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Turkish Journal of Biodiversity

Journal Papers (16) Details Call for Paper Manuscript submission Publication Ethics Contact Authors' Guide Line
1 The flora of Dereiçi village (Yusufeli, Artvin, Turkey) and its surroundings , Emrah YUKSEL, Hayal AKYILDIRIM BEGEN
The vascular flora of the Dereiçi Village and its environs (Yusufeli, Artvin, Turkey) was assessed between March and September 2017. It is located in the north-east of the Eastern Black Sea Region and is taken place in Colchic province of Euro-Siberian floristic area of Holarctic Region and lies between 650 and 2900 m. In this study, 312 genera and 552 plant taxa were found in 87 families. Of these, 11 taxa belong to Pteridophyta, the remaining 541 taxa belong to Magnoliophyta. Magnoliophyta includes Pinidae with 6 taxa and Magnoliidae with 535 taxa. The biggest families identified were as follows: Asteraceae 58 taxa, Poaceae 49 taxa, Rosaceae 37 taxa, Lamiaceae 30 taxa, Fabaceae 25 taxa, Brassicaceae 24 taxa, Apiaceae 18 taxa, Boraginaceae 16 taxa, Caryophyllaceae 15 taxa and Ranunculaceae 14 taxa. The ratio of the phytogeographical regions of 266 taxa was determined as follows: Euro-Siberian with 216 taxa (%39.1), Irano-Turanian with 42 taxa (%7.6), Mediterranean with 8 taxa (%1.5) and unidentified phytogeographic region with 286 taxa (%51.8). The ratio of endemism is % 5.4 with endemic taxa. Threat categories were proposed for 83 taxa (endemic and non-endemic rare plants) according to International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) Red List Categories.
2 Antioxidant activity and total phenolic contents of Galanthus woronowii (Amaryllidaceae) , Nusret GENÇ, İlyas YILDIZ, Tünay KARAN, Özgür EMİNAĞAOĞLU, Ramazan ERENLER
Plants have been used for medicinal purpose since ancient times. Due to the including bioactive secondary metabolites, plants have gained the great interest for drug discovery and development process. In this work, Galanthus woronowii was extracted with hexane, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate sequentially. After removing of the solvent by rotary evaporator, crude extracts were yielded. Antioxidant activity including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and reducing power assays were executed on corresponding extracts. In addition, total phenolic content was presented. Ethyl acetate extract included the most phenolic compounds and also it revealed the most antioxidant activity. Hence, this plant could be considered as a promising antioxidant agent.
3 Evaluation of antioxidant capacity with total phenolic content of Galanthus krasnovii (Amaryllidaceae) , Ramazan ERENLER, Nusret GENÇ, Mahfuz ELMASTAŞ, Özgür EMİNAĞAOĞLU
Natural products have gained the great interest due to their broad spectrum of biological activities. Galanthus krasnovii was dried at shade then extracted with hexane, dichloromethane, and ethyl acetate successively. After removing of solvent by reduced pressure, crude extracts of each solvent were yielded. Antioxidant activity including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation and reducing power assays were carried out for each extract. Moreover, total phenolic content was determined. Total phenolic content of hexane-, dichloromethane-, and ethyl acetate extracts were found as 60.95 mg GAE/g extract, 71.90 GAE/g extract and 58.90 GAE/g extract respectively. Dichloromethane and ethyl acetate extract revealed the moderate antioxidant activity.
4 New locality record of Lacerta agilis (Squamata: Lacertidae) in Turkey , Ufuk BÜLBÜL, Halime KOÇ, Hatice ÖZKAN, İhsan ÖZTÜRK, Bilal KUTRUP
In this study, it was given the locality record of the sand lizard (Lacerta agilis) from Yeşilköy Village, Pazar District of Rize Province of Turkey. This new record revealed the second locality for L. agilis from the eastern Black Sea coast of Anatolia. The metric and meristic features of the adult, subadult and juvenile specimens were compared to the features of the specimens of the species, L. agilis in the literature.
5 Determined aphid-host plant relations from Eastern Black Sea regions of Turkey  , Gazi GÖRÜR, Hayal AKYILDIRIM BEĞEN, Özhan ŞENOL
Aphid-host plant relationship has fascinated scientist for a long time as they had some tight interactions. There is considerable amount of mountainous land area in Far Eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey which is almost 27% and about 165 aphid species have been determined. There has been no study conducted either to detect aphid fauna of region or aphid-host plant interaction up to last decades. Compared with determined aphid species diversity with floristic richness of region and each province, number of the aphid species recorded does not reflect real aphid composition of study area. According to proposed model related with aphid-host plant diversity around the world, both heavy rainfall and mix of higher vegetation biodiversity especially underbrush plant richness might explain unexpected lower aphid species diversity compared with higher plant diversity. Recent studies carried out clearly indicated that aphid-host plant relations should be studied in detail as these relations are become much more dynamic as a result of recent climatic changes. 
6 Effect of cow manure on growth and bioactive components of  Gynura pseudochina (Asteraceae)  , Achmad Yozar PERKASA, Danner SAGALA, Erik MULYANA, Rahmi TAUFIKA, Rista DELYANI
The objective of this study is to determine the effect of different amounts of cow manure on growth and leaf content of Gynura pseudochina, a medicinal plant. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design. The first factor was the dose of cow manure with three levels (0 g polybag1 (control), 500 g polybag-1 and 1000 g of polybag-1). Each experiment was repeated as 4 times. The data were analyzed with variance analysis by SAS 9.1.3 programme, significant differences at 5% were also analyzed by Duncan's Multiple Range Test. As a result of the studies, it was observed that the fertilization treatment with different doses of cow manure did not provide a significant difference in growth after 3 weeks after planting, but the leaf width was the highest after 4 weeks. In this study, it was determined that cow feces and fertilization did not increase the content of bioactive compounds of the leaf of Gynura pseudochina and the growth of canopies and tubers. The high rate of caterpillar infestations that occurred two weeks after planting disrupted the growth of Gynura pseudochina and the production of bioactive compounds. The results of the study clearly showed that cow manure did not properly increase the growth of canopies, tubers and the content of bioactive compounds of Gynura pseudochina.
7 New locality record of Ablepharus budaki (Squamata: Scincidae) in Turkey  , Hatice ÖZKAN, Ufuk BÜLBÜL, Halime KOÇ
The Budak’s snake-eyed skink (Ablepharus budaki) is recorded from Sütçüler District of Isparta province in Turkey. The metric and meristic characters of the specimens were found similar to the specimens of A. budaki reported in the literature. Surprisingly, the new locality in the present study coincides exactly among to the distribution areas of A. kitaibelii, A. budaki and the mixed clade specified in the literature.   
8 Artvin Urban Forest and expectations of the people  , Sevim İNANÇ
In this study, the view of the people living in Artvin to the urban forest, their expectations from the urban forest and the perception of urban forest are examined. As a result of the study, it was determined that the people living in Artvin used Artvin City Forest primarily because of picnics, fresh air, lack of other places, physical and psychological relaxation and sporting activities. In addition, the biggest deficiencies in Artvin City Forest are environmental pollution, lack of maintenance of roads and lack of information. The limited availability of eating and drinking facilities is also mentioned by the users of urban forests as a major problem. In order to benefit more from the urban forest, the transportation facilities should be improved, the roads should be better maintained and the area should be promoted better.   
9 Geographic variations for cone and seed characteristics of Oriental spruce (Picea orientalis)  , Zafer ÖLMEZ, Zafer YERLİ, Fatih TEMEL 
The aim of this study is to investigate the geographic variations of some cone and seed characteristics of oriental spruce (Picea orientalis). Fort this purpose, the cones were collected from 33 sampling plots within the species natural distribution in Artvin and Posof (Ardahan). Cone length and diameter, 1000-seed weight, seed length and diameter, height of seed wing and number of seeds in a cone were determined. Geographical features such as altitude, aspect, and distance to the Black Sea, longitude and latitude of the sample plots were recorded. According to the analysis of correlation, the negative correlations were defined between the altitude of sampling points and cone length and diameter. In addition to this, there were negative correlations between the distance to the Black Sea and cone diameter, seed diameter and 1000-seed weight (p<0.05). 
10 Prunus laurocerasus (Rosaceae) plant extract with harmful herbs and agricultural frost  , Hüseyin Aşkın AKPULAT, Sibel AKPULAT, Elif Sena YILDIRIM, Hatice Rabia ENGİNOĞLU
In this study, plant extract was obtained by using endemic Prunus laurocerasus plant leaves. The effects of this extract on plant root and stem growth were investigated. The experiments were carried out with two stages and three replicates. In the second stage of wheat seed in the first stage, bean and chickpea plants with economic value were used. These plants are irrigated with solutions prepared at different concentrations. Then, the effect of these solutions on the onion roots was investigated and the mitosis in the roots was examined. The highest percentage of mitotic index (MI) was determined in the control group. It was determined that there was an inverse ratio between the percentage increase of the solution and the percentage of MI. As a result of the observations made, it was determined that plant growth rate slowed down and stopped at the same rate as the concentration rate of the extract used increased. From this point of view, it is aimed to find alternative solutions in natural ways instead of chemicals that can harm the living and the environment against the climatic and environmental difficulties encountered in the agricultural areas in our country. 
11 Cinara (Hemiptera: Aphidoidea) species distributed in Turkey and their host plants  , Hayal AKYILDIRIM BEĞEN, Gazi GÖRÜRb, Özhan ŞENOL
This study has been carried out between 2009 and 2018 in order to determine Cinara species and their host plants distributed in some region of Turkey. Cinara belongs to Eulachnini tribes and Lachninae subfamily, which in the light of the latest molecular studies have turned out to be the basal group for the other aphids. Aphids of the Cinara genus (Hemiptera: Aphidoidea) includes about 200 species in the World and infest lignified parts, branches, trunks, roots and leaves of Pinaceae (especially Pinus, Cedrus, Abies and Picea )and Cupressaceae trees. Cinara species were identified according to the host plants where they colonize. Turkey distribution of this genus unknown exactly because of lack of enough studies on aphids. In the earlier studies, only 23 Cinara species were known from Turkey. As a result of these studies, 29 Cinara species collected on different plant species (Pinus spp., Cedrus spp., Juniperus spp., Cupressus spp., Plathyclaudus spp., Picea spp. and Abies nordmanniana) in the areas and 7 of them are new records for Turkey. The number of Cinara species occurring in Turkey has risen to 30 with these studies. Their world and Turkey distribution, host plants and population density were given. 
12 Morphological, anatomical and micromorphological characterization of  Rhamnus microcarpa (Rhamnaceae)  , Özgür EMİNAĞAOĞLU, Melahat ÖZCAN, Funda ERŞEN BAK, Emrah YÜKSEL, Hayal AKYILDIRIM BEĞEN
In this study, general morphological characteristics, the leaf and wood anatomical characteristics and, leaf micromorphological features of Rhamnus microcarpa, which is native in Artvin were investigated in detail. Leaves broadly ovate, 3.0-5.5 x 1.9-3.9 cm; stipules 4-7 mm; pinnately 7-10 veined; petiol 615 mm. Bud scales dark brown transverse band at the base.  Wood was semi-ring porous to ring porous, rays heterocellular, fibers thick-walled especially in latewood. In leaves, dorsiventral mesophyll, hypostomatic type stomata and simple unicellular trichomes observed. Also, epicuticle scales in the lower leaf surface observed. 
13 Evaluation of antibacterial activity of Triticum monococcum seeds, Castanea sativa seeds and Begonia maculata leaves against several bacterial strains  , Ertuğrul Osman BURSALIOĞLU
There are serious research projects to prevent the bacteria to antibiotics. Thus, scientists are looking for new antibiotic derivatives using plants. Einkorn wheat seeds (Triticum monococcum), Chestnut seed (Castanea sativa) and Begonia leaves were used for antibacterial tests on bacterial strain. The study of antibacterial effects of Einkorn wheat seed and begonia leaves has not been seen in the literature. The antimicrobial effects of these plant leaves and seeds were investigated in Muller-Hilton media at 37 Co for 48 hours. After incubation, all plates were observed for zones of growth inhibition. The parameters of these zones were measured in millimeters. All tests were performed under sterile conditions and repeated three times. It was observed that the wheat and chestnut seeds had no antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. However, they have been found to have a significant antibacterial effect against Escherichia coli bacteria. Furthermore, antimicrobial effects of Begonia maculata leaves against E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeroginosa bacteria were investigated. E. coli bacteria were affected by the leaves more than the other bacteria. K. pneumoniae bacteria were affected less while P. aeruginosa bacteria were affected the least. 
14 Determination of a monumental Quercus coccifera tree in Gökçeada  , Ünal AKKEMİK, Hatice YILMAZ, Osman Yalçın YILMAZ, Orhan SEVGİ, Ece SEVGİ 
Monumental trees, which have an important place in the tree-human relationship, are important symbols of admiration and love for the tree. Trees such as Quercus coccifera L. (Kermes oak), which are generally represented by individuals in the form of bushes, are extremely rare. In Turkey, an individual has reached monumental dimensions of the nine so far detected Kermes oak tree was also found in Gökçeada. The purpose of the paper is to establish a scientific base for the monumental value of this tree to be registered as a monumental tree. The Kermes oak tree, whose trunk diameter (at 1.30 m) is 106 cm and its length is 12,5 m, has been determined as ŞAD (Current Monumental Value)> Item Value (Minimum Monumental Value) 69> 44. This tree with a chapel in the field is part of this religious facility. Therefore, it would be appropriate to register it as a monumental tree in terms of both dimensional and folkloric aspects. 
15 Diversity of ants species in different habitat mosaics of Acharya Jagadish Chandra Bose Indian Botanical Garden (Howrah, West Bengal, India)  , Arka GOSWAMI, Arijit CHATTERJEE,  Sheela SAROJ 
Ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) occupy a wide range of ecological niches and exploit various food resources either as herbivores or as predators or scavengers. This study establishes the diversity of ants in an ex-situ conservation site dedicated for plants known as Indian Botanical garden situated amidst a congested city.  It also documents the relation of ant community structure with different habitat mosaics present within this protected area. For this study pit fall trap was used as collection method and amalgamated within quadrat sampling (total 16 quadrats and each quadrat contains 9 pit fall traps placed uniformly) distributed in four different habitats and repeated in two consecutive months. All the specimens were collected, preserved and identified meticulously. Total 27 species of ants from 19 genera and 6 subfamilies are documented from the whole study area. This study also reflects differences in diversity among the habitats. Among different habitats present in the Indian Botanic Garden, ‘Garden-Nurseries’ (Shannon_H =2.214 and Simpson_1-D=0.8333) and ‘Wild Bushes and Tree groves’ (Shannon_H =2.105 and Simpson_1-D=0.8182) are two most diverse habitats and ‘Open scrubland with grasses’ is the most dominant one (Dominance_D = 0.4354, Berger-Parker = 0.6512, Shannon_H =1.521 and Simpson_1-D=0.5646). This study clearly gives an idea about the community structure of the ants and reflects its relation with the habitats in a man-made ex-situ conservation site which establish the stability and conditions of this ecosystem.
16 Determination of demands and expectations of visitors using forest recreation sites: Erzurum example  , Mehmet Ali BAŞARAN, Metin DEMİR, Yaşar AYHAN, Cevdet AĞYÜREK,  Mehmet Akif OKUTUCU, Selami ÖKSÜZ 
This study aims to determine the recreational potential of 7 In-Forest Resting Areas (FRA) located within the boundaries of Erzurum province with the characteristics of “C” and “B” type recreation areas, to identify the deficiencies and to identify solutions for this issue by determining the use of new proposed areas. it is made. Within the scope of the study, İspir-Hoşutlar, Oltu-Uzunoluk, Olur-Akdağ, Horasan-Fiday, Uzundere-Zuvarboğazı, Şenkaya-H. Mehmet Sırma and Narman-Göllü FRA areas were visited between May and October to the extent permitted by the region's seasonal conditions, and data were collected on site observation and areas. In addition, in a face-to-face survey study conducted with 479 people visiting the sites by simple random method, 10 questions were asked to the visitors in order to reveal their current status and visitor views regarding the social, cultural and physical conditions of the areas. Data collected at the end of the questionnaire were evaluated in SPSS 21.0 statistical package program and frequency tables were extracted. Evaluations were made on the tables.