manufacturing of cleaning agents that has the ability to dissolve the oil and its components (hydrophobic) that helps in removing spilled oil mainly from water.
23 Gas Lift System , Fathi Elldakli*
Generally, a gas lift is a flexible, and a reliable artificial lift system with the ability to cover a wide range of production rates. Gas lift systems are a closed system empowered by high- pressured gas. The entire process is used to reduce the wellbore fluid pressure gradient by supplementing gas through an external source to withdraw more liquid from the reservoir under higher drawdown. Many parameters affect a gas lift system design, such as changes in the wellhead and bottomhole pressures (BHPs), produced fluid type, and productivity index of the wellbore. As these parameters change, the gas injection pressure changes. Gas lift system demands a surface compressing unit and in the well gas lifts valves (GLVs). Overall, a gas lift system is a forgiving method of enhanced production, in other words, even a poor gas lift design may increase production. To achieve a higher ramp in fluid production rate using gas lift, however, a more sophisticated design of each compartment of the system is required.
24 Investigation on Sand Production Problems and its Mechanisms , Vijouyeh AG, Kadkhodaie A* and Sedghi MA
Sand production is a common complex problem during oil and gas exploration and it's one of the principal challenges in different steps of field expansion planning including wellbore stability during the drilling. Sand production leads to several damages and disadvantage such as surface and down hole equipment erosion, wellbore damage, equipment failure, small maintenance-free periods and obstruction of valves is typically suffering for this in the form of erosive damage for oil and gas explorers especially companies producing from unconsolidated formations. One of the main tasks of exploration in the oil and gas industry is strengthening and stabilization of production. However, the main problem for arriving atthe this purpose is that most of the formations around the gas and oil wells, especially reservoir formations consist of highly unconsolidated sand grains and the other problem is the rock failure during wellbore drilling and perforation as well as hydrocarbon production. Therefore, production is complicated due to entering of sand to the wellbore because of several reasons such as stress concentration around the borehole, increasing of water production levels, production flow increasing, drawdown pressure increasing and passing of this pressure from a critical level and etc. Accordingly, there is great interest to estimate the critical conditions that the rock failure occurs and sand migration is beginning. In fact, rock failure and sand production prediction can be done by using of petro physical logs such as sonic logs, tectonic stresses information and geodynamics data. The estimation advantage of rock elastic parameters, pressure and stress properties and rock mechanical properties to calculate the rock strength and sand production prediction from existing logs is recognized as the real and original condition of the measurements.
25 A Brief Review of the Thermochemical Platform as a Promising Way to Produce Sustainable Liquid Biofuels in Biorefinery Concept , Tufan Salan*
Energy need of the world is rapidly increasing due to the developing technology, industrialization, and population growth. Nowadays, the alternative resources have been very imported for chemical, fuel and energy production due to decrease in fossil fuel reserves and increase in prices of traditional fuels that supply a significant amount of world’s primary energy demand. Biomass-based sources are the most attractive feedstock among these alternative resources and have a high potential to produce power, valuable chemicals, biofuels, and biopolymers. Biomass can be converted into these products by thermochemical, biological or catalytic routes. Thermochemical processes arevery useful and promising way to obtain a wide range of value-added fine chemicals and biofuels from biomass. This review discusses key points of the thermochemical conversion methods and the biofuels obtained as a part of the biorefinery.
26 About the Molecular and Photon Theory of Gases , Kochetkov AV1* and Fedotov FP2
Imperfection of the modern molecular and kinetic theory of heat is shown. More complete theory of warmth has to include, except kinetic energy of molecules, also potential energy of interaction of molecules
27 Late Pliocene Sapphire Sand Reservoirs Characterization Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance: Sapphire-1 well, Case Study, WDDM, Egypt , Shehab El Dien MF*, Hejab O, Amin AT and Raslan SM
This paper documents first deployment of new Magnetic Resonance (NMR) approach for characterizing late-Pliocene complex shaly sandstone reservoirs Sapphire field. Use of conventional logs like Gamma ray, Density, Neutron and Sonic for the reservoir characterization in these reservoirs pose challenges due to its lithological complexity and hetrogenity. The Pliocene delta slope-channel play (Sapphire Field) reservoirs are a shaly sandstone reservoir with vertical and lateral heterogeneous properties. The clay content in such reservoirs causes overestimation of the shale volume and overestimation of the formation porosity leading to inaccurate identification of lithology and estimation of the formation fluids using the conventional logs. Therefore, the porosity independent lithology Magnetic Resonance logging measurement was acquired in dual-wait time enabled T2 polarization mode to differentiate between moveable water and hydrocarbons. After acquisition, standard deliverables were porosity and permeability index with the porosity divided into clay-bound water (CBW), bulk-volume irreducible (BVI) and bulk-volume moveable (BVM) components. The rock quality was interpreted based using permeability index and effective porosity ratio, and classified based on its gradients, to identify the high, medium to low, and tight flow unit zones. The steeper ratio gradient was interpreted as high flow, gentle gradient as medium to low flow and flat gradient as tight flow zones. Based on the NMR flow units and fluid types (CBW, BVI and BVM), the drilled interval was classified into ten compartments of high flow, eleven compartment of medium to low flow along with three tight compartments. The relationship between storage and flow capacities for these compartment intervals revealed that, whereas the high flow units only have 19 % of the total storage capacity, they contribute over 70% of the total flow capacity, while the medium to low flow units containing 71% of the total storage deliver 29% of the total flow capacity, finally the tight flow units have 10 % of the total storage and 1 % of the total flow NMR data acquisition and processing has added value for reservoir characterization in this challenging shaly sand reservoirs by distinguishing tight and movable hydrocarbon bearing zones in terms of flow and storage units, and quantification of their storage and flow capacity leading to the determination of sapphire reservoirs true hydrocarbon reserves and production potential.
28 Pinch Analysis in Optimising Energy Consumption on a Naphtha Hydrotreating Unit in a Refinery , Paiko II, Azeez OS, Makwashi N and Zhao D*
Energy consumption plays a significant role in process profitability. This is particularly important for energy intensive business such as petrochemical industries, cement factories, oil refineries and other plants that involve thermos-chemical processes. One of the efficient ways to reduce energy consumption is through energy integration, especially for the process where numerous heat sources and sinks exist. Pinch analysis is one of globally recognized and well-proven methods in identifying the most economical ways of maximizing heat recovery and minimising the demand for external utilities (e.g., steam and cooling water). This paper discusses the application of pinch analysis in optimising energy consumption of a heat exchanger network based on a Naphtha Hydrotreating Unit (NHU) in a refinery based in Nigeria. Realistic process streams data were used as input in the NHU simulation using Aspen Plus to extract necessary thermodynamic data. Using Aspen Pinch, the Heat Exchanger Network (HEN) for the NHU plant was designed, followed by strict application of pinch analysis and its principle to the process plant. The minimum temperature approach was optimised to obtain the optimum ∆𝑇𝑚𝑖𝑛 of 15 ℃ for the minimum total annualised cost. The final heat exchanger network designed, based on this optimum ∆𝑇𝑚𝑖𝑛 , is also presented along with its composite curve, grand composite curve and total annualized cost. With the analysis of the NHU plant, an improved heat exchanger network (HEN) was obtained. Nineteen heat exchangers with the surface area of 2113.6m2 were used to obtain a minimum annual capital cost (ACC) of $17,301.46/yr, annual operating cost (AOC) of $561,994.20/yr and total annualized cost (TAC) of $579,295.66/yr.
29 Comparative Analysis of Barite and Hematite Used in WaterBased Drilling Fluid , Prabhat Ranjan* and Adityam Dutta
To meet the future demands and tackling the challenges, the O&G industry needs more than just going for discovering the unproven hydrocarbon reserves. Technologies way beyond the available ones requires tremendous development, to achieve the objective of recovering oil. To overcome such shortcomings, there should be scope and facilitation of development and application of those researched and developed technologies. Ample of understandings has to be considered about the rheology of the drilling fluids that are being put to operation in reaching deep targets of oil. Selective designing of the drilling fluids holds a strong place of concern in achieving economic project results in the oilfields and shall be strongly emphasized upon, so as to achieve shortening of the non-productive time during operations. Mud additives contribute to the specific functions and properties to the drilling fluid, especially in case of rheological properties, which in turn attains multiple roles in the wellbore. The project work emphasizes only on three of the many available fluid additives – bentonite, barite and hematite; whose rheological characteristics were determined in varying operating conditions and compared among the other two. The base drilling fluid was ‘water + bentonite’. Fresh / Tap water was used, which had a density of 8.5 ppg (1.0185 g/cc). Drilling fluid samples having varying concentrations of mud weighing agents (5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of the total weight of the drilling fluid) were simulated and operated in the Fann viscometer to obtain the plastic viscosity, yield point and gel strength. Results attained from the experiments revealed that out of the two weighing agents, hematite had the highest degree of rheological parameters when kept in same concentrations
30 A New Cubic Equation of State for Improved Liquid Density Prediction , Christiana NP*, Adewumi MA and Ityokumbul MT
Hydrocarbon fluid phase behaviours have numerous implications in natural gas and petroleum engineering and are often predictable from equations of state (EOSs). Equations of state methods are far less expensive (in terms of material cost and time) than laboratory or experimental forages and the results are interestingly within acceptable limits of accuracy. Several cubic EOSS have been presented in literature, most of Fluid PVT and phase behavior properties to good degrees of accuracy. However, most fail in predicting liquid phase densities accurately enough. A new three parameter cubic EOS was developed based on a modification of the van der Waals (vdW) attraction term contribution to pressure. The success of the new EOS was derived from recognizing that the attraction term of previous EOSs has been inadequate in capturing the dense fluid properties especially liquid densities and PVT properties at or near the critical region. The primary goal was to minimize the gap between experimentally derived-, and equation of state (EOS)- calculated PVT or fluid phase behavior data especially, liquid densities, for pure components and mixtures. Volumetric and phase equilibria calculations were carried out with the new EOS for pure components, binary ternary and multicomponent mixtures and results compared to experimental data (available in literature) and results obtained from industry-popular cubic EOSs, in particular, the two parameter, Peng-Robinson's (PR) and the three parameter PatelTeja's (PT) EOs. The results indicate that the new EOS predicts the liquid densities of pure hydrocarbon components and mixtures more accurately than the Peng Robinson's (PR) and Patel-Teja's (PT) EOS. The new EOS predicted liquid phase densities of pure components and mixtures with a grand average percent absolute deviation (AAPD) of 1.60% as opposed to 3.01% and 11.17% for PT and PR EOSs respectively.
31 Polymer Injection as a Possible EOR Method for a Fractured Granite Basement Reservoir in the Cuu Long Basin, Vietnam , Pham Duc Thang1 and Pham Huy Giao2*
During the last 25 years more than 85% of Vietnam oil production have come from the fractured granite basement (FGB) reservoirs in the Cuu Long basin, located in the southern offshore of Vietnam. Among all the discovered oil fields the White Tiger is the biggest one that was discovered in 1974 and put on production in 1986. Since then, approximately more than 200 million tons of oil, has been produced from this field, whose life has started the declining phase since 2002, and because of this enhanced oil recovery (EOR) needs to be considered, including polymer injection to enhance sweep and displacement efficiency of water flooding in fractured reservoirs. In this paper, results of a comprehensive study including polymer testing, core injection and numerical simulation by ECLIPSE with different polymer injection for a model of fractured granite basement reservoir of the White Tiger field are presented. For a locally available biochemical polymer two properties, i.e., heat resistance and screen factor, were tested a high range of temperature of 130oC to 150oC typical for the deep fractured basement of the White Tiger field. The results of the polymer injection and EOR tests on the core samples in the laboratory showed that for the White Tiger basement conditions EOR using the existing biochemical polymers can reach only 4% of in-place oil reserves, whereas this number is normally 8% in the world. Reservoir simulations by ECLIPSE were done to evaluate the effect of polymer flooding into the fractured basement of the White Tiger field and the obtained results showed that polymer injection could give good sweep efficiency and a considerably more amount of oil can be expected from the injection of polymer comparing to an injection of water alone.
32 Superhydrophobic Magnetic Polymer for Oil Spill Cleanup , Darwish MSA*
Contaminations of the environment by oil pollutions have a high risk of environmental impact and the design to develop high efficient material to absorb the sudden accidents of oil leakage is the most challenging tasks. The treatment should reduce the quantities of contaminants to a level which allows safe discharge according to national and international regulations. Extraction suffers from the limitations as selectivity and environmental impact by forming third phase formation.
33 Process Intensification in Distillation Systems: Main Trends for Improving Petrochemical Process Performance , Nguyen Van Duc Long and Moonyong Lee*
Economic and environmental considerations have encouraged studies on distillation processes, which play an outstanding role among other thermal separation processes in the petrochemical industry, focused on processintensification-based innovative engineering solutions. Various techniques, such as dividing wall columns, reactive distillation, internal heat-integrated distillation, HiGee distillation column, and cyclic column have been studied and reported. This mini review highlights the current status of these techniques, their applicability, main limitations and challenges and perspectives in the field of petrochemical engineering.
34 Nanomaterials as Innovative Technology for Corrosion Control in Petroleum Fields , Hamdy A*
In oil production plants, many cases of extensive corrosion have occurred in production tubing, valves, and in flow lines from the wellhead to the processing equipment. The reason for this is that oil and gas from the well contain varying amounts of water, which can be precipitated as a separate phase in contact with the material surface, and that this water contains gases such as CO2 and possibly H2S, as well as salts [1].
35 Atmospheric-Electrical Control of Oil Reservoir Development , Shuleikin VN*
A model representation of hydrogen, methane and atmospheric electric field bonds is provided. Sensitivity of atmospheric electric field to density variations of the subvertical methane flux is calculated. Field observations of atmospheric electric field above the oil deposit are provided.
36 Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil Using Different Heterogeneous Catalysts Support on Alumina , Abdelfatah M*, Kiros Y and Abu Elala R
This paper explores the using of waste cooking oil (WCO) as an attractive option to reduce the raw material cost for the biodiesel production. This can be achieved by using two different heterogeneous catalysts Ceria-Magnesium support on Alumina and Ceria-Cobalt support on Alumina. Full characterization have been carried out of the produced catalyst using XRD, SEM and Surface area. The optimum conditions for ceria cobalt are 0.3% catalyst (weight % of oil), and methanol/oil molar ratio 6:1, with temperature 60°C for 1.5 hrs with yield 97% while the same conditions applied for ceria magnesium as methanol/oil molar ratio 6:1, with temperature 60°C for 2 hrs using 0.5% catalyst (weight % of oil), the yield is 90%.
37 Recent Advances in Proppant Embedment and Fracture Conductivity after Hydraulic Fracturing , Zhu HY* and Shen JD
Studies on fracture conductivity and proppant distribution in fractures are frequently carried out with growing attention drew to stable production and maximizing conductivity. Laboratory inability to create formation conditions sets a major obstacle to learn several months or years’ long-term conductivity. Proppant embedment is also studied in a number of researches, though by application of various simplified analytical models. A suggestion on studying proppant embedment would be taking factors like proppant crushing and rock creep into consideration to gain a more thorough understanding in interactions between proppants and formation. An integrated Discrete-Element-Method (DEM)/Computational-FluidDynamics (CFD) numerical modeling method seems to be the most effective way to model proppant embedment and fracture conductivity after hydraulic fracturing
38 Studies on fracture conductivity and proppant distribution in fractures are frequently carried out with growing attention drew to stable production and maximizing conductivity. Laboratory inability to create formation conditions sets a major obstacle to learn several months or years’ long-term conductivity. Proppant embedment is also studied in a number of researches, though by application of various simplified analytical models. A suggestion on studying proppant embedment would be taking factors like proppant crushing and rock creep into consideration to gain a more thorough understanding in interactions between proppants and formation. An integrated Discrete-Element-Method (DEM)/Computational-FluidDynamics (CFD) numerical modeling method seems to be the most effective way to model proppant embedment and fracture conductivity after hydraulic fracturing , Calabrò E* and Magazù S
We report the result that the reorientation of hydrocarbons chain in gasoline fuel is induced by an applied static magnetic field. Indeed, 1 h 30 min exposure of samples of gasoline fuel to a 150 mT static magnetic field provided the result that CH2 bending vibration around 1465 cm-1, CH3 symmetrical band at 1378 cm-1 and C–C stretching at 1610 cm-1 decreased significantly, whereas CH2 twisting band around 1230 cm-1 increased significantly after exposure. These findings demonstrated that a reorientation of hydrocarbons chains occurs under an applied magnetic field. This relevant result can be used to increase the energy efficiency of motor vehicles.
39 Studies on fracture conductivity and proppant distribution in fractures are frequently carried out with growing attention drew to stable production and maximizing conductivity. Laboratory inability to create formation conditions sets a major obstacle to learn several months or years’ long-term conductivity. Proppant embedment is also studied in a number of researches, though by application of various simplified analytical models. A suggestion on studying proppant embedment would be taking factors like proppant crushing and rock creep into consideration to gain a more thorough understanding in interactions between proppants and formation. An integrated Discrete-Element-Method (DEM)/Computational-FluidDynamics (CFD) numerical modeling method seems to be the most effective way to model proppant embedment and fracture conductivity after hydraulic fracturing , Calabrò E* and Magazù S
We report the result that the reorientation of hydrocarbons chain in gasoline fuel is induced by an applied static magnetic field. Indeed, 1 h 30 min exposure of samples of gasoline fuel to a 150 mT static magnetic field provided the result that CH2 bending vibration around 1465 cm-1, CH3 symmetrical band at 1378 cm-1 and C–C stretching at 1610 cm-1 decreased significantly, whereas CH2 twisting band around 1230 cm-1 increased significantly after exposure. These findings demonstrated that a reorientation of hydrocarbons chains occurs under an applied magnetic field. This relevant result can be used to increase the energy efficiency of motor vehicles.
40 Challenges in Teaching and Research in the Energy Sector , Chowdhury MA*
There is a set a multifaceted challenges facing the global energy scenario in both developed and the developing world. While the developed countries are trying to transition away from the conventional energy resources, the developing countries are unable to fully harness the available energy resources. The issues range from environmental considerations, supply and demand mismatch, dwindling reserves, financial and technological inadequacy, logistics of energy production, transmission and consumption, and the social issues. To address these issues facing the globe, it is essential for the academic world to come up with new ways of teaching and research. A response proportionate to the problems demands innovative research to achieve sustainable development of energy resources, while at the same time taking care of social well-being and environmental quality. There is a perceptible lack of clarity in addressing these issues in the current agenda of teaching and research in the energy sector. They are mostly confined to their respective silos, fossil fuels or alternative sources of energy, while a broad-based agenda is needed with active involvement of the government, to focus on the big challenges. It is proposed that there are three important aspects which influence the teaching and research agenda, and focusing on these will provide the solutions to the energy issues facing the globe. First, collaboration between academicians and policymakers is required in order to prioritize the issues in energy supply and demand, logistics, social well-being, and global climate. Secondly, there is a need for increased focus on the identification and characterization of climatological and social impact of alternative sources of energy. Thirdly, industries and government should increase spending on human capital development to improve training and R&D activities on energy sustainability
41 Efficient Clean – up of Oil Spills using Magneto - Rheological (MR) Fluid , Hussain AH*
Oil spills causes marine accidents and natural clamities.8 billion barrels of oil are spilled each year. There are lots of methods available for oil spill recovery. But a recent experiment in lab concludes that magneto-rheological method fit in the best way for recovery. This has minimized the net environmental industry and provides an efficient way of recovering hydrocarbon spills. The magnetic particle with an organic compound having an oleophilic chain end is treated with iron particles over a hydrocarbon spill. This forms slurry and this magnetic slurry is then allowed to mix with the oil to form the MR fluid. This decreases the flow ability allowing removal of the MR fluid and oil pollutant. Once removed, treat the MR fluid with detergents to remove the oil. All these experiments are carried out in the department lab and further studies on economic comparison and feasibility are under progress.
42 New Correlation Predicting Molecular Weight of Petroleum Fractions , Gomaa S and El-hoshoudy AN*
A proper description of the physical properties of the petroleum fractions in hydrocarbon mixtures is essential in performing reliable phase behavior calculations and compositional modeling studies. This paper presents a comparison study among nine different correlations used to calculate the molecular weight of undefined petroleum fractions. A new correlation was developed for calculating the molecular weight of undefined petroleum fractions as a function of boiling point with an average error of 0.4 %, standard deviation of 0.6 % and correlation coefficient of 0.99991.
43 Calculation and Comparison of Parameters during Fire in Large Capacity Crude Oil Storage Tanks , Horváth J, Kačík F* and Danihelová A
The heat release rate during a fire is an initial parameter for calculating average flame height. Average flame height is essential for subsequent calculations of heat flow density and also for setting separation distances. The article calculates and compares the values of these two basic parameters in a fire in three real, existing large-capacity tanks for the storage of crude oil. The stated calculations are for the two most difficult scenarios of five possible fire scenarios for above ground double-walled storage tanks with floating roofs. The calculations showed that increasing the diameter of the tank increases the flame height, but not in proportion, and above a certain threshold diameter of the tank remains virtually constant.
44 Spatio-Temporal Variations of Heavy Metals in Edible Crabs Collected From the Lower Gangetic Delta Region , Trivedi S, Datta U, Das M, Zaman S and Mitra A*
We studied the concentrations of heavy metals (Zn, Cu and Pb) in the edible crabs collected from four different stations in the lower Gangetic delta for a period of more than one decade. Same heavy metals were also monitored in the deltaic water simultaneously. The programme was undertaken in and around the Indian Sundarbans mangrove forest at the apex of Bay of Bengal after dividing the region into two distinct compartments. We observed significant spatio-temporal variations in dissolved heavy metal and muscle metal of mud crab collected from four different sampling stations (two each in western and central sectors) during the study period of 12 years span (p < 0.01).
45 Influence of Glycolyzed Polyurethane on Emulsions Containing Vegetable Oils for Metal Cutting Fluid Application: Effect of Hydrophilic Chain , Bekhit M*, Negm NA, El-Sukkary MM, Mohamed MG and Sayed GH
In order to produce environmentally friendly and efficient metal working fluids and also to reduce the impact of waste polyurethane polymer in the environment, polyurethane polymers were recycled in novel process. Waste polyurethane foam was glycolyzed using polyethylene glycol 400-600-1500-4000-6000 to give the glycolyzed products (GPU). GPU was esterified by oleic acid to obtain GPUO. The prepared additive was used as emulsifier in the formulation for metal working fluid application in presence of castor oil as environmentally friendly oil. The results showed good stability of the prepared water-vegetable oils emulsions. The pH, specific gravity, kinematic viscosity at 40 oC, 100 oC, surface tension, and anticorrosion tests of the prepared formulation showed acceptable results comparing with the published data for several working fluids formulations.
46 Performance Studies on Diesel Engine Using Dairy Scum Oil Methyl Ester (DSOME) , Kiran CH, Ganesh DB, Banapurmath NR* and Khandal SV
The compression ignition (CI) engines are most efficient and robust but they rely on depleting fossil fuel. Hence there is a speedy need to use alternative fuels that replaces diesel and at the same time engine should yield better performance. Accordingly, Dairy Scum oil methyl ester (DSOME) was selected as an alternative fuel to power CI engine in the study. In the first part, this paper aims to evaluate best fuel injection timing (IT) and injector opening pressure (IOP) for the biodiesel fuels (BDF). The experimental tests showed that DSOM yielded overall better performance at IT of 27o before top dead centre (BTDC) and IOP of 240 bar. In the second part, the effect of number of holes on the performance of BDF powered CI engine was studied keeping optimized IT and IOP. An injector of five holes with 0.3 mm orifice diameter yields better performance when engine powered with BDF at optimized conditions.
47 Modeling of Aggregation and Gelation of Nanoparticles Using Quadrature Method of Moments , Abdelfatah E and Pournik M*
Applications of Nanotechnology are growing significantly in the petroleum industry such as oil recovery, and well stimulation. In aqueous media, silica nanoparticles aggregate if there is sufficient attractive energy between nanoparticles. Aggregate size distribution evolves as aggregation continues, and once it spans the space, it forms a gel. The objective of this study is to study the aggregation and gelation kinetics in the batch. Population Balance equation (PBE) is used to model the kinetics of aggregation. Quadrature method of moments (QMOM) is used to convert the PBE with continuous distribution of nanoparticle size into a set of moment equations for efficient computation. The closure problem for moment transport equation is resolved using Gaussian Quadrature that requires estimation of roots orthogonal polynomials. Wheeler algorithm is then used for calculation of the coefficients of the recursive formula of the orthogonal polynomials. This study shows that the PBE and the QMOM along with the effective medium theory can be used to model the aggregation and gelation of nanoparticles at different conditions of salinity and concentration. The modeled developed in this study is used to compare between the kinetics of aggregation and gelation of fumed silica and colloidal silica nanoparticles at the same conditions. The case studies presented show the unique behavior of fumed silica over colloidal silica nanoparticles for forming a gel network at significantly low concentration. This is basically due to the fractal structure of the fumed silica nanoparticles that has higher effective volume than the spherical particles of colloidal silica of the same size. The model also shows that there is a critical concentration of salt and nanoparticles above which the viscosity increase, and the gel network can be formed. The model developed in this study can be coupled with a transport model to simulate nanoparticles transport aggregation and in situ gelation in porous media.
48 Numerical Prediction of Oil Formation Volume Factor at Bubble Point for Black and Volatile Oil Reservoirs Using NonLinear Regression Models , El-hoshoudy AN* and Desouky SM
Empirical Pressure-Volume- Temperature PVT correlations acquired increased attention for prediction of reservoir fluid properties. Oil formation volume factor is one of the most important pressure-volume- temperature properties of crude oils for reservoir evaluation and simulation. Experimental PVT analysis including constant mass depletion and differential liberation (vaporization) tests carried out on black and light volatile oil samples covering a great range of physical properties. An empirical correlation predicting bubble point oil formation volume factor was developed based on (100) data set covering different Egyptian oil production regions built up using non- linear regression models. Assessment and validation of the developed correlation were estimated by statistical and graphical error analysis. Statistical analysis parameters involve Average percent relative error (Er), Average absolute percent relative error (Ea), Maximum absolute percent relative error (Emax), Minimum absolute percent relative error (Emin), Root mean square error (Erms), and Standard deviation (S). The obtained results indicate high accuracy of the developed correlation with a correlation coefficient (r= 0.988) compared to the published correlations. Scientific contribution of the newly correlation results from the fact that it depends on experimental field data, new correlating parameters not considered before that in published literatures are introduced depending on separator conditions and has a wide application range for petroleum engineers especially when actual PVT laboratory data are missed or in case of highly costed analysis.
49 Processing of Non-Edible Vegetable Oils in Biofuel Production Using Acidic Catalysts , Ismail A, Mansour SA, Bekhit M* and Negm NA
In this study, Egyptian Jatropha and Castor oils were obtained and transformed into their corresponding biofuels by catalytic cracking using heterogeneous catalysts (Alumina and Montmorillonite-HCL) with different ratios (0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8% & 1%). The conditions of biofuel production were studied including: catalyst type, catalyst ratio (%), conversion time and temperature. The specifications of the obtained products were comparable to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standards. The suitable blends between the obtained biofuels and gas oil fuel were described. The specifications of the prepared biofuel blends were comparable to fuel properties of petroleum diesel according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standards.
50 An Empirical Correlation for Estimation of Formation Volume Factor of Gas Condensate Reservoirs at Separator Conditions , El-hoshoudy AN* and Desouky SM
Gas condensate reservoirs represent half of hydrocarbon sources in different geological strata, so prediction of their physical properties are of great importance on the scale of petroleum industry. These hydrocarbons are not stable even at stock tank conditions as oil shrinkage continued due to vaporization of light components, consequently estimation of oil formation volume factor at separator conditions represents a critical property for these reservoirs. Experimental PVT analysis including flash liberation at separator conditions are carried out on gas condensate samples covering a great range of PVT properties. An empirical correlation is developed to estimate oil formation volume factor (Bo) at separator pressure and temperature using statistical regression analysis. Assessment and validation of the developed correlation were carried out by statistical and graphical error analysis in comparison to published correlations.
51 Characterization of Petroleum Crude Oils by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometerys , Ahmad I*, Sohail SM, Khan H, Khan R and Ahmad W
We attempted to analyze light, medium, and heavy petroleum crude oils by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and gas chromatographic mass spectrometry (GC-MS) so as to identify and quantify the various hydrocarbon group types and heteroatom-containing hydrocarbons. The results inferred that the crude oils studied have quite similar individual hydrocarbons but differ in hydrocarbon group types i.e. paraffinic, olefinic, naphthenic, and aromatic group types and carbon range products distributions. The RCP-I is dominated by C11–C13, while RCN-II and RCA-III by C5-C10 range hydrocarbons.
52 Accidental Release of So2 from a Petroleum Refinery due to Power Outage , Techarat P*
In normal condition, the petroleum refinery plant in Sriracha, Chonburi, Thailand emits 38.05 g/s of SO2 into the environment. However, if there is a power outage, the same refinery plant emits 16911 g/s of SO2 into the atmosphere . The ALOHA model was used to simulate the SO2 dispersions in summer, rainy season, and winter .The results show that the SO2 concentrations greater than 0.075 ppm (allowable ambient SO2 concentration) can spread longer than 10 km . The comparison between the simulated and measured results shows that the error of ALOHA model prediction is 17.63%.
53 Thermobarometric and Petrological Study of Mafic Xenolithes in Plagiogranites of the River Lotta Area of the Central Zone of the Lapland Granulite Belt , Butvina VG* and Safonov OG
Thermobarometric data, fluid inclusions data and carbon isotope data confirm the conclusion that leucocratic garnetbearing plagiogranites of the Lapland Granulite Belt (LGB) are associated with the anatexis of country khondalites during peak of metamorphism. The formation of these magmas occurred at depths of 25-30 km. During ascent, granitic magmas trapped mafic (two pyroxene-plagioclase) xenoliths at pressures 6.0-6.4 kbar. The interaction of predominantly aqueoussalt fluids issued by the magmas with the xenoliths during cooling at depths less than 20 km (5.0-5.5 kbar) led to their widespread amphibolization at temperatures of 740-780°C.
54 Load Capacity Limits of Flanged Pressure Vessel Nozzles , Walther Stikvoort*
When designing pressure vessels, it is quite important to know the loads exerted on the nozzle by the connecting pipe work. However the piping reactions computed by the piping structural analysis are often not available at the vessel design stage. To overcome this problem, the pressure vessel must be exclusively designed for the internal design pressure, after which the permissible external loads for the nozzle- vessel intersection as well as for the nozzle-piping connection (flange) can be calculated. In this way the load limits and load capacity of the nozzle can be determined and are available at an early stage to the piping designer (pipe stress analyst). Successively it is the responsibility of the piping designer to ensure that the piping reactions are kept within the permissible load limits of the pressure vessel nozzle. The advantage of this approach is that the imposed loads does not necessitate thickening of the pressureretaining shell of the vessel nor require additional reinforcing pads around the nozzle neck. Moreover it should be noted that by increasing the vessel shell thickness or adding a reinforcing pad, the nozzle becomes more rigid and therefore a better approximation to a fixed point or anchor thus effectively eliminating the advantage of any nozzle flexibility. This approach avoids remedial work of pressure vessels and/or pipework at late stages of a project, which for sure has negative impact on project costs and schedule.
55 Porous Media Characterization of Bhogpara and Nahorkatiya Oil Fields of Upper Assam Basin , Das BM* and Gogoi SB
Bhogpara and Nahorkatiya oil fields are the depleted and matured oil fields of Upper Assam Basin. The recoveries of oil in these fields are getting decreased day by day as conventional methods are unable to recover more oil. The demand for using an unconventional method becomes an attractive option for the matured oil fields. For using unconventional methods like enhanced oil recovery requires a proper characterization of porous media. Characterization and determination of rock properties are the key factors for managing and enhancing oil recoveries. This paper deals with porous media characterization of Bhogpara and Nahorkatiya oil fields of Upper Assam Basin to determine the applicability of enhanced oil recovery techniques for improving its oil recovery rate. The rock characterization was done by carrying out Petrographic analysis, Sieve analysis, and Porosity & Permeability determination. The various analysis of porous media of Bhogpara and Nahorkatiya oil fields shows that they are good candidates for enhanced oil recovery processes.
56 Study of Radiation Effect on Petroleum Oils , Shabalina TN* and Zanozina II
The article provides the gas chromatographic results of decomposition products produced by radiation of the lowviscosity hydraulic oils. The analysis of radiation effect of different doses on model mixtures distinguishing by hydrocarbon composition allowed establishing that hydrogen and hydrocarbon gases are the main components of the hydrocarbon radiation decomposition. The cycloalkane hydrocarbons subjected to dehydrogenation are the main hydrogen source under radiation exposure. The alkanes of different branching degree and alkane substituents of cycloalkanes serve as the hydrocarbon gas source. The arene structures have a stabilizing effect on the hydrocarbons regard to the radiation. It was shown that isoparaffinic hydrocarbons demonstrate the least degradation under action of radiation. The stabilizing effect of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with branched alkyl substituents was confirmed.
57 Synthesis and Evaluation of Xanthan-G-Poly (Acrylamide) CoPolymer for Enhanced Oil Recovery Applications , El-hoshoudy AN*, Desouky SM, Attia AM and Gomaa S
Xanthan is a natural biopolymer, which grafted with vinyl monomers through typical free radical initiation and applied in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques. Application of xanthan in oil reservoirs suffer from microbial and thermal degradation under harsh petroleum reservoir conditions. In this research, xanthan grafted with poly (acrylamide) polymer in the presence of potassium per sulfate as a water-soluble initiator. Structure determination occurs by different spectroscopic techniques involving (FTIR) spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR). Assessment of polymer solution rheology occurs as a function of mechanical, chemical and thermal degradation at simulated reservoir conditions. Flooding tests carried out through unconsolidated sand packed model.
58 Synthesis and Evaluation of Xanthan-G-Poly (Acrylamide) CoPolymer for Enhanced Oil Recovery Applications , El-hoshoudy AN*, Desouky SM, Attia AM and Gomaa S
Xanthan is a natural biopolymer, which grafted with vinyl monomers through typical free radical initiation and applied in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques. Application of xanthan in oil reservoirs suffer from microbial and thermal degradation under harsh petroleum reservoir conditions. In this research, xanthan grafted with poly (acrylamide) polymer in the presence of potassium per sulfate as a water-soluble initiator. Structure determination occurs by different spectroscopic techniques involving (FTIR) spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR). Assessment of polymer solution rheology occurs as a function of mechanical, chemical and thermal degradation at simulated reservoir conditions. Flooding tests carried out through unconsolidated sand packed model.
59 A Critical Review on Empirical Head-Predicting Models of Two-phase Petroleum Fluids in Electrical Submersible Pumps , Mohammadzaheri M*and Ghodsi M
This paper critically reviews empirical models, which predict head of two-phase petroleum fluids in electrical submersible pumps. The article categorises empirical models in terms of mathematical structure and parameter identification algorithm. Categories are heuristic and artificial intelligence models. Models of the former category have fairly low accuracy and 4 or fewer parameters identifiable using non-iterative methods; conversely, models the of latter category have high accuracy and tens or even hundreds of parameters. These models require complex iterative identification algorithms. Due to availability of inexpensive digital processors, use of accurate artificial intelligence models is anticipated to broaden.
60 Seismo Electric Field Fractal Dimension for Characterizing Shajara Reservoirs of the Permo-Carboniferous Shajara Formation, Saudi Arabia , AlKhidir KEME*
The quality of a reservoir can be described in details by the application of seismo electric field fractal dimension. The objective of this research is to calculate fractal dimension from the relationship among seismo electric field, maximum seismo electric field and wetting phase saturation and to confirm it by the fractal dimension derived from the relationship among capillary pressure and wetting phase saturation. In this research, porosity was measured on real collected sandstone samples and permeability was calculated theoretically from capillary pressure profile measured by mercury intrusion techniques. Two equations for calculating the fractal dimensions have been employed. The first one describes the functional relationship between wetting phase saturation, seismo electric field, maximum seismo electric field and fractal dimension. The second equation implies to the wetting phase saturation as a function of capillary pressure and the fractal dimension. Two procedures for obtaining the fractal dimension have been developed. The first procedure was done by plotting the logarithm of the ratio between seismo electric field and maximum seismo electric field versus logarithm wetting phase saturation. The slope of the first procedure = 3- Df (fractal dimension). The second procedure for obtaining the fractal dimension was completed by plotting the logarithm of capillary pressure versus the logarithm of wetting phase saturation. The slope of the second procedure = Df -3. On the basis of the obtained results of the constructed stratigraphic column and the acquired values of the fractal dimension, the sandstones of the Shajara reservoirs of the Shajara Formation were divided here into three units. The gained units from bottom to top are: Lower Shajara Seismo Electric Field Fractal Dimension Unit, Middle Shajara Seismo Electric Field Fractal dimension Unit, and Upper Shajara Seismo Electric Field Fractal Dimension Unit. The results show similarity between seismo electric field fractal dimension and capillary pressure fractal dimension. It was also noted that samples with wide range of pore radius were characterized by high values of fractal dimension due to an increase in their connectivity and seismo electric field. In our case, and as conclusions the higher the fractal dimension, the higher the permeability, the better the shajara reservoir characteristics.
61 Estimation of Flow Capacity in Pipelines Based on the Intrinsic Variation of the Volumetric Properties of the Natural Gas Mixture , Okoro EE*, Omobhude S, Igwilo KC, Ekeinde EB and Dosunmu A
In this paper, the Weymouth equation was applied so as to consider the pipeline characteristics, thermodynamic and physical gas properties. From literature, volumetric parameters like the specific gravity and compressibility are mostly assumed to be constants. Since they are related to flow, pressure and temperature values; neglecting their variation during pipeline transportation may lead to significant misleading results in the computation of pipeline resistance. Considering that providing global optimal solutions to instances of considerable size can become time-consuming, thus a mathematical optimization method was applied to find the solution that will satisfy these systems. Critical property correlations (Thomas, Standing and Sulton) and Compressibility correlations (Hall-Yarborough, Danchuk-PurvisRobinson are used mathematically to generate results that will optimize the gas pipeline transportation without assuming specific gravity and compressibility factor of the gas constant. The model proposed in this study showed that specific gravity and compressibility have an effect on gas pipeline flow rate. It was observed that at very low and very high specific gravity, that the gas flow rate is reduced by more than 10% while the gas density increases. It can also be stated from the results that, compressibility is directly proportional to flow rate and inversely proportional to density.
62 Effects of Pt/Al2O3 Catalyst Load on Upgrading of Pyrolytic Biooil by Hydrodeoxygenation in a Fixed Bed Reactor , Gollakota ARK, Subramanyam MD and Kishore N*
This study deals with the numerical modelling and simulations of catalytic upgrading of bio-oil in a fixed bed reactor using Pt/Al2O3 catalyst (of load 20 g – 100 g) in the range of weight hourly space velocity (WHSV = 1 h-1 – 2 h-1), temperature (T = 623 K – 673 K) and pressure (P = 10443 kPa – 13889 kPa). The model equations of complex multiphase turbulent flow combined with a lumped kinetic model are solved using a computational fluid dynamics based commercial solver, ANSYS Fluent 14.5.In the solver, Gidaspow and Schillar-Naumann models for drag relations in order to account for the interactions between fluid and solid phases respectively are adopted. Similarly, Ranz-Marshall model and Gunn model are adopted for treating the fluid-fluid and fluid-solid heat interactions respectively. The reactions kinetics used in the solver are the lumped kinetic model on the basis of an experimental study available in the literature. Thoroughly validated model is used to produce new results on hydrodynamics of various phases in the reactor, volume and mass fractions of lumped components and yields of desired components over wide range of pertinent operating conditions. Some results indicate that the maximum yields of desired alkanes and aromatics are obtained at a catalyst load of 60g when WHSV = 1h-1, P = 13889 kPa and T = 673 K.
63 Synthesis and Evaluation of Multifunction Co-Polymer as Lubricating Oils Additives , Al-Shafey HI* and Arafa EI
α - Olefin derivatives are one of a variety of techniques have been employed in order to reduce problems caused by the crystallization of paraffin during the production and/or transportation and improved of properties of petroleum oils and derivatives. Addition of chemical modifications has been proved to be an efficient way for improving properties of lube oils. This article describes synthesis, characterization and performance evaluation of copolymers, having as an initial step the synthesis of the alkyl methacrylate monomers by esterification of methacrylic acid (MA) with C16 fatty alcohol. The alkyl methacrylate monomer was polymerized with α– olefin C16 (1-Hexadecene) to give copolymer then reacted with vinyl acetate monomer to give finally graft copolymer. The prepared graft copolymer was characterized by FT-IR, 1HNMR spectroscopy, and gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and use to improving the properties of different types (high and low viscositys) of Egyptian lubricating oils. Lubricating oils with different concentrations of graft copolymer (1000, 3000, 5000 and 10000 ppm) were investigated by pour point depressant (PPD), viscosity index (VI) and rheological measurements (RM). The lubricants formulated with chemically modified exhibit a large reduction in the pour point temperatures, good rheological behaviors and better friction and wear properties. Oil samples containing 5000 ppm of the graft copolymer show -18 C reductions in their pour points and give good performances properties for this lube oils, ÌŠ thus establishing the large efficiency of the products synthesized in this work.
64 Macroscale Velocity Driven Harvester Using Galfenol , Ghodsi M *, Ziaiefar H, Mohammadzaheri M, Alam K and Bahadur IB
In this paper, a macroscale magnetostrictive velocity driven energy harvester is presented. This harvester has nonvibrating base and the external harmonic force is applied to the tip of the cantilevered harvester by a rotary DC motor. Due to ductility, high stiffness, machinability and suitability for welding, Galfenol is selected as the active material of this harvester. The performance of the presented macroscale harvester in the presence of various magnetic fields, various exciting frequencies and different resistive loads is measured. The harvester shows the highest performance, when it is excited in its natural frequency. The energy density extracted from this harvester is 1535 μW/cm3 in the presence of 2 A current bias across resistive load of 98 Ω. This promising amount of energy density shows that the harvester is a reliable energy source for photovoltaic solar Gilders in cloudy and windy weathers.
65 Origin and Characterization of Joints in Sedimentary Rocks: A Review , Ghosh S*, Milad B, Prasun S and Ghosh SS
Discontinuities are ubiquitous in all rocks at different scales. Their characterization occupies a high ground in the field of geological research. Discontinuity abundance, strength, flow and frictional properties are matters of great interest to structural geologists, petroleum engineers (mostly in unconventional shale gas and oil production), and civil engineers. Joints (opening mode fractures) are some of the most commonly observed rock discontinuities among others. Understanding joint origins from outcrops and other directly visible sources explain the presence of certain joints in the near and deep subsurface. We have summarized several tectonic and non-tectonic drivers behind joint origins and suggested the use of multiple supporting evidence while timing and causal interpretations are made. If particular subsurface joint sets may be traced back to the outcrops through the knowledge of their origins, their characteristics (length, aperture, height, abundance and interrelationships between these parameters) may be measured at the outcrops or using other data sources such as cores and image logs. Additionally, it is important to understand several non-visual data sources aiding in joint parameterization. This paper discusses the strengths and limitations of these direct (visual) and indirect (inference) data sources. In addition, we have summarized different methods for the quantification of the aforementioned joint related geometric and abundance parameters. We have shown that each measurement method and data source has its own set of strengths and limitations, and the appropriate methods to be used are case specific. We suggest that, if possible, characterization by direct visualization (mainly outcrops) should not be withheld or substituted with techniques that only imply the presence of joints and faults. Also, reconciliation of all joint-related parameters (i.e., geometry and abundance) from all available data sources provide confidence in the geologic interpretation and models.
66 Inelastic Deformations of Rocks and their Influence on Development of the Oil and Gas Fields , Guliyev A, Hasanov R, Kazymov B, Efendiyev R, Zeynalov A and Smirnova A*
The article is focused on the inelastic deformations of rocks and their influence on the development of oil and gas deposits. The influence of the relaxation deformation of rocks on the parameters of the reservoir development, such as reservoir pressure, porosity, and oil saturation has been addressed. The numerical analysis was performed in assumption that the oil-gas deposits are developed as a uniform grid of wells and under conditions when gas-oil interaction is constant. The performed analysis demonstrates the process of the rock relaxation in regard to the defined specific parameters during the development of the oil-gas deposits. It has been concluded that the rock relaxation has the maximum effect on the oil-gas deposits when the initial reservoir pressure is the highest.
67 Types, Examples and Working Mechanism of Rheo-Improvers Lubricating Oil Additives , Rasha S Kamal*
Lube oil additives play an important role to facilitate our daily life. And the most important one is Rheo-Improve lubricating oil additive, because it is performance enhancing additive it consists of two type viscosity index improvers and pour point depressants. This mini review highlights of Rheo-Improvers importance. Viscosity modifier (preparation of some examples, general properties, working mechanism and factors that limit their action). Pour point depressants (examples, general properties, working mechanism).
68 Prediction of Dew Point Pressure in Gas Condensate Reservoirs Based On a Combination of Gene Expression Programming (GEP) and Multiple Regression Analysis , El-hoshoudy AN1,2,*, Gomaa S2,3 and Desouky SM3
Gas condensate reservoirs represent unique and clean hydrocarbon source of energy, so prediction of their thermodynamic criteria especially dewpoint pressure (Pd) is crucial for reservoir characterization and management, since declining of initial reservoir pressure below dewpoint pressure result in liquid built up near wellbore and reduce gas productivity index. In this study, a mathematical modeling developed to estimate dewpoint pressure at reservoir temperature using reliable, precise, well-organized gene expression programming (GEP) approach in combination with multiple non-linear regression analysis. The dataset comprises 453 published data points, and the model developed as a function of compositional analysis of hydrocarbons components (ZC1-ZC7+), physical properties of heptane plus fractions (C7 +) including molecular weight and specific gravity, the mole fraction of nonhydrocarbons (ZCO2& ZN2) and reservoir temperature. Experimental Pressure-Volume-Temperature (PVT) analysis including constant composition expansion (CCE) at reservoir conditions and compositional analysis are carried out through 27 gas condensate samples not used in model development, and covering a great range of PVT properties to evaluate the new predictive model accuracy. Assessment and validation of the developed and published correlations carried out by a statistical and graphical error analyses. The obtained relative errors indicate that the developed model employed as an alternative approach monitoring the dewpoint pressure of gas condensate reservoirs when the required real data are not accessible.
69 Reagent on Oil Basis to Increase Oil Recovery and Isolation of Water Breakthrough into Oil Producing Wells , Gurban AM*
The issue of selective isolation of water inflow into oil producing wells is considered in the article. For this purpose, an oil-based composition was developed for selective isolation of water from the formation to producing wells. The composition, in addition to oil, also contains alcohols (lower alcohols: methyl, ethyl, butyl, propyl, etc.), and an oxidizing agent. Components of the ingredients are met in the bottomhole zone of the well where a chemical reaction occurs, resulting in a paste-like substance. This substance blocks both water and oil channels. However, this substance does not dissolve in water, but it dissolves well in oil. This property gives an ability to the composition to isolate water selectively. Thus, the plugged water channels prevent the flow of water into the well, while part of the composition which clogging the oil channels dissolves into the oil, releases the oil channels and provides the flow of oil from the formation into the well.
70 Studies on Rheological Behavior of Xanthan Gum Solutions in Presence of Additives , Khan SY, Yusuf M* and Sardar N
The oil and gas sector is one of the six core industries in India. These industries are of strategic importance and plays a vital role in influencing decisions across other important spheres of the economy. But the overall production has declined due to the increase in maturity of the oil reservoirs. In developing countries like India, the oil production and demands play a crucial role for the development of economy of the country. However the domestic crude oil production is insufficient to meet the requirement of energy. Thus, there is the big challenge to minimize the gap between demand and supply of crude oil. Several methods to enhanced oil recovery have been developed to increase the production from matured reservoirs and are referred to enhance oil recovery (EOR) methods. In the present study we have studied the rheological behaviour of Xanthan gum solution in absence and presence of surfactants and sacrificial agents such as salt and alkali. Xanthan gum is a polysaccharide and form an aqueous solution with high viscosity and show non-Newtonian behaviour and can be used in oil production as drilling fluids and in enhance oil recovery. The power law model was used to describe the pseudo-plastic behaviour of polyacrylamide solution. The additives shows synergistic effects and their concentration strongly influence the shear viscosity of the solution. The TEM results support the viscosity data. The results obtained are quite interesting and could be of prolific use for selection of polymer-surfactant mixtures and surfactants for use in EOR.
71 CFD Simulation of a Crude Oil Transport Pipeline: Effect of Water , Niazi S*
In the present study, a 3D two-phase CFD simulation has been performed to investigate crude oil-water core annular flow through a crude oil transport pipeline in a real scale with 100 mm diameter and 1000 m length. Results of pressure profile and volumetric fraction distribution of the crude oil and water phases are analyzed. It was verified that the heavy oil core surrounded by a water film flowing in the pipeline considerably decreases pressure drop in the crude oil transportation pipeline and therefore reduces the pumping power consumption (about 50%). The results revealed the water film is formed near the pipe wall at the beginning of the flow but this annular pattern does not remain until the end of the pipe and is destroyed after about 4 meters from the pipe inlet.
72 The Assessment Perspectives of Residual Resource and Expansion of the Exploitation Activity Marine Platforms , Hasanov RA*
Recently, the demand for energy carriers on world markets is growing rapidly. The bulk of the recoverable reserves falls to the share of offshore fields. All this puts the task of ensuring high performance and reliability of marine hydraulic structures and their assets.
73 Air-Water Two-Phase Flow through Small Diameter Pipes , Dipankar Pal*
In this study, the flow patterns of air - water, two-phase flows have been investigated experimentally in a vertical and horizontal milli channel. The flow regimes were observed by a high speed video recorder in pipes with diameters of 2 mm, 5.5 mm and 8.5 mm. The comprehensive visualization of air - water, two-phase flow in a vertical and horizontal milli channel has been performed to realize the physics of such a two-phase flow. Different flow patterns of air-water flow were observed simultaneously in the milli channel at different values of air and water flow rates. Consequently, the flow pattern map was proposed for flow in the milli-channel, in terms of superficial velocities of liquid and gas phases.
74 Retrofit of Refinery Utility System by Total Site Heat Recovery: Practical Arrangements , Boldyryev S*
This paper presents an optimisation of heat recovery of refinery site, a setting of utility targets of heating and cooling and indirect heat transfer between industrial clusters. The methodology provides the minimisation of capital cost of utility system retrofit. The optimisation of cost parameters connected with the heat transfer area of steam boilers and heaters, intermediate utility levels and a number of units. A method for calculation of a heat transfer area of intermediate utility heat exchangers is proposed. Minimum temperature approach of Total Site heat recovery is analysed and the number of steam mains, indirect heating loops, heat transfer area of boilers and condensers is calculated. The utility consumption, numbers of required units and material of equipment are analysed to optimise the retrofit investments. The case study shows optimal heat recovery of the refinery site of 1.94 MW. It reduces the consumption of middle-pressure steam by 37.3%, the cooling heat capacity is lowered by 39.6%. The investments of a retrofit project are paid back in 11.96 months.
75 Prediction of the Rise velocity of Taylor Bubble in Vertical Tube , Dipankar Pal*
A single gas bubble moving under the influence of gravitational, inertial, viscous and interfacial forces, relative to another fluid contained in a vertical cylindrical tube. Two-phase flows through millimeter channels may exhibit different behaviors due to the surface tension becomes significant in small - size channels. Wall effect is important for millimeter channel. As the diameter of the circular tubes became small, the upward motion of the gas bubble is slowed down, and ceases completely when the tube size was sufficiently reduced (diameter less than 5 millimeter for air - water). The sphericity of the bubble cap was enlarged about 40% due to change of the tube diameter from 6 mm to 9.5 mm. Predicted Froude number was also increased by 0.04 to 0.2 for the enhancement of tube diameter from 6 mm to 9.5 mm. Fluidsurface interaction can become dominated in small-channel. So we are interested to investigate the bubble dynamics in millimeter channel.
76 Tuning of Ziegler Natta Catalyst using Emulsion Technique , Rani R*, Kaur S, Singh G, Sahoo U, Singh A, Shashikant and Kapur GS
The present paper studies emulsion technique to reform the catalyst morphology, from granular to regular with the novel organomagnesium precursor, {Mg(OR’)X}.a{MgX2}.b{Mg(OR’)2}.c{R’OH}. Various work parameters were studied and found to be affecting catalyst activity and morphology. Uniform PSD and improved BD of polymer reflected the change from granular to regular morphology.
77 Selection and Identification of Interwell Tracers for Reservoir Characterization of Clastic Rock: A Case Study from Cretaceous Himmatnagar Sandstones , Negi GS and Desai B*
Tracer technique is being used globally in oil field reservoir under different stages of production. The methodology is immenselyimportantto understand the reservoir complexity during pressure maintenance by water/ gas injection and in EOR applications. Therock-fluid interaction andlocal velocity of the injected fluid in the reservoir are controlled by various parameters such as types of rock, grain size, and pore size distribution and their interconnectivity, types of minerals distributions and their interaction with the local fluids under in-situ conditions of the reservoir. However, the fluid flow dynamics is also controlled locally by capillary and viscous forces acting at the interface between the two immiscible fluids at contact, Interfacial Tension (IFT), wetting and non-wetting phase saturation distributions, a variation of rock facies and heterogeneity variation distribution. It is also impacted by the compositionofoil, water and gas and theproduction and injection scenarios of the reservoir. Therefore, to understand the local velocity of the injected fluid, an inert chemical/ or radioactive tracers are tagged with the injection fluid. These tracers follow the same track in the reservoir as the injected fluid moves locally, subject to the chemical species are thermally stable and compatible with reservoir rock matrix and formation fluids. To see this different aspect chemicals such as Pot. Iodide (KI), Ammo. Thiocyanate, Picric, and Boric acid have been studied for thermal stability, adsorption/ desorption of these chemicals as a tracer on reservoir rock matrix and their constant dispersion estimation at reservoir temperature (~1000C) on Himmatnagar Sandstones. The XRD studies of the rock matrix alsoconfirmed mainly 84.28% Quartz with fraction of Kaolinite and Illite composition. However, from the above four tracers Ammonium Thiocyanate, Boric acid, and Picric acids are the best tracers which show the value of dispersion constant of the order of 0.5cm/sec to 1.2 cm/sec at Lab. scale respectively. However, KI was not found suitable for clastic rock due to some compatibility problem. The studies also reflect that a dose of the 200ppmconcentration of tracer seemed to be optimumand to be tagged with injected fluid for better reservoir characterization and effective reservoir management for ultimate oil gain.
78 Interaction between a Side Chain Crystalline Block Copolymer and Wax , Tateishi Y, Takase Y, Yoda K, Nakano R, Sekiguchi H1 and Yao S*
To solve these issues, the use of various additives has been proposed. In recent years, we have synthesized a block copolymer of acrylate monomers with long alkyl side chain and solvophilic monomers. The SCCBC, in particular, exerts a very remarkable dispersant effect for a concentrated PE particle dispersion. In this study, we have investigated the influence of the addition of the SCCBC on the crystallization of model wax/oil mixtures, and the temperature dependence on its rheological properties. Examination of the temperature dependence of viscosity or viscoelasticity revealed that the addition of SCCBC prevents the wax/oil mixed system from losing fluidity, even at the low temperatures at which wax would normally solidify. The non-solidification and fluidization effects of the model wax/oil mixed system, described herein, will be helpful in reducing blockages in pipelines for crude oil and in reducing the accumulation of sludge at the bottom of oil storage tanks.
79 Analyzing of Formation Evaluation of the Unconventional Upper-Safa Formation, Western Desert, Egypt , Fathy Omran MA* and Hassane T
Unconventional reservoirs can add huge amounts of additional energy to our world resources bases like organic shale in terms of Shale gas, shale oil, tight gas and coal-bed methane. These reservoirs can transform the world global energy market through advances in reservoir characterization, drilling, and completion technologies. Reservoir characterization and properties have great influences on the exploration and development processes, it is not through a single discipline that can provide a fulfill description of the reservoir characteristics especially for unconventional reservoirs. Moreover, unconventional sources can be defined by their difference of intrinsic of their geological sittings, origins, and tapping mechanisms, thus having different methodologies for exploration, production, and development methods. Therefore, it is very important to well express and identify the necessary parameters for unconventional characterization of these reservoirs for defining reservoir rock and fluid properties in terms of total organic carbon content, gas adsorption, level of maturity, grains surface roughness, original fluids in place, and etc. Hence there are many developed correlations and methods to get these parameters that can define each one of them, but most of them are not correlated with each other. According to the analysis of the case study, Upper-Safa formation which is considered as a shale source rock of hydrocarbon gases can be considered as a shale gas unconventional resource play through the analysis of its total organic carbon content values range between 2% to 3% by using different methods and the determination of the total gas in place, after considering both of free gas and adsorbed gas in place.
80 Investigating the Effect of Different Nanoparticles on the Interfacial Tension Reduction , Gomaa S, Taha M and El-hoshoudy AN*
Nanoparticles gained respectful attention in the oil industry due to their ability to enhance physical properties for the injected fluid, and reservoir fluid. Many kinds of literaturehave demonstrated nanoparticles ability to decrease the interfacial tension, consequently, reduce residual oil saturation, and increase the oil recovery factor. This research aims to study the effect of nanoparticles on reducing interfacial tension between crude oil and nanofluids through applying different nanoparticles including Aluminum oxide, Nickel oxide, Zeolite, Silica, Ferric oxide, Tungsten trioxide and montmorillonite with the size of 5 nm. Different nanofluids concentrations were displaced through sand pack model, where interfacial tension between crude oil and ejected brine was estimated. Interfacial tension between crude oil/brine was measured to be 47.9 dyne/cm, finally, the interfacial tension was reduced to 30.5009 dyne/cm by using nano montmorillonite.
81 Investigating the Effect of Different Nanofluids Types on Crude Oil Viscosity , Gomaa S, Taha M and El-hoshoudy AN*
In the last few years, some literature deals with oil viscosity reduction using nanoparticles. These nanoparticles will act as a catalyst during steam injection. In this research, seven different nanoparticles types investigated to study their effect on crude oil viscosity reduction. These nanoparticles comprise Potassium Aluminum Sulphate, Nickel oxide, Zeolite, Silica, Ferric oxide, Tungsten trioxide, and montmorillonite, with a particle size of 5 nm. Each nano solution was prepared in four different concentrations (0.005, 0.01, 0.1 and 1 wt. %). Flooding displacements carried out through the sandpack model using nanofluids and Egyptian crude oil of 30.7 API that was extracted from the Western Desert. After conventional brine flooding, the crude oil viscosity was measured to be 6.429 cp. While viscosity of the same crude oil was found to be 2.844 cp, 2.05 cp, 2.02 cp, 1.897 cp, 0.989 cp, 0.9612 cp and, 0.949 cp after flooding with Nickel oxide, montmorillonite, Fe2O3, Potassium aluminum sulfate, zeolite, tungsten trioxide, and nanosilica respectively.
82 Sizing Surface Production Flow line Insulation Thickness for a Desired Output Temperature , Olanrewaju AO*
Oil and gas is transported from the wellheads to the gathering stations through pipelines called surface production flowlines. Flow-lines are located at the oil and gas well site and tied to specific wells. Flow-line may be a metallic pipe or a hose. Flow lines may be in a land or subsea well field and may be buried or at grade on the surface of land or seafloor. Most flow lines are very short in length but others may be run for kilometres in larger well fields. Usually, external environment of a surface production flow-line is at lower temperature compared to the flowing fluid temperature in the production flow-line. The interaction of the internal and external temperatures of the oil and gas surface production flowline is a major cause of temperature drop in flow-line. Undesirable and excessive temperature drops must be prevented in oil and gas production flow-line by suitable and economical sizing of flow-line insulation materials. One of the industry requirements of the oil and gas production flow-line is to ensure the flow-line meets a discharge or an output temperature. This paper focuses on choosing and sizing of an insulation material to meet an output temperature of an oil and gas surface production flow-line. Two well stream flows were developed based on stream compositions from the two oil and gas wells. It is desirable that the discharge or output temperature of the discharge fluid at the discharge end of the flow-line does not fall below 20 degree Celsius. The thermal insulation thickness for the 1 km long production flow-line was designed using Urethane Foam insulation material. The chemical processes were modelled in Aspen Hysys and a case study was developed between flow-line output temperature and the flow-line insulation thickness to correlate the two variables.
83 Relevant Information on Oil and Gas Casing Design , Olanrewaju AO*
Casing design is an important task in oil and gas well design. Casing design involves evaluation of the factors that con tribute to the failure of the casing and proper se lection of the most suitable casing grades and weights that are both safe and economical for a specific job operation. A good knowledge of stress calculation is very essential in casing design. During casing design, various modes of casing failure must be identified and carefully handled such that the selected casing within a well segment is able to withstand all the failure modes. A safety margin, (also known as factor of safety) is always provided in casing de sign to allow for the future variations in the casing strength, loading and other unknown forces which may be encountered. This paper provides key information, education, relevant and technical details on casing design for oil and gas well.
84 Exploitation of Heterostructure Photocatalyst Impregnated Alginate Beads for Enhanced Removal of Methyl Orange under Solar Light , Motawea EA* and Ali HR
In the current study, composite photocatalyst of Ag3Po4-Ag2CO3 impregnated in alginate beads was synthesized by coprecipitation method and characterized by XRD, FTIR and SEM analyses. Photocatalytic activity of the synthesized impregnated beads was evaluated by degradation of methyl orange (MO) under sun light. The suggested parameters as PH(3-9) and catalyst dosage (0.5-3.5 g/l) were studied using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and the optimum conditions were as follows: pH=3and catalyst dosage= 2 g/l. And the methyl orange (MO) removal efficiency reached up to 67.9 % at these optimal conditions. Also kinetic and isotherm of the Photocatalytic degradation were determined in order to more completely understand the degradation mechanism.
85 Synthesis and Fabrication of Silica Based Superhydrophobic Surfaces , El-hoshoudy AN*
Superhydrophobic surfaces with very high water contact angle >150° and very low roll-off angle have received more attentions due to their huge potential in environment, energy and biomedical applications. It is now well known that superhydrophobicity arises from a combination of low surface free energy and surface roughness. Superhydrophobic coatings were fabricated by spraying the silica hybrid emulsion on clean glass substrates. Then, the effects of the emulsion dosage and the mole ratio of silica on the coating performance were analyzed. Finally, the formation mechanism of the hybrid coating was discussed, and the self-cleaning properties of the superhydrophobic and hydrophobic coating tilting at the same angle were also compared. The results show that the hydrophobic silica nanoparticles can form rough micro/nanostructure on the coating surface, since they act as a solid plasticizer capable of enhancing the surface properties. This work is divided in the following sections 1. Introduction 2. Mechanism of the sol-gel process 3. Literature review 4. Conclusion
86 Activation of Petroleum Coke , Al-Haj Ibrahim H*
Activated carbon is among the best and most used materials for the adsorption and removal of pollutants. Petroleum coke may be activated by either a physical or chemical process, with a significant increase of its surface area. The activated coke may be effectively used as an adsorbing agent for the treatment of polluted water and natural gas.
87 Experimental Measurement and Investigation on the Feasibility of Improvement of Physical and Dielectric Properties of Barium Titanate , Chasib KF*
Recent research has examined the improvement of physical and dielectric properties of BaTiO3 ceramic material by the small addition of excess TiO2 or BaCO3. The prepared samples sintered at different temperatures and varying soaking time. The results show that increasing the sintering temperature within (1350 oC) and soaking time within (10 hrs) gives better electrical and physical properties, which indicate that the reaction is complete at higher temperature and periods
88 Distribution of Phenanthrene and Methylphenanthrene in Some Nigerian Oils , Abrakasa S and Nwankwoala HO*
The distribution of Phenanthrene and the methyl analogues in Niger Delta oils was studied. Samples were obtained from various oil fields in the Niger Delta basin. The analytical method of choice used is the GC–MS. Mass chromatograms for identification of phenanthrene and methyl phenanthrene were extracted from the data file using Enhanced MSD ChemStation 2011 software by Agilent Technologies. The objectives of this study includes identifying phenanthrene and methyl phenanthrene in the oils, delineating their abundances as parametric ratios and their application in correlation study. Most of the parametric ratios used for the study showed fairly similar range values between the oils. The Pr/nC17 and Ph/nC18 plot inferred that the oils were generated from mixed organic matter, while the DBT/P and Pr/Ph plot indicated that the oils were generated from organic matter in fluvial–deltaic settings with subtle variations, Umutu oil indicated shallow marine settings. Maturity of the oils as indicated by phenanthrene and methyl phenanthrene varies from early mature stage to late mature stage. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) score plot discriminated Umutu and Utorugu oils from others and the hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) dendrogram also indicated significant difference of Umutu oil from others
89 Utilising MFrac Technique to Simulate Hydraulic Fracturing Process , Al-Shukri MDA*
The MFrac software is an application used for fracture design and treatment analysis. An MFrac simulation is done to simulate the hydraulic fracturing in real life application in the oil fields. The MFrac simulates and calculates the real hydraulic fracturing in practice. The purpose of this research is to simulate the hydraulic fracturing in real life application in the oil fields to calculate the real hydraulic fracturing parameters. The aim of using MFrac is to get the fracture length, the fracture efficiency versus time, stress gradient, stress, young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio and toughness at any certain true vertical depth (TVD).
90 Improving Oil Recovery using Zeolite Nanoparticles Flooding , El-hoshoudy AN*, Gomaa S and Taha M
Both primary and conventional secondary recovery methods can approximately produce 35% of the original oil in place (OOIP). Application of nanotechnology in the petroleum industry as part of nanotechnology has already drawn attention for its great potential of enhancing oil recovery. In the last few years, some publications have already addressed this topic, but its mechanism to enhance oil recovery has not been released very clearly. The main objective of this paper is to investigate the effect of zeolite nanoparticles to improve oil recovery. This paper also aims to investigate the reason behind this improvement in oil recovery. A series of sand pack flooding experiments were conducted to study the effect of zeolite nanoparticles concentration in the displacing brine on wettability alteration, oil viscosity, interfacial tension and finally the ultimate recovery factor. Zeolite nanoparticles were prepared in 4 different concentrations (0.005, 0.01, 0.1 and 1 wt. %) using sonication method. Then zeolite nanoparticles were used for flooding in a sand pack model that was initiated using brine and crude oil of 30.749 API that was extracted from the western desert in Egypt. All nanoparticles have the same size of 5 nm. The base run was performed using conventional water flooding. The ultimate recovery factor by water flooding was found to be 50.4 % of the OOIP. Results have proved an enormous improvement on the recovery factor that reaches 70 % of the OOIP by using zeolite nanoparticles of a concentration of 0.01 wt. %. In this paper also, the effect of zeolite nanoparticles on oil viscosity, interfacial tension, and wettability alteration was investigated. Finally, an economic study was conducted to construct a comparison between zeolite nanoparticles flooding and conventional water flooding.
91 The Research of Polymer Film-Forming Plugging Agent for Drilling Fluid , Gang L, Chunzhi L and Baijing W*
In order to improve the film-blocking and anti-collapse of water-based drilling fluid, a polymer emulsion polymer filmforming plugging agent LWFD containing multiple adsorption groups was synthesized by emulsion polymerization. The effects of the agent on the rheological properties of polysulfonate and cationic drilling fluids, API fluid filter loss, lubricity, film-forming plugging properties, and their temperature and salt resistance are evaluated in the laboratory. The experimental results show that the agent has little effect on the rheological property and fluid filter loss of polysulfonate and cationic drilling fluids, and can improve lubricity by more than 30%. It has good film-forming and plugging property for sand discs with different permeability and its temperature resistance is 130 ° C, salt resistance is 10%. When the agent is combined with the inorganic nano-blocking agent NMFD, it can improve its film-forming and plugging property. Having been tested in an oil field in Fuling, Chongqing, the results show that the rheological property of the drilling fluid is basically unchanged after adding LWFD and NMFD in polymer drilling fluid during vertical well section, and API fluid loss and filter loss of the sand disc are significantly reduced. It shows that the film-forming blocking agent LWFD has good film-forming and plugging property.
92 Well Test Analysis in an Egyptian Naturally Fractured Oil Reservoir , Bayoumi AW, Gomaa S* and Adel S
In this paper, well test data from three naturally fractured oil reservoirs were analyzed based on conventional semi–log plots, type curve matching and Tiab’s direct synthesis techniques. A computer program using C# was developed based on the direct synthesis method to be used in analyzing well test data in naturally fractured reservoirs. The developed program gives accurate results compared with pan-system (one of the commercial softwares) which characterizes the naturally fractured reservoir using conventional semi-log and type curve matching techniques. The developed program characterizes the fractured reservoir in case of infinite reservoir without wellbore storage effect whether all flow regimes are present, the early time infinite acting radial flow regime is absent, the late time infinite acting radial flow regime is absent or both infinite acting radial flow periods cannot be observed.
93 Investigation of the Impact of Scale Inhibitors: Nonionic Surfactants for Scale Deposition Control in Oilfield , Hosny R*, Amine M, Fathy M and Ramzi M
In this work two non-ionic surfactants (1-Octanol ethoxylate (OE-8.7) and Methylcyclohexanol ethoxylate (MCHE-9)) were prepared by the reaction of their hydrophobs with ethylene oxide for using as novel scale inhibitors in oilfield. Their structures were characterized by FT-IR and 1HNMR. Evaluation of the performance of these scale inhibitors was investigated for CaCO3 scale. From the results, the minimum inhibitor concentration (MIC) 10 ppm for scale inhibitor MCHE-9 and 50 ppm for scale inhibitor OE-8.7.The inhibition efficiency of inhibitor MCHE-9 and OE-8.7 were 61.5% and 64.3% at inhibitor dosage of 10 ppm and 50 ppm, respectively. MCHE-9 and OE-8.7, led to modifications in the morphology of scales particles as observed by SEM. These inhibitors distorted the crystal lattice of the precipitates, thus delayed the formation of scales crystal. From the induction time study, inhibitor MCHE-9 had longest induction time of CaCO3 precipitation. Therefore; the scale MCHE-9 is the suitable inhibitor used technically and economically feasible to improve oilfield scale deposition.
94 Effect of Various Polymeric Crystal Modifiers and Solvents Formulations on the Prevention of Wax and Asphaltene Formation in Crude Oil Pipelines , Anisuzzaman S M*, Krishnaiah D and Madsah M
Transportation of crude oil from offshore platform to onshore has been recognized as one of the challenges faced by oil and gas industry as the pipelines are deposited by wax and asphaltene. This research investigated the efficiency of three types of crystal modifiers, namely ethyl-vinyl acetate (EVA25 and EVA40), and styrene maleic anhydride (SMA); and two types of solvents, methylcyclohexane (MCH) and para-xylene, in different ratios to formulate the best inhibitor. The best formulation for EVA-based inhibitor was 30 wt% crystal modifiers and 70 wt% para-xylene, while the best formulation for SMA was 30 wt% SMA and 70 wt% MCH which could give viscosity reduction as high as 86.37%. All three types of crystal modifiers showed almost the same efficiency. Para-xylene was found to be the best solvent as it acted as solvent for the crystal modifiers and also as the asphaltene dispersant. The efficiency of the inhibitor decreased when the solvent used was a combination of two types of compounds. An optimization study showed that the most optimum conditions were found to be 42.02%, 3.34% and 54.65% for EVA25, MCH and para-xylene respectively.
95 Use of Used Cooking Oil as CI Engine Fuel - A Review Paper , Gadhvi SN*
Since past two decades scientist are involved in research activities to find alternate fuel for CI engine and still it is continuously going on. On account of rapid industrial growth and large commencement of vehicle airs becomes a serious threat to the wide use of petroleum resources. Many research and studies revealed that the oils from the several vegetable origin can be successfully used as fuel to the existing CI engines without making any major hardware modification and still further research is necessary to find exact fuel resource from a waste recovery point of view. In this regard, waste cooking oil or fried cooking oil can be used as a potential alternative fuel. This paper reviews the production, potential, characterization of alternative fuel, engine performance and exhaust emissions of the waste cooking oil biodiesel through the experimental work carried out in various corner of the world.
96 Development of Hydrocarbon Resources on Soft Computing and Data Mining Technologies Base , Hasanov RA, Gardashova LA, Kazimov MI, Ramazanov FA and Hasanov AR*
Considering of factors characterized by indefiniteness in the statistic methods based development of complex technological processes as well drilling and environment is one of the important requirements. There is need in intellectual analysis of data to eliminate shortage in indefiniteness condition. With these purpose classic methods complex–Fuzzy technology and Data mining technology have been used.
97 Effect of Inhibitors with Aromatic Solvents towards the Flow Properties of Crude Oil , Anisuzzaman SM*, Bono A, Krishnaiah D and Tamotiraan D
Petroleum industry which is well known for its growth facing a major issue in transporting crude oil in the pipeline. The major issue which disrupts the flow in the pipeline is due to the fluctuation of the temperature gradient. The temperature in the pipeline normally falls below the room temperature and even reaches negative Celsius as the crude oil drilled off from oil rig. Certain components which appear in crude oil will tend to solidify or crystalize when the temperature in the pipelines decrease. Wax and asphaltene particle affects the flow properties as it will deposit or precipitate along the wall of pipelines which will block the flow by reducing the diameter of the pipelines. Viscosity will tend to increase when the wax and asphaltene particle precipitate in the crude oil. Hence, chemical injection method is implemented whereby inhibitor composed of three components are mixed together crude oil to measure the reduction of viscosity. The main objective of this research paper is to formulate the optimum ratio of components composed of Poly Octadecyl methacrylate (PODMA), Toluene (TOL), Methylcyclohexane (MCH) to form an inhibitor. The viscosities of the crude oil is recorded at the targeted temperature range which compliance with the Wax Appearance Temperature (WAT) of the crude oil. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is used before and after conducting the experiments in order to build the model and to get the optimized ratio of the components for the reduction of viscosity. Aspen HYSYS is also used to validate the results obtained from the experimental procedure. The final results show that the optimum ratio for the reduction of viscosity is 30% PODMA, 40% MCH and finally 50% TOL.
98 Modelling and Simulation of Riser Reactor of a Commercial Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit Using 6-Lump Kinetics of Vacuum Gas Oil , Olafadehan OA*, Daramola OM, Sunmola OP and Abatan GO
This work presents a one-dimensional adiabatic mathematical model for the riser reactor of a commercial fluid catalytic cracking unit, FCCU. The cracking reactions in the riser reactor were based on six-lump kinetics of the catalytic cracking of vacuum gas oil, taking cognizance of diffusion resistance, which is a departure from the general norm in the literature. Moreover, two-phase hydrodynamic model for the riser reactor, coke-on-catalyst deactivation model as well as heat transfer resistance between the fluid and solid phases were considered. Two vaporization approaches (the instantaneous and one-dimensional vaporization) of the feedstock were investigated. The developed model was a set of eleven highly non-linear, coupled and stiff ordinary differential equations, ODEs, which was numerically solved with an implicit MATLAB built-in solver, ode23tb, designed deliberately for handling stiff differential equations to circumvent the problem of instability associated with explicit methods. The industrial plant data of China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) were used to validate the simulated results of this study. Moreover, our simulated results revealed that the mode of vaporization of the feedstock had influence on the conversion, yield and other process parameters at the riser reactor outlet. Excellent agreements were achieved between the CNPC FCCU plant data and the simulated results of this study for instantaneous vaporization of feedstock, with AAD being <  5% in all cases investigated, where the optimal yields of the cracked products needed to meet market demands and ensuring maximum profit were achieved.
99 Octane Index, A Feasible Performance Indicator of Motor Gasoline , Al-Haj Ibrahim H*
Determination of the octane number of motor gasoline is a costly and time-consuming procedure that requires the use of a testing engine that may not be available in small or out-of-the-way laboratories. Correlations between the octane number of motor gasoline and its physical and chemical properties were used to derive simple and applicable equations for the calculation of an octane index using gasoline properties that are easily and routinely measured. The gasoline properties considered include its density, boiling points, characterization factor and its cyclic compounds content.
100 Evaluation of Waterflooding; Experimental and Simulation Overview, Hamdy A, Samir M, Mohamed K and El-hoshoudy AN*
Water flooding is very important in the oil field, therefore the research is designed to evaluate the water flooding design for oil reservoir in order to monitor the impact of water flooding on reservoir performance and consequently the efficiency of different types of water flooding patterns to specify the best efficient pattern for an oil reservoir. The simulation model is carried out to build water flooding pattern with different types of patterns and monitor the performance of reservoir under each type of pattern and the impact of the pattern of water flooding on the reservoir pressure maintenance finally will determine the recovery efficiency of different types of water flooding.