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Philippine Journal of Natural and Social Sciences

Journal Papers (23) Details Call for Paper Manuscript submission Publication Ethics Contact Authors' Guide Line
1 Phytochemical Screening and Antifungal Property of Saluyot (Corchorus olitorius) , John Irel R Badua, Lawrence Keir R Badua
Discovery of locally-available medications for simple bodily pains and conditions has always been a challenge which even young professionals endeavor to help with. This study aimed to test the effectiveness of Saluyot (C. olitorius) as antifungal in terms of Zone of Inhibition (ZoI) and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). It also sought to know the Phytochemicals present in Saluyot extract. Saluyot leaves were gathered, washed and sliced into small pieces. The chopped leaves were placed in an Erlenmeyer’s flask with ethanol and macerated for three (3) days. After the maceration, Phytochemical Screening was done. The extraction was done after the Phytochemical Screening. The extract was tested against Trichophiton mentagrophytes in four different concentrations (100%, 75%, 50%, 25%) with Canesten as the standard drug using the Disc Diffusion Method. The sterile paper discs were soaked in four different concentrations and in Canesten. The treatments were applied then the ZOI was measured using a ruler. The Phytochemical Screening revealed that Saluyot (C. olitorius) contain flavonoids and tannins, this means it is potential as antifungal.  The control drug (Canesten) showed the widest ZOI with the mean of 22 mm. The pure extract (100%) displayed a mean ZOI of 15.33 mm while the 75% concentration showed 04.67mm. The 50% and 25% concentration displayed the same mean ZOI of 13.33mm. Therefore the MIC was the 25%. Statistical treatment revealed that there is a significant difference between Saluyot and Canesten (Pvalue=6.05E-06).
2 Dayap (Citrus aurantifolia) Peel Aqueous Extract As Treatment For Hypercholesterolemia In Rabbits   , Ma. Chin V. Ferrer, Jonara Louise A. Carino, Emmanuel L. David, Lovely Joy S. Sarmiento, Renyl Anthony A. Mamayson, Jean Leah J. Mangapot  
This study mainly focused on the determination of the effect of Dayap peelaqueous extract in treating hypercholesterolemia in rabbit. Specifically, it sought to find the active constituents in Dayap peel aqueous extract. Also, to find the level of effectiveness of Dayap peel aqueous extract in lowering blood cholesterol level in rabbits and its significant difference to the positive control in terms of their ability to lower blood cholesterol in rabbits.   The Dayap leaves were subjected to maceration, extraction and Phytochemical screening. The Aqueous extract of the leaves were tested in rabbits in 95% concentration. The study proves that there is a presence of Alkaloids and Tannins based on the results of the Phytochemical Screening Analysis enabling it to have the ability to lower blood cholesterol level. Treatment 1 or the Dayap peel aqueous extract was effective in treating hypercholesterolemia in rabbits with 15 mg/dl mean of reduction in blood cholesterol level. There is a significant difference between 95% concentration of Dayap peel aqueous extract, positive control which is the Atorvastatin and negative control which is the no treatment applied.   Based on the result of the study; the use of Dayap peel are highly recommended in reducing cholesterol level. The researchers recommended the cultivation of this plant from a prevalent study of its other parts that should be commenced to find out the other properties that can be used for treatment of hypercholesterolemia and other diseases.
3 Phytoextraction Potential of Chamber Bitter (Phyllanthus niruri Linn.) and Climbing Dayflower (Commelina diffusa Burm. F.) in Low-to-high Concentration of Lead and Copper in Artificially-contaminated Soil , Ma. Rebecca L. Garcia, Corvin Jan S. Bangsal, Jun S. Camara  
The aim of this study is to determine the potential of Chamber Bitter (Phyllanthusniruri L.) and Climbing Dayflower (Commelina diffusa Burm. f.) as a phytoextractor of lowand high concentration of lead and copper in artificially-contaminated soil. There were eight experimental treatments and two controlled groups with three replicates each. The two plants were pot-grown and watered with low and high concentrations of lead and copper (75mg kg-1Pb, 150mg kg-1Pb, and 75mg kg-1Cu, 150mg kg-1Cu) for 28 days. To analyse the phytoextraction potential, the absorbance values of lead and copper were tested through Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry.   Statistical analysis using t-test of independence revealed no significant difference on the level of absorption of lead and copper using Climbing Dayflower (p= 0.039833); (p= 0.782775), and Chamber Bitter (p = 0.037926); (p = 0.690410) in low concentration level (75ppm) and high concentration level (150ppm), respectively. Additionally, there is no significant difference on the potentiality of the two plant type in absorbing lead (p = 0.603374) and copper (p = 0.945937). On the other hand, using two-way ANOVA, it showed a significant difference on the absorbed concentration level of lead at 75ppm/1.5L and 150ppm/1.5L (Fc0.05; 1>Ft; 0. 6.319734 > 5.317655)   The researchers therefore concluded that Chamber Bitter and Climbing Dayflower can absorb some traces but not sufficient to be an effective phytoextractor of lead. However, Chamber Bitter and Climbing Dayflower are good candidates as phytoextractor of copper-contaminated soils in low and high concentration as revealed that the two species have reached the standard values.  
4 Antibacterial Activity of Santan Ixora coccinea Flowers Extract againstStaphylococcus epidermidis and Acinetobacter baumannii   , Avemar Ianna D. Entendencia, Jocelyn G. Merrera  
This research study was conducted to determine the potency of the Santanflowers to inhibit the growth of the two selected bacteria. It underwent the processes: collecting, washing, weighing, and extracting of Santan flowers, preparation of culture media, paper discs distribution to the plate of bacteria, incubating the plate of bacteria, and measuring of inhibition zone.   The researcher used the Complete Randomized Design (CRD) to identify and find out its capability. The components of each treatment were as follows: Treatment 0 contains the control variable which is the Cloxacillin and Ceftazidime; Treatment 1 contains 50% concentration of Santan flowers extract; Treatment 2 contains 75% concentration of santan flowers extract; and Treatment 3 contains 100% pure concentration of santan flowers extract.   Data revealed in terms of zone of inhibition (mm) that the Fcomp (1.33 and 4.33) is less than Ftab, it implies that there is no significant difference between the 3 experimental treatments there they are comparable to each other. Moreover, Tcomp value of (10.9961 and 10.0060) for Treatment 3 which yielded the highest mean value of (14.67 and 15.33) is greater than the Ttab value of (2.776), it implies that there is a significant difference between the experimental treatment and the commercial available in inhibiting the growth of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Acinetobacter baumannii. Therefore, Santan flowers extract is effective in inhibiting the growth of skin-infectious bacteria Staphylococcus epidermidis and Acinetobacter baumannii.
5 In Vitro and In Vivo studies on the Molluscicidal Property of leaves and roots extract of Palmera (Dypsis lutescens)   , Judy Ann C. Castro, Jun S. Camara  
Rice is the most extensively grown crop in the country, planted in about 30% ofthe total agricultural area harvested. Golden apple snail infestation is still the major problem especially in newly-transplanted seedling because they chew, pierce, suck and bite rice plants that cause great damage. To avert the situation, the application of botanical molluscicide is very necessary. With this, the researcher investigated the potential use of palmera as molluscicide against female golden apple snail. Single-factor ANOVA (Fc0.05, 11<Ft; 2.5<4.07) failed to reject the hypothesis that no significant difference exists between the treatment groups and control in the in vitro. This means that the leaf and root formulations are comparable to the commercially-available molluscicide. Single-factor ANOVA (Fc0.05, 11>Ft; 4.67>4.07) rejected the hypothesis that no significant difference exists between the treatment groups and control in the in vivo study Sheffes test reported a significant difference between T2 (root extract) and the control (Sure kill). It implies that the commercially-available molluscicide (Sure kill, X=96.7%) is comparable on its level of effectiveness to the T1 (leaf extract, X=80.0%) and T3 (leaf+root extract, X=86.7%), but is more effective than T2 (root extract, X=76.7%). The researcher concluded the following: (1) The Palmera is effective as molluscicide against female Golden Apple Snail; (2) The commercially-available molluscicide (Sure Kill) is comparable to the treatments in the in vitro study but was found to be more effective than the root extract of palmera in the in vivo study. The researcher recommends the use of Palmera leaves and roots as an alternative to expensive molluscicides for economical purposes.
6 Antioxidant Activity of Talahib (Saccharum spontaneum) Leaves Ethanolic Extract through DPPH Assay   , Angela Kate F. dela Pena, Jun S. Camara  
International attention has been focused on natural antioxidants mainly from plant sources  to prevent and/or cure the disorders caused by free radicals but it is often highly expensive and many people cannot afford it so with this, the researcher aimed to determine the antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract from the leaves of Saccharum spontaneum.             Single-factor ANOVA shows that there is a significant difference between the different concentrations (40%, 70% and 95%) of ethanolic extract of talahib leaves and the commercially available drug, (ascorbic acid) as antioxidant agent. Scheffes’ Test reported that all the concentrations’ treatments give significance. Scatter plot shows positive correlation on the average absorbance of different concentrations of talahib leaves extract. This means that as the amount of Talahib extract increases, the absorbance rate increases as well. Further, the lowest concentration (40%) ethanolic extract of Talahib leaves gives the highest absorbance rate of DPPH Assay which means, it has the highest antioxidant activity.             The research shows that the Talahib (Saccharum spontaneum) leaves ethanolic extract has antioxidant activity; The 40% concentration of Talahib (Saccharum spontaneum) leaves ethanolic extract gives the highest absorbance level of DPPH Assay; and Statistical data revealed that the Talahib (Saccharum spontaneum) leaves ethanolic extracts are as effective as the commercially available drug (ascorbic acid) as antioxidant agent.The researcher recommends the production of tablet which is made of Talahib leaves extract to harness this property. Replication of the study is highly encouraged to established validity of findings. that Talahib leaves should be formulated as a tablet.
7 Learning Styles of the Grade 8-Special Science Class Students of one Performing High School in Pangasinan   , Jetro D. Pajo  
Learning is a continuous process and one of its acquired factors is the learningstyles. This study aimed to determine the different learning styles of the Grade 8-Special Science Class students of one performinghigh school that were enrolled in the year 2016-2017.             The main instrument used in this study was a survey questionnaire which was adapted and formulated by the researcher and used to answer the problem of the study. The survey questionnaire was adapted and formulated by consolidating the research adviser and the panel members. The study revealed that (1.) The Grade 8- Special Science Class is female dominated, mostly composed of aged 12-13 years old, they have 95-91 in General Average Last School Year. (2.) Generally, the Grade 8- Special Science Class enrolled in oner performing high school for S.Y. 2016-2017 are of the Visual Preference Category. (3.) Based on the findings, there is a highly significant relationship between gender and level of preference of the Grade8- Special Science Class. (4.) Based on the findings, an action plan format was made.
8 Molluscicidal Activity of Garlic (Allium sativum) Bulb Aqueous Extract against Golden Apple Snail (Pomacea canaliculata)   , Justin Ralph G. Garin, Justin Marc Arvie N. Alcantara, Chea Francelle G. Biagtan, Jean Leah J. Mangapot  
Generally, this study aims to identify the molluscicidal activity of Garlic bulbaqueous extract on eliminating Golden Apple Snail. Specifically, it seeks to determine the active constituents present on Garlic that are responsible for killing the Golden Apple Snail and to determine which concentration the highest molluscicidal effect on Golden Apple Snail and its significant difference between the positive control in terms of their ability on eliminating Golden Apple Snail.   The Garlic was gathered, cut and weighed. The Garlic was subjected to maceration, extraction and Phytochemical screening analysis. After the test was done, four different concentrations were prepared for the study. Using a different test, the different concentrations were tested. The study was able to prove that the presence of Alkaloids and Tannins which certifies its molluscicidal activity. The 95% concentration of Garlic Bulb Aqueous Extract with a Molluscicidal Activity mean of 20 yields best among the treatment used. Since -2.62>5.99 does not satisfy the rule, therefore, the four different treatments, the positive control, and the negative control did not differ significantly.   Based on the results of the study, the used of Garlic Bulb Aqueous Extract are highly recommended to kill Golden Apple Snails (Pomacea Canaliculata). The researcher recommended the cultivation of this plant from a prevalent study of its other parts that should be commenced to find out the other properties that can be used to kill Golden Apple Snails (Pomacea Canaliculata). Since Garlic can be easily found in the country, the researchers recommend that this study will be introduced to the public.
9 The Volt’Air: A Hand Held Dual Purpose Fan   , Alexis B. Acosta, Jun S. Camara  
Recent data report that only 22% of the electricitycomes from the renewable energy resources, the other percentage comes from non- renewable resources which emits pollutants and costs a lot. This study aimed to design and construct a hand held dual purpose fan. Further, it aimed to evaluate the acceptability of the fan. The fan was designed and constructed using recyclable materials. The steps involved designing and construction of the fan, measuring the output voltage of the fan, and acceptability evaluation of the fan.   The fan was designed and constructed using recyclable materials. The steps involved designing and construction of the fan, measuring the output voltage of the fan, and acceptability evaluation of the fan. The researcher came up with the design of the fan. Further, the researcher found out the fan is acceptable in terms of ease of operation, ease of handling, durability, and production cost. Furthermore, the researcher was also able to record the amount of electricity generated by the fan.   The researcher concludes that the design of the fan is simple yet functional which can be used as a phone charger and for light bulb illumination. Further, the fan is acceptable in terms of ease of operation, ease of handling, durability, and production cost and is able to generate electricity. Furthermore, there is no significant difference between the fan and commercially-available fan in terms of phone charging and light bulb illumination—the commercially available fan is not self-charging, unlike the designed fan. The researcher also recommends to create a prototype of the fan for commercial use.
10 Volvariella volvacea and its Performance on Corncobs as Bedding Substrates   , John Rommel T. Retuya, Juel Rei S. Gacusan  
The V. volvacea was one of the most cultivated edible mushroom in the world, it actually ranks 6th worldwide due to its fast growth rate and easy cultivation process. The use of agricultural wastes was one of the most recommended bedding substrates when growing V. volvacea for its high abundance and good quality as bedding substrates. Also, turning agricultural wastes into mushroom substrates helps in minimizing agricultural wastes and its harmful environment effects especially when they are burned after harvesting period. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of V. volvacea when grown in corn cobs as bedding substrates in terms of the number of days to developed primordia, the size of pileus and stipe of basidiocarp produced and the weight of basidiocarp produced. A completely randomized research design was used in the study with two treatments, T1 (100% corncobs), T2 (80% maize stem + 20% corn cobs) and a controlgroup (100% banana leaves). One way ANOVA revealed that no significant difference exist between the performance of V. volvacea grown in the treatment groups and control group. This implies that use of corncobs as bedding substrate is comparable to banana leaves in terms of the number of days to develop primordia, size of pileus size of stipe and weight of basidiocarp produced. A further study on the use of corn cobs as bedding substrate in several mushroom propagation methods is one of the recommendations given in the study.
11 Perceived Impact of 4Ps among Student Beneficiaries in Two Towns in Pangasinan   , Mary Ann R. Manaois  
The Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program is human development and conditional cash transfer program of the government of the Philippines under the Department of Social Welfare and Development (GOVPH n.d.). The 4Ps focuses on the welfare assistance and development of its members - including students. With this, this research aimed to determine the effect of 4Ps benefits among its student beneficiaries in Manaoag and San Jacinto, Pangasinan. Among them, the researcher selected 70 respondents through a quota sampling method. The respondents answered a questionnaire concerning their demographic profile and perception on the level of satisfaction of 4Ps benefits in three areas - health, nutrition, education.  With the use of frequency distribution and percentage, average weighted mean, and spearman rho, it revealed the perceived satisfaction level of the respondents in terms of health as Satisfied (X=3.04); nutrition as More than Satisfied (X=3.76); education as Extremely Satisfied (X=4.36). It also showed that the parents’ occupation and satisfaction level were independent of each other. The relationship between their monthly income and level of satisfaction in terms of H1, H2, H3, N2, N3, E4, and E5 is statistically insignificant, while the relationship between monthly income and N1, N3, E1, E2, E3, E5 is significant. Therefore, 4Ps benefits have a positive and significant effect on student beneficiaries that revealed a “More than Satisfied” level.
12 21st Century Teaching Style of Special Science Teachers in One Performing School in Pangasinan   , SharyNieza O. Del Campo  
Style in teaching as in art, music, athletics, managing people, and other areas of endeavor is not something that is put on for occasion. Otherwise it becomes a superficial covering, mask, or collection of interesting mannerisms that are used to create an impression.  This study aimed to identify the level of perception of Special Science Class (SSC) teachers in 21st century teaching style at San Jacinto National High School. This study involved thirty-six (36) Special Science Class teachers in San Jacinto National High School and the researcher uses stratified random sampling. The study was conducted using a survey questionnaire distributed to 36 Special Science teachers. The developed survey questionnaire is divided into two (2) parts. The part I is consist of the personal profile of the Special Science Class teachers using the variables: age, gender, educational qualification, and years in service. The part II is consist of the level of perception of 21st century teaching styles as perceived by the Special Science Class teachers using Grasha’s Teaching Style (1996). The study revealed that the Special Science Class teachers that was use as the respondents are aged 31-40 which is 47% of the population, and most of them are females (67%) who graduated in Bachelor’s Degree (53%) and 1-10 years in service (73%). Furthermore, the participants perceived themselves as Expert Style as their 21st century teaching style interpreted as Very Highly Perceived. In addition, there is no significant relationship between personal profile and level of perception of the Special Science Class teachers.
13 Dual-Purpose Portable Compressor (DPP Compressor): A Prototype   , John Irel R. Badua, Jun S. Camara  
This study aimed to develop and test the effectiveness of the proposed Dual-Purpose Portable Compressor as chalk recycler and as trash compactor. The researcher developed the design, collected the materials, and assembled the compressor. The compressor was tested as chalk recycler where chalk dust is mixed with water and was compressed, sun-dried, and evaluated. The researcher tested the compressor as trash compactor by measuring the volume of compacted bottles. The acceptability was administered after. The researcher found out that the Dual-Purpose Portable Compressor is effective as a chalk recycler and trash compactor. The compressor can compact trash by 51.2 % and is there is significant difference between the original volume of the bottle to its compacted volume. The compressor is very acceptable. The researcher recommends to create prototype for the use of the general public.
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15 In vivo and in vitro Colletotrichum fruit rot inhibiting Activity of Parol-Parolan (Cardiospermum halicacabum L.) Leaves and Stem Extract on Post-Harvest Eggplant (Solanum melongena)   , Jemina D. Julian  
This study aimed to determine the anti-fungal activity of Parol-parolan (Cardiospermum halicacabum L.)leaves and stem extract against eggplant fruit (Solanum melongena) fungi (Colletotrichum meloganae).The study employed Complete Randomized Design (CRD) whereas effectiveness was tested by determining the zone of inhibition and minimum inhibitory concentration of Parol- parolan leaves and stem extract. Significant differences were also tested between the treatments in the inhibition of Colletotrichum meloganae. In Vitro antifungal activity was tested by the used of agar disc diffusion method. There are 15 eggplant fruits utilized in In Vivo Testing, in which 12 eggplant fruits were employed in treatment group and 3 in control group. The treated eggplant fruits were qualitatively assessed for three (3) consecutive days. Findings revealed that the 50% of the leaves and stem extract is the minimum inhibitory concentration with the zone of inhibition of 13.33mm. The 100% leaves and stem extract showed the most effective (15.33mm) among the treatments with its 85% percent of effectivity. The 75% and 50% leaves and stem extractsshowed the low zone of inhibition activity (14.67 mm and 13.33mm).Furthermore, One-way ANOVA analysis revealed that there is a significant differences between the performance of the treatments and control in inhibition of Colletotrichum meloganae. However, there is no significant difference between the Parol-parolan extract and the commercially available antifungal. Nevertheless, the researcher recommended that Parol- parolan extract is a good antifungal source.
16 ARK (Auto – Relay Knock) Door Lock   , Cassandra E. Malicdem, Olivia Gale C. Horca, Ciamyr Joy P. Serapion, Neswin Kate V. Fernandez, Lord Lee D. Tuyor, Jean Leah J. Mangapot  
The study entitled ARK (Auto–Relay Knock) Door Lock aimed to develop andconstruct a door lock that detects knock pattern and activated via Android Software. Specifically, this study sought to answer the following questions: (1) What is the difference between the ARK Door Lock and the ordinary door lock in terms its features, design and function; (2) What is the level of effectiveness in using an ARK Door Lock in terms of usability and workmanship; and (3) What is the level of satisfaction of the ARK Door Lock in relaying information?   The Researchers used the experimental design as the research design of the study. The wooden door was assembled while the device was constructed. An Android Software was created to serve as the indicating app if the device is able to detect any sound. The device was attached to the wooden door and was evaluated by 27 respondents in the municipality consisting of students, teachers and engineers. The data gathered was statistically analyzed using weighted mean.   The result of the study shows that the ARK Door Lock differs widely from the ordinary door locks, Effective in usability and workmanship and Satisfying in Relaying Information. The researchers recommend the use of ARK Door Lock as a device that heightens the security of homes and properties. Improvement of the mechanics of the device is also recommended.
17 Temperature Controlled Electric Fan   , Kristine Joy A. Biagtan, Katrina A. Lalas, Ryan Phillip S. Bernal, Jean Leah J. Managpot  
This study generally aimed to create a temperature controlled electric fan. Specifically, this study sought to answer the following question: (1) How many hours can the temperature control electric fan function continuously? (2) How high/low is the temperature needed by the machine to make the propeller rotate fast/slow? (3) What is the level of effectiveness of the Temperature Controlled Electric Fan in terms of usability, workmanship and durability? The researchers used 3 phases: Phase 1 was the gathering of materials, Phase 2 was the assembly and construction of the device, and phase 3 was the testing of the device. Based on the result, the machine can function continuously in a span of 3 to 4 hours and the device needs 18 to 45 degree Celsius to make the propeller work fast/slow. The results showed that the device is effective. The use of the device is hereby recommended.
18 Hepatoprotective Effect Of Kangkong (Ipomoea Aquatica) Leaf In Sprague Dawley Rats   , Francine Sophia A. Wayas, Princess Jescel T. Fernandez, Jan Dale D. Zarate, Jomaelou Tamayo, Nicole C. Dedomo, Crisandra Ruffa Mae A. Villota, Jean Leah Mangapot  
This study is focused on the determination and evaluation of thehepatoprotectivity of Kangkong leaf ethanolic extract. It sought to find the active chemical constituents present in the plant materials and which concentration yields the highest and lowest hepatoprotective effect.   The Phytochemical screening was done to the plant and identified the following compounds: Alkaloids, Flavonoids, Tannins and Unsaturated Esterols which are responsible in preventing liver damage. The study used Sprague Dawley Rats to test the hepatoprotectivity of Kangkong. Result shows that the Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) level and Creatinine level increased from the initial to the last reading. It also shows that the alt level of the rats increased on the 95% concentration during the last reading. And the 95% concentration of Kangkong leaf extract attained the highest Hepatoprotective effect while the 50% concentration of Kangkong leaf attained the lowest Hepatoprotective effect   Based on the findings and conclusion recorded, researchers recommend the following: Improve this study by undergoing more laboratory test to discover other factors/components which should be added in the potency of the Kangkong leaf extract. To use other part of the Kangkong plant should be done to find out the other properties that can be used to cure other liver diseases. Since Kangkong is positive for its Hepatoprotective effect, it is recommended that the plant can be further exposed to isolation and characterization of its active constituents for hepatoprotective activity.
19 Synergistic Activity of Calamansi (Citrofortunella microcarpa), Riped Guava (Psidium guajava) and Gumamela (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis) Flower Extracts As Body Scrub   , Kidd Cholo A. Alfante, Glorybelle F. Suratos, Kyla L. Dayrit  
The researchers devolved on the study of Synergistic Activity of Calamansi(Citrofortunella microcarpa), Riped Guava (Psidium guajava) and Gumamela Flower (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis) as Body Scrub. This study search for the phytochemical presence,what treatment and level of concentrations (10ml, 15ml, 20ml) shows the lowest and highest effectiveness and if there any significant difference between researcher’s product to the commercial body scrub (Glam Works).                                                   All the plants under maceration and filtration prior to the phytochemical process: Screening for Alkaloids, Unsaturated Sterols and Triterpenes, Flavoniods, Steroid Glycosides, Saponins, Tannin and Phenolic Compound, Anthraquinone Heterosides and Cyanogenic Glycosides. For the treatment preparation: combine sea salt, virgin coconut oil and honey. Mix well then add powdered milk, calamansi, riped guava, and gumamela extracts.   Results shows that the use of Calamansi (Citrofortunella microcarpa),Riped Guava (Psidium guajava) and Gumamela Flower (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis) are highly recommendedto a person with dry skins and dead skin cells. It’s also safer and economical than the commercial body scrub ( Glam Works). The researchers concluded that the mixture of Calamansi (Citrofortunella microcarpa), Riped Guava (Psidium guajava) and Gumamela Flower (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis) extracts is effective as an alternative body scrub. Applying 10 ml of calamansi, 15 ml of riped guava and 15 ml of gumamela flower extracts is effective as an alternative body scrub.
20 The Feasibility of Bilimbi (Averrhoa bilimbi) Fruit and Oregano (Origanum vulgare) Leaf Extract as a Potential Facial Moisturizer , Akira P. Pirante, Charm G. Garcia, Cindie Mae T. Caliwliw, Jean Leah Mangapot
This study generally focused on making and evaluation of facial moisturizer frombilimbi fruit and oregano leaf extract. Specifically, it sought to find out the active constituents present in the plants material. It also aimed to determine the level of effectiveness from the product as an alternative facial moisturizer.   Phytochemical screening was done to the plants and the result shows that bilimbi fruit extract contains Alkaloids, Tannins and Phenolic Compound while the oregano leaf extract contains Alkaloids, Unsaturated Sterols and Triterpenes, Flavonoids, Steroid (Cardio active glycosides), Tannin and Phenolic Compound. After the test was done, four concentrations were prepared for the treatments. The 95% concentration of the extract performs the highest facial moisturizer with 75% effectivity.   Based on the results, the usage of bilimbi fruit and oregano leaves could be a potential moisturizer which can treat dry skin and can protect sensitive skin and improve skin tone. The researchers recommend further study about the plants and its uses. The researchers’ recommend the use of the other parts of the two plants to seek for its best alternative material for potential facial moisturizers.
21 Mushroom Shelf: An Intervention on Mushroom Propagation   , John Rommel T. Retuya, Jordan P. Pasana, Rovellyn Baladad  
The use of alternative propagation method aside from mushroom beds has been the new area of research and development in the field of agriculture. A propagation method that is productive for both dry and wet season is the center ideology of this study. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of Rice Straw Mushroom (V, volvacea) when grown in mushroom shelf, an intervention for mushroom propagation. A completely randomizedresearch design was used in the study with two treatments (T1 (100% corn cobs), T2(20% maize stem + 80% corn cobs) and a control group (100 % banana leaves with replications in both mushroom shelf and non-mushroom shelf with a total of 18 beddings. Two-Way Factor ANOVA revealed that growing V. volvacea in mushroom shelf is comparable when grown in the non-shelf planting (traditional method) in terms of size of pileus, size of stipe, and weight of basidiocarp produced but not as to number of days to developed primordia. Further, no significant interaction exists between the performance of V. volvacea in the type of substrates and use of shelf in terms of the size of pileus, size of stipe and weight of basidiocarp produced but not as to number of days to developed primordia.  Adaptation of mushroom shelf planting on mushroom propagation is one of the recommendations given in the study.
22 Atmospheric Detection of Industrialized Lead Particulate Contaminated Air using Sphagnum Moss (Sphagnum spp.)   , Arrianne Eszra D. Oclay, Bianca Dianne DV Ballesteros, CJ Lefran E. Pulido, Kayla Gayle C. Raymundo  
            Environmental safety needs to be humanity’s number one priority. This study was conducted to determine the amount of dry-deposited Pb that can be adsorbedby the Spaghnum moss (Sphagnum spp.) and determine its effectiveness in detecting the amount of dry-deposited Pb in different pre-identifiedstations in Pangasinan Philippines. The study employed Randomized Complete Block Design. Based on the results, the difference between the Pb concentration before and after the exposure exceeds the standard tolerable limit of Pb in the ambient air set by the National Ambient Air Guideline System (NAAGS) of the Philippine Clean Air Act (RA 8749) and National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) set by US EPA which is 1.5 µg·m3. ANOVA Analysis showed no significant difference between the concentrations of the dry-deposited Pb along the three stations in the first trial. Moreover, statistical valuesshowed a significant difference between the mean dry-deposited Pb concentrationbefore and after exposure of the Sphagnum moss in Station 1. Station 1 detected the highest concentration of dry-deposited Pb while Stations 2 and 3 showed the least concentration of dry-deposited lead.                         Further, a significant difference was found among the three stations of the Sphagnum moss in detecting the amount of dry-deposited Pb. However, the researchers also found out that there is no significant effect on the degree of effectiveness of the Sphagnum moss in detecting the amount of lead particulates in each station. Replication in other regions of the study is recommended, among other things.
23 Atsuete (Bixa orellana L.) Seeds and Alugbati (Basella alba L.) Stem Ethanolic Extract as Potential Hair Dye Tested via Spectrophotometry   , John V. Bernardo, Hazel E. Laureta  
Coloring agents were obtained from natural sources such as plants and animals.The biosphere is gifted as more than 500 plant species which yield natural dyes.With the worldwide concern over the use of eco-friendly and biodegradable materials, the use of natural dyes has undoubtedly once again gained interest and momentum. This study aimed to analyse the level of absorbance and (%) transmission of Atsuete seeds and Alugbati stem dye extract through spectrophotometer as potential hair dye substitute synthetic hair dye. Parallel group design was used in this study with three treatments groups and one control group and was subjected to spectrophometric analysis at 200nm, 250m, and 400-550nm. Results showed that Treatment3 is the most potential hair dye coloring agent because it absorbs less light from ultraviolet to visible light and this may protect the hair strands from being brittle due to light absorption of color applied in the hair stands. Further, Treatment3 has the highest transmission among the treatment and control groups with transmission of 6.028%-6.300% at 200-250nm respectively; and 99.46% at 400-550nm. High Transmission property of Treatment3 can protect the hair from phototendering due to light when applied by this dye. Generally, this study found that combination of dyes from plant can enhance light transmission to help protect hair structure and color from sunlight exposure and that atsuete and alugbati have a potential as hair dye. Recommendation for home-made use for the said extract is recommended.