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IOER INTERNATIONAL MULTIDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH JOURNAL

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2 CONSTRUCTIVISM AND PEDAGOGICAL PRACTICES OF SCIENCE TEACHERS , JOEFREY R. CHAN1, JOANNA MARIE A. DE BORJA2, JAYSON L. DE VERA3,                                    JHUN G. HIMOLDANG4, RYAN V. LANSANGAN5, MARK GILL M. MERCADO6,                                HAZEL DR. SAMALA7, ABEGAIL A. SOLIMAN8 https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5644-34711, https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7684-1602, https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4307-65023, jhun.himoldang@yahoo.com4,       https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1950-94245, https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4868-62466, https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3594-97617, https://orcid/0000-0002-5401-64098 jupri_4@live.com1, deborja.jma@pnu.edu.ph2, devera.jl@pnu.edu.ph3, jhun.himoldang@yahoo.com4, rvlansangan@ust.edu.ph5, mmarkgill@gmail.com6, hdrsamala@pup.edu.ph7, soliman.aa@pnu.ed.ph8 DepEd City of Manila1, Philippine Normal University2,3, National University4,                                              University of Sto. Tomas5, Central Luzon State University6,                                                                          Polytechnic University of the Philippines7, DepEd San Juan City8
This study generally aimed to determine how the theory of constructivism has been translated into pedagogical practices of science teachers among the selected schools in Metro Manila. The study utilized case study adapting passive observation, document analysis and semi-structured interview in the data gathering and thematic interpretation in data analysis. Results uncovered that teachers’ practices of planning learning episodes elicit active engagement as an evidence of meaning making. Various learning activities have been conceptualized to thoroughly activate prior knowledge on essential information and concepts and link these to new knowledge being introduced in the lesson through designed activities. The art of questioning has been observed to initiate and induce engagement among learners and was evident in the implementation of different strategies such as pre-assessment, reflection, collaboration, and use of language. Assessment procedures planned and implemented by teachers embodied a constructivist approach in terms of assessing students’ understanding of concepts, creation of new knowledge, and integration of ideas to other disciplines. Results of the study further implied to revisit the curricular preparation of teachers in terms of its alignment to the various postulates of constructivist-approach of teaching and learning. Keywords: Assessment strategies, Constructivism, learning outcomes, pedagogical practices, and teachers’ preparation. 
3 APPLICATION OF WEB 2.0 TOOLS IN TEACHING 21st - CENTURY STUDENTS IN HIGHER EDUCATION IN CALABARZON, PHILIPPINES , DR. MARITES D. OLEA  http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5027-5668 marites.dimaano@yahoo.com  Jesus Savior Montessori Inc.  Batangas City, Philippines
Quality education considered as a crucial factor to produce a competent professional to build a strong nation and to bring out the best way to get along with global competition. Thus, this study aimed to determine the current practices in using Web 2.0 tools in 15 selected Higher Education Institutions in CALABARZON, Philippines concerning communication and collaboration, creativity and innovation, and instructional design. It also considered its level of acceptability for classroom instruction as assessed by administrators, teachers, and students. The level of seriousness of the problems met in the integration relative to teachers’ preparation, curriculum content and administrative support also evaluated. The research design was descriptive survey method with the use of a researcherconstructed questionnaire as the data gathering instrument. The method and instrument employed were deemed appropriate to determine the viability of providing the students with an alternative delivery of learning through Web 2.0 tools for instruction. Weighted mean, T-test and Probability values, Percentage and Standard Deviation, were the statistical tools used to test the hypothesis posited in this study. The hypothesis tested the significant differences between two groups of respondents regarding the extent of use of Web 2.0 tools in classroom instruction. Results revealed that to a very great extent, integration of Web 2.0 tools in the classroom promotes learner to interact, build a learning community and promotes active student participation in the classroom and increases student’s productivity. Based on the findings and conclusions, the researcher developed an offline game-based interactive instructional material that supports instruction and collaboration and could be used to enhance students’ critical thinking and problem-solving skills to achieve better learning outcomes. Keywords: Web 2.0 tools, 21st Century students, Communication and Collaboration, Descriptive method, Higher Education, Philippines 
4 OUTCOMES-BASED SCIENCE INSTRUCTION(OBSI) IN TEACHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS , ZORABEL MARIA A. DELOS REYES                                                                                             http://orcid.org/0000-0002-0762-7602                                                                                       zorabelmaria@yahoo.com                                                                                                                             Manila, Philippines
In the Philippines, the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) requires all higher education institutions to adopt the Outcomes-Based Education(OBE) through its CHED Memorandum 46, s. 2012. This is to cope with the qualifications and standards of 21st -century learners and to produce globally competitive professionals. The focus of this study was to assess the implementation of OutcomesBased Science Instruction (OBSI) for Bachelor of Secondary Education major in Science students of the Teacher Education Institutions(TEI) in Batangas province. It delved into OBSI implementation which refers to learning outcomes, authentic tasks, student-centered approach, and competencies and skills. The study also determined the extent to which OBSI develop students’ competencies relative to laboratory activities, portfolio, project making, research, and investigatory project. The problems encountered in the implementation of OBSI also identified. The descriptive method of research applied in the study with the questionnaire as the data gathering instrument. The OBSI in TEI was evident with refers to learning outcomes, authentic tasks, student-centered approach, and competencies and skills. It developed students' competencies in laboratory activities and investigatory project to a great extent. On the other hand, it developed students’ competencies in the portfolio, project making, and research to a moderate extent. There was a significant relationship between the implementation of OBSI and the development of students’ science competencies. Some problems encountered in OBSI were seldom met, primary of which is the unavailability and insufficiency of equipment, materials, and supplies needed in the laboratory. Proposed outcomes-based activities in science shall further enhance the quality of science instruction. It recommended that the OBSI in the TEI might be strengthened to maximize the students’ competencies and the development of an assessment tool to measure the development of students’ science competencies may be undertaken. Furthermore, future researchers may conduct studies that may be related to the current research in another research locale. Keywords: Outcomes-Based Science Instruction, Teacher Education Institutions, Outcomes-Based Science Activities, Descriptive Method, Higher Education, Philippines 
5 APPLICATION OF WEB 2.0 TOOLS IN TEACHING 21st - CENTURY STUDENTS IN HIGHER EDUCATION IN CALABARZON, PHILIPPINES , DR. MARITES D. OLEA
Quality education considered as a crucial factor to produce a competent professional to build a strong nation and to bring out the best way to get along with global competition. Thus, this study aimed to determine the current practices in using Web 2.0 tools in 15 selected Higher Education Institutions in CALABARZON, Philippines concerning communication and collaboration, creativity and innovation, and instructional design. It also considered its level of acceptability for classroom instruction as assessed by administrators, teachers, and students. The level of seriousness of the problems met in the integration relative to teachers’ preparation, curriculum content and administrative support also evaluated. The research design was descriptive survey method with the use of a researcherconstructed questionnaire as the data gathering instrument. The method and instrument employed were deemed appropriate to determine the viability of providing the students with an alternative delivery of learning through Web 2.0 tools for instruction. Weighted mean, T-test and Probability values, Percentage and Standard Deviation, were the statistical tools used to test the hypothesis posited in this study. The hypothesis tested the significant differences between two groups of respondents regarding the extent of use of Web 2.0 tools in classroom instruction. Results revealed that to a very great extent, integration of Web 2.0 tools in the classroom promotes learner to interact, build a learning community and promotes active student participation in the classroom and increases student’s productivity. Based on the findings and conclusions, the researcher developed an offline game-based interactive instructional material that supports instruction and collaboration and could be used to enhance students’ critical thinking and problem-solving skills to achieve better learning outcomes. Keywords: Web 2.0 tools, 21st Century students, Communication and Collaboration, Descriptive method, Higher Education, Philippines
6 OUTCOMES-BASED SCIENCE INSTRUCTION(OBSI) IN TEACHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS , ZORABEL MARIA A. DELOS REYES  
In the Philippines, the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) requires all higher education institutions to adopt the Outcomes-Based Education(OBE) through its CHED Memorandum 46, s. 2012. This is to cope with the qualifications and standards of 21st -century learners and to produce globally competitive professionals. The focus of this study was to assess the implementation of OutcomesBased Science Instruction (OBSI) for Bachelor of Secondary Education major in Science students of the Teacher Education Institutions(TEI) in Batangas province. It delved into OBSI implementation which refers to learning outcomes, authentic tasks, student-centered approach, and competencies and skills. The study also determined the extent to which OBSI develop students’ competencies relative to laboratory activities, portfolio, project making, research, and investigatory project. The problems encountered in the implementation of OBSI also identified. The descriptive method of research applied in the study with the questionnaire as the data gathering instrument. The OBSI in TEI was evident with refers to learning outcomes, authentic tasks, student-centered approach, and competencies and skills. It developed students' competencies in laboratory activities and investigatory project to a great extent. On the other hand, it developed students’ competencies in the portfolio, project making, and research to a moderate extent. There was a significant relationship between the implementation of OBSI and the development of students’ science competencies. Some problems encountered in OBSI were seldom met, primary of which is the unavailability and insufficiency of equipment, materials, and supplies needed in the laboratory. Proposed outcomes-based activities in science shall further enhance the quality of science instruction. It recommended that the OBSI in the TEI might be strengthened to maximize the students’ competencies and the development of an assessment tool to measure the development of students’ science competencies may be undertaken. Furthermore, future researchers may conduct studies that may be related to the current research in another research locale. Keywords: Outcomes-Based Science Instruction, Teacher Education Institutions, Outcomes-Based Science Activities, Descriptive Method, Higher Education, Philippines
7 ASSESSMENT OF SCHOOL CRITICAL SAFETY CONCERNS , ZORABEL MARIA A. DELOS REYES
The school is every child’s second home and safety are everyone’s business. The best safety effort will involve all aspects of the child’s school, including classroom instruction, school services, and school climate. The focus of this study was to assess the critical safety concerns of Bauan Technical High School, Batangas, Philippines as perceived by the senior high students. Schools are expected to comply with all applicable laws, rules, and standards relating to safety. The study determined the gender and age of the respondents. It also assessed the perception regarding school critical safety along with the school policy, comprehensive safety plan, school building, school grounds, procedures in handling visitors, emergency communication, transportation rules and accident procedures, illegal activities, respect for persons, and getting help. Among the ten safety concerns, handling visitors was observed to a very great extent while illegal activities were observed to a less extent. The descriptive method of research was applied in the study with the questionnaire as the data gathering instrument. The findings were derived from the responses of the 100 senior students comprised 59% male and 41% female teenagers whose age ranges from 15 to 18 years old. Procedures in handling visitors had the highest average which was observed to a very great extent and the other safety concerns were observed to a great extent while illegal activities were observed to a less extent. A proposed school safety activity shall further enhance the school safety program. In general, the school implemented critical safety measures in different concerns under the parameter of this study. High commitment to various safety concerns must be continued, and emergency procedure in case of bomb threat may be strengthened. Future researchers may continue this study with teachers and administrators as the respondents and may conduct studies that may be related to the current research in another research locale.   Keywords: Critical Safety Concerns, Senior High School Students, School Safety Activities, Descriptive Method, Bauan Technical High School, Philippines
8 TIME-BASED TILTING PHOTOVOLTAIC RE-ROUTER , IRISH GISELLE C. BAUTISTA1 , VIRGINIA A. BLANCO2
Energy is an essential input for economic development. Since exhaustible energy sources in the country are limited, there is an urgent need to focus attention on the development of renewable and alternative energy sources. Solar energy is the best natural solution to many problems as the sun usually is providing abundant energy which provides power to almost everything on earth. The primary goal of this Project Development Study was to develop a Time-Based Tilting Photovoltaic Re-router which is a modified way of installing a solar panel. It will be a significant endeavor of the researchers who believed that this would be of great benefit for the users of photovoltaic technology in Batangas province. The project is intended to move the panel at best possible angular position concerning the position of the sun. It is a time-based motion control device which aims to increase the utilization of a solar power generating material by improving the conventional way of installing solar panels. It was designed to make time-based movements of the solar panel. It was primarily, residents from the area in Batangas will be the primary beneficiaries of this project for it will help them to improve their way of living and upgrade their accuracy of generating power. Every household would also be a benefactor of this study, considering solar energy as a source or co-source of electricity and it can lessen the growing payment of commercial electricity. The project was tested and proven to be efficient, safe, durable and can generate higher power rating compared with the conventional installation of solar panels. Keywords: Renewable Energy Act of 2008 (RA 9513) Project Development Study, Experimental Research, Higher Education, Philippines
9 SCIENCE COMPETENCY ASSESSMENT TOOL FOR ON-THE-JOB TRAINING STUDENTS OF THE COLLEGE OF INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY , CELSO G. ZARA
The science curriculum in the College of Industrial Technology (CIT) program is a significant component of the academic requirement of the students and is believed to be vital for the development of skills and potentials of students. The objective of the study was to develop a science competency assessment tool for the OJT students of the CIT, Batangas State University, Batangas City, Philippines. The different science competencies were classified as technical, behavioral, communicative and managerial competencies. The descriptive method of research was utilized in this study with the questionnaire as the data gathering instrument. The data were analyzed and tested using weighted mean and T-test. The faculty and OJT students very strongly agreed that these science competencies were offered and developed in the department. The science competencies were developed in the objectives in Physics to a very great extent as assessed by both faculty and OJT students. Likewise, to a great extent, the science competencies were developed in the objectives in chemistry. With regards to the instructional strategies' science competencies were developed to a great extent. Based on the development of science competencies relative to the learning infrastructures, science competencies were developed to a very great extent as assessed by faculty, while the students' assessments revealed that they were developed to a great extent. Further, as to the evaluative measures, for faculty science competencies were developed to a very great extent, while student respondents revealed that to a great extent. It was recommended that the objectives of the science subjects, instructional strategies, learning the infrastructure, and evaluative measures must be made congruent with the competencies of the students; discussion of the relevance of science and other academic subjects in the regular conduct of the industry advisory committee meeting. Moreover, the proposed science competency assessment tool must be evaluated, and pilot tested before it can be administered to OJT students. Keywords: Science Competency, On-the-Job Training, Assessment Tool, Descriptive Method, College of Teacher Education, Philippines
10 SOCIAL MEDIA MARKETING(SMM): MEASURING ITS EFFECTS TO RESORTS IN BATANGAS PROVINCE, PHILIPPINES , MAUREEN M. ATIENZA
In recent years, social media has become ubiquitous and most important for social networking, content sharing and online accessing. Marketing which occurs via social media is known as Social Media Marketing (SMM). The study aimed to assess the use of social media marketing to measure its effect on resorts business in the Province of Batangas, Philippines. Specifically, it determined the profile of the selected resorts in terms of classification, years of operation, location, and the years media marketing was introduced in the business; identified the forms of social media utilized by the selected resorts; cited the positive and negative effect of social media marketing in the resorts business; specified the problems encountered by customers in using social media; ascended the differences of the responses of the selected resorts on the effects of SMM; and proposed a development plan for the proper utilization of SMM. The descriptive method was used with a self-made questionnaire as the main data gathering instrument. Different statistical tools were used to answer the objectives of the study. Frequency distribution, ranking, weighted mean, and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were employed to interpret and analyze the gathered data. It was concluded that the majority of the resort businesses in the Province of Batangas are classified as American Automobile Association ( AAA) which is the highest quality rating for resorts and operates ten years and above. Most of the resorts are found in the 1st District of the Province of Batangas and have started introducing SMM from 2006 – 2010. All of the Resorts owner and customers were using the Facebook account. Both owners and customers of the resorts strongly agreed that there was a positive and negative effect of SMM. Among the problems encountered in the use of SMM, frequent posting as well as account not maintained or updated. A proposed action plan was made for the proper utilization of SMM. Keywords: Social Media Marketing, Marketing Tool, Social Networking Sites, Descriptive Method, Higher Education, Philippines
11 TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION IN TEACHING SCIENCE USING TPACK AMONG PRE-SERVICE SCIENCE TEACHERS OF ST. BRIDGET COLLEGE, BATANGAS CITY, PHILIPPINES , JERYLL NICKO L. MERCADO1 VIVIEN JOY M. PANGANIBAN2 TRICIA MYRIENE I. RAMOS3
Technology is now one of the most influential and important instruments in meeting the demands and coping up with the changes in the field of education. Understanding the implication of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) framework in integrating technology in teaching science was help the teachers to facilitate effective science teaching-learning process for the students to acquire all the necessary knowledge and skills from their curriculum. This study used a descriptive method of research which aimed to assess the importance of TPACK Framework as a basis for integrating technology in teaching science of the second year and third year pre-service science teachers of St. Bridget College, Batangas City, Philippines. This became the focus of the survey questionnaire made by the researchers. With regards to the effects of TPACK Framework in Teaching Science relevant to the content, respondents agreed that the TPACK framework makes the content easily understandable. In terms of pedagogy, they agreed that it allows experiential learning experiences, and in terms of technology, respondents agreed that TPACK Framework strengthens the teacher’s ability to teach the subjects. Regarding the extent of technology support to 21st century Science Teaching, respondents agreed that in terms of delivery, it arouses students’ interest and motivation to learn. In terms of Instructional Materials, they agreed that technology support gives accessible and current information which broadens learning; and in terms of content knowledge, they also agreed that it helps students analyze and understand graphical representation of data easily and clearly. Furthermore, in terms of the use of instructional materials, respondents agreed that the speaker helps in the production of sound in studying science particularly, physics. Based on the findings, a Technological Enhancement Activity using Web quest is proposed as the output of the study which can be used to enhance the science teaching-learning process and enrich science teaching through the use of TPACK Framework. In addition, the responses of the research participants were treated with the use of frequency, weighted mean and ranking. Generally, the researchers recommend the creation of software application to improve science teaching and technological skills of the teachers and the students. In addition to this, future researchers should use a bigger number of respondents to gain more accurate result. Keywords: Descriptive Method of Research, Learning Process, Pre-service Teachers, Technology Integration, TPACK Framework, Teaching Process, Web Quest, Philippines
12 MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES AS BASIS FOR THE USE OF LEARNING STATION IN TEACHING BIOLOGY , RANDY R. BINAG
One of the big challenges the science education faces is identifying whether learning has occurred when doing what is called "one-size-fits-all" type of activities. Thus, different strategies and approaches in teaching science have been proposed and used by educators to accommodate the complexity of the learners. The study covered the identification of multiple intelligences of Grade 8 students and its effect on multiple intelligence-based learning stations in teaching Biology. This study also determined to examine the efficiency and usability of Learning Station in teaching Biology and how it enhanced students’ performance. The period of research covered the fourth quarter of Grade 8 Science, School Year 2017- 2018. In this view, the study employed the mixed- approach in research which comprised of descriptive and quasi-experimental one group research design. The Dominant Multiple Intelligences (MI) exhibited by Grade 8 students as assess showed that there were four (4) MI and these include Kinesthetic, Intrapersonal, Musical and Existential. More so, topics in teaching Biology 8 that were considered or the basis in using developed learning station. Furthermore, the students’ performance in every station based on their pre-test and post-test in terms of Mean Score, MPS, and SD showed that there is an increase in terms of the score from the post-test and pre-test. Considerably, the increase is significant. The assessment on comments and suggestions of the developed learning station showed that it is costefficient and economical, the language used is appropriate to users' age, great number of students to execute at a time and easy to store and transport, and have a maximum collaboration on shared products, and activities appropriate on classroom size. Keywords: Multiple Intelligences, Learning Station, Teaching Strategy, Students Centered Learning, Descriptive method, Secondary High School, Philippines
13 MANAGEMENT OF LEARNING RESOURCE MATERIALS,TECHNOLOGY UTILIZATION, AND TEACHERS' COMPETENCE IN SELECTED PUBLIC SCHOOLS , DR. ROWENA S. NAVIDAD
The government is drawing up blueprints for the provision of quality education through its adoption of the K-12 curriculum. This transformation of the education system creates entirely new demand for producing the kind of talent its economy needs to sustain growth and development. Master teachers and school heads must be able to utilize technology inside the classroom and be competitive enough and able to manage the resource materials under Learning Resource Management Development System. This study aimed to assess the status of learning resource materials utilization, level of management of learning resources, technology utilization, and teachers' competence. The study utilized a descriptive, inferential quantitative method and a survey questionnaire. The data gathered were interpreted using the weighted mean and Z- test. The salient findings of the study showed that both the master teacher and the school head, Strongly Agree on the status of resource materials utilization. Results revealed that the hypothesis on the significant difference in the status of learning resource materials utilization was accepted; hence, it was not significant. The hypothesis about the test of difference on the level of management of resource materials was rejected; therefore, it was significant. To establish the difference in the assessment on the level of technology utilization, the hypothesis was rejected; therefore, it was significant. On the level of the master teacher's competence based on their Performance Commitment and Review Form, it purported that respondents assessed it as Excellent. The test of difference on master teachers' competence based on IPCRF revealed that it was significant; thus hypothesis was rejected. The findings were the basis for a proposed plan for Teachers' Capacity Training Program on Technology Utilization. It was of great help in designing a technology utilization plan that could increase teachers' competence in the full realization of the Department of Education goals and objectives. Keywords: Learning Resources, Technology Utilization, Teachers Competence, Descriptive Method, Public Schools, Philippines
14 GROUNDED THEORY APPROACH: ITS STEPS AND PROCEDURES IN A SCIENTIFIC STUDY , DR. ELINESA EBOÑA-ABAMONGA
Grounded Theory approach is most applicable in social issues that have limited data and literature. It is popularly used among social science practitioners since it is responsive to societal concerns. However, given its unique features, it was perceived as complicated and confusing especially for a beginner researcher. The current study was conducted to present the proper steps and procedures of grounded theory approach in qualitative research. The focus of this study is on the systematic application of the components of grounded theory in a scientific study that has limited literature and data. It aimed to determine the trustworthiness of using its method in explaining an existing social concern without bias on preconceived ideas. The combined use of purposive sampling, triangulation method, gap analysis and the elements of grounded theory approach led to theory generation after a rigorous iteration of comparative data analysis. Following the complicated process of its methodology, resulted to a conclusive finding that grounded theory approach has its dimension of difficulty, level of trustworthiness and distinctive features that would qualify as scientific study unique of its quality. Thus, the level of complication and rigor has contributed to the strength of Grounded theory approach. Keywords: Grounded theory approach, Qualitative study, Scientific study, Comparative data analysis, Theory generation, Philippines
15 METACOGNITIVE SKILLS DEVELOPMENT IN BASIC CHEMISTRY OF BACHELOR OF INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGY STUDENTS OF BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY, PHILIPPINES , ANTONETTE T. GERON
To gain skills, abilities, and strategies are the primary goal of education for every student rather than to store information from their classrooms and be sponges of knowledge initiated by their teachers. Hence, a good education should be able to show how to learn, how to remember, how to motivate students’ and how to control their learning. This study focused on the students’ ability to learn chemistry by developing their metacognitive skills among a first-year Bachelor of Industrial Technology students of Batangas State University, with an end view of preparing metacognitive skills activities in Chemistry. Specifically, this aimed to determine the extent of manifestation of metacognitive skills in terms of planning, monitoring, and evaluation. The researcher utilized frequency count, weighted mean and ranking as the statistical treatment and the Bachelor of Industrial Technology students enrolled in Basic Chemistry from the seven campuses of Batangas State University as the respondents. The descriptive method of research was employed by using a researchers-made questionnaire as the main instrument in gathering data. Focus group discussion among chemistry faculty was also utilized to determine their assessment on the extent of students’ metacognitive ability. Based on the result, it was found that the Bachelor of Industrial Technology students from Batangas State University system showed a moderate extent of manifestation of metacognitive skills in terms of planning, monitoring, and evaluation. Results of the study were used as a basis for the preparation of metacognitive activities to enhance the skills of students. Keywords: Metacognitive Skills Development, Metacognitive Skills in Chemistry, Metacognitive Activities, Descriptive method, Higher Education, Philippines
16 DIMENSIONS OF TEACHERS’ WORK-LIFE BALANCE AND SCHOOL COMMITMENT: BASIS FOR POLICY REVIEW , AMELINDA D. MARMOL
This study aimed to ascertain the perception of teachers on the level of their work-life balance and school commitment and its relationship to one another, which serves as the basis for a policy review. Data was gathered using the researcher-made survey questionnaire on work-life balance and adapted/modified questionnaire from A Three Component Organizational Commitment Questionnaire of Allen and Meyer (1990/1997) on school commitment to 128 teachers of School Divisions of Caloocan, Malabon, Navotas, and Valenzuela. Statistical treatment such as weighted mean, frequency, and Pearson r was employed. Results show that teachers’ perception level on their work-life balance and school commitment is moderate in different dimensions and no significant relationship exists between the two variables. Teachers’ salary, medical assistance, hospitalization, and retirement age posted the first three highest in rank for a policy review. Keywords: Work-Life Balance School Commitment Policy Review Descriptive-correlational design, Philippines
17 ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE AND ENTREPRENEURIAL INTENTION OF PRE-SERVICE TECHNOLOGY AND LIVELIHOOD EDUCATION TEACHERS , AARON JED Y. TUMBALI
Several studies revealed that entrepreneurship education affects the development of the intention of a person to become an entrepreneur. Cognizant of the previous findings, this study examined the entrepreneurial intention of the pre-service Technology and Livelihood Education (TLE) teachers based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and determined its relationship to academic performance. The descriptive correlation research design was used to come up with an objective description of the relationship of the variables involved. The statistical treatment used was frequency, percentage, Pearson correlation and formulas developed by Icek Ajzen in the TPB. The results showed that students have satisfactory academic performance, very much favorable attitude toward becoming entrepreneurs, moderately favorable perceived subjective norm, and very much easy perceived behavioral control. The variables involved in this study revealed a negligible relationship. In light of these findings, the researcher recommends that important people belong in the university should engage themselves to entrepreneurial capability activities such as seminars, training, workshops, conferences, among others to develop entrepreneurial mindset because they were influencers of the development of entrepreneurial intention among students. Parents and other family members should be involved in entrepreneurial activities to serve as role models. Collaboration between family and the university is highly encouraged to make entrepreneurial programs effective. Moreover, by providing simulations, practicum or authentic entrepreneurial activities, students utilize practical knowledge, skills, values, and attitude; thus, these activities improve their academic performance. Keywords: Academic Performance, Attitude, Behavioral Control, Descriptive Correlation, Entrepreneurial Intention, Philippines
18 USE OF E-BOOK IN SCIENCE LEARNING OF JUNIOR HIGH STUDENTS IN THE UNIVERSITY OF BATANGAS , MARY ROSE B. RAMIREZ1,  JERYLL NICKO L. MERCADO2
The Department of Education Order 105, s. 2009 stated that as this country advances through the 21st - century, the use of technology to research, organize, evaluate and communicate information has grown. In response to this, the use of E-book or Electronic Book is one of the 21st - century educational tools that provide opportunities to practice learning fundamentals in as many as possible. Moreover, this study aimed to assess the use of e-book as an instructional material in science learning among the junior high students of the University of Batangas, Batangas City, Philippines with the end purpose of developing activities that will enhance the teaching-learning process. It determined the usefulness of ebook in improving students’ achievement, study habits and acquired skills including the common problems met by teachers and students in using an e-book. The descriptive method was used with a questionnaire as the main data gathering instrument with an interview. The respondents were composed of two groups, 40 Grade 10 students and 42 teachers are selected through purposive sampling. The statistical tools used were t-test and weighted mean. The results of the study revealed that teachers agreed that the content presents a series of activities in each section or unit, while students agreed that the contents have comprehensive and appropriate topics. The teachers agreed that the graphics use contrasting colors to the background for easy reading, while students agreed that it uses varying fonts and sizes. There are no significant differences between the assessment of teachers and students on the use of e-book as instructional material in learning Science in terms of contents, design, and graphics. The teachers and students agreed that e-book helps in enhancing student’s achievement in the attainment of the content standard. The teachers agreed that students enhanced their acquired skills by demonstrating independent learning, while students agreed that their skills improved because they can transfer specific print-based reading skills to interactive. The common problems met by the respondents are the compatibility and design limitation of the software. The proposed activities have interactive visual features, varying fonts, sizes and color that can sustain the interest of the learners. Keywords: Electronic Book, Descriptive Method, Instructional Material, Philippines, Technology, Software, and Independent Learning
19 ETHNOLOGICAL PEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES OF INDIGENOUS PEOPLE (AETA/NEGRITO/ITA) IN CATANUAN, QUEZON , MERCY O. MANALO
In the Philippines, there are more than 110 culturally diverse ethnic tribes and communities. As clearly stated in the 1987 Philippine Constitution, Article XIV, Section 17, the state shall recognize, respect, and protect the rights of the indigenous cultural communities to preserve and develop their cultures, traditions, and institutions. The Aeta, Agta or Ayta are indigenous people who live in scattered, isolated mountainous parts of Barangay San Jose (Anyao), Catanauan, Quezon. The researcher conducted an ethnological study to document the Indigenous People integrated pest management practices employing the descriptive survey method. Based on the result, 80% were still practicing the traditional way of managing the pest without harming the human and environment. The Aeta farmers leave the infected crops, manually pick burn or use smoke to eliminate the pest.Moreover, the farmers also practice crop rotation, mixed cropping, and properly manage the farm. Crop loss due to pests was one of the major problems resulting from reducing production and income. The chemical control of pests was predominant, but the Aeta farmers still practiced traditional pest control. The conventional pest control practices played a significant role in the management of agricultural land, and it was an inevitable practice for sustainable agriculture. The proper control of pests minimized economic losses and damage to the environment. Some of the respondents have insufficient skills and knowledge on the ethnological way of controlling pest and diseases using insect repellant like marigold or Amarillo, lemongrass or tanlad, oregano, and by spraying wild chili mixed with water. Based on the result, it was recommended to conduct seminars and workshops on Organic Agriculture as well as an awareness campaign on the effect of chemical fertilizer to human and environment. Keywords: Ethnological Pest Management, Indigenous People, Pest Control Practices, Organic Agriculture, Descriptive Method, Philippines
20 READINESS OF PUBLIC-SCHOOL TEACHERS IN HANDLING INCLUSIVE EDUCATION , MICHAEL E. ECOBEN
State-funded teachers in the education department are recognized to be necessary in the implementation of inclusive education. They assume a fundamental job in the effective utilization of inclusive education as they are seen as critical during the time spent incorporating students with special needs into regular classes. Consequently, this study is intended to determine the preparedness of state-funded teachers in handling inclusive education. Specifically, this study was to determine the level of awareness and attitudes of public-school teachers towards the implementation of inclusive education. In particular, it sought to identify the demographic profile of the public-school teachers, their level of readiness in handling inclusive education in terms of awareness, attitude, and skills and the significant difference in the level of readiness of teachers towards inclusive education when grouped according to profile. The output of this study is the training program to enhance the awareness, attitudes, and skills of teachers towards inclusion. The study used a descriptive – quantitative method of research using both the quantitative and qualitative techniques of data collections. Frequency distribution, percentage, standard deviation, MANOVA, and descriptive statistics were used as statistical tools of this study. The critical discoveries of the investigation unveiled that state-funded teachers’ status in dealing with inclusive education is progressively mindful on the significance of inclusive education. In any case, they need training, classes, and workshops because few mainstream teachers are new to mainstreaming. They are agreeable on inclusive education. However, they need refreshed hands-on training. Moreover, they are skilled in their own personal capacity, but they lack further trainings specifically on the crafting of Individualized Education Plans. Therefore, there is a need to have a separate subject on disability and inclusive education in the teacher training courses. Keywords: Inclusive Education, Awareness, Attitudes, Skills, Descriptive, Quantitative, Philippines, Asia
21 WAREHOUSE AND DISTRIBUTION MANAGEMENT OF NATIONAL FOOD AUTHORITY (NFA) RICE IN THE PHILIPPINES: BEST PRACTICES , ALLAN F. GALVEZ
This study aims to assess, establish, or strengthen best practices in warehousing and distribution processes of the National Food Authority (NFA) rice. Good Warehouse and Distribution system includes protection from insects, rodents and birds, ease of loading and unloading, efficient use of space, ease of maintenance and management, and prevention of moisture re-entering the grain after drying. The International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) mentioned in a Journal dated July 2017 that 25 to 50 percent of the total grain value (Quantity and Quality) was lost between harvest and consumption in developing countries. Proper storage is vital to the stability of the country’s grain supply. To achieve this end-goal, good warehouse management must be pursued. The National Food Authority (NFA) is one of the most important policy instrumentalities of the Philippine Government with respect to Agricultural price policy and Food security. The study used a combination of quantitative and qualitative design and methodological that obtained credible evidence and conclusion achieved. Quantitative data were collected through the use of structured questionnaire survey between variables as attested by Saunders et al. (2010) Qualitative data, on the other hand, were gathered through the open interview questions with the respondents to acquire a detailed and comprehensive data about sustainability practices in the supply chain management of NFA rice. The result of the study shows that warehouses whether where it is located, Region III or Region XIII and what type, Owned or Lease do not have a Relative Humidity monitoring device. This device is important in monitoring the moisture content of the warehouse. Maintaining a trucker’s equipment checklist are industry practice. It is important to avert any delays that might happen in the distribution of rice. Keywords: Best Practices; Post-harvest; Proper Storage; National Food Authority; Relative Humidity; Food Security; Moisture Content
22 SCHOOL MANAGERS’ VERBAL COMMUNICATION SKILLS AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION STRATEGIES: BASIS FOR DEVELOPING AN ACTION PLAN TO ENHANCE MANAGERS’ SKILLS , DECIE F. GARCIA
The study aimed to determine and analyze the manager’s verbal communication skills and conflict resolution strategies of manager’s basis for developing an action plan to enhance the manager’s skills. It shows that one of the main gates of a management success is to convey people and to make the necessary decision to have an excellent conflict strategy resolution. There were a total of 40 respondents, 20 from elementary, and 20 from secondary used in the study. The study utilized a quantitative research design to describe the study in detail. To determine the level of school manager’s verbal communication skills as perceived by elementary and secondary school teachers, frequency, percentage, and rank distribution were used. Likewise, to determine the extent of conflict resolution strategies used by school managers, mean and standard deviation were used. To determine the significant difference in manager’s communication skills and the significant difference in the manager’s conflict resolution strategies as perceived by the two groups of respondents, z-test was used. It found out that there is no significant difference between the two groups of respondents on the extent of conflict resolution strategies utilization in terms of problem-solving, compromising, and forcing. Based on the findings, the following conclusions were drawn. The level of manager’s verbal communication skills rated by the two sets of respondents elementary and secondary rated the items differently. While on the extent of conflict resolution strategies of managers used by secondary respondents rated the items and verbally interpreted as often. The results will be a big help in developing an action plan to enhance the skills of the manager. Based on the analysis and interpretation of data gathered on the two groups of respondents from the Division of Rizal, there is no significant difference on the level of manager’s verbal communication skills, and on the extent of conflict resolution strategies of managers, therefore, the hypothesis is retained. Keywords: School Managers, Educational Leadership, Communication Skills, Conflict Strategies Division of Rizal, Philippines
23 RESEARCH ON SOLUTIONS TO IMPROVE TECHNICAL PERFORMANCE AMONG TEXTILE INDUSTRIES IN ZHEJIAN, CHINA , FU DAYUAN
Taking Zhejiang textile enterprises in China as the research object had 500 selected managers from 30 textile enterprises from the Zhejiang province in China and presented its profile including the nature of the company, subdivision type, number of years of incorporation and enterprise scale. The study aimed to determine the technological performance among textile industries, test the difference of responses on the technological performance when grouped according to the business profile, with the aim of proposing a plan of action to improve technological performance of textile enterprises in Zhejiang province. Through data investigation and SPSS analysis, literature combing and logical deduction, findings revealed that there is good enterprise technological performance in Zhejiang textile industries. Furthermore, this study found out that there is a significant difference in technological performance when grouped according to the nature of the enterprise, specific industry, years of incorporation, and enterprise scale. Keywords: Technological performance, Textile industries, Difference of response, Plan of action, SPSS analysis, China
24 CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY OF RESORTS: A CASE OF PANSOL, LAGUNA, PHILIPPINES , KARLA FAYE C. HANGDAAN1, MYCCA JANELLA T. BUSTILLO2, MI HWA C. VILLAMOR3, ERNESTO C. MANDIGMA JR.4
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) defines the company’s responsibility to acquire revenue and in interacting ethically within the community environment. It is considered to be a form of sustainability in the tourism industry. The researchers aimed to address the gap focusing on the effect of engaging in CSR that may lead to adverse reputation, irresponsible tourism, and failed interaction within the community. The CSR pyramid model by A. Caroll was acquired to assess the economic, legal, ethical, and philanthropic practices of the selected resorts. The use of quantitative method determined how employees assessed the CSR practices. Stratified sampling was utilized to obtain people with enough knowledge on the resort and acquire the same proportion of people for each resort in Laguna. The researchers gathered data with the use of survey questionnaires and answered by 102 employees. The results were interpreted using ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) and T-test. The major findings showed that there was a significant difference in the overall assessment of the CSR practices when grouped by department. It was found out that CSR was perceived by employees and mostly under age group from the early to late 20s and most college graduates. Most of them are female employees, had 1 month-2 years of service, and they came from the Front Office Department. The employees agreed based on their assessment to gain the customers’ trust, accomplishing business permits and licenses, employees accommodate guests with a good attitude, and to enhance the growth and sustainability of the organization. The result of the study was used to recommend a plan of improvements to the current CSR practices of each resort. Key words: Corporate Social Responsibility, Resorts, Quantitative Research, Philippines, Asia
25 GUEST SATISFACTION PLAN FOR MYSTICAL CAVE: A CASE IN ANTIPOLO, RIZAL , CHRISTINE GRACE P. DELA CRUZ1, ALYSSA MIKHAELA L. DILAO2 , ERNESTO C. MANDIGMA JR.3
Caves are one of the most important attractions the tourism industry has in a natural category. There are a lot of different caves within the country, but this study focused on the guest satisfaction of the Mystical Cave in Antipolo, Rizal about its guest’ demographic profile, assessment on its level of guest satisfaction and significant differences with the use of the concept of tour quality dimension. The study is quantitative research with a descriptive research design that used convenience sampling. Survey questionnaires were used in the data gathering process and were verified using Cronbach Alpha. The variables examined were gender, age, type of tourist, educational attainment, religion using frequency, and percentage. The guest satisfaction rating based on the TOURQUAL dimension, namely access, environment, the human element, experience, safety, and technical quality was analyzed through mean. The significant difference in the demographic profile and TOURQUAL dimension were analyzed through ANOVA and T-test. The results of the study showed that the type of tourist has a significant difference between the demographic profile and some of the tour quality dimensions, namely access, environment, the human element, experience, and safety. The guest satisfaction program proposed was designed to help the management of the cave to improve their tour quality in terms of access, environment, the human element, experience, safety, and technical quality to boost the satisfaction of the guests. Key words: Guest Satisfaction, TOURQUAL Dimension, Quantitative Research, Cave, Philippines
26 NARRATIVE EXPERIENCE OF SEASONED TEACHERS IN TEACHING SCIENCE USING SPIRAL PROGRESSION CURRICULUM , NEPTHALIE J. GONZALES
The study aimed to know the experiences of the seasoned teachers teaching science in Junior High School using the spiral progression approach. The study involved five seasoned science teachers of Bahay Pare National High School, Candaba, Pampanga, whose teaching experience is 10 years and above. It utilized the narrative case study design to describe the following: views of teachers in spiral progression approach, the practice of seasoned teachers using spiral progression approach, and the challenges and barriers experienced by them using a spiral progression. An in-depth interview was used with the individual participants with open-ended questions from guide questions that allowed further probing. The study found out that the majority of the specialized seasoned teachers were not appeased about the spiral progression approach in science. However, two teachers showed enthusiasm: General Science major and a non-science major. Seasoned teachers narrated their experiences under spiral progression they encountered such as unavailability of learning resources, scarcity of laboratory equipment, struggle in preparation their non-specialize topic, integration of Information and Communications Technology in their pedagogic practice and the intervention made by the administrator such as mentoring and coaching. It was recommended that a school administrator may provide the seasoned teachers with necessary training/seminars appropriate to them such as content and ICT, and procure necessary learning resources for science learning. Also, the administrator may understand the views of the seasoned teachers and provide appropriate stimulator to them, so that they can adapt the approach easily. Keywords: Curriculum, K to 12 programs, qualitative method, a seasoned teacher, spiral progression
27 ENHANCED MARKETING PLAN FOR WENSHA SPA CENTER: A CASE IN PASAY CITY, METRO MANILA , KIM ANJELO A. CAPTAN1, WILLIAM GERARD B. BULABOS2, MARIA ANGELA MAZO3, ERNESTO C. MANDIGMA JR.4
The marketing plan is an outline of the company’s overall marketing effort that used to focus on resources and plan for its growth and success. The marketing mix is the utmost ultimate concept that consists of various components of marketing tools, which helps to determine a clear and effective strategy to bring a product to market. The main purpose of this study is to assess and analyze the customer’s satisfaction using 6P’s of the marketing mix. The marketing mix is frequently vital when shaping a product or brand’s offer and is mostly related to the four P’s: price, product, promotion, and place. In service marketing, yet, the four Ps are extended to the six P’s or 6 Ps of Marketing to address the diverse nature of services. This study aimed to enhance the marketing strategies of Wensha Spa in Pasay City to improve competitiveness in the market. It determined the profile of the respondents in terms of age, gender, and educational attainment. It ascertained the significant difference in the assessment of the marketing strategy of the respondents when grouped according to profile. The investigation is quantitative using the descriptive method and survey questionnaire as the main tool distributed to the guests after proper validation and reliability testing using Cronbach Alpha. Ethical consideration and proper statistical tools were used, such as frequency, percentage, weighted mean, T-test, and F-Test. The findings help enhanced the 6p’s marketing mix of Wensha Spa, which leads to guest satisfaction and makes it competitive, resulting from attaining more customers and gaining additional revenue. Based on the analysis, the researchers were able to come up with an enhanced marketing plan that will benefit and improve their current marketing strategies to further provide the needed satisfaction of their guests. Keywords: Marketing Plan, 6ps’ Marketing Mix, Quantitative Research, Philippines
28 REINFORCEMENT MECHANISM FOR QUALITY WORK LIFE: A CASE OF ELEMENTARY TEACHERS IN QUEZON PROVINCE, PHILIPPINES , LUCENA AGUIFLOR RENGEL GARCIA, Dr. ERNESTO C. MANDIGMA JR.
The total success of education depends on the quality workforce equipped with high-quality standard, competence, and excellence. Supervisors, principals, school heads and teachers all work in synergy to ensure pupils get the best education. This study aimed to determine the job satisfaction and quality of work-life of public elementary teachers in Quezon Province, Philippines, with the end view of proposing reinforcement mechanisms. This covered the demographic profile of respondents in relation to age, gender, civil status, educational attainment, and length of service; assessment on their job satisfaction in terms of teaching assignment, designation, promotion, training, and fringe benefits and quality of work-life with regard to work environment, interpersonal skills, professional relationship, and time management. Likewise, this looked into the significant difference in the assessment of respondents on job satisfaction and quality of work life. Descriptive method of research was used with questionnaire as its main tool in gathering data complemented with unstructured interview. The statistical tools used in the analysis of data were percentage, weighted mean, and t-test. Results revealed that majority of teachers are 29 years old and below, female, married, and have bachelor’s degree, with five years and below in service. Also, the teachers assessed job satisfaction as moderately evident in terms of teaching assignment, designation, promotion, training, and fringe benefits and assessed quality of work-life as moderately evident in terms of work environment, interpersonal skills, professional relationship, and time management. Moreover, there is significant difference in the assessment of the respondents’ job satisfaction relative to mentioned variables when grouped according to educational attainment. Similarly, there is significant difference in the evaluation of the respondents’ quality of work-life relative to work environment, professional relationship, interpersonal skills, and time management when grouped according to age, sex, civil status, educational attainment, and length of service. 
29 https://www.ioer-imrj.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/Parallelism-between-Science-Teaching-Practices-and-Classroom-Behavior-among-Grade-8-Students-of-Batangas-National-High-School-MC-P.-Diomampo.pdfPARALLELISM BETWEEN SCIENCE TEACHING PRACTICES AND CLASSROOM BEHAVIOR AMONG GRADE 8 STUDENTS OF BATANGAS NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL , MARIA CHRISTINA P. DIOMAMPO
Teachers’ role is to improve the quality of teaching and learning in any content area. It expected that these educators would help shape the basic program into a valuable tool for reorganizing curriculum, instruction, and assessment. In this study, the researcher aimed to determine the relationship between teachers’ teaching practices and classroom behavior of Grade 8 students of BANAHIS with the end view of proposing creative teaching methods to facilitate positive behavior towards effective student learning in Science. The research design used was descriptive with a researcher-constructed questionnaire as primary data gathering instrument. Respondents were eight teachers and 108 Grade 8 students. Statistical tools used were frequency, percentage, weighted mean and t-test. Results revealed that majority of the teachers employed cooperative learning as foremost teaching practice. Results also revealed that as to students’ behavior and attitude to science learning, teachers cited evidence of enthusiasm and passion in what students learn while student-respondents said that tasks they were asked to perform have value. On acquisition and understanding, teachers revealed evidence of students understanding thoroughly and justifying accounts of phenomena, facts and data while students demonstrated at the end of the lesson the expected knowledge and skills, while on development of skills, applying science inquiry skills in addressing real-world problems through scientific investigations and that students apply science inquiry skills in addressing real-world problems through scientific investigations were evident. The researcher recommends refinement of the proposed creative teaching methods before implementation.  Keywords: Science teaching practices, classroom behavior, creative teaching, public secondary high school, Philippines
30 LOCALIZATION AND CONTEXTUALIZATION IN TEACHING BIOLOGY FOR GRADE 7 STUDENTS OF PALIPARAN NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL FOR SCHOOL YEAR 2018 - 2019 , ISAGANI P. DIONEDA JR
Localization and contextualization are the new strategies to teaching-learning process and highlighted in the Philippines’ K to 12 Curriculum. This study determined the effect of localization and contextualization in teaching biology in enhancing the academic performance of selected Grade 7 students of Paliparan National High School during the second quarter of the school year 2018 - 2019. The study was carried out using experimental study, particularly the pretest and posttest control group design. Two sections were used and this was done by random sampling. There are forty students taught with the use of localized and contextualized teaching (experimental) and forty students taught without the use of localized and contextualized teaching (control). The data gathered were treated using mean, standard deviation, and T-test. SPSS 14.0 software was used. Mean and standard deviations were also used in finding out the students’ pretest, and posttest performances taught with the use of localized and contextualized teaching and without the use of localized and contextualized teaching. Paired T-test for correlated means were used in finding out the difference between the pretest and posttest performances of the two sections and Independent T-test for correlated means were used to find the difference between both posttest performances of the two sections. Findings revealed that posttest performances of both sections were significantly different. Teachers in any subject area should try to integrate localization and contextualization in teaching because it shows a positive effect as regards to the performance and motivation of students towards the lessons. Keywords: Localization, Contextualization, Biology, Experimental study, Philippines  
31 GAPS ON QUALITY TEACHING: ASSESSING TEACHERS’ NEEDS TOWARDS THE CREATION OF A FRAMEWORK FOR AN EXTENSION PROGRAM ON TEACHERS’ PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT , MAYUMI B. MORALLO, JEMIL R. ABAY
The study assessed the professional development needs of basic education teachers in upland areas of Goa, Camarines Sur, along with the different domains of the Philippine Professional Standards for Teachers (PPST) to create a framework for an extension program. A researcher-made surveyquestionnaire was used to capture the data, and the results were statistically treated using weighted mean and percentage technique. Results showed that the majority of the respondents belong to the young population and are relatively new to the service. Also, most of the respondents have attended professional development training; however, most of these training was conducted either locally or school-based. Results also showed that the National Achievement Test scores of most of the identified schools are declining over the last three years. Based on the findings of the study, it recommended that more professional development programs be created to satisfy teachers’ needs for further improvement. The design of the programs should be holistic and touch all the domains of the PPST. In addition, the activities under the programs should be of sustained length or duration and should involve experts that may include trainers or coaches from universities and professional development organizations. A framework for an extension program was also proposed. Keywords: Extension Program Framework, Philippine Standards for Professional Teachers, Professional Development, Teacher’s Needs, Goa, Camarines Sur, Partido area 
32 21st CENTURY SKILLS OF PRE-SERVICE SECONDARY TEACHERS OF BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY DINALUPIHAN CAMPUS , EUGENIO S. MAGNO, EdD
Globalization, international mobilization, and technological innovations are some demands of the future. Students must prepare to face these challenges and grasp the opportunities brought by the changing time. To succeed in this modern world, a wide range of knowledge, aptitudes and character qualities are important. This study assessed the 21st-century skills of the pre-service teachers in the Bataan Peninsula State University, Philippines based on the theory of Eight Habits of Highly Effective 21st Century Teachers by Andrew Churches. The researcher used the descriptive method of research and the respondents of this study were the 212 pre-service teachers. Frequency, percentage, weighted mean, t-test, and ANOVA were the statistical treatments used in this study. The researcher used the SPSS Statistical Package for the Social Sciences in the computation of data. The study found that most of the respondents were 24 years old and female. The study revealed the overall 21st century skills of the respondents as outstanding. Among the skills that respondents have is that being risk-takers, followed by being a model, visionary, adaptor, collaborator, leader, learner, while the lowest mean was on being a communicator. There was no significant difference in the 21st-century skills of the pre-service teachers when they were grouped according to profile. Because communication skills was found to be the weakest skill possessed by the respondents, teachers should focus more on the improvement of this skill by involving more students’ active participation in class and other school activities. Keywords: 21st-century skills, pre-service secondary teachers, communication skill, college of education, quantitative method, Philippines
33 TEACHING PROFICIENCY AND PERFORMANCE OF PRE-SERVICE ELEMENTARY TEACHERS: IMPLICATIONS TO TEACHER EDUCATION TRAINING PROGRAM , GLENDA C. MAGNO, EdD
The teachers and the quality of their instruction are always the prime concern in education. Thus, this study aimed to find the level of teaching proficiency and performance of pre-service teachers. The descriptive method of research was used with 200 pre-service teachers and their respective cooperating teachers as respondents. The researcher used frequency and percentage in determining the respondents’ profiles, and T-test and ANOVA, to show the significant difference for the respondent’s profile and teaching proficiency and performance. Based on the findings, the cooperating teachers were 43 years old, with different areas of specialization, with MA units and with 15 years in service. The pre-service teacher-respondents were 22 years old, and most were females. The teaching proficiency of the pre-service teachers was described as outstanding with content as the highest; meanwhile, the lowest was on questioning skills. The teaching performance of the preservice teachers was excellent with the highest mean on work attitude, followed by competence, and last on punctuality. There was no significant difference in the level of teaching proficiency and teaching performance of the pre-service teachers when grouped according to their profile. The preservice teachers must develop techniques on how to ask provoking questions to their learners and the value of punctuality since it is a sign of professionalism. Keywords: Teaching Proficiency and Performance, Pre-Service Elementary Teachers, college of education, quantitative method, documentary analysis, Philippines
34 INTEGRATING ICT TOWARD EFFICIENT REGISTRATION SYSTEM IN DIVISION OF BATANGAS PROVINCE , MA. LETICIA JOSE C. BASILAN, REYNAN G. BAESA
Technology plays a vital role in today’s generation. In the world where the only change is constant, technology is inevitable even in disseminating information. With this technological change, computerbased mechanisms and schemes also coped up with the advances. The development of technology, devices and machineries have been developed and reversed in order to meet the demands of the new world. Various systems are designed to be accurate, efficient and beneficial to the user. Most institutes today recognize the importance of computers in meeting the pressing market demands. In the local context, the Division of Batangas Province fully supports and promotes the K-12 curriculum and offers three Strands under Senior High School. The said division has been very serious in accepting new students yet they still deal with manual enrollment system. It is undeniable that in the Division of Batangas, Senior High schools have the current situation in terms of listing and sectioning, manual listing before encoding, time consumption, a large number of enrollees and the quality of education given. In this qualitative research which maximized Discourse Analysis, the paper withheld that the problems encountered while enrolling are a long process of manual enrollment, limited place, and the school has insufficient facilitators making it hard to accommodate all the enrollees. With this, Registrar’s offices of the whole division will be empowered with greater efficacy and efficiency during the enrolment period. Moreover, accuracy, information dissemination and faster release of results would more likely be gained with the ICT based enrolment scheme. WWW or Website as a Working Weapon was developed with an online form for the enrolment system of the said school and being proposed. Keywords: Online enrolment, ICT based registration, discourse analysis, scheme, technology, computers
35 AN INQUIRY INTO THE K TO 12 SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, ENGINEERING AND MATHEMATICS STUDENTS’ PERSISTENCE , MARISOL D. ANDRADA, ARLYNE C. MARASIGAN, PhD
Due to the unprecedented change in science and technological advancement, strengthening of STEM Education in the Philippines becomes an important goal under the K to 12 Curriculum aimed to produce 21st century and globally competitive learners. The educational reform was implemented even in rural areas to lessen inequalities and poverty in consonance with Education for All (EFA) and Sustainable Development Goals (SGDs). Senior high school (SHS) students can take STEM strand towards STEMrelated careers without going into Science high schools or universities. However, very few students are opting for STEM because of grade requirements and negative perceptions towards STEM. Those who enrolled failed to finish and graduate as STEM students. Hence, this study aimed to explore the factors that contributed to the persistence in STEM of selected SHS students. The study utilized a purposive selection of the seven participants (n=7) who are among the first successful STEM graduates under the K to 12 Curriculum in 2018. The participants underwent a one-on-one in-depth interview. Transcription, coding, and thematic analysis were employed to arrive at the insightful narration of their lived experiences as STEM students. Based on the results gathered, the factors that contributed to the persistence of the SHS students are self-efficacy and social support. The result of the study provides sound evidence that cognitive, affective, and psychosocial support from parents, family, peers, teachers, and school are essential for students’ success. Students should have the freedom to choose the track/strand they wanted to pursue. School authorities must provide relevant activities that could strengthen STEM initiatives and implementation among SHS students. Keywords: STEM Education, Persistence, phenomenological study, K to 12 Curriculum, Philippines
36 EXPLORING SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC WRITING DIFFICULTIES: TOWARDS AN ACADEMIC WRITING MODEL , MARK JOSHUA D. ROXAS
Undeniably, writing is an indispensable skill in different contexts of life. It is one of the pivotal components of education. With the advent of the K-12 Basic Education Curriculum, students are confronted with different academic writing tasks through the English for Academic and Professional Purposes and Practical Research courses. Despite the efforts of the educational sector to improve students’ writing skills, many students still experience difficulties in academic writing. Therefore, there is a need to fill the gap and advance an in-depth understanding of students’ academic writing difficulties. In order to satisfy the said aim, this Qualitative study grounds on Flower and Hayes’ (1981) Cognitive Process Theory of Writing. Focus group discussion of 14 purposively selected Grade 11 Senior High School students was carried out. The results expound on the different Academic Writing difficulties encountered by the participants in terms of the Task Environment, Writers’ Long-Term Memory and Writing Process. A model for teaching academic writing was formulated anchored on the identified difficulties. The model will benefit the teachers as it may serve as a guide in more effective and efficient teaching of academic writing. Keywords: Academic writing, writing difficulties, senior high school, process writing, Philippines
37 INVESTIGATING THE LEARNING ACTION CELL (LAC) EXPERIENCES OF SCIENCE TEACHERS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS: A MULTIPLE CASE STUDY , MARK GIL A. VEGA
The Department of Education (DepEd) has implemented a policy on the Learning Action Cell (LAC) as a Professional Development Strategy for teachers. This policy helps the teacher to collaborate and solve shared challenges in the school. The principal objectives of this study were to investigate the benefits, challenges, and means of implementation of Learning Action Cell of Science teachers in Secondary Schools of DepEd in the National Capital Region. The study used qualitative, multiple case study design employing survey questionnaires, individual interviews, focus group discussions and LAC observations There were five individual interviews, six focus groups, four actual LAC observations, with approximately 59 participants conducted in this case study. The findings revealed that the implementation of LAC concerning the scheduling of sessions is different and inconsistent with other schools. In addition, there is no tool for evaluating the LAC session, no success indicator applied in the school and no LAC model to follow in implementing LAC. There are four themes that emerged in the benefits experienced by science teachers, which include: Better Working Environment, Develop Good Relationship, Professional Growth, Content and Pedagogical Knowledge. The participants in this study identified a number of challenges. They were divided into six themes: Scheduling, Disruption of Classes, Teachers’ Availability, LAC Activities, LAC Framework, and Funding. Furthermore, the principal results of the study showed that the implementation of LAC has an impact on teaching science but still, the participants recommended strengthening the LAC through creating a LAC model and development of LAC evaluation to monitor the status of LAC in each school properly. Keywords: Learning Action Cell, Science Teachers, Secondary Schools, Qualitative research, Multiple Case Study, Philippines
38 STORY OF TIN: NARRATIVE INQUIRY INTO EXPERIENCES OF FIRST PHILIPPINE K-12 GRADUATE  , MC ARTHUR D. MARAVILLA
The implementation of the K-12 Basic Education Program in the Philippines brought significant programs and projects to expand and improve the delivery of basic education in the country. It added two more years of senior high school in the basic education, broadening the goals of basic education to higher education preparation, middle level skills development, entrepreneurship, and employment. The present study used narrative inquiry to narrate the past experiences of Tin as one of the first graduates of this 7-year old educational reform. It examined Tin’s journey from junior high school to senior high school to gain a better understanding of being a K-12 student in the Philippines and a deeper and richer insight on the implementation of the K-12 curriculum. A qualitative analysis of an indepth interview with Tin highlighted her struggles, both in her junior and senior high schools. In particular, her struggles included some personal conflicts such as being academically competitive amidst being introvert and financially poor, adjustment to a new environment as she transferred from a rural school to an urban school, rigidity of her senior high school academic subjects, and her trouble with her teachers’ teaching styles. The story of Tin provided specific insights as to how similar conditions as hers may be avoided and how the teaching-learning process may be improved, particularly in the light of the K-12 curriculum implementation in the Philippines. Keywords: Narrative inquiry, Philippine K-12 Basic Education Program, student experiences, Junior High School, Senior High Schoo
39 ATTITUDES TOWARDS RESEARCH OF TEACHER EDUCATION STUDENTS AT PALAWAN STATE UNIVERSITY – PUERTO PRINCESA , MC ARTHUR D. MARAVILLA
Palawan State University – Puerto Princesa (PSU) is one of the biggest teacher education institutions in Palawan, Philippines. With the ultimate goal of enhancing the research competence of its teacher education students, this cross-sectional explanatory study sought to determine the attitudes towards research of its teacher education students and determine how their attitude factors might vary across demographic variables gender, year level, program of study, and type of high school curriculum. The Attitudes towards Research (ATR) Scale developed by Papanastasiou (2005) was adopted to determine the attitudes of 397 teacher education students enrolled at PSU during the first semester of School Year 2019-2020. Descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) were used for data analyses. Results revealed that PSU teacher education students have a relatively positive attitude towards research and perceive research as useful for their profession and relevant to their lives. However, most of them experienced difficulty and anxiety in research. These attitudes of PSU teacher education students towards research do not significantly vary across gender, program of study, year level, and type of high school curriculum. It is recommended that the results of this study be considered when planning instruction or conducting intervention programs that will improve students’ attitudes towards research. Factors influencing students’ attitudes towards research and how their attitudes could be improved should also be explored. Keywords: Attitudes towards research, teacher education students, cross-sectional explanatory research, Palawan State University 
40 TEACHERS’ ATTITUDES TOWARDS RESEARCH AT PALAWAN STATE UNIVERSITY – PUERTO PRINCESA , MC ARTHUR D. MARAVILLA
The university teachers’ attitudes towards research may affect their research productivity, and in turn, influence the university research production. This cross-sectional explanatory study sought to assess the attitudes towards research of teachers at Palawan State University – Puerto Princesa (PSU) and determine how their attitude factors might vary across demographic variables age, gender, academic degree earned, teaching experience, tenure status, and rank. It also aimed to determine how their attitudes predict their research productivity. The Attitudes towards Research (ATR) Scale for university teachers developed by Shafqat, Manzoor, & Tariq (2018) was adopted to determine the attitudes of 155 teachers from the different colleges of the University. For analyses, descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, MANOVA, and multiple linear regression were used. Results showed that, generally, PSU teachers have a positive attitude towards research in terms of research orientation, rewards influence, personal interests about research, mission of the university, and research use, but a negative attitude in terms of research anxiety. The PSU teachers’ attitudes towards research did not significantly vary across gender, tenure status, and professional rank. However, significant differences were obtained in terms of age, academic degree earned, and teaching experience. PSU teachers had very low research productivity in the past five years, particularly in terms of research projects they authored or co-authored, published refereed articles, published books, chapters in edited books, and refereed presentations. Their attitudes towards research account for 20 percent of their research productivity, with their research orientation being the most important predictor-attitude factor. Provision of research opportunities such as having professional development programs on research, standardized research activities, publication facilities, and graduate scholarships among teachers were recommended. Other factors that affect teachers’ research productivity were also recommended to be explored. Keywords: Attitudes towards research, university teachers, research productivity, cross-sectional explanatory research, Palawan State University
41 SCHOOL-BASED COMPLEMENTARY ACTIVITIES ON HEALTH PROGRAMS FOR PUBLIC ELEMENTARY PUPILS , HAYZELL JOY F. GABI
Good health is essential for learning and cognitive ability. Ensuring good health when children are of school age can boost attendance, educational achievement and live more meaningful lives. This study used descriptive research design to assess the existing health programs in Manghinao Elementary School during the School Year 2015-2016. Specifically, this study determined the health status of public elementary pupils considering their Body Mass Index (BMI) and acquired common health problems. The researcher employed the following statistical tools such as weighted mean and Pearson r. Finally, based on the analysis, this study proposed school-based complementary activities in accordance with the existing health programs. Respondents of the study were 31 teachers and 64 parents who provided responses through a researcher-constructed questionnaire. The researcher also conducted key informant interviews with barangay health workers. The results of this study revealed all of health programs were implemented to a moderate extent in Manghinao Elementary School. Also, school practices relative to promoting positive health behavior and parent-teacher collaboration were often observed. Hypothesis testing revealed there was a significant relationship between the extent of implementation of health programs and manifestation of school practices. From the findings, the researcher prepared school-based complementary activities envisioned to improve the implementation of health programs in public elementary schools. These complementary activities were geared to provide the pupils with different practical applications of health care while inculcating in their minds the importance of healthy living. It was recommended that more complementary activities on health be given to the pupils and parents to encourage better health practices. This study further suggested that more health teachings be given to the parents and pupils. Keywords: Health programs, school-based complementary activities, parent-teacher collaboration, Philippines health practices, health problems, descriptive research 
42 UTILIZATION OF INQUIRY-BASED APPROACHES IN TEACHING SCIENCE AND ITS EFFECT TO LEARNERS’ PERFORMANCE IN GOVERNOR FELICIANO LEVISTE MEMORIAL NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL , SHERWIN R. SALAZAR
Inquiry-based approaches is one of the five pedagogical approaches prescribed by the K to 12 Basic Education Curriculum. It aimed to ascertain the effectiveness of inquiry-based approaches utilized in teaching Science and its effect on the performance of Grade 10 learners in Governor Feliciano Leviste Memorial National High School at Lemery District, Division of Batangas and was assessed by the teacher and learner-respondents in Academic Year 2018-2019. The study employed descriptive method of research and utilized questionnaire as the main data gathering tool. This study employed 312 Grade 10 learners and 28 science teachers as respondents. Weighted mean, t-test and Pearson’s coefficient of correlation were used in the statistical treatment of data. Findings revealed that there were significant differences in the assessments of the teachers and the learners on the utilization of inquiry-based approaches in teaching Science. Moreover, significant relationships of inquiry-based approaches on the performance of learners was observed in understanding and applying scientific knowledge and performing scientific processes and skills while insignificant relationship was reflected on demonstrating scientific attitude and values. Therefore, an action plan was proposed to strengthen and enhance the utilization of inquiry-based approaches in teaching Science which aimed to improve the learners’ performance on the existing three domains of learning Science. Keywords: Inquiry-based, pedagogical approaches, descriptive method, action plan, Philippines
43 LEVEL OF COMPLIANCE WITH THE PRINCIPLES OF ORGANIZATIONAL JUSTICE BASIS FOR IN-SERVICE TRAINING PROGRAM PROPOSAL , OLIVER R. GUEVARRA
airness in the workplace can improve job satisfaction, commitment and work ethics as assessed by the principal-respondent and 42 teacher-respondents on the level of compliance with principles of organizational justice at Bayorbor National High School, Mataas na Kahoy, Batangas. Through a survey questionnaire and data analysis using frequency, percentage, mean, weighted arithmetic mean, and coefficient of variation, and research studies, it was revealed that a well-experienced male principal was able to deliver better performance as perceived by experienced teachers following organizational justice. The principal-respondent and teacher-respondents always complied with the principles of organizational justice thus maintaining a harmonious relationship in their school. Moreover, there is no significant difference in how the principal and teacher-respondents perceived the practice of organizational justice in their school thereby developing a culture of excellence and fairness. The in-service training program proposal will be beneficial in strengthening the practice of organizational justice in their school. Keywords: Action research, Organizational Justice, Level of Compliance, Descriptive Method
44 VIDEO-AIDED SELF-REFLECTION A PEDAGOGICAL TOOL IN TEACHING BIOLOGY , SHIELA M. ACEVEDA
Advancement and evolution of different kinds of gadgets, mobile phones, laptops and computers are highly appreciated by most of the students today. These become effective tools to enhance their motivation and active engagement inside the classroom. However, these also change the continuity of lesson because students confine themselves in using gadgets and playing mobile games at home. Decline in students’ performance becomes visible. In educational system where technology cannot be withdrawn, an intensive effort of a teacher to integrate it constructively can revamp technology as an effective tool for learning. With this explosive space of change and development, the researcher decided to check out the effectiveness of video as a tool for learning in a form of video-aided selfreflection in teaching Biology. The study used quasi-experimental research design. The participants of this study were 100 Grade 8 students from two different sections handled by the researcher in the School Year 2018-2019. A researcher- made pre-test was steered out to the controlled group and experimental group at the beginning of the fourth quarter. Controlled group used traditional means of self-reflection while the experimental group used video-aided self-reflection. At the end of the quarter the same test was administered to both controlled and experimental group. Mean, standard deviation and t-test were used as statistical tools to navigate the results of the study. Findings revealed that both groups showed differences in their score implying that they had different level of performance in Biology after the utilization of video-aided self-reflection. This revealed that the use of video-aided selfreflection was an effective pedagogical tool in teaching Biology. Keywords: Video-aided, Self-Reflection, Pedagogical Tool, quasi-experimental, Philippines 
45 THE CULTURAL CENTER OF THE PHILIPPINES AS ART TOURISM DESTINATION: A SUSTAINABLE APPROACH , ALLANAH MAY A. MONTERA, ALYSSA CLAIRE D. EMBINO, NAZARIO CARLOS P. TONGOHAN,   ERNESTO C. MANDIGMA JR.
Art tourism describes people travelling to explore, visit, and engage in movement and activities related to art. The study aims to assess the impact of art tourism at the Cultural Center of the Philippines (CCP) with regard to economic, socio-cultural and environmental factors. Additionally, the study would be of help in developing a sustainable plan for the improvement of art tourism in CCP. The researchers used Quantitative Method specifically Descriptive Method to gather data for the study. As data gathering tool, survey questionnaires were employed and measured through Cronbach's alpha for consistency. The respondents were tourists visiting CCP for art tourism purposes; specifically, dance performing arts. The researchers were able to devise a sustainable plan and drew up action plans to address the problems observed to improve the venue. The study mainly concluded that the positive impacts on the site are evident and the negative impacts showed slightly evident results. Overall demographic profile of the respondents was determined as having no significant difference; except, for the positive economic impact in the age profile; and the negative economic, negative socio-cultural and negative environmental on the educational attainment profile. Key words: Art tourism, Sustainability, Quantitative Research, Philippines
46 PROJECT E.N.T.A.B.L.A.D.O: A BASIS FOR PROMOTING THE DRUG ABUSE PREVENTION ADVOCACY AND PRACTICES , JULIUS P. REYES
People who abuse drugs can die or get addicted to them without realizing it. Temptation is hard to deny. People may think they are cool if they are into it but truth is, they are not. Instead, they can harm themselves. Using drugs is one of the huge problems in society. Meanwhile, schools are known as the center for the development of every learner and through education, prevention of this malady is expected with coordination with the community. This study then aimed to perform a counterbalancing act in molding a safe and well-informed decision making in a normative culture that can be used by all members of society, most especially the learners. In addition, it sought to promote a project that will showcase activities and trainings of Barkada Kontra Droga (BKD) in Natalia Velasquez Ramos Memorial Integrated School, District III-Alangilan in the Division of Batangas City, Batangas, Region IV-A CALABARZON which will contribute as model illustration to different schools to boost drug education, prevention and awareness and to sustain various services in the Barkadaadopted concepts by maximizing the drug abuse prevention advocacy given by the DepEd from various memorandum and orders. This research used the descriptive method of research with a researcher-made questionnaire as the main data gathering instrument and supplemented with an interview. Frequency, percentage, rank, and weighted mean were used as statistical tools in data analysis. Thirty selected junior and senior high school teachers served as the respondents of the study. Findings revealed that there were more activities needed to improve and to strengthen the awareness on drug addiction among learners and also increase community involvement to keep a fully drug-free atmosphere. Keywords: drug awareness, drug prevention, drug education, national drug education program
47 STRATEGIES APPLIED ON THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE PERFORMANCE OF PUPILS IN SELECTED PUBLIC ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS IN THE DIVISION OF LIPA CITY , CRISTY M. MORENO
Department of Education’s mantra is to produce learners who are literate, able to read, write, can comprehend and equipped with skills needed to be globally competitive. This generation of globalization and technological revolution, education is premeditated as a vital step in every human endeavor. In school, learners need to pass numerous levels of standardized national level of examination like the the National Achievement Test (NAT) that serves as an instrument to test pupil’s achievement level. In a standardized test conducted in the Division of Lipa City the results showed that some schools performed low and that was evident in the exam’s mean scores. This study determined the effective strategies applied on the factors affecting the performance of pupils in selected public elementary schools in the Division of Lipa City. The research design used in the study was the descriptive correlation as it considered most appropriate in assessing the current phenomena. Results were based from the pupil’s report card and from the answers reflected in the questionnaire which served as the data gathering tool. Data gathered were analyzed and interpreted through the use of frequency count, weighted mean, ranking, and Pearson R as the statistical tools of the study. The manifestation of low academic performance is one of the major problems that the Department of Education is facing, which hinders the implementation of the bureaus’ vision and mission appropriately. In connection to this problem, there were factors that affect pupils’ performance in school and in exploring these factors teachers can devise and apply effective strategies that will help improved pupils’ performance. Keywords: factors, strategies, descriptive correlation, low academic performance
48 ASSESSMENT OF CUSTOMER SATISFACTION ON HOME -BASED CATERING BUSINESS IN CABADBARAN CITY: BASIS FOR ENHANCEMENT PROGRAM  , WALTER B. JUERA 
A business should strive to achieve customer satisfaction. The study aimed to formulate an enhancement program on customer satisfaction among home-based catering businesses in Cabadbaran City, Philippines, where 250 customers served as the respondents of the study. The researcher used the quantitative non-experimental research design using a survey method in this study. Moreover, results revealed that customers agreed in their expectation that home-based catering business much evidently met the quality of food and is at par comparable to established hotels and restaurants; offers a more personalized service compared to others; have a very satisfactory quality service; and is reliable in fulfilling contractual agreements. Furthermore, results showed that customer’s overall evaluation in perceived quality after purchasing or availing home-based catering services had been met. The customer's quality, customization, and reliability experience also displayed a very satisfactory and much experienced post-purchase transaction towards home-based catering business. Moreover, results revealed that customers were very satisfied with the value of services given the price as well as its value-based attributes. Overall, customers were highly satisfied with the food quality of home-based catering business. The researcher made a matrix on the proposed enhancement program. Keywords: Business, home-based catering, customer satisfaction, enhancement program, quantitative design, Philippines
49 READINESS OF SCIENCE LABORATORY FACILITIES OF THE PUBLIC JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL IN LANAO DEL SUR, PHILIPPINES , HANIFA T. HADJI ABAS, ARLYNE C. MARASIGAN, PhD
The Philippine K to 12 science curriculum is a learner-centered and inquiry-based discipline that requires learners to utilize learning materials and learning spaces needed for a meaningful understanding of the scientific concepts and for developing their scientific literacy. This is anchored to the constructivism theory that supports ‘learning by doing.’ A laboratory is an essential place for active learning and science teaching that would provide students with opportunities to think creatively and critically to solve real-world problems. This study assessed the current status of the science laboratory facilities in two public junior high schools in the province of Lanao del Sur. This is to assess the current condition and availability of laboratory facilities and to identify the challenges faced by science teachers. This study employed descriptive case study method, in which the participants were from two selected schools in Lanao del Sur. A researcher-made checklist of laboratory facilities and semi-structured interviews were used to gather the data. Frequency was used as a statistical tool for quantifying the number of available laboratory facilities and equipment. Based on the findings, both schools have inadequate laboratory facilities that hinder the performance of the activities in the science module designed by the Department of Education. The lack of a laboratory room, the inadequacy of laboratory facilities and science equipment, defective laboratory equipment, the inadequacy of learning materials, lack of water supply, lack of electricity are common issues in both schools. Teacherrespondents of this study have difficulty in teaching some science concepts and are not fully equipped on how to use some science equipment. Addressing the identified challenges is recommended to achieve quality education for all. Keywords: constructivism, K to 12 Science, laboratory, Lanao 
50 THE AESTHETICALLY MEANINGFUL TATTOO: A GADAMERIAN CASE STUDY , JHUREN VICSON C. SANTANDER
The paper focuses on Gadamer's philosophical aesthetics, explaining the artistic meanings and experiences of contemporary tattoos and tattooing. The paper discusses further by looking specifically at the following sub-concepts concerning an aesthetically meaningful tattoo from the perspective of tattoo artists and enthusiasts. Contemporary tattooing is considered mainstream; it is also one of the fastest growing industries globally. This provided different perspective in the development of contemporary tattooing. It includes the understanding and interpretation of the aesthetic experience and meaning. The paper sees this opportunity of investigating under the philosophical aesthetic perspective contemporary tattooing through the accounts of the artists and enthusiasts in a community. The study with phenomenological approach under Gadamerian aesthetics interviewed different contemporary tattoo artists and enthusiasts under one community. The study used the qualitative methodology by doing key informant interviews. It provided the qualitative in-depth interviews with people who have the knowledge of what was going on in the community. The study focused on the aesthetic experience of the artists and enthusiasts while interpreting it on Gadamer’s aesthetic and the concepts of pain and permanency. The study also discussed the aesthetically meaningful tattoo explained through the fulfillment and realization of the aesthetic concepts. Through this, the paper arrived in the signification of contemporary tattooing. Keywords: Tattoo, Contemporary Tattoo, Aesthetics, Hermeneutics, Philosophy, Philosophy of Art, Gadamer
51 ENGLISH PROFICIENCY LEVEL OF SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS: BASIS FOR TEACHERS’ TRAINING , ELIZABETH NOCHE- ENRIQUEZ
Most of the world’s non-English language teachers speak English as a second or third language rather than as their first language. For many, their level of proficiency in English may not reach established by their school heads, colleagues, and students, raising the issue that is the focus of this research. Using the descriptive method of research, the researcher determined the perception of school heads, teachers, and students on the English proficiency level of teachers in terms of academic language and language comprehension. This also determined the level of performance of students in English core subjects, thus, the subject teachers could be encouraged to strive to become better educator to provide a venue for students to continuously dream of becoming better learners. The statistical formulas used for treating the data obtained were Frequency Count, Percentage, T Test of Difference between Unequal Samples, Weighted Mean, Kruskal-Wallis Test of Change, and Pearson R Product-Moment Correlation. The findings showed that the level of English proficiency of teachers and the students’ performance on academic language and language comprehension were very satisfactory. Moreover, the findings showed that there was a significant relationship that exists between the English proficiency Level of teachers and the students’ performance based on the components considered in the study. With this, a training design to enhance the level of English proficiency of teachers was proposed. Keywords: English proficiency, core subjects, academic language, teachers’ training, descriptive method, Philippines 
52 PERCEPTION OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL HEADS AND TEACHERS ON CHILD PROTECTION POLICY IN PRIVATE SCHOOLS IN TANAUAN CITY DIVISION , JOHN MELDWIN B. BARONIA
Child-friendly schools dramatically minimize or remove frequent physical threats and other types of violence occurring in and around schools and learning spaces, such as teachers' corporal punishment, student-on-student abuse, gang wars, bullying, sexual assaults, other forms of gender-based abuse and external group school assaults. Schools that are child-friendly need to collaborate with parents and local groups to avoid abuse. To protect children from physical damage and mental, physical, emotional and sexual violence, simple, transparently implemented policies and procedures and firm measures must be in place. The study's main objective was to evaluate the awareness rates of principals and educators’ engagement on the Child Protection Program at Tanauan City Division's Private Schools, Batangas. The argument is that officials in child-friendly schools should be vigilant in recognizing child violence and neglect, and should be prepared to act in compliance with national laws and policies on child safety, including compulsory reporting to police or other legal authorities. The school's position in serious child protection matters is not to investigate them but to identify cases that need attention and refer them to appropriate child care agencies. The descriptive method of research was used in this study using a survey questionnaire as the main instrument to gather data. The respondents of the study were 15 principals and 185 educators in the said Private Schools in Tanauan City Division. Statistical tools like weighted mean were used in determining the extent of implementation of Child Protection Program and level of perceptiveness of principals and educators. The non-significant differences between their perceptions were established using the t-test formula. Meanwhile, the Pearson r product-moment correlation and r-test were used to resolve the nonsignificant relationship between the extent of implementation of Child Protection Program and level of participation of principals and educators. The result indicated that the views of the two groups of respondents were not substantially different, although both stated that there was intense observance of involvement in the execution of the school manager's duties and responsibilities. It further revealed that there was no shared agreement between the heads of school and teachers about the school manager's roles and responsibilities in enforcing child protection policy. Child-friendly schools should be prepared to recognize, refer and evaluate vulnerable children, especially those who have suffered, suffered or are at risk of serious harm. Keywords: Child Protection Program, Mistreatment, Perception, Participation
53 ENHANCING THE SENTENCE CONSTRUCTION SKILLS OF TVL STUDENTS THROUGH INSTRUCT, INTEGRATE, INVOLVE (3I’S) METHOD  , JOHN MELDWIN B. BARONIA
The ability to communicate entails skill in speaking and confidence. The two can only be achieved when a person is grammatically competent. While some students might be effective English speakers, guidance is still required to become effective authors. Likewise, many students in the Philippines have poor writing abilities as revealed in the results of 2012 National Career Assessment Examination. Thus, the sentence construction is needed. In the academic setting, the researcher observed that not all K12 Technical-Vocational-Livelihood Strand students are grammatically competent yet. These students have been studying English for 11 years and only a few are communicating their emotions or ideas in class confidently and fluently while many do not speak although they have ideas on mind. Evidently, written tests support this weakness. During assessment subject verb agreement, parts of speech, identifying error and essay writing, students can hardly give the correct verb nor construct grammatically correct statements. For this reason, the researcher desires to improve the grammatical competence of these learners. The action research making use of the One Group Pretest Posttest template was carried out to assess the efficacy of the Instruct, Integrate, Involve (3I's) Method in enhancing the sentence construction of Sto. Tomas Senior High School's 25 TVL students for the 2019-2020 school year. A one-tailed t-test on population indicates the use of paired samples was done to fulfill the study objective. This is suitable statistical treatment to be used since the pretest and posttest scores of the respondents are examples of related variables. It is tested in the one-tailed ttest the alternative hypothesis that the mean posttest scores of the respondents is significantly greater than their mean pretest scores. Hence, knowledge building about how the various grammar rules are shaped is a must achieve the desired result. It is not an easy process to create this understanding of grammar skills. The array of ways and uses confuses learners of the English language. Every day they learn new grammar rules but when they speak or write in English, they have trouble applying them. That is why the researcher wants to propose the Instruct, Integrate, Involve (3I’s) Method to enhance the sentence construction of these students. This is a method which will enhance the sentence construction skills by leaning the Subject-verb Agreement Rules and applying these in constructing grammatically correct sentence. Keywords: Sentence Construction, One-tailed t-test, 3Is Method, School-wide Enrichment Program
54 APPROACHES IN TEACHING LITERATURE EMPLOYED BY SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS , ROBIN C. PAROJENOG
Teachers are known to be versatile. They are equipped with different knowledge and skills for them to be prepared in handling the diversity of learners. It is a fact that each day, they are faced with this challenge as each learner is noted to be unique. Thus, they have different ways of how they should be taught in school. One of the challenges being encountered by educators is on maximizing students’ comprehension, especially on literature subjects. Therefore, different approaches have been proposed to accommodate the needs of every learner when it comes to studying literature. This study aimed to analyze the process of teaching and learning of literature among senior high school teachers based on the K to 12 Curriculum for the English subject. Specifically, it sought to find out the teaching learning activities being conducted by the four senior high school literature teachers. It also looked into the teaching approaches mostly preferred by the four senior high school literature teachers. As an offshoot of this study, an instructional module for literature was designed. The study utilized both quantitative and qualitative methodologies. The questionnaire, classroom observation, and interview schedule were used to answer the research questions. This study was limited to the approaches in teaching literature employed by selected senior high school teachers who were handling literature subjects in senior high school in the second district of Ubay, Bohol. The aforementioned findings led the researcher to conclude that the ultimate goal in learning literature is to let the students appreciate its content by using a variety of approaches gleaned from the teaching techniques used by the teachers. Thus, an instructional module was designed to enhance learning by applying the different approaches in teaching literature. This book will serve as a guide to Senior High School literature teachers for them to use varied approaches in teaching the subject for the enhancement of learning. It is recommended that a variety of strategies may be used by teachers in teaching literature to develop not only the cognitive but also the affective and psychomotor domains. Keywords: Approaches, Factors, Methods, Techniques, Self-Assessment
55 DOES OIL PRICE AND TRADE OPENNESS NEXUS ALONG WITH FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT HAVE INFLUENCE ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN THAILAND , ZIA UR RAHMAN*, AABERA ATTA, UMER SUFFIAN AHMAD, AQEELA RAZA
The objective of this research is to analyze the conceivable cointegration and direction of causality among the oil price, trade openness, foreign direct investment and the growth rate in Thailand, using the time series data from 1974 to 2018. In addition to these variables’ fiscal development and inflation are also employed to observe the influence of financial openness on economic growth. Johansen cointegration test is utilized to detect long-run relationship incorporated with the vector error correction for the short-term association. Further, granger causality is utilized to determine the direction of causality among the contending variables. The outcomes of Johansen and vector error confirms the short and long-term affiliation among variables in Thailand. The coefficient of VECM (Wald test) detect the cumulative influence on the growth rate. The estimations of granger causality affirmed that oil price, inflation, fiscal development via trade, granger cause the growth rate and the fiscal development and foreign direct investment granger causes the growth rate in bi-direction and uni-direction, respectively. The study suggests, based on the impulse response function (under the consideration of the behavior of variables) government should liberalize trade openness as it fortifies the position of Thailand in the neighbored. Key Words:  Oil Price, Trade Openness, Economic Growth, Diagnostic tests and Granger Causality. JEL codas: F13, F21, F36. 
56 ATTITUDINAL/STANCE LEXICAL BUNDLES IN SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS’ NARRATIVES: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF NATIVE AND NON-NATIVE SPEAKERS’ WRITTEN REGISTER , CLARK DOMINIC L. ALIPASA
Analyzing multi-word expressions aids in understanding how native and non-native English speakers in secondary schools differ in expressing their attitude and stance, especially in written compositions. Thus, this study sought to compare and analyze the attitudinal/stance lexical bundles used by students in their narratives, specifically in terms of epistemicity, desire, obligation/directive, intention/prediction, and ability to conclude which between the native and non-native speakers used attitudinal/stance lexical bundles more frequently. Results showed that non-native English learners demonstrated a greater number of attitudinal/stance lexical bundles compared to their native counterparts, except in terms of desire. Non-native speakers employed more indirect and impersonal variations, unlike the native speakers whose expressions were more direct and straightforward. In line with these findings, further studies on the implications of the observed rarity and higher frequency of attitudinal/stance bundles use by non-native learners are hereby recommended. Keywords: lexical bundles, discourse analysis, corpus study, Philippine ESL speakers, narrative writing  
57 RISING FROM COVID-19: PRIVATE SCHOOLS’ READINESS AND RESPONSE AMIDST A GLOBAL PANDEMIC , KERWIN PAUL J. GONZALES
Schools’ stakeholders are the most affected during this time of the pandemic. They are mostly the ones at a loss and are the ones sacrificing, may it be either academically, financially, or both. The different gathered data aimed to provide clarity on the issues and provide propositions on how to conduct the schools’ organic functions, possibly during and after the pandemic. In this study, a total of 220 participants came from 44 different schools. The study employed a concurrent-triangulation research design in which an online survey was sent to the participants. Also, teachers coming from international schools and schools outside the Philippines were contacted to have them share their experiences in regards to how their schools handle the situation. Lastly, document analysis was also utilized as a data-gathering procedure. Hence, a model focusing on six factors, namely: ICT Literacy Training, Stakeholder’s Educational Equity, Re-engineering of Teacher’s Mindset, Pedagogical Innovation, Re-designing of the Curriculum, and Re-evaluation of Assessments and Grading System was proposed.    Keywords: Pandemic Education, COVID-19, Concurrent-Triangulation, Philippines
58 COLLABORATIVE INQUIRY APPROACHES AND LEVEL OF THINKING AND REASONING SKILLS: BASIS FOR SUSTAINABLE SCIENCE EDUCATION , FRANZ KEVIN B. MANALO,  ELISA N. CHUA, PhD
The study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of collaborative inquiry approaches such as problem-based learning and project-based learning on improving the thinking and reasoning skills of students. Furthermore, it aimed to determine the difference in pretest and posttest scores, and correlate the students’ perceived effectiveness on the approaches’ process, implementation and outcomes to the mean posttest scores. Descriptive-comparative research design was used. Sixty Grade 10 students clustered into two groups were selected as respondents in San Pablo City Science Integrated High School during the academic year 2018- 2019. Survey questionnaires and pretest-posttest questions were utilized to obtain the data. Results revealed that there was a significant relationship between the students’ perceived effectiveness of collaborative inquiry approaches and their mean posttest scores in thinking and reasonings skills. However, the results of the pretest and posttest of the students were significantly different. On the other hand, there was no significant difference between the students’ mean posttest scores exposed to problem-based learning and project-based learning. Both learning approaches can co-exist inside the classroom as effective modes of teaching real-world learning and building future-ready skills.   Keywords: collaborative inquiry, thinking skills, reasoning skills, science education
59 INFLUENCE OF SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES, STRATEGIC ORIENTATION AND ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE ON SUSTAINABILITY PERFORMANCE IN MANUFACTURING FIRMS , VERGIL JOSEPH I. LITERAL
The way businesses operate for the past years have changed drastically. Organizations have been increasingly acknowledging their role in fostering commitment to sustainability. It is an emerging trend in the current business environment wherein a number of dynamic companies welcomes the idea of thinking strategically and regard sustainability as a catalyst for new business models with the goal of coming up with a more systematic perspective in coping with sustainability issues. In line with corporate sustainability, this study looked into the influence of three independent variables namely, sustainable management practices, strategic orientation and organizational culture on sustainability performance. Quantitative research design was utilized and multiple regression analysis was employed to determine the combined influence of the predictor variables on sustainability performance. For the purpose of data collection, a survey questionnaire was administered among manufacturing firms operating in Region XII, Philippines to 417 regular employees performing key functions. Results showed that the combination of sustainable management practices, strategic orientation and organizational culture exhibited significant influence on sustainability performance of manufacturing firms. Out of the three independent variables, the best predictor that significantly contributed to the variations of sustainability performance is sustainable management practices followed by strategic orientation and then organizational culture.   Keywords: business administration, sustainability performance, multiple regression analysis, manufacturing firms, Philippines
60 LEARNING AND SHARING: UNDERSTANDING EXPERIENCES IN TEACHING INDIGENOUS LEARNERS OF MINDORO , JOHN ROBBY O. ROBIÑOS,  JOSEPHINE P. DASIG, PhD., PROF. LOURDES A. MENDOZA  
Changing school culture requires building professional learning communities that aim to improve and empower teacher's competence, complete well-being, and impact on student learning. This qualitative, descriptive phenomenological study was conducted to determine the purposes, expectations, challenges, and learning and sharing experiences of teachers educating indigenous learners of Mindoro, Philippines.  Data were obtained from pre-structured interview of faculty handling multi-grade levels of IP learners delivered essences and emerged themes. Study indicates that teachers’ main goal is to transfer understanding and make a difference, they strongly affirmed to deliver significant influence among learners. Meanwhile, learners divergent behavior and learning styles were amongst shared challenges that steered faculty to become progressivists implementing learner-centered approaches. Teachers best realization posited that teaching is a never-ending commitment and education must be inclusive. Based on these results, improving various sources of learning, providing a holistic program for teachers and strengthening the implementation of inclusive education reforms are recommended.   Keywords: Learning, Sharing, Teaching Experiences, Indigenous Learners, Mindoro, Philippines.
61 IMPACT OF FACULTY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS TO THE INSTRUCTIONAL PERFORMANCE OF TEACHERS IN GOVERNOR FELICIANO LEVISTE MEMORIAL NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL , PAUL JOVEN A. ALILIO
Teachers serve as the sole dispenser of knowledge in the schools. They need to be equipped with the skills in teaching using appropriate methodologies, strategies and approaches in dealing with various types of learners. In the Philippines, the Department of Education is determined to provide the teachers the best enhancement programs to achieve its vision for the Filipino people. Localized teacher training programs are being conducted in school levels to upgrade teachers’ level of competency in their needed instructional skills. Several teachers’ development programs are offered to teachers which are usually conducted monthly, quarterly or at least once a year to sustain their needs. This study aimed to determine the impact of faculty development programs to the instructional performance of teachers in Governor Feliciano Leviste Memorial National High School. This also sought to answer how effective were teachers with regard to instructional skills as assessed by teachers themselves and by their respective department heads in relation to the faculty development programs. It also evaluated the faculty development programs offered in GFLMNHS namely, Gender and Development (GAD) Program, In-service trainings (INSET) and Learning Action Cell (LAC). Descriptive method of research was applied to figure out the impact of those enhancement programs in the teacher’s instructional performance. It involved the 203 secondary school teachers and seven department heads of the said school. The researcher utilized the questionnaire as the main data-gathering tool which consisted of two parts. Part one dealt with the instructional performance of teachers and part two was about the evaluation of faculty development programs as assessed by department heads and teachers themselves. The responses were interpreted using the appropriate statistical tools such as Percentage, Weighted Mean, Ranking and t-test based from the obtained answers. Furthermore, the study reveals the significant impact of faculty development programs specifically the GAD, INSET and LAC sessions to the instructional performance of teachers.   Keywords: Instructional performance, Faculty development programs Gender and Development Program, In-service Training, Learning Action Cell
62 AMBIGUITIES IN VERBAL LINGUISTIC JOKES AND DEVALUATION OF GRICE’S MAXIMS OF CONVERSATION AS INGREDIENTS  IN VICE GANDA’S TOP-GROSSING FILMS , DARREL M. OCAMPO
Lexical and structural levels of language abound ambiguities that are good source of humor. Consequently, violations of the maxims of conversation are leeway to induce humor in any type of discourse.  Adding these two precepts and considering pragmatics as its foundation became the bases in analysing the top-grossing films of Vice Ganda. It sought to identify the verbal linguistic jokes and ambiguities present in the top-grossing films of Vice Ganda; determine on how these ambiguities create devaluation of Grice’s maxims of conversation; and determine on how the ambiguities in verbal linguistic jokes and devaluation of Grice’s maxims of conversation were used as ingredients in Vice Ganda’s top-grossing films. Discourse analysis was used in the study and the analytical framework to induce humor by Taghiyev (2018) was used in analysing the corpora. A priori coding was used to identify the recurring ambiguities and devaluation of maxims in the films. Findings show that lexical-semantic and structural-syntactic ambiguities were present in the films. It was intentionally used in order to create humorous effect in the dialogues of the films. Moreover, the devaluation of the maxims of conversation quietly and unostentatiously, opting out, coping with a clash between maxims, and flouting was deemed an effective ingredient to make the films become comical and appealing to the audience.