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PAKISTAN JOURNAL OF SOCIETY, EDUCATION AND LANGUAGE

Journal Papers (27) Details Call for Paper Manuscript submission Publication Ethics Contact Authors' Guide Line
1 THE ROLE OF COMPUTER ASSISTED LANGUAGE LEARNING (CALL) IN TEACHING CULTURE THROUGH SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION  , Mr. Tariq Khan Assistant Professor, Department of English  University of Malakand (Corresponding author) tariqkhan1975@gmail.com    Ms. Islam Bibi Lecturer, Department of English University of Malakand & Dr. Inayat Ullah Assistant Professor, Department of Humanities Air University, Islamabad   
Abstract  The need and importance of CALL in teaching culture through second language acquisition was researched in this paper. It was noticed that the technology has tremendous bearing on cross-cultural awareness by means of intercultural studies, facilitating the teaching and learning of cultures easier than before, especially in the acquisition of a second language. The success of teaching and learning of culture through CALL depends on the active participation of teachers and learners, and efficient use of technology. The teacher should be a guide, a facilitator, an organizer; and a learner, as well as an open-minded critical thinker who can analyze, synthesize and critique the material available in interaction with another culture. Technology should be used as a pedagogical catalyst, and should not paralyze the effective participation of teachers and students. Neither technology nor any culture and language can be idealized. All being human products, have their negative and positive points, which need to be studied critically and creatively.    Keywords: CALL; second language acquisition; technology; culture; pedagogy 
2     CHINA’S EXPANDING GLOBAL INFLUENCE, DEVELOPING WORLD, AND THE UNITED STATES’ INTERESTS   , Shafqat Jabeen PhD Scholar, Department of Political Science, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur dr.khankhan786@yahoo.com (Corresponding Author) & Dr. Mussawar Hussain Bukhari Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, The Islamia, University of Bahawalpur 
Abstract  China is the world's second largest economy that is expected to be double the size of American’s by 2030. With growing strength, China is exercising gigantic influence around the world. In Asia, Africa, Latin America and now in Europe, Beijing has become the major trading partner of numerous states. China has presented new concepts and implemented some unique principles differing to the preceding global powers that have helped increase its global influence. The developing world is becoming progressively China-centric, a process that is projected to prove irresistible. The US remains the global super-power. The global power status, however, is getting flat because of multi-polarization and strategic shift of power is happening from the US to Asia. The article is a qualitative attempt to underscore Chinese expanding influence as a re-emerging global power, role of developing world in the formation of its foreign policy and implications for the interests of US.   Keywords:   Global Power; Developing World; Foreign Policy; Soft Power; Influence   
3 Adjustment Issues of Pakistani Migrants Recruited Through Brokers for Middle East (A Case Study of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa)      , Mr. Sanaullah M.Phil Scholar Department of Sociology University of Malakand sana_871@yahoo.com (Corresponding Author)    Mr. Nasar Khan M.Phil Scholar  Department of Sociology University of Malakand & Dr. Arab Naz Associate Professor Department of Sociology University of Malakand   
  Abstract  Migration of people to Middle East in search of employment has occurred throughout history and it is by no means a new phenomenon. Migration, in part plays a central role in income generation and remittances, and contributes to the material well-being of left-behind families. Labor migration to Middle East through brokers has significantly increased in recent years in Pakistan. The brokerage agencies have been created mainly for mobilizing and channeling Pakistani Migrants to Middle East, acting as facilitator and active agents of influencing labor decisions to migrate. The issue of labor migration calls for an immediate attention from the research community on account of a broad range of problems faced by migrants such as finding a job, salary issues, accommodation, terms and duration of their agreement with broker and cultural and language issues. The present study examines recent trends in migration to Middle East and highlights the adjustment issues of these migrants recruited through brokers for Middle East. The study was conducted in Malakand Division of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, while applying qualitative approach. Primary data was collected from forty (25) respondents (migrated through brokers) through in-depth interview (using interview guide) while the selection of the sample was made through non-probability sampling using purposive sampling technique. The information collected from the respondents was analyzed qualitatively and a thematic discussion has been made to clarify the issue under study. The research concluded that migration of people through brokers is a critical issue and migrants to Middle East recruited through brokers have several adjustment issues such as delayed employment after contract, wage issues, forced labor, breach of  contract, premature repatriation, and exploitation of migrant worker in the hands of agents and sub-agents. It is suggested that the migrants shall confirm and verify the process and issues from those who have recruited with brokers and have left for Middle East.   Keywords: Migration; Brokers; Adjustments; Labor; Recruitment   
4 POLICY PERSPECTIVES IN PEACE AND VALUE EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONTEXT      , Ajit Kumar Singh Ex -Assistant Professor Department of Education, Sant Haridass College of Higher Education  Bani Camp, Najafgarh, New Delhi  ajitssuryavanshi@gmail.com 
Abstract  An autonomous development requires an autonomous education system. And it is necessary to realize that other than economic and political facts, education has cultural and ethical factory too but, capitalist development lays so much emphasis on economics that education too is viewed by it in terms of economics gain and loss of political benefits accrued through it too are eventually associated with gains and cultural and ethical aspects, are neglected. The neglect of these facts multiple society on an extensive scale. It must be brought in the behavior that scale. It must be brought in the behavior that education for development is an approach to teaching and learning which builds a commitment to global solidarity, peace, justice and environment awareness in young people. Its aim is to empower children and youth to participate in bringing about constructive change both locality and globally. Viewing above facts it is very clear that peace Education & Value education are pioneering move must be implemented with vision and determination. A casual attempt could trivialize it and aggravate cynicism about its efficacy. Education could teach human beings to become the most sophisticated annihilators of the human being and life on earth. It is also education alone that can and must educate human being to live with peace and dignity. The pivotal role of this paper is to focus on the importance of value Education and peace education with policy framing & Implementation. This study is based on library method, will deal in two parts. First part of this paper tried to find out the need and importance of peace and value education at national level. Whereas second part (together with first part) is related to the recommendation and suggestion for implementation of peace and value education in Indian policies and other documents related to peace & value education. Keywords: Peace; value; peace education; value education; Indian education policy 
5 GLOBALIZATION, SOUTH ASIAN DIASPORA AND IDENTITY: COVERAGE OF TRAUMA OF HOMELESSNESS IN ANGLOPHONE CULTURAL PRODUCTIONS    ,   Dr. Inayat Ullah Assistant Professor  Department of Humanities, Faculty of Social Sciences Air University, Islamabad, Pakistan inayat_ktk@yahoo.com  Dr. Inayat Ullah Assistant Professor  Department of Humanities, Faculty of Social Sciences Air University, Islamabad, Pakistan inayat_ktk@yahoo.com  Abstract  This study focuses on the networks between the concept of home and the spaces of residence in the globalized city of London, highlighting how the different trajectories of home resurface in memories of the South Asian diasporic community. This endeavor exposes how, in the oft(ac)claimed globalized world, the cultural as well as psychological baggage of home poses challenges for people who are away from their native home and are living in their home of residence. So, the questions which are investigated here in this postcolonial analysis of Monica Ali’s Bricklane are: How does home appear to postcolonial diasporas in the globalized world? And what does returning ‘home’ teach us about the inequalities and injustices underlying the current global order? Using the qualitative method of analyzing the aforementioned novel, with special reference to globalization and postcolonial literary theory, this research unearths the problems, which are faced by the South Asian diasporic communities, further highlighting the issue why, every now and then, the South Asian diasporic writers are haunted by their ancestral homes. This research records and analyzes the account given by the Bangladeshi diasporic novelist, and is thus helpful in knowing and understanding the complex and oft-ignored problems, associated with the concept of home and belonging in the globalized world. Keywords: Globalization; Diaspora; Bricklane; Home; Identity
  Abstract  This study focuses on the networks between the concept of home and the spaces of residence in the globalized city of London, highlighting how the different trajectories of home resurface in memories of the South Asian diasporic community. This endeavor exposes how, in the oft(ac)claimed globalized world, the cultural as well as psychological baggage of home poses challenges for people who are away from their native home and are living in their home of residence. So, the questions which are investigated here in this postcolonial analysis of Monica Ali’s Bricklane are: How does home appear to postcolonial diasporas in the globalized world? And what does returning ‘home’ teach us about the inequalities and injustices underlying the current global order? Using the qualitative method of analyzing the aforementioned novel, with special reference to globalization and postcolonial literary theory, this research unearths the problems, which are faced by the South Asian diasporic communities, further highlighting the issue why, every now and then, the South Asian diasporic writers are haunted by their ancestral homes. This research records and analyzes the account given by the Bangladeshi diasporic novelist, and is thus helpful in knowing and understanding the complex and oft-ignored problems, associated with the concept of home and belonging in the globalized world. Keywords: Globalization; Diaspora; Bricklane; Home; Identity Abstract  This study focuses on the networks between the concept of home and the spaces of residence in the globalized city of London, highlighting how the different trajectories of home resurface in memories of the South Asian diasporic community. This endeavor exposes how, in the oft(ac)claimed globalized world, the cultural as well as psychological baggage of home poses challenges for people who are away from their native home and are living in their home of residence. So, the questions which are investigated here in this postcolonial analysis of Monica Ali’s Bricklane are: How does home appear to postcolonial diasporas in the globalized world? And what does returning ‘home’ teach us about the inequalities and injustices underlying the current global order? Using the qualitative method of analyzing the aforementioned novel, with special reference to globalization and postcolonial literary theory, this research unearths the problems, which are faced by the South Asian diasporic communities, further highlighting the issue why, every now and then, the South Asian diasporic writers are haunted by their ancestral homes. This research records and analyzes the account given by the Bangladeshi diasporic novelist, and is thus helpful in knowing and understanding the complex and oft-ignored problems, associated with the concept of home and belonging in the globalized world. Keywords: Globalization; Diaspora; Bricklane; Home; Identity
6 UNDERSTANDING PROBLEMS OF LOCAL BODY MEMBERS IN DISTRICT DIR LOWER, KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA, PAKISTAN ,  Lal Zaman  Graduate Student, Department of Sociology, University of Malakand & Dr Arab Naz  Department of Sociology, University of Malakand   
Abstract  This paper aims to analyze and understand the various problems faced by local body members in District Dir Lower, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan. The population for the current study was 2244 elected local body members while a sample of 70 elected members were selected from the whole District through convenient sample technique. The data has been analyzed with the help of SPSS version 20 and is classified, analyzed and presented in the form of tables, frequency, percentages and discussion over tables has been made. Similarly, the tables have been judged through chi-square application with confidence level of .05%, as well as through correlation technique. The analysis shows that the most of the local body members were not aware about their role and responsibilities and the local body system. The reasons were the lack of awareness, lack of access to media regarding local body system and lack of understanding about the concept and working relations. The study recommends that the provincial government should support and release funds to local level and fulfills all the necessary requirements on priority basis. Keywords: Problem; Provincial; Bureaucrats; Awareness; Infrastructure; Fund; Representation
7 AN EXPLORATION OF VICARIOUS STIGMATIZATION CONFRONTED BY HIV/AIDS PATIENTS       , Nasar Khan Project Researcher (Visiting Faculty)  Department of Sociology, University of Malakand  nasar_s12@yahoo.com (Corresponding Author)    Dr. Arab Naz Associate Professor, Department of Sociology, University of Malakand  & Moneeba Rehman Student, Department of Sociology, University of Malakand    
Abstract  HIV/AIDS is one of the growing social problems in Pakistan. The menace of HIV/AIDS has consequences on micro as well as macro level. Social stigma is an important aspect while considering the impact of HIV/AIDS on individual and communal level (micro and macro). Vicarious stigma (as conceptualized by Steward et al., 2008) is a type of social stigma whereby an individual become a subject of discussion and part of stories due to status of being an HIV/AIDS positive person. Framed under qualitative research design, the current study is an exploration of vicarious stigma confronted by HIV/AIDS positive persons. The study has been conducted in District Malakand and Dir Lower, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Sampling for the study has been done purposively whereby 7 HIV/AIDS positive individuals were interviewed. The collected information has been transcribed, narrated and linked with literature in order to extract findings. Findings of the study reveal that HIV/AIDS positive individuals are stigmatized frequently. Vicarious stigmatization is also a common event for HIV/AIDS positive individuals. HIV/AIDS positive individuals are subject of stories and discussion within family, friends and public.  Keywords: HIV/AIDS; Stigma; Vicarious stigma; Family  
8 ISLAMIZATION PROCESS IN PAKISTAN: IMPLEMENTATION OF ISLAMIC LAWS AGAINST SOCIALISM SCHEME OF BHUTTO BY PAKISTAN NATIONAL ALLIANCE (PNA) AND ZIA       , Sumaira Tahir Ph.D Scholar, Abbottabad University of Science and Technology sumairatahir514@yahoo.com   
Abstract  The basic aim of this research is to analyze the political situation during 1977 elections and after the alliance of the Rightest Wing. Pakistan People’s Party was declared successful in the election 1977. The PNA refused to accept the results and alleged massive rigging in polls, led to apolitical deadlock in the country. PNA started street agitation against malpractices in election 1977. Consequently, this agitation provided another opportunity for the military to takeover. Theoretically, the purpose of this article is to discuss crucial political issues and causes, which brought heterogeneous political groups into one alliance named PNA, and to what extent PNA has been successful in implementation of Islamic Laws under the umbrella of Zia’s military regime against the socialism scheme of Bhutto or their involvement in politics that was merely supposed attain political powers. The paper critically analyzes the role of PNA in inculcating Islam in politics. Keyword: Right Wing; Islamization; Alliance; Islamic laws; socialism 
9 AIDS DISCOURSE IN NIKITA LALWANI’S ESSAY  “MISTER X VERSUS HOSPITAL Y”      , Ms. Islam Bibi Lecturer, Department of English University of Malakand 
    Mr. Tariq Khan Assistant Professor, Department of English  University of Malakand (Corresponding author) tariqkhan1975@gmail.com & Dr. Akbar Ali Assistant Professor, Department of English Hazara University, Mansehra  Abstract  HIV/AIDS is considered as a stigmatized epidemic that afflicts its patient(s) with maligned and marginalized status (in a South Asian subcontinent). However, through the present position paper, the problem is not only addressed humanely, but it also invites maximum social attention and action via literature. Besides, medical advancements to cure the disease, industrious literary oeuvre, too, tend to change the attitude of public towards this medical-cum-social problem. Contemporary writers approach prevalent traditional AIDS discourse with a counter discourse in order to bring awareness in public. The existing qualitative study is an attempt to analyze the nature of counter discourse introduced by Nakita Lalwani, a contemporary Indian writer, in her narrative, “MISTER X VERSUS HOSPITAL Y”. The research is carried out in the light of Norman Fairclough’s (1993) Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA). Select passages related and relevant to the counter narrative are analyzed, bearing in mind the expressive, relational and experiential signification of the vocabulary used in the text. The work is significant due to its positive and substantial approach toward HIV/AIDS. It works towards the emancipation of stigmatized and marginalized patient(s) of AIDS. As Critical Discourse Analysis is associated with introducing and suggesting social change; hence, the study infers that if writers continue to counter the traditional discourse of HIV/AIDS in their literary endeavors, it is much likely to bring in awareness for alleviation (if not eradication) of the said problem. It also recommends that the severity of the disease can be mitigated through caring and sharing of ideas, by giving  the HIV positive with basic human rights, and by offering them with viable roles and responsibilities in a society they live in. Keywords: Patient; Stigmatization; Marginalization; Emancipation   Mr. Tariq Khan Assistant Professor, Department of English  University of Malakand (Corresponding author) tariqkhan1975@gmail.com & Dr. Akbar Ali Assistant Professor, Department of English Hazara University, Mansehra  Abstract  HIV/AIDS is considered as a stigmatized epidemic that afflicts its patient(s) with maligned and marginalized status (in a South Asian subcontinent). However, through the present position paper, the problem is not only addressed humanely, but it also invites maximum social attention and action via literature. Besides, medical advancements to cure the disease, industrious literary oeuvre, too, tend to change the attitude of public towards this medical-cum-social problem. Contemporary writers approach prevalent traditional AIDS discourse with a counter discourse in order to bring awareness in public. The existing qualitative study is an attempt to analyze the nature of counter discourse introduced by Nakita Lalwani, a contemporary Indian writer, in her narrative, “MISTER X VERSUS HOSPITAL Y”. The research is carried out in the light of Norman Fairclough’s (1993) Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA). Select passages related and relevant to the counter narrative are analyzed, bearing in mind the expressive, relational and experiential signification of the vocabulary used in the text. The work is significant due to its positive and substantial approach toward HIV/AIDS. It works towards the emancipation of stigmatized and marginalized patient(s) of AIDS. As Critical Discourse Analysis is associated with introducing and suggesting social change; hence, the study infers that if writers continue to counter the traditional discourse of HIV/AIDS in their literary endeavors, it is much likely to bring in awareness for alleviation (if not eradication) of the said problem. It also recommends that the severity of the disease can be mitigated through caring and sharing of ideas, by giving  the HIV positive with basic human rights, and by offering them with viable roles and responsibilities in a society they live in. Keywords: Patient; Stigmatization; Marginalization; Emancipation
10 ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEYS OF WAZIRISTAN KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA AND ITS CONTRIBUTION TO OUR UNDERSTANDING  , Shakir Ullah Dawar  Development Studies  COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Abbottabad    Ikram Shah  Development Studies  COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Abbottabad ikram.shahh@gmail.com (Corresponding author) & Hamayun Khan Mehsud PhD Scholar, University of Vienna, Austria 
  Abstract  Very less has been written on the archaeology of Waziristan. The aim of this research article is to explore the archaeological sites in Waziristan and draw the attention of government towards the hidden treasures of Waziristan that had been surveyed by Sir Aurel Stein in 1926-1927 and Ahmad Hassan Dani in 1966. Afterwards, no attention has been paid so far to this region by any government department. If government or any foreign archaeological mission starts the initiation, it is sure that the step would bring positive impacts on the area and its inhabitants. These archaeological sites have tremendous potential to attract tourists from abroad that can be an economic drive for creating alternate livelihood opportunity for local people and will contribute in uplifting the social wellbeing of inhabitants. Such positive intervention will positively impact overall law and order situation in the area that can accelerate peace process in the region. If this region gets the opportunity to be explored than it would be a great milestone in the history of Pakistan’s Archaeology in particular and Asian in general. Keywords:  Archaeology; Waziristan; Inscription; Civilization; Excavation 
11 INSTITUTIONALIZATION OF SUFI ISLAM AFTER 9/11 AND RISE OF BARELVI EXTREMISM IN PAKISTAN      , Muhammad Suleman Said Research Associate Centre for Pakistan and Gulf Studies, CPGS Islamabad (Principal Author) & Tahir Ahmad  Ph.D. Scholar  School of Politics and International Relations Quaid-I-Azam University Islamabad     
Abstract  Pakistan has been a victim of extremism and terrorism since 1970s, which has disrupted its social values, economic growth and spoiled the face of religion. In order to tackle growing menace, the Musharraf regime promoted Sufi Islam in the country as an antidote to it, perceived as flexible and pluralistic in nature. Owing to such accommodative characteristics, Sufi Islam was deemed more adaptive with respect to changing socio-cultural realities. Hence, it was thought to be more tolerant than the orthodox conception which was perceived to be encouraging armed endeavors, thus threatening the authority of the state. To achieve these objectives, National Council for the Promotion of Sufism was established by Pervez Musharraf, which was later carried forward by Pakistan People’s Party to extend the promotion of Sufism in the country. However, the seemingly soft school of thought started growing violent in 2010 primarily on the basis of blasphemy law. This paper covers the era when Sufi Islam was felt essential to counter radical religious mindset and analyzes its employment through its institutionalization, followed by the causes and effects of the emergence of violent extremism among its clerics and followers. Keywords: Extremism; terrorism; Sufism; cultural relations; change; clerics
12 MUSLIM IN MOVIES: THE HOLLYWOOD CONSTRUCTION      , Saroosh Fatima M.Phil Scholar, Department of Media Stuides IIU Islamabad  sarooshali@gmail.com   
Abstract  The pages of history communicate that the conflict and military confrontation between Islam and West traces back to era of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) in the seventh century and run through the Byzantine Empire, the Crusades, the Spanish re-conquest, the fall of Constantinople, the era of colonial and national independence, cold war era, post-cold war era and above all after the incident of 9/11. There is a general perception as it is claimed that mainstream media of west and US have been disseminating false information about Islamic world since several decades. It is said this anti-Islamic campaign has reached to enormous proportion with the demise of communism. As Trinka James has mentioned in her article that analysts, in Islamic world believe that negative image of Islamic world is primarily a conspiracy of American foreign office to invent a new bogy and enemy to fill vacuum created by the collapse of Soviet Union and worldwide dissipation of communism, particularly after demise of communism in former USSR. Apart from the role played by mainstream print or electronic media in cultivating negative political indoctrination into minds of common man, the big silver screen of cinema powered by Hollywood movies have been projecting misrepresentation of Muslims. Islam and Muslim world as it has been substantively endorsed by several researchers especially after 9/11. Consequently, due to distorted images, developed and manipulated by the mainstream mass media with the help of different genres including Hollywood Movies which projected anti Islam narratives by utilizing numerous technique of propaganda, Islam is the name of negativity in the west. This research is carried out at showing how Hollywood is constructing Muslims and Islam in movies. To analyze whether the Muslims are constructed in a binary fashion under the orientalist perspective. The aspect of their portrayal i.e. social, cultural and political. What moral, social and human values that are associated with Muslims as individual and Islam as religion. The research was carried out through content analysis. Quantitative technique and purposive  sampling was selected by selecting six Hollywood movies of 2012-2014 in which Muslim and Islam image was spoiled. Keywords: Muslims; Islam; Media; 9/11; Movies; Hollywood 
13 FATA REFORMS: COMMUNITY PERCEPTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF CONSTRAINTS IN IMPLEMENTATION ,  Lal Zaman Graduate Student  Department of Sociology, University of Malakand    Sadaf Mansoor MPhil Scholar  National Defense University, Islamabad & Dr Arab Naz  Associate Professor  Department of Sociology, University of Malakand 
Abstract  This research article contains comprehensive and detailed analysis of community perception towards FATA reforms, to be implemented gradually and to identify various constraints in its implementation. Efforts have been made to remain focused on the measures if taken, to integrate and mainstream tribal belt in KPK. Further, it aims to explore expected outcome of FATA reforms. This research study has been undertaken in Bajaur Agency FATA where the data has been collected through Likert Scale Questionnaire from a sample of 280 respondents which were selected randomly from different areas of Bajaur Agency. The study found that the people of FATA were very optimistic about the FATA reforms and welcome FATA merger into KP. Regarding community perception, majority of the respondents were apprehensive about implementation of FATA reforms due to presence of major gaps. Moreover, it demonstrates consent of general public of FATA as they believe their financial, social, political, judicial structure and economic condition will improve on pretext of FATA reforms and human rights condition will improve in the area which is long due. The study recommended that FCR programme cannot be improved through amendments and FATA should be merged with KPK without further delay.  Keywords: FATA; Reforms; Community perception; Constraints; Tribal Area; Merger
14 SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND ETHICAL VALUES OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS IN SOCIETY: A CASE LAW STUDY OF PAKISTAN      , Naeem Ullah Khan PhD (Scholar), Assistant Professor  University Law College, University of The Punjab, Lahore Pakistan naeemullahkhan786@gmail.com (Corresponding author)    Dr. Saima Sheikh  Chairperson Department of Sociology, University of Jamshoro & Dr. Adiqa Kiani Associate Professor, FUUAST Islamabad      
Abstract  Encouragement and praise of creativity in the fields of research and science is one of the most influential and vital contributor in “Socio-Economic and Cultural Development of the Society”. Adequate enforcement of Intellectual Property Law provides the necessary incentive for creator, inventor, and copy right holder in the legal regime of the WTO, such incentives help in overall promotion of skill, and disseminate knowledge based growth and socio-economic development. Ethically speaking, it is the responsibility of the society not to abuse the inventions of the originators without the prior permission of the holder in due course. Hence, “IP Law” aims to establish a balanced approach between public and private interest in society, the sociologist is of the view that the “Intellectual Property Law” acts as an instrumental force to promote the Socio-Economic and cultural development by introducing the new technologies, inventions and accelerate the commercial activities of the society. The “TRIPS Agreement” is one of the major multilateral trade agreements under the WTO regime. This Agreement covers intellectual property areas such as “copy right and related rights”, “trademarks including service marks”, “geographical indications”, “industrial designs”, “patents including the protection of new varieties of plants”, “the layout-designs of integrated circuits”, and “undisclosed information”. Results of this research paper shows that a strong intellectual property regime in line with the aims and objectives of the “TRIPS Agreement” is a tool to promote Socio- Economic and ethical values in society. Moreover, this Agreement does not only protect and enforce the rights of the creators but also imposed social and ethical responsibilities on the part of the society. In this perspective the Courts of Pakistan may play a pivotal role for the enforcement and protection of “IP Rights” and also for the promotion of economic, social and ethical values in the country. A case-law study divulges that the Pakistani courts are now-a-days very much vigilant in reorganization of the intellectual property regime under the multilateral trading system. Moreover, the prevention of abuse of “IP Rights” is a highly encouraging factor for attracting foreign investment in Pakistan. Keywords: Social; Ethical; Values; Trips; Intellectual Property; Trademarks; Patents 
15 AN EXPLORATION OF THE ROLE OF MASCULINITY IN DEVELOPMENT OF SUICIDAL BEHAVIOUR AMONG MEN: A CASE STUDY OF DISTRICT DIR LOWER  ,     Nasar Khan Project Researcher (Visiting Faculty)  Department of Sociology, University of Malakand  nasar_s12@yahoo.com (Corresponding Author) & Dr. Arab Naz Associate Professor, Department of Sociology, University of Malakand
     Abstract  Masculinity is one of the core contributing factors to suicidal behaviors (Samaritans, 2012). Framed under qualitative research design, the current study investigates into the role of masculinity in driving men towards suicidality. This study has been conducted in District Dir Lower, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Purposive sampling technique has been used to select samples from the population of interest. A total of 20 men having the history of an attempted suicide were sampled and interviewed through an interview guide. The collected information has been analyzed thematically. Findings show that masculinity plays an eminent role in developing suicidal behavior among me. Unemployment, unrespectable job, failure in achieving economic success, and failure in fulfilling role and responsibilities of being man damages machismo and leads to suicidality among men. In addition, bodily expressions e.g. strong physique, drug abuse, fighting and risk-taking behaviors contributes to development of suicidal behaviors among men.  Keywords: Suicide; Masculinity; Behavior; Role and Responsibilities; Unemployment; Bodily Expressions 
16 THE ROLE OF FAMILY IN THE REHABILITATION OF DRUG ABUSE      , Sameer Ul Khaliq Jan Lecturer, Department of Social Work Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University, Sheringal, Upper Dir, KP, Pakistan    Dr. Ahmad Ali Assistant Professor, Department of Sociology Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan, KP, Pakistan & Syed Rashid Ali (PhD) Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan  bukharasani@gmail.com (Corresponding author)     
Abstract  This study examines the role of family in the rehabilitation of drug abuse at Mayar Jandool, Dir Lower, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The conceptual frame work comprises of dependent variable (rehabilitation of drug abuse) and independent variable (family role). A total of 100 addicts’ family members were interviewed through snow ball sampling technique. A Chi-square test was used for testing the association between the two variables. The results indicates that there is highly significant relationship between drug abuse rehabilitation and the family role statements that family play a pivotal role in the rehabilitation of drug addiction, the closeness of the parent-child bond prevent from drug abuse, communication gap between parents and children leads to anti-social behavior, rewards and punishment decrease drug abuse problem, enhancing family resilience play a pivotal role in preventing drug abuse, keep away family members from the drug-using peers decrease drug use problem, drug addicts parents leads their children to be drug addicts, ever refer your addict member for rehabilitation center or hospital. The study concludes that the family play a central role in involvement in rehabilitation and preventing drug abuse among its family members. Keywords: Family role; drug abuse; rehabilitation 
17    AN ANALYSIS OF INSTITUTIONAL DISCOURSE AND THE PROBLEM OF AIDS IN NIKITA LALWANI’S ESSAY “MISTER X VERSUS HOSPITAL Y”  ,     Mr. Tariq Khan Assistant Professor, Department of English  University of Malakand (Corresponding author) tariqkhan1975@gmail.com    Ms. Islam Bibi Lecturer, Department of English,  University of Malakand & Mr. Aziz Ahmad Assistant Professor, Department of English University of Malakand    Mr. Tariq Khan Assistant Professor, Department of English  University of Malakand (Corresponding author) tariqkhan1975@gmail.com    Ms. Islam Bibi Lecturer, Department of English,  University of Malakand & Mr. Aziz Ahmad Assistant Professor, Department of English University of Malakand    Abstract  Social institutions afflict HIV/AIDS victims with libeled and disregarded status (in a South Asian subcontinent). Besides, medical innovations to cure the disease, literary contributions, too, tend to bring a shift in traditional approach toward HIV/AIDS. Contemporary writers approach social institutions to extend a hand in offering a solution to the problem. The qualitative study is an attempt to analyze the role played bysocial institutions, that is, institution of family, health and marriage for emancipation of the AIDS victims in Nakita Lalwani’s narrative, “MISTER X VERSUS HOSPITAL Y”. The research is carried out in the light of Norman Fairclough’s (1993) Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA). Passages from the text relevant to the counter narrative are analyzed, bearing in mind the expressive, relational and experiential signification of the vocabulary. The study carries significance due to its optimistic approach toward HIV/AIDS. It works toward the empowerment of stigmatized victim (s) by introducing counter discourse to the traditional institutional discourse on HIV/AIDS. As Critical Discourse Analysis is associated with suggesting social change; hence, the study infers that if writers continue to highlight the role of social institutions to combat the severity of the disease in their works, it is much likely to educate the public to work for mitigation (if not eradication) of the nuisance associated with the stigma. It also recommends that the severity of the disease can be moderated if members from social institutions adopt constructive attitude towards the victims and provide them with healthy environment to combat this medical-cum-social problem. 
    Abstract  Social institutions afflict HIV/AIDS victims with libeled and disregarded status (in a South Asian subcontinent). Besides, medical innovations to cure the disease, literary contributions, too, tend to bring a shift in traditional approach toward HIV/AIDS. Contemporary writers approach social institutions to extend a hand in offering a solution to the problem. The qualitative study is an attempt to analyze the role played bysocial institutions, that is, institution of family, health and marriage for emancipation of the AIDS victims in Nakita Lalwani’s narrative, “MISTER X VERSUS HOSPITAL Y”. The research is carried out in the light of Norman Fairclough’s (1993) Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA). Passages from the text relevant to the counter narrative are analyzed, bearing in mind the expressive, relational and experiential signification of the vocabulary. The study carries significance due to its optimistic approach toward HIV/AIDS. It works toward the empowerment of stigmatized victim (s) by introducing counter discourse to the traditional institutional discourse on HIV/AIDS. As Critical Discourse Analysis is associated with suggesting social change; hence, the study infers that if writers continue to highlight the role of social institutions to combat the severity of the disease in their works, it is much likely to educate the public to work for mitigation (if not eradication) of the nuisance associated with the stigma. It also recommends that the severity of the disease can be moderated if members from social institutions adopt constructive attitude towards the victims and provide them with healthy environment to combat this medical-cum-social problem.    Abstract  Social institutions afflict HIV/AIDS victims with libeled and disregarded status (in a South Asian subcontinent). Besides, medical innovations to cure the disease, literary contributions, too, tend to bring a shift in traditional approach toward HIV/AIDS. Contemporary writers approach social institutions to extend a hand in offering a solution to the problem. The qualitative study is an attempt to analyze the role played bysocial institutions, that is, institution of family, health and marriage for emancipation of the AIDS victims in Nakita Lalwani’s narrative, “MISTER X VERSUS HOSPITAL Y”. The research is carried out in the light of Norman Fairclough’s (1993) Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA). Passages from the text relevant to the counter narrative are analyzed, bearing in mind the expressive, relational and experiential signification of the vocabulary. The study carries significance due to its optimistic approach toward HIV/AIDS. It works toward the empowerment of stigmatized victim (s) by introducing counter discourse to the traditional institutional discourse on HIV/AIDS. As Critical Discourse Analysis is associated with suggesting social change; hence, the study infers that if writers continue to highlight the role of social institutions to combat the severity of the disease in their works, it is much likely to educate the public to work for mitigation (if not eradication) of the nuisance associated with the stigma. It also recommends that the severity of the disease can be moderated if members from social institutions adopt constructive attitude towards the victims and provide them with healthy environment to combat this medical-cum-social problem. 
18 ANALYSIS OF VARIOUS EFFECTS OF TELEVISION CRIME SHOWS ON PAKISTANI YOUTH (A CASE STUDY OF STUDENTS OF GOVERNMENT COLLEGE UNIVERSITY FAISALABAD)    ,   Ali Bhadur M.Phil. Scholar, Department of Media and Communication, IIUIslamabad  ali_bhadur@yahoo.com (Corresponding author)    Asad Ullah Monitoring Supervisor, Ministry of Information, Broadcasting and National Heritage & Lal Zaman  Heins Seidal Foundation, Islamabad  Ali Bhadur M.Phil. Scholar, Department of Media and Communication, IIUIslamabad  ali_bhadur@yahoo.com (Corresponding author)    Asad Ullah Monitoring Supervisor, Ministry of Information, Broadcasting and National Heritage & Lal Zaman  Heins Seidal Foundation, Islamabad  Abstract  The study investigates the effects of crime shows run on Pakistani media channels on Pakistani youth. On the basis of the debate on violent content of media and their effects. I firmly examined the perception of youth regarding crime shows run on Pakistani media channels and what are the psychological effects of such crime shows on youth. The main direction of the study was to place the discussion of crime shows’ effects. The study was executed by using quantitative methodology of research. It was a case study of students of GC University Faisalabad. 145 students were selected from GC University Faisalabad by using convenient sampling technique. A questionnaire was designed with close and one open ended question and used as a tool for data collection. The results show that respondents are most likely to watch crime shows of Express News and they expressed the feelings of insecurity among them toward society and they also admitted that they come to know with new techniques of crime. The youth perceived that most of the stories presented in crime shows are manipulated to enhance the viewer’s interest and half of the respondents said that the bloodshed and encounter scenes should not be broadcasted in such programs. Keywords: Crimes; effects; Media; Channels; Youth; impacts 
  Abstract  The study investigates the effects of crime shows run on Pakistani media channels on Pakistani youth. On the basis of the debate on violent content of media and their effects. I firmly examined the perception of youth regarding crime shows run on Pakistani media channels and what are the psychological effects of such crime shows on youth. The main direction of the study was to place the discussion of crime shows’ effects. The study was executed by using quantitative methodology of research. It was a case study of students of GC University Faisalabad. 145 students were selected from GC University Faisalabad by using convenient sampling technique. A questionnaire was designed with close and one open ended question and used as a tool for data collection. The results show that respondents are most likely to watch crime shows of Express News and they expressed the feelings of insecurity among them toward society and they also admitted that they come to know with new techniques of crime. The youth perceived that most of the stories presented in crime shows are manipulated to enhance the viewer’s interest and half of the respondents said that the bloodshed and encounter scenes should not be broadcasted in such programs. Keywords: Crimes; effects; Media; Channels; Youth; impacts  Abstract  The study investigates the effects of crime shows run on Pakistani media channels on Pakistani youth. On the basis of the debate on violent content of media and their effects. I firmly examined the perception of youth regarding crime shows run on Pakistani media channels and what are the psychological effects of such crime shows on youth. The main direction of the study was to place the discussion of crime shows’ effects. The study was executed by using quantitative methodology of research. It was a case study of students of GC University Faisalabad. 145 students were selected from GC University Faisalabad by using convenient sampling technique. A questionnaire was designed with close and one open ended question and used as a tool for data collection. The results show that respondents are most likely to watch crime shows of Express News and they expressed the feelings of insecurity among them toward society and they also admitted that they come to know with new techniques of crime. The youth perceived that most of the stories presented in crime shows are manipulated to enhance the viewer’s interest and half of the respondents said that the bloodshed and encounter scenes should not be broadcasted in such programs. Keywords: Crimes; effects; Media; Channels; Youth; impacts 
19 THE ROLE OF COMPUTER ASSISTED LANGUAGE LEARNING (CALL) IN TEACHING CULTURE THROUGH SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION     , Mr. Tariq Khan Assistant Professor, Department of English University of Malakand (Corresponding author) tariqkhan1975@gmail.com   Ms. Islam Bibi Lecturer, Department of English University of Malakand & Dr. Inayat Ullah Assistant Professor, Department of Humanities Air University, Islamabad  
Abstract The need and importance of CALL in teaching culture through second language acquisition was researched in this paper. It was noticed that the technology has tremendous bearing on cross-cultural awareness by means of intercultural studies, facilitating the teaching and learning of cultures easier than before, especially in the acquisition of a second language. The success of teaching and learning of culture through CALL depends on the active participation of teachers and learners, and efficient use of technology. The teacher should be a guide, a facilitator, an organizer; and a learner, as well as an open-minded critical thinker who can analyze, synthesize and critique the material available in interaction with another culture. Technology should be used as a pedagogical catalyst, and should not paralyze the effective participation of teachers and students. Neither technology nor any culture and language can be idealized. All being human products, have their negative and positive points, which need to be studied critically and creatively.  Key Words: CALL; second language acquisition; technology; culture; pedagogy
20 SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS OF ORPHANS IN ORPHANAGES: A CASE STUDY OF AL-ISLAH CENTER IN DISTRICT MARDAN   , Abbas Tahir Master Student   Shah Saud M.Phil Scholar   Dr. Ahmad Ali Assistant Professor & Dr. Syed Rashid Ali Associate Professor Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan bukharasani@gmail.com (Corresponding Author)    
Abstract The study intends to reflect the ideal and actual situation of Al-Islah Centre considering Government policy for orphanages. Recreational, educational and food characteristics of the policy were considered for the research. The study used qualitative method and interview schedule was used as a tool of data collection. The results show that performance of the orphanage in providing a normal life to orphans is impressive however, there are certain gaps between the policy and its real implementation especially in recreational aspect. The educational interventions also have flaws, as per policy. All the problems were rooted in the financial barriers. So, the Government has the obligation to eradicate those barriers through funding the orphanage. Keywords: Orphan; Orphanage; Food; Recreation; Education
21 GROWING USE OF INTERNET AND SOCIAL MEDIA IN PAKISTAN: EFFECTS ON FAMILIES AND CULTURAL VALUES     , Nazir Ahmed Sangi Allama Iqbal Open University Islamabad nazir.sangi@gmail.com & Nasim Khan Mahsud                                                Lecturer, Department of Sociology Allama Iqbal Open University Islamabad nasimkhanmahsud@gmail.com (Corresponding Author)  
  Abstract The Information & Communication Technology-ICT devices are indispensable today. Globally, it is evident that such technologies have variant effects on work and non-work situations. It is generally assumed that these devices are facilitating the fast-moving societies. Though positive effects of ICT usage are improving lifestyle but literature emphasizes over negative consequences of social media on families particularly on child-parent inter-relationships. ICT has well-blended itself to the everyday life of people in modern times throughout the globe. Keeping this situation in view, the current paper presents outcomes of an exploratory study conducted at Islamabad and Rawalpindi with 200 postgraduate students of Allama Iqbal Open University – AIOU. Mainly quantitative approach was employed to have a clearer and reliable understanding about the issue under study. Specifically, to assess the effects of these technologies on family domains at i) social, ii) cultural and iii) individual level, purposive/judgmental sampling technique was used for data collection. The samples consist of both male and female respondents’ views, which advance our understanding about how social media is shaping social, cultural aspects of family life and relationships of individuals in families. The study also examined the positive/negative influences of social media, which provided several dimensions helping to offer suitable measures for the optimum beneficial utilization of ICT at family level. Key words: ICT; Education; Internet resources; Usage; Social media; cultural values Abstract The Information & Communication Technology-ICT devices are indispensable today. Globally, it is evident that such technologies have variant effects on work and non-work situations. It is generally assumed that these devices are facilitating the fast-moving societies. Though positive effects of ICT usage are improving lifestyle but literature emphasizes over negative consequences of social media on families particularly on child-parent inter-relationships. ICT has well-blended itself to the everyday life of people in modern times throughout the globe. Keeping this situation in view, the current paper presents outcomes of an exploratory study conducted at Islamabad and Rawalpindi with 200 postgraduate students of Allama Iqbal Open University – AIOU. Mainly quantitative approach was employed to have a clearer and reliable understanding about the issue under study. Specifically, to assess the effects of these technologies on family domains at i) social, ii) cultural and iii) individual level, purposive/judgmental sampling technique was used for data collection. The samples consist of both male and female respondents’ views, which advance our understanding about how social media is shaping social, cultural aspects of family life and relationships of individuals in families. The study also examined the positive/negative influences of social media, which provided several dimensions helping to offer suitable measures for the optimum beneficial utilization of ICT at family level. Key words: ICT; Education; Internet resources; Usage; Social media; cultural values
22 SEMIOTIC ANALYSIS (OF SELECT EXCERPTS) OF AHMAD ALI’S  TWILIGHT IN DELHI     , Mr. Tariq Khan Assistant Professor, Department of English University of Malakand, Pakistan Ms. Islam Bibi Lecturer Department of English University of Malakand, Pakistan & Dr. Rab Nawaz Khan Assistant Professor, Department of English AWKUM Khyber Pakhtunkhwa        
Abstract          This paper attempts to explore and analyze the colonial rule of English in British-Indian sub continent, their socio-political objectives and various predicaments faced by Muslim  Community in British-India through signs and symbols of Ahmad Ali’s Twilight in Delhi.  Symbolic components are used by Ahmad Ali, quite vehemently and dexterously. His  direct and indirect method of using symbology is a unique approach to convey the  essence of his thought and feelings, which otherwise would have been difficult to be  communicated and understood in simple language. For instance, Mir Nihal’s family, cat  versus pigeon, pigeon flying, dancing girls, city wall, kite flying, Mrs. Nihal blindness,  lane, beggars, etc., speak louder for the colonial rule and its devastating effects upon  the Muslim community. Close reading technique is used as a critical approach to  analyze the select passages (of the text) in the backdrop of British colonial regime in  Indian subcontinent.  Keywords: Symbology; British Colonialist; Muslim/Islamic Community; 
23 INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS ALONG WITH FINAL CONSUMPTION EXPENDITURE TRIGGER THE GDP OF PAKISTAN    , Nadia Bukhari Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Attock, Pakistan Tayyaba Jabeen, Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Attock, Pakistan & Faisal Khan Assistant Professor, Department of Management Sciences, University of Swabi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan Corresponding Author (faisalkhanutm@yahoo.com)     
Abstract  Fiscal progress tested inside Gross Domestic Product by employing occasion collection data  above the time 1975 to help 2013. Gross Domestic Product signify your primarily based  adjustable in addition to separate specifics obtained for example professional advancement  in addition to final usage expenses. This particular examine discovered of which inside  Pakistan low countrywide bills, things exports, low saving in addition to final usage expenses  have a constructive relation to your Gross Domestic Product. Study shows the positive  relation of industrial development and final consumption expenditure. There is positive  connection of commercial development in addition to remaining intake costs with Gross  Domestic Product within Pakistan.  Keywords: GDP; FDI; Industrial development; Final consumption expenditure.
24 THE IMPLICATION OF PATRIARCHY AND GENDER ROLES SOCIALIZATION ON THE SOCIO- ECONOMIC STATUS OF WOMEN, IN DISTRICT DIR UPPER  ,   Sana Ullah M-Phil Scholar (Sociology)   University of Malakand, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa & Dr. Arab Naz Associate Professor, Department of Sociology  University of Malakand   Sana Ullah M-Phil Scholar (Sociology)   University of Malakand, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa & Dr. Arab Naz Associate Professor, Department of Sociology  University of Malakand  Abstract   The concepts of patriarchy and gender role differences are important in the study of women's  socio-economic position and status in rural Pakistan. Women who constitute fifty-two  percent of the population of the country, encounters patriarchy as a major obstacle towards  their low social, economic and political status in comparison to men. Those families which  uphold patriarchal standards effect the social relations and decision-making and have been  contributing towards women's poor socio-economic position and results in their seclusion.  The current study aims to know that how the prevalent patriarchal gender norms affect the  behavior and role of male and female, and that how men utilize these roles as a socio economic power. The study was carried out in District Dir Upper, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and  field data were collected from 40 male and 50 female respondents randomly selected in three  villages i.e. Chiragali Payeen, Mano Banda and Chiragali Bala. The collected data was  qualitatively and thematically analyzed, and the results show that the socio-economic status  of women remain low due to the prevailing socio-cultural norms which supports men to  make major decisions. Multiple socio- cultural barriers exist that defines the roles  differences in a gendered fashion and support the status quo of male domination and women  subordination. It is suggested that priority to women's education and economic activities  shall be given for their social empowerment and development.    Keywords: Patriarchy; Gender; Stereotypes; Cultural Norms; Gender Roles 
Abstract   The concepts of patriarchy and gender role differences are important in the study of women's  socio-economic position and status in rural Pakistan. Women who constitute fifty-two  percent of the population of the country, encounters patriarchy as a major obstacle towards  their low social, economic and political status in comparison to men. Those families which  uphold patriarchal standards effect the social relations and decision-making and have been  contributing towards women's poor socio-economic position and results in their seclusion.  The current study aims to know that how the prevalent patriarchal gender norms affect the  behavior and role of male and female, and that how men utilize these roles as a socio economic power. The study was carried out in District Dir Upper, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and  field data were collected from 40 male and 50 female respondents randomly selected in three  villages i.e. Chiragali Payeen, Mano Banda and Chiragali Bala. The collected data was  qualitatively and thematically analyzed, and the results show that the socio-economic status  of women remain low due to the prevailing socio-cultural norms which supports men to  make major decisions. Multiple socio- cultural barriers exist that defines the roles  differences in a gendered fashion and support the status quo of male domination and women  subordination. It is suggested that priority to women's education and economic activities  shall be given for their social empowerment and development.    Keywords: Patriarchy; Gender; Stereotypes; Cultural Norms; Gender Roles 
25 VOTING BEHAVIOUR IN ELECTION 2013: A CASE OF DIR LOWER   (NA-34): PREFERENCES AND PRIORITIES    , Saeed Gul M.Phil Scholar  Islamia College University Peshawar Pakistan &    Dr. Waseem Khan Lecturer Sociology University of Malakand    
Abstract  This study is multi-dimensional in approach, conducted to examine the voting behavior of the  people in NA-34 Lower Dir for the general election held on May 11, 2013. For this purpose,  opinions were sought from different segments of the electorates based on their diverse  background, such as age, gender, education, profession, income and family type. The study  revolves around an analysis of the society, cultural, psychological, political, economic and  religious factors shaping the voting tendency of the people in the target population. Voting  behavior of the people living in the constituency with particular reference to their  participation in the general election held in 2013 was examined in the light of their social,  religious, political and family background.  Keywords: Voting behavior; Election; Opinions; Illiteracy; Opinion; Participation; 
26 ARMS CREATIVE INDUSTRY OF DARA ADAM KHEL: OPPORTUNITIES AND THREATS  ,     Muhammad Kamran Afridi PhD Scholar, Department of Anthropology, Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad    Muhammad Imran Afridi PhD Scholar Sociology and International Relation, Division of International & Area Studies,  Pukyon National University Bosan, South Korea & Jalal Shahzada PhD Scholar, Department of Anthropology, University of Peshawar 
    Abstract     Creative industry is an emerging concept in Pakistan and some of the other Asian countries.  This industry is providing employment opportunity to a big chunk but on the other hand, it’s  a vehicle for cultural identity as well. The study’s aim is to investigate those elements which  are responsible for the establishment of this non-registered arms and ammunition units  (traditional production factory) in Dara Adam Khel (DAK), a creative industry of Pakistan  which is providing employment opportunities to thousands of families in DAK, a town  situated 29kilometers south of Peshawar. The study examines the technical aspects of the  unit workers and focuses the possible irritant factors which hamper this arms industry from  further development. For the study,30 unit workers and owners were interviewed. According  to the respondents, these units are capable to make all sorts of arms if proper protocol and  attention is given to this industry. People adopt and carry arms and the arms industries as  custom of the area but currently these traditional production units are the main sources of  earning for hundreds of families. Some of the businessmen involved in the production of  arms, started registering their illegal businesses (Un-Registered) with the government of  Pakistan and due to this flow, some of the owners switched/shifted their units to the  Industrial area, Small Industrial Development Board (SIDB) situated on the Kohat road  Peshawar.  Keywords: Creative Industry; Arms and Ammunition; Dara Adam Khel; culture; Pakhtun 
27 MEDIA PORTRAYAL OF MADRASA EDUCATION IN PAKISTAN      , Dost Muhammad Yousafzai School of Media and Communication Studies University of Central Punjab, Lahore    Muhammad Mashhood Department of Journalism and Mass Communication University of Peshawar. & Rida Zulfiqar School of Media and Communication Studies University of Central Punjab, Lahore   
Abstract  This paper investigates Media portrayal of Madrasa education in Pakistan. Madras’a education faces tremendous challenges in today’s world due to ongoing radicalism and terrorism. This paper explicates that after 9/11 incident Pakistan has been crossing through various social, economic, religious and political crises, which create a situation of quagmire for Pakistani citizens. In modern arena, Madaras are labeled only to produced Taliban, terror and radicalism. This paper is qualitative in nature, where the researcher has used library method for data collection. The data has been collected from various secondary and scholarly sources including books, articles, journals, websites. The data has been qualitatively presented with the help of thematic analysis, which concludes that after 9/11 incident Pakistan has been passing through a constant state of curse and evils, which is bringing catastrophe to its socio-economic, cultural, religious, political and developmental well-being.   Keywords;-  Madrsa education; Media;, Militancy; Terrorism;