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Biological and Clinical Sciences Research Journal

Journal Papers (14) Details Call for Paper Manuscript submission Publication Ethics Contact Authors' Guide Line
1 ROLE OF MODERN TECHNOLOGY FOR TREATMENT OF HCV   , MUSHTAQ U, MUSHTAQ S, AFZAL M, ALI Q, MALIK A
HCV is the main reason of the liver disease and worldwide it is one of the major issues of health due to its development into cirrhosis, failure and cancer of liver. The transference of HCV is mainly through the parental but people who use drug like intravenous are also at greatest threat. The life cycle of HCV is now understood in a more precise way due to extensive studies. Due to more understanding of this virus there is establishment of more effectual antiviral medications and also diagnostic devices. Test of nucleic acids are suggested for the validation of active HCV. Serology tests are suggested for the groups that are at the greatest risk. Earlier for the standard medications of HCV interferon (IFN-a) and ribavirin are used. Later FDA approved a number of drugs such as harvoni, simeprevir and boceprevir etc. for the proper treatment of HCV. Antiviral medications will be utilized to treat the infections of HCV. In the management of certain severe viral infection, therapeutic option has improved in a better way. There is need of follow-up and careful consideration as well as there are many new technologies that have developed for the quantitative measurement of viral genome concentration in the body fluid of patients. Initially this measurement led to important insight in the viral infection pathogenesis as well as these test also revolutionized natural history of HCV. In addition viral load test are pure tool for research, these are used in routine viral diagnosis. Viral load test are used in clinical virology for diagnosis and prognosis of patient’s. 
2 BEGOMOVIRUSES AND BETASATELLITES ASSOCIATED WITH CLCuD   , *YAQOOB S, FATIMA N, KHAN S, ALI Q, HAFEEZ MM, MALIK A  
Begomoviruses are one of the major types of plant viruses. They are transmitted by whitefly and cause many diseases. The CLCuD is the most damaging disease of cotton. It is the vector of begomoviruses, namely as monpartite or bipartite begomoviruses. Bipartite begomoviruses are consisted of A and B DNA molecuales. Monopatite consist of single genome. It is mainly linked with alphasatellites and betasatellites. Alphasatellites can replicate by using replication protein and not called as true satellites. Betasatellites are called as true satellites as they are linked with alphasatellites. Mainly cause tomato yellow leaf curl disease. Begomoviruses are different from other plant viruses as the basis of RNA genomes. DNA beta satellite is involves in suppressing the expressions of genes in plants. It has a major role in preventing RNA silencing by encoding proteins that binds with DNA and target the nucleus of cell. Affected plants show various symptoms such as leaf curling, enations etc. that cause loss in cotton field by preventing the growth. With the help of PCR, 1.4 kb fragments of DNA have been amplified from DNA template. For cloning the whole begomoviruses genome, a simple method of cloning has been widely used. Cloning is usually done by using the bacteriophage DNA polymerase. The betasatellites  have shown association with CLCuD.  
3 CONSERVATION OF AN ENDANGERED CARNIVOROUS FISH RITA RITA THROUGH INDUCED BREEDING   , *HAYAT S1,2, RAMZAN M2, ZAFARULLAH M2, AHMAD I2, ALI Q1, *MALIK A1
In present study the Effects of different doses of ovaprim on induced spawning activities of Rita rita were observed with an aim to standardize the dose of ovaprim for successful breeding. In the trial experiment, the females of Rita rita were treated with ovaprim at the rate of 0.5, 0.8 and 1.0ml/kg body weight and males of Rita rita in all the cases were treated at the rate of 0.4ml/kg.  The doses of ovaprim at the rates of 0.5, 0.8, 1.0 ml/kg body weight resulted in 0%, 100% and 100% ovulation respectively. In case of injection of ovaprim at the rate of 0.8ml/kg, the fertilization rate was observed to be about 70% and hatching rate was 58%, which occurred within 20-25 hours after fertilization at water temperature of 270C-290C. In case of injection of ovaprim at the rate of 1.0ml/kg, 18% fertilization rate and 5% hatching rate was observed. The doses of ovaprim at the rates of 0.8ml/kg and 0.4ml/kg body weight for female and male Rita rita respectively was found to be satisfactory for overall breeding performance and the commercially successful production of this fish. Hatchlings from over all experiment were reared up to fingerlings size to about 2 month and were finally stocked into the Chashma lake.  
4 ANTIFUNGAL AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF ALOE VERA PLANT EXTRACT , DANISH P, ALI Q, HAFEEZ MM, *MALIK A
Aloe vera is a well-known medicinal plant used in many therapeutic purposes. Naturally it is composed of many useful compounds that have ability to use for treatment of many diseases. The active compounds reported in this plant are saponins, sugar, enzymes, vitamins, aloesin, aloeemodin, aloin, acemannan aloemannan, aloeride, methylchromones, flavonoids, naftoquinones, sterols, minerals, anthraquinones, amino acids, lignin and salicylic acid and other different compounds including fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins, enzymes, minerals, simple/complex sugars, organic acid and phenolic compounds. In this study aloe vera is used for antibacterial and antifulgal activity against different strains of bacteria and pathogenic fungal strains. Ethanol extract of Aloe vera leaves and roots is applied on these bacterial and fungal strains in different concentrations (15, 20, 25, 30µl). Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtitis, Bacillus megaterium, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and some other bacterial strains are used for this study. Escherichia coli and Agrobacterium tumefacins shows zone of inhibition around 18mm which consider as good result. Bacillus subtitis and Bacillus megaterium also shows good result around 16mm. Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa shows minimum zone of inhibition which is around 11mm. among all used fungal strains (fuserium oxysporum, Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger) fuserium oxysporum and Aspergillus niger shows excellent results around 19mm both against root extract and leaves extract.  
5 EVALUATION OF SALT AND HEAVY METAL STRESS FOR SEEDLING TRAITS IN WHEAT   , ASIF S, ALI Q, *MALIK A
Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is an important cereal crop of the world. It is one of the staple foods for major portion of world population. There are various biotic and abiotic factors responsible for low production of wheat in our country. Among these factors, soil salinity is major problem playing an important role in soil degradation, thus consequently reducing wheat production and quality. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of various salinity and heavy metal levels against three wheat cultivars fir salinity resistance. Three different varieties of wheat were screened against the salinity under controlled conditions in the laboratory of tissue culture, University of Lahore. Seeds of three wheat varieties (Anaj-2006, Faisalabad-2008 and Inqalab-91) were sown in seedling trays. NaCl and CuSO4 were applied as salinity and heavy metal treatment upon wheat cultivars. In order to evaluate, hazardous effects of salinity and heavy metal on wheat certain growth parameters were observed i.e. leaf length and width, leaf area, stem and root length, fresh and dry weight of leaf, stem and root, root shoot length ratio and photometry of leaf, stem and root was measured. Results depicts salinity and heavy metal application has negative correlation with growth parameters of wheat particularly combine application of NaCl and CuSo4 have led to impose major detrimental effects on wheat cultivars. Regarding varietal comparison, “Anaj-2006” proved to be comparatively better in context of less salt’s residual accumulation in leaf, stem and roots along with lower root to shoot length ratio thus exhibiting a strong genetic potential to keep surviving and maintain healthy growth. However, it was concluded that salinity and heavy metal have adversely affected growth and yield potential of “Faisalabad-2008”. So conclusively, there is dare need to screen out indigenous and exotic wheat germplasm available throughout the country for finding some suitable genetic resources having moderate to high resistance levels against salinity and heavy metal which can be further used for breeding purpose in varietal improvement program.  
6 POTENTIAL OF WATER HYACINTH (EICHHORNIA CRASSIPES L.) FOR PHYTOREMEDIATION OF HEAVY METALS FROM WASTE WATER  ,      *NAZIR MI, *IDREES I, DANISH P, AHMAD S, ALI Q, MALIK A
The present study was carried out to determine the potential for phytoremediation of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) plant for Cadmium (Cd), Arsenic (Ar), and Mercury (Hg) absorption. The samples were collected from Dhamthal, Zafarwal and Narowal. The plant samples were cut into their parts and dried at room temperature for 25-30 days until they were fully dried. The change in fresh weight and dry weight was examined. The data of collected samples was recorded and statistically analyzed, which revealed the significance of results for different localities. The lower coefficient of variation was recorded for all studied traits which revealed that there was consistency among the results for different localities. For our study the plant's percentage removal of metals was determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy in plant sample as well as water sample. Metal uptake happened at variable degrees. The water hyacinth uptake the largest metal uptake per dry weight of water hyacinth was 166.25ppm for cadmium and the smallest 0.032ppm was for mercury. In water sample highest amount of metal was 177.25ppm for cadmium and lowest 0.012ppm was for arsenic. It was found from our study that the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crasssipes) uptake cadmium (cd) metal from sewage water in highest amount as compare to arsenic and mercury. It was suggested that the use of water hyacinth plant may be helpful to remove heavy metals from waste water to minimize the heavy metal pollution of water.  
7 SCREENING OF MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.) INBRED LINES UNDER WATER DEFICIT CONDITIONS   , *MASOOD M, AHSAN M, SADAQAT HA, AWAN F
Development of the selection criteria and selection of crop plant genotypes is a crucial and important task of plant breeders. The present study was designed to screen out the drought or water deficit tolerant maize genotypes. Fifty genotypes were taken from maize germplasm restored by the Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan. One set of genotypes were grown under 100% field capacity while other set at 50% field capacity in wire house conditions. The significant contrasts were observed in genotypes of various attributes under ordinary and stress timeframe. The traits root length and root shoot ratio by mass showed the high heritability and genetic advance and genotypic correlation with each other under water deficit condition provided the basis for the selection. The principle component analysis showed that the genotypes A545, AES204, WM13RA were chosen on the premise of better performance for most of the traits under study. These lines may be used in further breeding program as candidate parents for the development of drought tolerant hybrids.  
8 PHYTOCHEMICAL ACTIVITIES OF CONOCARPUS ERECTUS: AN OVERVIEW   , *KHALIL R, ALI Q, HAFEEZ MM, MALIK A
Mangroves speak to regions of high organic profitability and it is a locale wealthy in bioactive substances utilized in medication invention. Conocarpus erectus has placed in the family Combretaceae, in one of the two species of Conocarpus genus and ordinarily exists in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, right through West Indies, America and Africa. The fundamental goal of this audit was to draw attention to the applicable reported information distributed about its phytochemistry, therapeutic potential, botanical aspects as well as traditional uses of Conocarpus erectus. C. erectus is an evergreen tree with 20cm in diameter and 6m tall with scattering crown. This plant was selected because of its huge medicinal importance. The extract of Conocarpus erectus (leaves, shoot, bark & fruit) parts shows high antibacterial, antioxidant and hepta-protective activities due to phenolic content. It contains phenol such as tannin and flavinoid as major component. Tannin has high antibacterial activity than other compound. C. erectus is notable for its folkloristic curative potential.  
9 STUDY ON ZOOPLANKTON DIVERSITY DURING SPRING SEASON IN CHASHMA LAKE, PAKISTAN , *HAYAT S, NAEEM M, RAMZAN M, ZAFARULLAH M, AHMAD I, ALI Q, MALIK A
The present study was conducted to know the zooplankton species diversity in Chashma Lake during spring (March 2016 to May 2016). Various physico-chemical parameters like Temperature, PH, Salinity, conductivity, Total dissolved solids (TDS), Turbidity, Dissolved Oxygen, Alkalinity, Chloride and Carbon dioxide which effect the distribution of zooplankton were also analyzed during this study. Zooplankton community was dominated by different species of rotifers. Those rotifers were Asplanchna herricki, Asplanchna brightwelli, Polyarthra remata, Brachionus angularis, Keratella cochlearis, Keratella tecta and Keratella valga tropica. Among these Keratella valga tropica was most common. Some species of copepods were recorded such as, Diacyclops thomasi, Acanthocyclops robustus, Mesocyclops edax, Tropocyclops prasinus mexicanus and Orthocyclops modestus. Among these Diacyclops thomasi was most abundant. Among copepods some nauplii and copepodid stages were also observed. Different species of cladocerans such as, Bosmina longirostris, Daphnia pulex, Chydorus sphaericus, Alona bicolor, Alonella exigua and Simocephalus serrulatus were also recorded.  
10 PHENOLIC ACID PROFILING BY RP-HPLC: EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTICANCER ACTIVITIES OF CONOCARPUS ERECTUS PLANT EXTRACTS   , *KHALIL R, ALI Q, HAFEEZ MM, MALIK A
Due to the versatile application of plants the utilization of plants and their inferred substances builds up day by day for the revelation of new curative agents. Conocarpus erectus has placed in the family Combretaceae, in one of the two species of Conocarpus genus and ordinarily exists in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In some countries it is used as folk medicine for fever, anemia, diabetes, catarrh, diarrhea and conjunctivitis. The current study was carried out to investigate the antibacterial and anticancer properties of the plant. The four defatted methanol extracts of C. erectus different parts (leaves, stems, fruits and bark) showed high antibacterial and anticancer activity even with small quantity of dose. Antimicrobial assay was used to check out the antibacterial activity against 6 bacterial strains Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus Aureus and Klebstella Pneumoniae.  The results show that gram positive bacteria show more sensitivity and zone of inhibition as compared to gram negative bacteria. For anticancer activity, MTT assay was performed on HepG2 cells for this purpose. Plant extorts show anticancer activity with a minute quantity. For phytochemical screening defatted methanol extract of Conocarpus erectus was subjected to the silica gel glass column go behind by (RP-HPLC–UV–ESI-MS). It contains phenol such as tannin and flavinoid as major component. Plant contain Ellagic acid; di-hexahydroxy diphenyl, Vascalgin isomer as foremost tannin component. Gallic Acid, Kaempferol on the base of mass spectra and time of retention. The extract of Conocarpus erectus (leaves, shoot, bark & fruit) parts shows high antibacterial, antioxidant and hepta-protective activities due to phenolic content. Tannin has high antibacterial activity than other compound. C.erectus is notable for its folkloristic curative potential. More in vivo and in vitro phytochemical studies are needed to use the plant for prevention and treatment of many diseases.  
11 ANTIBACTERIAL, ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES AND ASSOCIATION AMONG PLANT GROWTH RELATED TRAITS OF LEPIDIUM DRABA , *ALI Q, KHALIL R, NADEEM M, AZHAR MM, HAFEEZ MM, MALIK A
The Lepidium draba or white tope also known as hoary cress belongs to family Brassicaceae, has been known as one of the perennial herbs which grow normally from seeds and also produced horizontal long creeping roots. It normally grows as a weed plant in farm fields. The present study was conducted to find out the antibacterial and antioxidant activities along with the plant traits of Lepidium draba. The shoot, root and inflorescence extracts were taken through using ethanol, water and n-hexan as extraction solvents. It was found from our studies that the plant extracts were heaving alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, coumarins, anthocyans, quinons, steroids, sterols and terpenoids as potential phenolic compounds. The bacterial strains including Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Staphylococcus aureus were cultured to access the antibacterial activities of plant extracts. The higher antibacterial activity was reported from n-hexan extract which indicate that the n-hexan extract may be used for extracting phytochemicals to be used as potential antibacterial biomedicines. The water extract showed higher antioxidant activities as compared with ethanol and n-hexan extracts which indicated that the use of water extract may be as a useful antioxidant under stress conditions, may also have anticancer activities. The lower coefficient of variation was recorded for all of the studied traits which indicated the consistency of results and reliability of selecting plants from various locations. There was significant and positive correlation among plant height with inflorescence weight, leaf area and leaf length, the inflorescence weight showed positive correlation with plant height, lea length and leaf area. There was higher contribution of plant height while leaf area contributed lower and negatively towards fresh plant weight. We have concluded from our study that the Lepidium draba plant extract showed antibacterial and antioxidant activities through using ethanol, water and n-hexan as extraction solvents. The significant correlation and regression associations indicated that the plants can tolerate harsh environmental conditions.
12 EFFECTS OF CARBOSULFAN ON THE BIOLOGY OF BIRD CHERRY OAT APHID , *AHMAD S , HERA Z , HANIF MS, SYED AH
Aphids are the most commonly occurring, destructive, sap sucking and serious threat to cereal crops especially wheat (Triticum aestivum). Bird Cherry Oat aphid Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), is one of the most important aphids on T. aestivum which is one of the most consumed food and a source of nutrition in Pakistan. It causes considerable yield loss in wheat. Carbosulfan, a carbamate, is of the most commonly used pesticide against R. padi. The effects of Carbosulfan on generations of R. padi were performed under standard lab conditions by exposing adult aphids to three different concentrations (1.4×10-7 ppm, 1.4×10-10 ppm, 1.4×10-13 ppm) of Carbosulfan (Advantage® EC). Based on the results, all three concentrations noticeably reduced the pre-adult survival rate. 1.4×10-13 significantly extended the development duration of 1st instar, 2nd instar and 3rd instar nymphs. 1.4×10- 13 ppm also extended the total pre-adult period and female longevity of R. padi. The total longevity was increased by 1.4×10-10 ppm. However, the fecundity decreased the most at 1.4×10-10 ppm. While the TPRP and APRP increased the most at 1.4×10-13 ppm. In the life table parameters, both the intrinsic rate of increase (r) and the finite rate of increase (ƛ) decreased at 1.4×10-7 ppm and 1.4×10-10 ppm, as well as the net reproductive rate (R0) also decreased at 1.4×10-7 ppm and 1.4×10-10 ppm, while mean generation time (T) showed increase at 1.4×10- 13 ppm. Thus, at the concentrations of Carbosulfan tested here, there were negative impacts on R. padi fitness and biology by decreased pre-adult survival rate, λ, r, and R0. The concentrations also slowed down the development of some stages and extended T. My results would be helpful in assessing the overall effects of Carbosulfan on R. padi and should be taken into consideration when use Carbosulfan as a seed dressing insecticide for management of R. padi in wheat crop
13 ASSESSMENT OF NURSES MANAGEMENT SKILLS FOR CRITICALLY ILL PATIENTS , ALI S , GILLANI SA , AFZAL M , PERVEEN K
The Nurses usually use physical restraints for maintaining patients’ therapies and devices in a critical ill setting like ICU, like central lines, endotracheal tubes and the arterial lines. It has been found that about up to 78% among the critical ill patients who have been admitted into various types of ICUs and may have a need for applying a physical self-possession due to the alterations found among their levels of the awareness while during their stay at ICU ward. The nurses' attitude, knowledge and their practice for physical self-control played a vital role for nursing care which has to be provided for restrained patients to prevent form complications in ICU. We have conducted our research to assess nurse's attitudes, knowledge and practice regarding their physical self-control among the most critically ill patients in ICU. We have used a descriptive type of design for our study. The number of nurses used for our study was 66 in total who are working at Lahore School of Nursing, The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan. From our study most of the samples were female, who had a bachelor degree in nursing, with experience of more than 5 years, the aged was ranged between 21-30 years old, along with not attended any of the previous degree or equivalent educational program related with self-control or restraints were under consideration. It was found from our study that majority of samples under study were with reasonable level of nursing knowledge, offensive type of attitude however, around 90.8% out of all nurses showed a satisfactory and moderate type of practice for applications of the physical self-control or restraints for critical ill patients in ICU. It was frond from correlation among the socio-demograhpic characters and nurses` knowledge, the practice and attitude, no significant type of correlation was recorded while among the nurses' age vs knowledge, the practice and attitude, a significant and positive correlation was found while among the nurses’ knowledge, gander and practice was also found a significant correlation along with nurse’s practice and qualification, a significant positive correlation was also among the nurses’ practice score, attitude and experience. It was concluded from our study that, a reasonable level of nurses' improper attitude, knowledge and a satisfactory practice for physical self-control or restraints was found among the critically ill patients in ICU. From our study we have suggested that there must be some proper training programs to te
14 ROLE OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES IN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION; COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PRESENT AND FUTURE ASPECTS IN DISTRICT KHANEWAL , RANA HAA, IFTIKHAR M, CHAUDHRY KM, *USMAN M, MAZHAR F
Agricultural extension is the main driving force in technology transfer from researcher to the end users. But it is facing tremendous challenges due to lack of government interest and financial resources. The prominent issue of agricultural extension is to cover huge number of small farmers in scattered form. Information and Communication Technologies can play a vital role to resolve this issue. The present study was conducted in Tehsil Khanewal to evaluate the type of ICTs used by farmers and their contribution for the development of agricultural extension in future. Data were collected with the help of well-structured interview schedule from 234 farmers and collected data were statistically analyzed with the help of computer software Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Higher variation was recorded which was ranging from (2.9%) to (66.6%) in case of ICTs as a source of agricultural information. The most prominent ICTs device used as a source of agricultural information was TV with exactly two third (66.6%) of the total respondents followed by mobile phone with slightly less than TV (63.6%). Use of Agri. websites and mobile Apps for agriculture consultancy were below bottom line with 4.7% and 2.9%, respectively. Mobile phone was on top ranking with weighted score=959 and mean value=4.12, as an effective tool for getting agricultural information in future. Agri. helpline was on the second number with weighted score=875 and mean value=3.74. It was suggested from our study that there is a need to create awareness among the farmers about the use of ICTs. Farmers must be educated by the extension staff about the use of internet and agriculture mobile apps for fetching the information and finding the solution of the problems which they face in fields.