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International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Advanced Technology

Journal Papers (74) Details Call for Paper Manuscript submission Publication Ethics Contact Authors' Guide Line
1 Aphrodisiac Properties of the Mineral Element Constituents of Garcinia kola (Heckel) In Nigeria , O.O Adetola,  O.E Akinyemi  
Lack of important mineral lead to a disturbance in testosterone level, also lead to an increase in the activity of the enzyme monoamine oxidase (MAO-B) which is responsible for depression, and Phosphodiesterase (PDE-5) which is an enzyme responsible for low blood flow to the Corpus Carvanosum. Mineral nutrients are very important in most enzymatic reactions. Various works have shown that Garcinia cola is highly rich in mineral nutrients. Result of present study shows that Potassium and Calcium are the most abundant mineral elements in Garcinia kola seed (0.039% and 0.041% respectively). Sodium and magnesium represent (0.0072% and 0.011% respectively). The seed contains 0.022% Phosphorus while Copper, Iron and Zinc have significantly low concentrations (0.0029%, 0.00057% and 0.00018% respectively).  Lead is not detected in the sample, showing that the seed is not poisonous.
2 Competition Policies and Laws in Bangladesh : A Tool to Redress The Suffering of The Citizen As Well As to Protect The Interest of The Businessmen , Md Mahabubur Rahman, Mohammad Rafiqul Islam
A very strong voice against anti-competitive activities and in seeking a state’s intervention found in Bangladesh for long. The responsibilities to combat unhygienic competition in business and protect the interest of the businessmen lies on the state and by means of policy and law a state can address the matter and ensure healthy competition in business. The laws on competition in Bangladesh are not inadequate if someone wants to argue and it could be a matter of sanguinity because of the enactment of Competition Act which supplemented the legal regime of competition. In this respect, the main objectives of this paper are to understand the legal coverage for competition and identify the wayforward.
3 Digital Literacy For Teacher Efficiency   , Aguemeka, Chinyere1, Babatunde, Christopher Femi2, Mode, Bello Gagi3  
This study contributes to the limited research available on digital literacy skills for teacher improvement. The advent of ICT brought new opportunities that require a skill set to operate better and faster both in the education sector and in the world of work and business. The case for teachers’ digital literacy is cogent in the information age to keep them efficiently updated in their areas of specialization and production of student graduates that can thrive in the digital environment. The level of digital literacy skills a teacher possesses affects the extent to which the teacher puts ICT to use. This study outlines some of those digital literacy skills required by teachers, there importance and application and further puts forward some suggestions to teachers, students and the government for the improvement of digital literacy skills of both teachers and students  
4 Digital Literacy For Teacher Efficiency   , Aguemeka, Chinyere, Babatunde, Christopher Femi,   Mode, Bello Gagi  
This study contributes to the limited research available on digital literacy skills for teacher improvement. The advent of ICT brought new opportunities that require a skill set to operate better and faster both in the education sector and in the world of work and business. The case for teachers’ digital literacy is cogent in the information age to keep them efficiently updated in their areas of specialization and production of student graduates that can thrive in the digital environment. The level of digital literacy skills a teacher possesses affects the extent to which the teacher puts ICT to use. This study outlines some of those digital literacy skills required by teachers, there importance and application and further puts forward some suggestions to teachers, students and the government for the improvement of digital literacy skills of both teachers and students.  
5 Energy and Nucleus Field are two Parameter to Determine Particles, Created in Pair Production Phenomena     , Saddam Husain Dhobi, MD Jahangeer Rangrej, Sweta Kumari Verma  
This analytical work help to understand the relation of incidence energy photon, nucleus of an atom and particles formation in pair production phenomena. Theses all are dependent to each other directly that means high energy photon and high atomic mass nucleus produce high massive elementary particle and antiparticle and some other photon having energy less than incidence photon. While low energy photon and low atomic nucleus produce lighter elementary particles and antiparticle, in this cases photon may or may not produce. Example, the minimum incidence energy photon for pair production is about 2mc2 or 1.02MeV, produce only electron and positron not any other photon while energy greater than 2mc2, produce either electron and positron or other elementary particle and antiparticle and moreover some photon in some condition.    
6 The Distributive Role of The State   , Brahim Idelhakkar, Said Tritah, Amin Hadri  
The main normative criteria for fairly allocating public resources are set at the level of the social contract or the constitution. In the reality, the question of the optimal distribution does not arise in its abstract terms. But in fact it is rather to correct the existing distribution to better reflect the goals set, so the State must seek redistribution criteria by taking regulatory measures against imperfect competition. The distribution or allocation is inspired by concerns of equity. The State acts to redistribute national income through taxation and transfer expenditures. In the consumer economy, this redistribution of resources includes the capital and physical work capacity of individuals. According to Bénard (1985) transfers which are monetary or in kind alter the distribution of income or wealth among individuals.This distribution can result from an optimal functioning of a competitive market economy and an optimal allocation of common goods from an initial wealth given distribution: We restrict to public transfers whose intervene through the State that interposes financially between agents subject to tax and those reached by subsidies.  
7 Yield and Yield Component’s Response of Onion (Allium cepa) to Farm Yard Manure; A Review   , Abera Jaleta Berkessa
8 EM-Bokashi Addition to the Growing Media for the Quality Improvement of Kalanchoe Blossfeldiana   , D. Prisa
In this study, the effect of introducing different amounts of EM-Bokashi into the growing medium of Kalanchoe Blossfeldiana was evaluated (Figure 1) to determine whether this organic soil  is able to improve the growth and flowering of these succulents. The five experimental groups in cultivation were: i) group without beneficial EM-Bokashi; ii) group with 5% EM-Bokashi; iii) group with 10% EM-Bokashi; iv) group with 15% EM-Bokashi; v) group with 20% EM-Bokashi. All plants treated with EM-Bokashi showed a significant increase in the agronomic parameters analysed compared to the untreated control. The results show that the addition of Bokashi to the growing medium of Kalanchoe Blossfeldiana can improve plant quality, in particular agronomic and physiological characteristics and increased nutrient and water uptake. The analytical results lead to the following conclusions: i) the addition of already 5% Bokashi to the growing medium can bring significant improvements to the cultivation of Kalanchoe Blossfeldiana; ii) significant improvements in terms of plant and root biomass will stabilise for amounts of Bokashi in excess of 10% in the substrate; iii) EM-Bokashi significantly improves plant nutrient and water uptake; iv) plants treated with Bokashi photosynthesize and have a higher chlorophyll content and are more efficient in the use of water; v) the qualitative and physiological improvement of plants is probably determined by the presence of beneficial bacteria in the Bokashi soil conditioner, which stimulate plants and increase nutrient uptake.  
9 Customer Churn Prediction in Banking Industry Using K-Means and Support Vector Machine Algorithms   , Abdulsalam Sulaiman Olaniyi, Arowolo Micheal Olaolu, Bilkisu Jimada-Ojuolape, Saheed Yakub Kayode    
This study proposes a customer churn mining structure based on data mining methods in a banking sector. This study predicts the behavior of customers by using clustering technique to analyze customer’s competence and continuity with the sector using k-means clustering algorithm. The data is clustered into 3 labels, on the basis of the transaction in and outflow. The clustering results were classified using Support Vector Machine (SVM), an Accuracy of 97% was achieved. This study enables the banking administrators to mine the conduct of their customers and may prompt proper strategies as per engaging quality and improve proper conducts of administrator capacities in customer relationship.         
10 Motivation Enhancement Program and Parental Support Behavior and their Effects on Academic Performance of the Academically At-Risk Senior High School Student , Mary Ann C. Tuazon
Many students today are considered at-risk, and they struggle academically, emotionally, or behaviorally. Many programs have been implemented to help at-risk students. Both successes and failures of these programs can be examined and analyzed for further research to meet the growing needs of at-risk students in classrooms today. This study employs the descriptive research design. Three sets of inquiry form were adopted; the first one is the modified student data form from the Guidance Office of Sta. Monica Hagonoy, Bulacan, the second is the 17-item questionnaire with four sub-components that is answerable using 5-point Likert Scale from strongly agree to disagree where "5" is the highest strength, and "1" is the lowest scale. In the light of the findings of the study, the following conclusions were drawn: 1.             This research had obtained that most of the at-risk students have low achievement motivation, emotional and behavioral difficulties and the motivation programs enabled students to increase their achievement motivation and helped them cope up with their difficulties. 2.             The academic performance of the academically at-risk students in terms of the core; specialized; and applied subjects were progressed and improved after the implementation of enhanced motivation program. 3.             The extent of parental support behavior has no significant effects on academic performance of at-risk students.    
11 A Holistic Approach to Innovation Management in Banking Industry   , Md Harun Or Rashid, Shahara Akter Eva
The main purpose of this study is to develop a holistic approach for innovation management in banking. Secondary materials have been extensively used, interpreted and reinterpreted to substantiate the arguments. The analysis has been confined to banking industry. However, the experiences of various sectors have also been analyzed to strengthen the arguments. The article mainly deals with theoretical background of cultural creativity and innovation management in banking towards a holistic approach for guiding managers to a highly dynamic and competitive business environment. This study reveals that one of the key factors of any organization is to foster and encourage creativity and innovative practices for sustainable growth and development. Multiple approached reviewed to develop holistic approach for cultural creativity and innovation management in banking. This study revealed that creativity and innovative strategies are essential factors for sustainable growth and development in banking. It also shows that the bank performed better which adopted creative and innovative strategies. The study recommends that ensuring cultural creativities, adopting innovative strategies, ensuring more innovative products, improving products, repositioning products, introducing user friendly IT based products, etc are necessary for a bank to ensure short-term and long-term growth and development.         
12 Electron Take Different Time to Observe the Energy of Difference Photon   , Saddam Husain Dhobi  
When photon incidence on the electron, electron absorbed the energy of incidence photon, to absorb such energy electron take certain time. The absorption time for the energy for difference incidence photon is difference, for same electron. In cases of low energy photon, time taken to absorb the energy of photon is high while for high energy photon, time taken to absorb the energy of photon is less. This nature of electron lead this research work towards the composition of electron. The particle containing inside electron leads or result to form ordinary electrons.  
13 Settlements Adjoining Tin Mines in Plateau State are Exposed to Higher Concentrations of Heavy Metals   , Francis Obiora Okonkwo, Benjamin Danlad, Bege Jonathan, Amos Asumpah Ibrahim, John Barnabas Nvau    
Heavy metals are present in the environment naturally at low levels which may not be harmful to humans. Human activities such as dumping of waste, smelting, waste incineration, vehicle exhausts, agricultural waste, fertilizers, mining activities and so on has increased the levels of heavy metals in the environment. Among all the factors that increases the concentration of heavy metals, mining activity is considered as one of the most influential anthropogenic activities which results in changes in landscapes, destruction of habitats, and contamination of soil, ambient air and water, and degradation of land resources. The presence of heavy metals in the environment.  Artisanal tin mining activity has continued to increase in communities in Jos plateau state. This activity may be exposing heavy metals that may be harmful to humans and animals. The study aims to check the concentration of Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Nickel (Ni), Manganese (Mn) and Zinc (Zn) in soil, ambient air, vegetables, fish, and water samples from the mining site. The metals were also analysed in soil and air in a community close to the mining site.  
14 Settlements Adjoining Tin Mines in Plateau State are Exposed to Higher Concentrations of Heavy Metals   , Francis Obiora Okonkwo, Benjamin Danlad, Bege Jonathan, Amos Asumpah Ibrahim, John Barnabas Nvau    
Heavy metals are present in the environment naturally at low levels which may not be harmful to humans. Human activities such as dumping of waste, smelting, waste incineration, vehicle exhausts, agricultural waste, fertilizers, mining activities and so on has increased the levels of heavy metals in the environment. Among all the factors that increases the concentration of heavy metals, mining activity is considered as one of the most influential anthropogenic activities which results in changes in landscapes, destruction of habitats, and contamination of soil, ambient air and water, and degradation of land resources. The presence of heavy metals in the environment.  Artisanal tin mining activity has continued to increase in communities in Jos plateau state. This activity may be exposing heavy metals that may be harmful to humans and animals. The study aims to check the concentration of Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Nickel (Ni), Manganese (Mn) and Zinc (Zn) in soil, ambient air, vegetables, fish, and water samples from the mining site. The metals were also analysed in soil and air in a community close to the mining site.  
15 The Impact of Capital Structure on the Firm’s Financial Performance (An Empirical Study on listed Industrial Companies in Jordan)   , Mo’ath Reyad Mawajdeh
This paper aims to investigate the effect of capital structure on the firm’s profitability that are measured using return on investment (ROI), the sample used is industrial sector for the companies listed in Amman stock exchange during five years (2012-2015) where data are collected from its annual reports, by use multiple regression liner at 0.95 confidence interval, we find that there is significance statistical impact of capital structure on profitability.  
16 A Prototype of Dextran Content Record System in Sugar and Alcohol Production Using Blockchain Technology   , Inacio Henrique Yano, Alexandre de Castro, Luis Eduardo Gonzales, Geraldo Magela de Almeida Cançado, Fabio Cezar da Silva
Dextran is a polysaccharide produced by bacteria of the genus Leuconostoc spp, which causes loss of sucrose and raises sugar and alcohol manufacturing costs, as well as reducing its quality. Therefore, it is important to control the proliferation of this bacterium, both in the sugarcane field and in agroindustry. In the field should be observed, the length of stay between cutting and transport to industry, the presence of impurities, among other factors. In industry, long storage periods should be avoided, as well as taking care of cleaning and asepsis of the mills and broth treatment tanks. The objective of this work is to record dextran content using blockchain technology because it is a distributed database suitable for applications such as this, which will track the dextran content from the sugarcane field to the production of sugar and alcohol in the industry. A blockchain database is very secure against tampering, which is another advantage of this solution.       
17 A Prototype of Dextran Content Record System in Sugar and Alcohol Production Using Blockchain Technology   , Inacio Henrique Yano, Alexandre de Castro, Luis Eduardo Gonzales, Geraldo Magela de Almeida Cançado, Fabio Cezar da Silva
Dextran is a polysaccharide produced by bacteria of the genus Leuconostoc spp, which causes loss of sucrose and raises sugar and alcohol manufacturing costs, as well as reducing its quality. Therefore, it is important to control the proliferation of this bacterium, both in the sugarcane field and in agroindustry. In the field should be observed, the length of stay between cutting and transport to industry, the presence of impurities, among other factors. In industry, long storage periods should be avoided, as well as taking care of cleaning and asepsis of the mills and broth treatment tanks. The objective of this work is to record dextran content using blockchain technology because it is a distributed database suitable for applications such as this, which will track the dextran content from the sugarcane field to the production of sugar and alcohol in the industry. A blockchain database is very secure against tampering, which is another advantage of this solution.       
18 A Prototype of Dextran Content Record System in Sugar and Alcohol Production Using Blockchain Technology   , Inacio Henrique Yano, Alexandre de Castro, Luis Eduardo Gonzales, Geraldo Magela de Almeida Cançado, Fabio Cezar da Silva
Dextran is a polysaccharide produced by bacteria of the genus Leuconostoc spp, which causes loss of sucrose and raises sugar and alcohol manufacturing costs, as well as reducing its quality. Therefore, it is important to control the proliferation of this bacterium, both in the sugarcane field and in agroindustry. In the field should be observed, the length of stay between cutting and transport to industry, the presence of impurities, among other factors. In industry, long storage periods should be avoided, as well as taking care of cleaning and asepsis of the mills and broth treatment tanks. The objective of this work is to record dextran content using blockchain technology because it is a distributed database suitable for applications such as this, which will track the dextran content from the sugarcane field to the production of sugar and alcohol in the industry. A blockchain database is very secure against tampering, which is another advantage of this solution.       
19 Potato Peel Extract as an eco-Friendly Corrosion Inhibitor for Carbon Steel in Formation Water , E. M. Attia, Olfat E. Elazabawy, N. S. Hassan and A. M. Hyba     
The inhibitive effect of naturally available potato peel extract (PPE) toward the corrosion of carbon steel (CS) in formation water solution (FW) has been investigated by weight loss and open circuit potential (OCP). The results showed increase in the inhibition efficiency with increasing potato peels extract concentration up to 92.27% obtained at 25oC for a 2.5% (v/v) concentration. The results also showed the increase in the inhibition efficiency with decreasing temperature. The adsorption film of extract on the carbon steel specimen was also found to follow Langmuir adsorption isotherm. SEM and EDX studies supported the adsorption of the inhibitor over the metal surface.  
20 Self-Construction as Predictor of Pleasure Reading Among Students of University-Owned Senior Secondary Schools in Southwestern Nigeria   , Florence Adeola OMOBA, Fadekemi O. OYEWUSI  
In the years past, students in Nigerian secondary schools were always involved in pleasure reading because they had habit of reading books when traveling in public transports or when in leisure in some other public places. During the holidays, students either buy or borrow pleasure reading materials for the holiday. The situation is different today, because students these days derive enjoyment in playing games, watching films and listening to music as against what the practice was before. Despite added advantage of information communication technology (ICT) to the promotion of pleasure reading, because pleasure reading materials, formats and opportunities have increased. This study therefore, investigated the extent to which self-construction predicted pleasure reading among students of public university-owned senior secondary schools in southwestern Nigeria. Scales used to elicit information, validated and tested for reliability using Cronbach Alpha are Pleasure Reading Scale (r = 0.74) and Students’ Self-Construction Scale (r = 0.87). Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, Pearson Product Moment Correlation, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), multiple regression analysis at 0.05 level of significance. The weighted mean of students’ responses in attitude to pleasure reading and interest in pleasure reading are 2.62 and 2.28 respectively, while average level of self-construction is 32.56. There was a high relationship between pleasure reading and self-construction. There is no significant contribution of self-construction on pleasure reading (β = -0.02). This implies that the level of self-construction cannot predict the level of pleasure reading of senior secondary school students of university-owned secondary schools in southwestern Nigeria.  
21 Pocket Park as an Urban Place-Making     , Mohd Ramzi Mohd Hussain, Nor Fatin Diana Mohd Fazir and Nadia Aqma Zainan  
The paper presents the theoretical framework of what is the potential of a pocket park as an urban place-making. The paper is divided into three main sections which is section 1 discusses the introduction of the pocket park, which includes the definition, types and the elements that can be found at the pocket parks. In section 2, the pocket park is further elaborated as a space in an urban area, which explains the functions, characteristics and the importance of pocket park in the urban area. Section 3, will clarify what is the pocket park as an urban place-making, which explains the concept, roles and examples of activities and townscape in the pocket park for urban place-making. Based on the reviews, it is hoped that the paper will be a useful addition to the body of knowledge on the potential of a pocket park as a public realm to create an urban place-making.  
22 Development of a Portable Mechanical Charger for Smartphones and Power Banks   , Erika Naomi C. Galvan, Hanz Chloie Z. Limos, Ron Louis C. Nierva  
With the continuous advancement in technology, current smartphones have refined features that require greater power. Consequently, devices that extend battery power are needed to sustain the constant use of smartphones. Although there are power banks functioning as battery extenders, they eventually run out of charge as well (Harmalkar, et. al., 2011). A new battery extender that relies on muscle power from the user serves as an alternative source of energy during power outage or an emergency, when the batteries of devices drain. Accordingly, this study aimed to design a portable mechanical charger casing for micro-USB-charged devices such as smartphones and power banks, specifically to (1) generate a stable electromotive force of five volts (±0.2) and produce a regulated electric current of at least 300 milliamperes, (2) integrate the charger circuit into the casing design, and (3) evaluate the charging stability of the prototype within a 10-second testing time. The prototype was assembled using two components: a (1) charger circuit and (2) the casing. The charger circuit that is composed of a geared DC motor as the input for mechanical energy, an LM2596 DC-DC buck converter as the voltage regulator for the desired output, and a micro-USB connector as the connection to the device was connected to a hand crank system. The casing was designed for a Samsung Galaxy Note 2 in Autodesk Fusion 360, and 3D printed using polylactic acid plus (PLA+) filament. Based on ANOVA tests conducted at α=0.05, the input voltages produced from rotating the hand crank system are significantly different, however the output voltages of the prototype are statistically equal. The prototype was functional as it was able to produce a regulated output voltage of 5.00 V to 5.10 V, generate an electric current of more than 400 mA and accommodate a Samsung Galaxy Note 2. For further development of the study, a hand-pressed system and lithium ion battery with a display feature on battery percentage could power the mechanical charger for easier operation.  
23 Stresses on Water Availability Resulting From Climatic Variability in Eastern Terai : A Case Study of Gauradaha VDC in Jhapa District   , Tara Prasad Kharel , Ashutosh Shukla      
Gauradaha VDC in Jhapa District represents the agro-climatic condition and the farmers’ practices of crop production and management in the eastern Terai region of Nepal. This study involved analysis of records of temperature, rainfall and hu-midity at Gaide and Damak stations. The climatic variability in this study was established using analysis of observed cli-matic records of the representative meteorological stations and analysis of climate change perception of the people belonging to different socio-economic strata. The analysis of perceived variability on agricultural water availability was carried out through survey of 108 respondent households of different strata. The study identified strong correlation between climatic variability obtained from the analysis of observed climatic records and those perceived by the farmers belonging to the three categories of the households. The analysis revealed increased frequency of occurrence of extreme temperature (>280C) in the study area. The study revealed the fact that there have been decreasing trends in the amount of annual and monsoon rainfall together with the increasing trend of warming and reduction in the relative humidity of the atmosphere, which sets the condition for increased water stress one hand and increased losses of stored soil moisture on the other, thus further aggravating the water stress. This study established the fact of climate change and its impact in water availability in eastern Terai of Nepal.       
24 Development of the Instrumentation Unit of a Motorized Precision Planter   , B. O. Soyoye  
The performance of precision planters is very important for attaining uniform seed spacing. Seed metering units of planters receive their motion from the driving wheel through various transmission members such as the chains, gears, shafts and belts. The slippery situation that do occur at the driving wheel adversely affects the performance of the metering unit. The research aimed at developing a planter whose metering wheel is totally eliminated and the entire operation could be well monitored. The DC motor incorporated to drive the metering shaft was powered by the pulses generated through the ON and OFF situations of the transistor. The planter was evaluated to determine its optimum operational conditions. The results showed that the forward speed of the planter is proportional to the rotational speed of the metering shaft. The optimum speed of the metering shaft is 45 rpm at the forward speed of 1.3 m/s.  
25 Study the Electronic Structure of AlAs Nanocrystal using the Ab-initio Restricted Hartree-Fock (RHF) formalism within the frame of large unit cell (LUC) method   , Haider O. Essa  
The electronic structure of aluminum arsenide (AlAs) nanocrystals is studied theoretically using the ab-initio restricted Hartree-Fock (RHF) formalism within the frame of large unit cell (LUC) method by using Gaussian (03) program. The work is divided into two parts: core part and surface part to obtain a complete electronic structure view. The number of atoms is choosed (8) atoms for the (LUC) method, because these numbers of atoms give cubic shapes. In the Bravais unit cell, the chosen part of nanocrystals equal directions in the three orthogonal coordinates is used, which gives cubic shapes. The (001) chosen surfaces are in passivity with oxygen atoms to terminate these surfaces in z-direction. The calculations include the total energy, lattice constant, energy gap, cohesive energy, valence and conduction bands, electrostatic potential and electronic density surfaces for both core and surface parts. The results reveal that the total energy decreases with increasing the lattice constant till it reaches the equilibrium lattice constant. Surface and core parts have approximately the same lattice constant that reflects the good adherence of oxide layer at the surface. Also the results show that the electron density distribution is not equal and the electrostatic potential surface is dragged towards atoms of high electronegativity.    
26 A Calibrated Model of Critical Success Factors for Industry 4.0 Warehousing Performance Improvement: Insights from Multiple Case Studies   , Navodika Karunarathna , Kasuni Vidanagamachchi, Ruwan Wickramarachchi    
. Warehouses enabled with Industry 4.0-driven technologies can be identified as the concept of ‘smart warehousing’ which will facilitate firms to adapt to the dynamic changes in the business environment. Although, smart warehouse concept has been widely spread across the world, it is still in its infancy in the developing countries. Therefore, there is a high necessity for conducting research in this area to explore the technology implementation opportunities. This paper presents a calibrated model for assessing the level of Industry 4.0 readiness of Third Party Logistics warehouses. This model has been developed by combining the digital maturity levels and critical success factors of warehouse performance improvement. This model was validated through an empirical study which was conducted among four leading 3PL firms. The results of this study provide valuable information for logistics service providers to improve their capabilities to cope with the dynamic future requirements.  
27 Curbing Mass Unemployment : Performance of The National Directorate of Employment (NDE)   , Young Chimezirim Charles
This paper examines the performance of NDE programmes with a focus from 1990 - 2010 by examining the concept of self-employment as the solution to mass unemployment and determine the suitability of the NDE training programmes in promoting industrialization. This was with a view to establishing the general impact of NDE and its drive for employment generation in the country. The paper adopts empirical analysis to examine the most effective method of curbing mass unemployment in Nigeria. The data used in this study is of two type’s primary and secondary data. However, for the primary data the questionnaire was used to solicit responses from the respondents. The paper revealed that before the institutionalization of NDE, we were experiencing single digit unemployment rate, but afterwards we grew to double digits. It was also established that self-employment contributes a minimal percentage on productivity and sales. This proved that an increase in the level of self-employment would result in a decrease in the level of productivity. The paper also provides useful suggestion and recommendations on how to curb graduate unemployment in Nigeria. In conclusion, the principles and strategy of graduate self-employment do not develop the technological capability needed by the trainees. Hence, they do not promote industrialization, productivity and create sustainable job opportunities. The study emphasizes planting industries, education and training as the principal learning tools for increasing employment in quantity and quality and promoting improved productivity.  
28 Evaluation of the Availability, Accessibility and Usage of Electronic Resources in University Library   , Joshua Oyeniyi , Oluwashina Oyeniran , Lawrence Omotosho , Olajide Adebayo, Stella Oyeniran  
The growth of information resources has become a global phenomenon in recent times due to technological advancement in information technology (IT). These advances in information technology have resulted to comprehensive developments in higher education sector, the application of digital information in learning is an example this development. This study examines the availability, accessibility and the use of electronic resources by students in university libraries. Samples of 535 students from two universities were randomly selected, questionnaire was used to gather data for the study and the data collected were analyzed with the use of tables and percentages. The findings revealed that though all the students’ uses e-resources but only a relative few access the resources in the university library, most are not fully aware of the availability of e-resources in the university library and the available e-resources are not always accessible. There is the need for the library to increase its awareness among students and the university community on the existence, accessibility and usage of its electronic resources.  
29 Using Mobile Video-Conferencing to Develop Sixth Grade EFL Students’ Productive and Receptive English skills and Motivation: The Case of Jordan , Ibtisam Ali AbuKaff  
This paper investigates the effectiveness of using mobile as one of the most effective tools for teaching English as foreign language in two domains: productive and receptive skills and motivation among Jordanian non-native EFL students. This study aims at answering the following research questions:  To what extent do Jordanian EFL students use their mobile phones to develop the productive and receptive skills? What are Jordanian EFL students’ attitudes towards using their mobile phones in learning English?  The sample of the study consists of twelve female students, who study English as a foreign language, at Almufaradat basic school for girls during the first semester of the academic year 2019-2020. The sample of the study will be divided into two sections: Section (A) it will consist of 6 students and it will be assigned as an experimental group, while the other group which will be decided to be a control group and it will consist of 6 students. Data will be collected with eight weeks via pre-posttests. The experimental group students will study using mobile phone technology, while the control group will study using regular method of teaching English. Results showed that the experimental group who were taught using mobile phones got higher results than the control group. The researcher concluded that mobile phones can develop students’ productive and receptive skills and motivation. Additionally, the experimental group students had positive attitudes towards using their mobile phones in learning English. The researcher recommended Ministry of Higher Education hand in hand with the directorate of Curricula should accompany the main English textbooks with mobile phone programs that enable pupils to learn foreign language authentically. Additionally, there is a need for more mobile software to teach other language components and skills. Therefore, methodologies and curricula designers should put more emphasis on using mobile phone technology in teaching English through including more exercises and activities to teach other language skills to develop students’ language skills and mental growth.     
30 Valence Shifter Rules for Arabic Sentiment Analysis , B.Ihnaini, M. Mahmuddin  
31 The Role of Asset Disclosure and Registration Law in Combating Corruption in Ethiopia: A Comparative Analysis with the Hong Kong and Rwanda Legal Systems , Diriba Adugna Tulu  
A well-designed and structured ADR system can be used as a strong tool to combat corruption effectively and eventually lead to successful conviction of it. The main objective of this study is to comparatively analyze the roles of the ADR law in combating corruption in Ethiopia, Hong Kong and Rwanda in order to draw some best lessons and forwards the recommendations for the identified issues. To achieve the research objectives, the study employed the combination of comparative and doctrinal legal research approach. However, to substantiate the discussion and consolidate arguments, the paper also employed some relevant empirical data. Accordingly, the researcher has collected data through interviews selected purposively from FEACC, FPC and FAG. Then, the data were analyzed and interpreted to draw conclusions. Accordingly, the study reveals that Ethiopian ADR law has not comprehensively designed to combat corruption in Ethiopia as compared to the selected jurisdictions. As a result of these findings and on the basis of lessons drawn from the experiences of the selected countries, the article recommends different measures to be taken into account by the government, law enforcement and FEACC so as to enhance the effective implementation of the ADR law in combating corruption in Ethiopia.  
32 Developing a Smart Monitoring System for Refereeing Goal Setting in Football Matches   , Suhaib Khalaf Albzeirat, Amani Ali Elmetwaly, Malek Khalaf Albzeirat, Nik Noriman Zulkepli
The problem of determining the occurrence of goals in football matches is one of the problems rooted since the inception of this game, in many cases, the referees fall into error during the arbitration in a multi-state, among these cases is ensuring the ball crosses into the goal, and to solve this problem,  a smart monitoring system for refereeing goal Setting in Football Matches was developed through modern technology, and within what is expected from the results of the application of this perception to solve the arbitration problem in this important aspect in football matches.  
33 Perceptions of Snapchat as an Asynchronous Educational Discussion Platform , Gregory Rothwell
Snapchat is growing in popularity among college-aged users. Due to the popularity and the social nature of the application, the educational implications should be measured. This study introduces the idea of Snapchat as a potential educational application based on Uses and Gratifications Theory (UGT) and Connectivism. Participants include preservice teachers who are enrolled in a teacher training program. A survey instrument is used to measure participant perception of Snapchat as a possible instructional tool based on a comparison to traditional online discussion boards. The results of this study suggest users are not ready to embrace Snapchat as an instructional tool.
34 Phonology Matching Algorithm to Construct Palestinian Sentiment Lexicon , B.Ihnaini, M. Mahmuddin
Sentiment analysis refers as computational and natural language processing techniques used to extract subjective information expressed in a text. One of the main issues of sentiment analysis on Palestinian text is the absence of resources on this dialect. Therefore, in this research paper, an enhancement toward the sentiment analysis using lexicon-based approach of Palestinian text is the main objective, where a lexicon of Palestinian Arabic Dialect (PAL) is built using the proposed phonology matching algorithm. Experimental results indicate that the proposed PAL lexicon has produced better results compared to other lexicons from the literature when tested on Levantine datasets available publicly, with a difference of 18% from the average of all lexicons, and 4% better than the second-best lexicon in terms of accuracy and F-score.
35 PHYSICO-CHEMICAL HEALTH METRICS OF THE SOIL AFTER MAIZE HARVEST, TILLAGE, ORGANIC AND INORGANIC FERTILIZER APPLICATION IN AKURE , Akingbola, O.O., Arije, D.N., *Dayo-Olagbende, G.O. and Ilesanmi, A.A
The productivity of a soil depends on the health status, which is a function of soil physicochemical properties. Tillage management and manure application have been identified as one of the factors that affect soil physicochemical properties. In view of these, this study investigates the influence of diverse traditional tillage methods and organic fertilizer application on soil properties, to understand the sustainability of the treatments considered.The experiment was a 3x4 factorial experiment arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates. The treatments combination involved three levels of traditional tillage practicesand four levels fertilizer. Collected data was on the following soil physico-chemical content; percentage Sand, Clay and Silt, Soil Texture, Soil porosity, Water holding capacity (%), pH, Organic matter, sodium, and Calcium. Results were analyzed with Minitab version 17, and mean separation was done using Tukey HSD Test. Results from this study confirmed the influence of different traditional tillage methods and organic fertilizer application on soil physico-chemical properties as well as the importance of poultry manure in soil structural improvement.
36 Formulation of Quick Response Code Dataset for Machine learning Analysis , S. O Subairu, J. K Alhassan , S.M Abdulhamid, J.A Ojeniyi
Quick Response Code technology has made so easy many human digital transactions such as payment, authentication, advertisement, web navigation and others. This technology, despite being widely accepted because of its ease of creation, deployment and usage, has been recently a tool of personal identification theft in the hands of fraudster. Researchers in the area of application of machine learning to cyber security may find it difficulty sourcing QR code dataset. In order to fill this identified gap, a model was developed which incorporate data engineering principle to formulate QR code dataset in the form implementable on machine learning algorithm for analysis.
37 The Effectiveness of Paideian Approach In Teaching Social Studies for 8 Grade , Anticamara, Rey Colin F
 This paper aims to discover the effectiveness of Paideian Approach in teaching Social Studies 8 (World History) to the Grade 8 students in Argao National High School. To achieve the objectives the researcher started examining the academic performances of the forty (40) students in Grade 8 before and after the using the Approach in teaching the subject. For the span of six (6) months of teaching World History using the said approach the researcher culminated the study with post-test. The result was compared with that of the pre-test using T test and that it was found out to be effective. Moreover it was observed that the students’ responded a positive outlook on the affective side upon the use of the Paideian approach. The finding of the study would surely give impact to the teachers and learners in Social Studies in the K to 12 Curriculum.
38 Efficacy of Essential Oils as Management Option Against Storage Fungi of Wheat , Asela Kesho, Alemayehu Chala, Elfinesh Shikur
Storage fungi are among the major factors causing post-harvest deterioration of crop produce worldwide. Therefore, the current work was carried out with the objective to evaluate the efficacy of some essential oils as management options against storage fungi of wheat. For this purpose mycological analysis was carried out using 180 wheat grain samples collected from three major wheat growing zones of South East Ethiopia. Besides, five essential oils namely Rosmary (Rosmarinus officinalis), Lemongrass (Cympobogon citratus), Lavender (Lavandula anguistifolia), Palmarosa (Cympobogon martini) and Citronella (Cympobogon nardus) were tested for their efficacy against two isolates of the most dominant fungal species identified. Among the different species identified, Aspergillus flavus and Alternaria triticina were the predominant species at different locations and storage time with different frequencies. The highest fungal incidence (98.62%) was recorded after six months storage of wheat grain. All the tested oils caused inhibition of the fungal mycelium growth albeit at different rates. Lemongrass, Lavender, Palmarosa and Citronella resulted in complete fungal growth inhibition of both fungal species at the lowest minimum concentrations of 25µl per 10ml of PDA media. Similar effects were observed for Rosemary oil, when the concentration increases to the highest concentration of 1.25X10-3 (V/V). The tested oils could play an important role in reducing mycelium growth and have the potential to be used as an alternative or component in integrated storage fungi management. It is suggested that large scale screening of oils on fungal growth, mycotoxin production capacity should be investigated and confirmed with additional studies.
39 Educational Supervision and its Role on the Teacher's Efficiency in the High Elementary Schools of Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia , Amnah Hassan Dammas
This study aimed to identify the level of practices of the elements of educational supervision in achieving the effectiveness of teachers with the detection of the characteristics of the effective teacher from their point of view. The study population consists of 2407 female and male teachers. The questionnaire was applied to the sample of 321 teachers who are working in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia schools. The researcher prepared a questionnaire which is consisting of (94) paragraphs divided into eight areas: leadership, human relations, planning and affairs of students, assessment, scientific subject, school activity, supervisory methods. Statistical treatments were used to calculate arithmetic mean, standard deviation, percentages and analysis of mono-variance and Cheve and T test using the (SPSS) program. The study found the following results: 1) Educational supervision elements perform the required practices by a percentage (97.64%), which is a fairly good ratio. 2) Responses to the extent of the elements practice of the educational supervision in the fields of study were as follows: Human relations (81.68%). Leadership (91.58%), assessment (47.75%), Student Affairs (69.23%) Scientific subject (67.27%) School activity% (60.39%), supervision (64.21%). 3) The study has shown that there are statistically differences in the practices of the elements of educational supervision to achieve the effectiveness of teachers due to gender in the field of human relations, student affairs, assessment, scientific subject, school activity and in the total areas of the questionnaire for the benefit of female teachers, while there are no differences of gender influence in the field of leadership, planning and supervisory methods. 4)The study revealed the characteristics of the effective teacher as teachers believe, these characteristics were numerous, and the researcher summarized them by four characteristics which are personal and professional, human and moral under each of which includes a number of sub-features.
40 IMPLEMENTATION OF INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW: BANGLADESH PERSPECTIVE , Md. Mahabubur Rahman
Implementation of International Law at the domestic level has become increasingly perplexing and sophisticated since it is sometimes difficult to determine who, in the final count, has the responsibility for applying it. It is the parties to the Geneva Conventions, which have the obligation to respect and ensure respect for the rules of International Humanitarian Law (IHL) contained in the Conventions. The role of international bodies, such as the ICRC, is to undertake activities to encourage and induce governments to fulfill their responsibilities in accordance with the relevant international standards; to engage governments in cooperative procedures aimed at assisting them in the implementation of internationally recognized standards and in overcoming difficulties that they may experience in that regard; and to respond to, or attempt to deal with, violations of the internationally recognized rules. Bangladesh has become party to the four Geneva Convention of 1949 in 1972. Bangladesh ratified two Additional Protocols of 1977 in 1980 and some other documents in different time. Although Bangladesh ratified Geneva Conventions, two Protocols relating to it and some other instruments compliance with those instruments are not found satisfactory. That is why the objective of this paper is to determine the status of Bangladesh in the implementation of the IHL focusing on the national efforts to ratification of different instruments on the subject matter and making legislation to comply with the obligation under those instruments.
41 Documentary Letter of Credit in Conventional and Islamic Banks in Jordan , Emad Mohammad Al-Amaren, Che Thalbi Bt Md. Ismail; Mohd Zakhiri bin Md. Nor; Rachma Indriyani
Letter of credit importance appears clearly as being a means of guarantee for both the buyer and the seller in international trade. The term letter of credit whether it Islamic or conventional is the most frequent used method of payment used by seller and buyer in their international sales contract. From this point the main question in this study: Are there any differences between the application of letter of credit under conventional and Islamic bank in Jordan? This study aim is to identify and compare the application of letter of credit under the Jordanian conventional bank practice and the Jordanian Islamic bank practice to find the similarity and the differences between the two practices. To answer the research question, the study has applied a descriptive analysis to examine the letter of credit concept under the Jordanian practice. The data is enriched with Banks official reports through field work methods. Further, this study has followed the detailed analytical method of the international rules and norms related to letter of credits No. 600, in addition to the use of some books of jurisprudence in this regard. This study found that there is no difference between differences between the application of letter of credit under conventional and Islamic bank in Jordan except in terms of name in the documentary credit process. Further, the study came out with a result that, the operation of Islamic letter of credit is very similar to the operations of conventional letter of credit but the difference is on the basic contract that corresponds with the sharia requirements. Islamic letter of credits does not differ from its conventional one. They have the same content, as the differences between the Islamic letter of credit and the conventional letter of credit is only in technical point, and that the case when you want to compare between wakalah letter of credit and the conventional letter of credit, they are similar to each other.
42 A Model to Convert Co2 into O2 with Photons , Saddam Husain Dhobi
As the energy of UVs light is ranges from 3.10 to 12.4eV and the bond energy of carbon and oxygen in free carbon dioxide is 2.94eV. When the UVs ray incident on the surface of carbon dioxide molecules the energy of UVs rays sufficient to break the bond of Carbon and oxygen and hence in this way one can convert carbon dioxide into oxygen and carbon monoxide moreover, carbon and oxygen finally inside the chamber. The chamber of carbon dioxide is filled with carbon dioxide gas and on the internal part of the chamber UVs are set up as shown in the experiment and after fill the camber with the gases, and UVs ray tube is on for glowing or to producing the UVs ray. The UVs ray falls on the gas and break the bond to produce the carbon and oxygen. Therefore the number of carbon dioxide is reduced and in this way, we can reduce the number of carbon dioxide. Similarly, this system may give an idea to reduce other gases which are harmful and gases have high life expectation to decay can utilized for different purpose in daily life. This model is especially focusing on industrial areas and the sources which emitting huge amounts of Carbon dioxide and we can apply this system for small systems also. Hence in this way, we can convert or reduce carbon dioxide gas into oxygen and carbon with this model.
43 The Rule of Law and the Reality of the Judiciary during the Period of Palestinian Political Division , Ahmed M A Hamad; Haslinda binti Mohd. Anuar; Rohizan binti. Halim
The Palestinian Basic Law of 2003 affirmed in Article (6) of it that the principle of the rule of law shall be the basis of government in Palestine. All governmental powers, agencies, institutions, and individuals shall be subject to the law. To enhance the implementation of this principle and ensure its application. The Palestinian legislator stipulated a set of principles related to public rights and freedoms and the reality of the judiciary. The principle of the rule of law is the most important legal guarantee to protect the rights and fundamental freedoms of individuals, as it constitutes in its essence a major guarantee for the protection of public rights and freedoms and the reality of the judiciary. In addition, the judicial authority is important, and it is a guarantee of respect for human rights and protection of the interests of individuals, and it is the body entrusted with it to ensure the rule of law. The independence of the judiciary is the basis of justice, and the complete independence of the judiciary means that no political or administrative authority is permitted to interfere in any act of the judiciary, nor that judges be subject to anything except their conscience, and they have no authority other than the law. The objective of this paper is, therefore, to examine the manifestations of the absence of the rule of law, the infringement of public rights and freedoms, have formed the most prominent problems facing Palestinian society, and this phenomenon ranged between expansion and decline, after the Palestinian political division, according to the developments of the Palestinian national reconciliation and its implications. After the Hamas government took control of the Gaza Strip, in contrast, the Palestinian President appointed a corresponding government in the West Bank, which resulted to two governments, one in the West Bank and the other in the Gaza Strip, which contributed largely to the absence of the rule of law, and a serious deterioration in achieving the principle of the independence of the judiciary. Moreover, this article has explained the impact of the Palestinian political division over the principle of the rule of law and the independence of the judiciary. In order to achieve the objective of this paper, the socio-legal research using the qualitative approach was engaged. This study found that the Palestinian political division led to the absence of the application of the principle of the rule of law and the independence of the judiciary.
44 Evaluating The Performance Efficiency of Health Services Institution in Jordan ,  Maree Mohammad Alzghoul, Norshahrizan Nordin, Tunku Salha Tunku Ahmad, Mohammad Iqbal Omar
This study aims to assess the efficiency of the performance of Jordanian government hospitals from the viewpoint of the human resource (managers and employees), and the study community consists of all hospitals affiliated to the Ministry of Health, and there are 32 hospitals distributed in each of the In five hospitals in the Kingdom, a questionnaire was used as the main data collection tool for this study in line with the aims and questions of the study. 300 questionnaires were distributed to the study sample, of which approximately 90% of the total questionnaires were retrieved, and accounting methods were used, as well as the analysis and analysis of the variance of the individual hypothesis test. The most important of which are: The study found many of the recommendations the most important need to focus senior management in health sectors on the process of applying to evaluate the efficiency of to improve the system of hospitals process and guide the process of decision-making in Jordanian hospitals. The study reached many results: Governmental hospitals provide efficient health and medical services, with the exception of some answers, from the viewpoint of hospital staff, taking into account that this is taken into account. In light of the results of the study, the researcher recommends many matters related to indicators for evaluating the efficiency of hospitals: The hospital administration’s commitment to providing health and medical services to the patient in the time and effort specified by the number of the hospital, maintaining medical records and confidentiality, providing patient waiting rooms and appropriate sessions, and providing incentives and Personnel training courses.
45 Reconciliation between the concept of right of self-defence and use of force: an analysis of Article 51 of the UN Charter and Carroline Correspondence ,  Muhammed Asaduszzaman Nur
Article 2 paragraph 4 of the United Nations Charter proclaims all member states shall refrain from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state. On the other hand Article 51 authorizes a state to recourse to use of force for self-defense individually or collectively if an armed attack occurs against it until the Security Council takes measures necessary to maintain international peace and security. In customary international law use of force for self-defence is regulated by necessity and proportionality principles which were authoritatively expressed in Carroline correspondence. These two principals are affirmed by the International Court of Justice in different judgments. The essay will examine how the right of self-defence is regulated under the Charter provisions and the Caroline correspondence and what does the armed attack requirement under Article 51 mean with case references. The essay will examine how the right of self-defence is regulated under the Charter provisions and the Caroline correspondence and how to reconcile them to justify to the use of force in exercise of right of self-defence.
46 A Study on Member's Participation and Satisfaction Level of Chithode Primary Agricultural Cooperative Credit Society Limited , Maharani, and Vellaichamy
The agricultural sector of India has grown up since independence but after green revaluation in agricultural got an express speed for its development. RBI stared special department for the development and growth of Cooperatives Credit Societies. The K.11279, Chithode Primary Agricultural Cooperative Credit Society was registered and started its function from 15.12.1977. The study done with objective that to study the participation and satisfaction level of members in Chithode Primary Agricultural Cooperative Credit Society Limited and to summarize the findings of the study and offer suitable suggestions for the improvement of Chithode Primary Agricultural Cooperative Credit Society Limited. The present study is based on primary data which is analyzed with the help of tabulation and simple percentage. The primary data collected using questionnaire. Members’ satisfaction level is the important tools to lead the activities of primary agricultural cooperative credit society. The satisfaction level of members are analysed carefully with the responses provided by this members. The members responses are spread over from strongly agree to strongly disagree. It concludes that the society try to serve as it can and members expecting more services from the society.
47 A Triangulation Analysis of Operational Performance and Profitability of Microfinance Institution in Amhara Region-Ethiopia , Uvaneswaran S.M, and Mohammed Adem
The microfinance institutions(MFI) in Ethiopia play a significant role in alleviating poverty in the areas where the society has no or limited access to financial service provisions. There are 39 micro financing institutions serving the poor in Ethiopia and act as an effective anti-poverty strategy all over the country. This paper was attempted to cover two MFI’s operating performance on profitability in Amhara region by taking 2015 to 2019 as financial period limits to accomplish the objective. Mixed method design was adopted and the financial statement of the organization were used to measure the operational and profitability performance and also triangulate with secondary data that is collected using interview from Managers, employees of MFI’s and also Focus group discussion. Descriptive statistics and partial correlation are used to analyze the data. The outcomes highlight the association between operating variables and profitability of MFI’s will helps to offer worthwhile financial product in order to serve better to downtrodden community.
48 Determination and Umkm Behavior of Sharia Banks , Dede Aji Mardani
 In Indonesia, the development of Sharia Banks has not moved significantly. In fact, the total number of customers is only 8.26% of the total population of Indonesia. including in Tawang Subdistrict, education and litersion became the dominance in this problem . T Objective of this study measures the extent to which the preferences of the community the District Tawang against Islamic Bank, and also the preference of what factors most extensive influence on the Islamic Bank. With quantitative methods. The results of this study indicate that the preference of the people of Tawang District Sharia banks can be influenced by 5 characteristics, including personal, social, economic, psychological, and cultural characteristics. and, the most dominant preference factor is based on psychological characteristics, in the form of public perception that Islamic banks are Islamic banks .
49 Does Board Characteristics Enhance Firm Performance? Evidence from Palestinian Listed Companies , Mohammed W. A. Saleh, and Md. Aminul Islam
his study examines the effects of board characteristics and firm performance. The board characteristics are the board gender diversity, the board size, frequency of meetings held during a year by the board of directors and the board financial knowledge. Design/methodology/approach – Based on panel data of 150 observations from non-financial firms listed on the Palestine Security Exchange (PSE) during the period from 2011 to 2016. This study utilises panel data to examine the effect of the predictors on firm performance. The analysis was repeated after using Random-effect and Fixed-effect analysis to make sure that the main results are robust and accurate. Findings – The results show that the larger the board size the better firm's performance. Moreover, the frequency of meetings is found to be positively associated with firm performance. Likewise, the board financial knowledge has a positive relationship with firm performance. However, the result does not find any relationship between the board gender and firm performance. Overall, the results suggest that board's effectiveness tend to improve firms' performance. Originality/value – The study is timely given that the board of directors play pivotal roles in determining the performance in term of monitoring and controlling. The prior research in Palestine has not investigated the effect of board gender diversity. As such, Palestine has not established a legal quota of minimum female representation on boards, and because of it, the country has weak women’s representation among firms. It therefore becomes a necessity to examine the influence of board gender diversity on the financial performance of listed firms in Palestine.
50 Analytics of Antimony in Natural Water of Nanoparticle Platinum Electrode by Application Square Wave Voltammetry , Ahmad Khalaf Alkhawaldeh
This study on the production of a modern natural water electrochemical antimony (II) test include the use of platinum electrode electrodes. Antimony (II) was pre-concentrated on the modified electrode surface and adsorbed to the surface, oxidizing at E = -680 mV. Compared to the platinum electrode, the platinum nanoelectrode exhibited superior performance and, unexpectedly, received a higher electrochemical response. After 25 min of accumulation, time the best-defined anodic peak was obtained with 0.2 mol L-1 KNO3 pH 5.0. Using these parameters, the L-1 Sb 2 + calibration plot was linear over range 1 = 10−8 to 5x10−6 mol. The precision was tested by carrying out eight replicate measurements at a concentration of 2.5x10−5 mol. L-1; the variance coefficient was 2.9%. The method was applied to analytic determination in water samples from the river. Other metal ion attack on Sb's (II) voltammetric response has been studied. In the SEM image, the nanoparticle electrode was clearly observed and characterized by X-ray diffraction and cyclic voltammetry.
51 Identifying the ways of delivery performance enhancements in Sri Lankan E commerce Logistics sector with special reference to the Cash On Delivery (COD) method: An Integrative Review , Navodika Karunarathna
With the prompt growth of sophisticated technological environment, E-Commerce distribution services in Sri Lanka have flourished tremendously. Most logistics and courier companies in Sri Lanka have developed new platforms to step into the modern e-commerce trends to meet the dynamic demands. However, due to the lack of study on real procedures of last mile (LM) delivery has triggered bad reputations and highly dissatisfied customers around the country. Cash on delivery (COD) has been a foremost problem in Sri Lanka's E-commerce delivery systems, hence cash collection and customer rejection rates are much higher, contributing to the cause of both e-commerce vendors and couriers rising costs. Sri Lankan Logistics and Courier companies are still lacking the efficiency; compared to the high standards E commerce industry has set in the world. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify the solutions and strategies for performance enhancements of E-Commerce deliveries with special reference to CODs in order to overcome the associated issues and challenges. This scrutiny has been conducted using an integrative review approach and the literature published in relation to Sri Lankan and Global E-commerce deliveries and COD Services were reviewed. Through the effective categorization and integrative analysis of literature, issues and challenges that are being faced by the ecommerce logistics companies and the solutions and strategies for performance enhancements of ecommerce deliveries were identified in both global and local context. Finally a theoretical framework on COD Services which will be effective to Sri Lankan E commerce Logistics sector was suggested.
52 Determination of Fungicide Spray Frequency for the Management of Septoria Tritici Blotch (Septoria tritici) of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the Central Highlands of Ethiopia , Yitagesu Tadesse, and Belachew Bekele
Septoria tritici blotch (STB) is an economically important foliar disease in the major wheat-growing areas of Ethiopia. The current research was conducted to determine the impact of wheat varieties and fungicide spray frequency on disease development and wheat yield. The effect of bread wheat varieties and fungicides spray frequency on STB development, wheat yield was evaluated at Holleta in a factorial field experiment involving three bread wheat varieties and five fungicide spray frequency. Variety Kekeba had the highest AUDPC (4019) value followed by Madawalabu (3854) and Alidoro (2077) varieties. STB incidence and severity were significantly reduced by the application of fungicides across varieties but fungicide-variety combinations had differential effects on disease development. Wheat grain yield were the lowest from unsprayed plots regardless of variety. Alidoro variety treated with five times Tilt fungicide spray produced the highest yield (6.67t/ha). The highest (3013%) and lowest (0%) marginal rate of return were obtained from Madawalabu variety two time fungicide spray and from all unsprayed fields, respectively. The present findings confirmed the importance of STB in Ethiopia and the role fungicides frequency play in managing the disease on partially resistant varieties.
53 Examining Filariasis (Elephantiasis), Geo-Environment and Socio-Economic Situation: Integrating Factor Analysis with Geographic Information Systems for Northern Region of Bangladesh , Rashed Karim, and Shams Shaila Islam
 This research article attempts to discover the most important factors associated with the severity of filariasis disease among the population. It integrates factor analysis and GIS modeling to find out the spatial level of the disease of an area situated in a relatively less developed region (Northern region) of Bangladesh. Results noticed that characteristics of the spatial environments have a significant influence on filariasis morbidity. Three factors were identified and they explained 67.078% of the variance of the observations. On the other hand, the results of the spatial analytical approach of GIS modeling which accounts 70% variation in the dependent variable supports the factor analysis findings regarding the cause and prevalence of filariasis disease.
54 Customer Churn Prediction in Banking Industry Using K-Means and Support Vector Machine Algorithms , Abdulsalam Sulaiman Olaniyi, Arowolo Micheal Olaolu, Bilkisu Jimada-Ojuolape, and Saheed Yakub Kayode
This study proposes a customer churn mining structure based on data mining methods in a banking sector. This study predicts the behavior of customers by using clustering technique to analyze customer’s competence and continuity with the sector using k-means clustering algorithm. The data is clustered into 3 labels, on the basis of the transaction in and outflow. The clustering results were classified using Support Vector Machine (SVM), an Accuracy of 97% was achieved. This study enables the banking administrators to mine the conduct of their customers and may prompt proper strategies as per engaging quality and improve proper conducts of administrator capacities in customer relationship.
55 Detection of Seed Borne Fungi Associated with some Cereals and Legume Crops of Seeds Grown in Main Season at Holetta Agricultural Research Center , Asela Kesho , and Worku Abebe
Fungi are a major cause of postharvest deterioration of cereals and legumes. The current work was carried out using sixteen samples of eight crops wheat, barley, Teff, oat, lentil, fababean, mungbean and chickpea samples were collected to investigate the presence and incidence of seed borne fungi associated with them using PDA media. Results of the mycological analysis revealed that a total of 14 fungi belonging to 11 genera viz. Penicillium sp., Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Bipolaris sp., Botrytis sp., Eppicocum sp., Sclerotium sp., Alternaria sp., Fusarium graminaerum, Fusarium moniliformae, Fusarium oxysporium, Trichoderma sp., Tilletia sp. and Rhizopus sp. were isolated from samples of the different crop seeds obtained from seed multiplication store, EIAR, HARC. Infection percentage varied from 5-100 % in samples of seed multiplication store. In wheat variety wane and limu, in oat variety CI8237, CI8238, CI8239 and CI8240, in chickpea variety Natoli, Habru and Arerti, and in fababean variety Dosha showed 100% infection followed by Wolki of Fababean (97.5%), and one variety of Mungbean showed infection of 80%. One variety Iboni of Barley showed 75 % infection and Dagem and Kora of Teff showed 37.5% and 12.5% infection. Bekoji variety of Lentil showed least infections of 5%. The obtained results revealed that seed-borne pathogens were present in most seed samples of important cereals and legume crops. Some of the identified fungi are potential producers of mycotoxins, thus their presence is important in terms of reduced food safety for humans and animals. Therefore, an early and accurate diagnosis and pathogen surveillance will provide time for the development and the application of disease management strategies.
56 Electrical Conductivity of Natural Volcanic Tuff Mix by Cyclic Voltammetry Method , Ahmad Khalaf Alkhawaldeh
This paper has experimentally measured volcanic tufa electrical conductance. The calculations are carried out in accordance with the potential of cyclic voltammetry in a constant state. The cyclic voltammograms nanoelectrode platinum prepared electrochemically were examined in the range -0.2 to 1.2 V vs. AgCl [Cl-]:1.0 M in the presence and absence of volcanic tuff in the aqueous solution of 1.0 M HCl. The cyclic voltammetry studies show that the Nano platinum film suffers degradation when the potential exceeds +0.85 V, and below this potential, it is quite stable. The redox reaction of the electrode is reversible. The nanoparticle platinum synthesized at low temperature and high acid concentration exhibits higher electronic conductivities. It has been observed that, relative to area under the peak aggregate tests, the use of volcanic concrete was showing a large increase in electrical conductivity. It was shown that with cyclic voltammetry, three well-defined anode peak could be achieved at a power of 0.0, 0.4 and 0.6 V versus Ag/AgCl.
57 Date Envelopment Analysis Applications : A Review of Current Literature and the Latest Researcher Avenue , Maree Mohammad Alzghoul , Norshahrizan Nordin, Tunku Salha Tunku Ahmad , and Mohammad Iqbal Omar
This paper explores the advantages of an application of data envelopment analysis (DEA) in evaluating the efficiency of decision-making units (DMUs). DEA is a mathematical programming method that is applied to measuring results. The business support units are defined as value-added business units. A case is made for applying DEA when evaluating the efficiency of these business support units. To this end, an overview of the effects of DEA's applications in the literature. It contrasts with more widely used parametric approaches, such as regression analysis, resulting in a comparator representing the average outcome for a given population, thereby requiring calculation only against the average. Furthermore, the results suggest that the DEA framework allows for the inclusion of intermediate outcomes in respect of business support units, which enables the assessment of these units' contribution to overall company output. While the DEA technique has been widely applied, it is not yet as well known or applied in general as the more traditional methods. The proposals presented in this paper would help attract the attention of decision-makers to DEA. The guidelines would also raise awareness of the possible benefits to be achieved by implementing the approach for designing performance assessment mechanisms for support units for companies.
58 Management of Onion Downy mildew (Peronospora destructor) and Associated Challenges in Ethiopia: A Review , Adina Getinet
Onion (Allium cepa L.) is one of the most important vegetable crops that cultivated throughout the world. In Ethiopia, the consumption of the crop is very important in the food seasoning and in daily stews. However, the production and productivity of the crop (10.02t/ha) are far below the world average (19.7 t/ha). There are many factors contributing to low productivity of onion in Ethiopia, of which downy mildew diseases is major one that cause yield loss up to 70%. This review paper focuses general aspects of onion downy mildew disease, control through fungicides application and associated challenges.
59 COVID-19 Story The Unknown Killer and Future Studies , Malek Khalaf Albzeirat, Mokhled S. Al-Tarawneh, Nadeem Khalid, Nik Noriman Zulkepli, and Dewan Md. Zahurul Islam
COVID-19 appeared and spread fear among the population of the whole world from developed to developing countries. Although, at this stage, it is anonymous but it belongs to a family of viruses previously known about 80 years ago. Dealing with it requires an in-depth understanding of Coronaviruses and then put a clear vision and lines in the face of COVID-19. This study is based on a review of previous studies in the field of epidemiology and Coronaviruses and the analysis of some findings and conclusions of previous studies about COVID-19 epidemic. The multifaced effects of the virus on population of the world include economic and social loses and difficulties. The whole world is at war in the face of the epidemic, although in different forms and shapes. This confrontation requires clear steps in the behavioral changed directions of the society in addition to the future directions of science. The research recommends that there is a need, among others, for expanded use Intelligent Application in the future to face such epidemic. The modern technological measures such as AI and the Internet of Things have a future role in the development of epidemiological study and control.
60 Detection of COVID-19 Through Proteinase 3CL-PRO Induced Changes in pH   , David Jeong, Hyojin Jeon  
The emergence of COVID-19 has become an international level threat not limited to health but affecting other areas such as economy and agriculture. Diagnosis of COVID-19 currently relies on advanced genetic amplification testing that requires a costly apparatus. Development of an inexpensive diagnostic kit that does not rely on genetic amplification but that utilizes antigenic structures on the viral surface, such as the rapid influenza diagnostic test, would allow a more accurate estimation of coronavirus cases around the world. Proteinase 3CL-PRO is a glycoprotein that exists on 96% of the novel COVID-19. This surface glycoprotein cleaves the c-terminus of a protein and produces a carboxylic acid that can alter the pH. The changes in pH could be used to determine the presence of coronavirus in an individual’s mucosa. A decrease in pH was detected in a symptomatic subject in this study who was at a high risk for coronavirus. However, the result could not be confirmed with a genetic amplification test. The purpose of this study is to serve as a seed for further investigations on the search of a more accessible and efficacious antigen-based diagnostic tests. Although confirmatory test were not available, the theoretical background and the results showed a great potential of proteinase 3CL-PRO to be utilized as a target for antigenic diagnostic tests.  
61 The Main Protocols to Study Covid-19 Pandemic , Malek Khalaf Albzeirat , Muhammad Iqbal Hussain, Amani Ali Elmetwaly, Nik Noriman Zulkepli, and Marya Khalaf Albzeirat
Preventive health care is an important aspect of the internal medicine profession but in most residencies, it is poorly taught and implemented. This study will include knowledge of the recommendations provided by expert groups on preventive health care; include opportunities for residents to consider the conceptual basis of preventive care; Expose residents to professional faculty with constructive preventive attitudes; assist residents in acquiring physical examination skills, screening assessments, and behavioral adjustment therapy related to prevention; and provide a therapeutic atmosphere where high-quality preventive health care is possible. All the skills can be taught as many facets of medicine are now being trained under the guidance of qualified and esteemed staff teaching at the bedside, in the clinics and through ward rounds and lectures. Preventive health care is an integral aspect of medical practice. Four percent of internists 'contacts with patients are for routine health checkups, with a much greater proportion of internists spending time on the other forms of preventive treatment. Preventive medicine is a concern for all internists, not just general internists but also many subspecialists who offer comprehensive care; for some of their patients, this involves preventive medicine. For instance, subspecialists in infectious diseases spend more time on preventive services than do general internists. Jordan, as usual, is one of the leading countries in combating epidemics and preventing their spread, and searching for their causes and ways to prevent them, especially the current situation in the world around the new Coronavirus (COVID-19). This paper is intended to address preventive medicine, clinical epidemiology, and epidemiological studies.
62 Public Health and Preventive Medicine: A Review of Existng Literature and the New Avenue of Research   , Maree Mohammad Alzghoul , Norshahrizan Nordin, Tunku Salha Tunku Ahmad,Mohammad Iqbal Omar
Preventive health care is an important aspect of the internal medicine profession but in most residencies, it is poorly taught and implemented. This study will include knowledge of the recommendations provided by expert groups on preventive health care; include opportunities for residents to consider the conceptual basis of preventive care; Expose residents to professional faculty with constructive preventive attitudes; assist residents in acquiring physical examination skills, screening assessments, and behavioral adjustment therapy related to prevention; and provide a therapeutic atmosphere where high-quality preventive health care is possible. All the skills can be taught as many facets of medicine are now being trained under the guidance of qualified and esteemed staff teaching at the bedside, in the clinics and through ward rounds and lectures.  Preventive health care is an integral aspect of medical practice. Four percent of internists 'contacts with patients are for routine health checkups, with a much greater proportion of internists spending time on the other forms of preventive treatment. Preventive medicine is a concern for all internists, not just general internists but also many subspecialists who offer comprehensive care; for some of their patients, this involves preventive medicine. For instance, subspecialists in infectious diseases spend more time on preventive services than do general internists. Jordan, as usual, is one of the leading countries in combating epidemics and preventing their spread, and searching for their causes and ways to prevent them, especially the current situation in the world around the new Coronavirus (COVID-19). This paper is intended to address preventive medicine, clinical epidemiology, and epidemiological studies.    
63 Thinking Of Detecting Covid-19 , Sritha zith Dey Babu, Ahmad Mohammad Al-Thunaibat, and Qutadah Saber Jawazneh
Coronaviruses (CoV) are a large family of viruses that cause illness ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV).This is a new strain that was discovered in 2019 and has not been previously identified in humans. Coronaviruses are zoonotic which means they are transmitted between animals and people. Moreover, detailed investigations found that SARS-CoV was transmitted from civet cats to humans, whereas MERS-CoV was transmitted from dromedary camels to humans. In addition, several known coronaviruses are circulating in animals that have not yet infected humans. Hence, the study provides an application gives a primary detection within a short period and gives some hints regarding Virus Covid-19.
64 An Overview of Analysis on The Pandemic Factors of Covid-19   , Shalini Yadav, Vikash Kumar, Mohit Sharma, N T Pramathesh Mishra, Wasim Khan  
The whole world is facing a new outbreak of very dangerous and fatal disease named as The Corona virus pneumonia, which occurred as a pandemic disaster in early December 2019 in the Wuhan city of China. This Pandemic  has special influencing factors and conditions on the mind set of common people. The outbreak has created severe doubts, as it is very unique and its onset is very slow which add clinical confusions for its diagnosis. The source of infection is miscellaneous which further creates confusions to its prevention and control. The easy route of transmission, higher morbidity and susceptibility of the population account for its higher incidences and, the "complicated" natural factors and "superposed social factors" are the obvious characteristics of the widespread Pandemic . The quick and effective prevention and regulatory strategies adopted by the government of China have greatly changed the Pandemic  process which was highly recognized by the World Health Organization expert group and praised by many countries and international organizations. However, analyzing the scenario deeply and planning for a long term perspective, not even china but the global health security will have to take highly effective measures for a long time to eliminate the Pandemic .   
65 COVID-19: Simultaneous Surveillance Studies and Case Series, Jordan as a Case Study   , Ahmad Khalaf Alkhawaldeh  
The outbreak of coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has already taken on pandemic proportions and has affected more than 100 countries in recent weeks. It is imperative that global healthcare systems are prepared. Containment initiatives in Jordan, on the other hand, have decreased new cases by over 63%. The Jordanian national health system has been very pleased with its ability to adequately meet the needs of the patients diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, and includes intensive care. From 2 March to 14 April 2020, between 4% and 8% of active infected patients in Jordan registered daily in intensive care. The percentage is very low.  
66 Community’s Response towards Ebola Virus Disease Survivors in Bundibugyo District, Western Uganda   , Daisy Nabadda , Luke Nyakarahuka2, Wumbiya Simon Demaya, Richard Asaba
Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) has left a lasting impression on the people of Bundibugyo district in Western Uganda and the memories are still fresh among the community members. Bundibugyo borders with Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) which has continued to be affected by EVD. In May 2018, there was an outbreak of EVD in Bikoro town found in DRC. Bundibugyo district experienced EVD outbreak in 2007 which left devastating effects to the communities. This study was conducted to examine community’s response towards EVD survivors in Bundibugyo district. The study employed a cross-sectional design using both quantitative and qualitative data collection approaches. Primary data was collected in the year 2016 in Kikyo sub-county and Bundibugyo Town Council that are found in Bundibugyo district. A structured questionnaire was administered to 254 respondents. Qualitative methods such as key informant interviews and Focus Group Discussions were used to collect additional information from participants. Quantitative data was analysed using descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation analysis. Thematic and content analysis was adopted for qualitative data. The findings revealed that majority of the respondents (78.2%) would receive EVD survivors back into the community. Majority of the female respondents (52.4%) compared to males (47.6%) reported that EVD survivors were discriminated, followed by males who mentioned that EVD survivors were stigmatized (52.6%). The biggest number of respondents (52.2% males and 47.8% females) had emergency contacts in case they saw signs of EVD. Majority of the community members had emergency contacts of a health worker followed by community leaders and radio contacts respectively. There were no significant relationships between possession of emergency contacts in case of EVD signs and gender. In conclusion, more women than men reported that EVD survivors were discriminated and stigmatized. This was probably because people in the community were not satisfied that survivors had completely recovered. It was however observed that more males (54%) than females had contacts or phone numbers of medical personnel to contact in case an EVD sign was noticed among community members. It is therefore important to have intervention programmes where community leaders are targeted in response to EVD outbreaks.    
67 E-Learning: Advancement in Nigerian Pedagogy Amid Covid-19 Pandemic   , Oyeniran, Oluwashina A, Oyeniran, Stella T , Oyeniyi, Joshua O , Ogundele, Rita A , Ojo, Adeolu O  
Education is the process by which society deliberately transmits its accumulated knowledge, values, and skills from one generation to another through institutions. A sound educational system is therefore prerequisite to achieving progress, from the individual to the society to the economy. Discontinuity in education is a threat to learning in Nigeria and the effect of repeated closures of schools and academic programs on students’ learning has adverse effects on the students, the parents and the nation as a whole. The ongoing discontinuity in education is caused by some global issues that affect almost every continents of the world and as a result led to total lockdown. This discontinuity in education was caused by COVID-19, a newly discovered coronavirus. But using emerging computer-based technology as a resource, students are encouraged to explore their own interests and to become active learners during the lockdown session. Hence, the efficacy of e-learning platforms that will foster continued learning cannot be ignored. Thus, this study proposed E-Learning as advancement in Nigerian pedagogy amid Covid-19 Pandemic lockdown by proposing a method that will put an end to discontinuity in education that emerged as a result of COVID-19 pandemic lockdown. The proposed computer and android applications do not cost the lecturers and the students any more money than data subscription charges from their respective data network providers. Moreover, this framework also allows the institutional management to monitor these academic activities and allow the lecturers to upload the courseware and lecture notes to the E-learning zones and interact with the students while the students will also access the e-learning zones to attend their various classes as scheduled by the lecturers or as directed by the school management. Thus, the e-learning zone serves as the meeting point or lecture room for the students and the lecturers alike.  
68 A Review of Confirmed Cases, Deaths and Recovered of Novel Coronavirus (Covid-19) Based on Current Evidence: A Mini Review   , Mohammad A. Al-kafaween, Hiba F. Al-Sayyed, Nour A. Elsahoryi, Rania M. Al-Groom, Ibrahim M. Alshabatat    
In 31 December 2019, the WHO China Country Office was informed of cases of pneumonia of unknown etiology detected in Wuhan City, Hubei Province of China. As of 3 January 2020, a total of 44 patients with pneumonia of unknown etiology have been reported to World Health Organization (WHO) by the national authorities in China. Of the 44 cases reported, 11 are severely ill, while the remaining 33 patients were in stable condition.  As the number of cases showing similar symptoms began to rise, the causative factor was eventually separated from samples. It was initially called the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) and has been recently relabelled as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2); the disease it causes has been named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Over the next few weeks, the virus spread from Wuhan to impact several areas in China and, after a few months, it is now present in 209 countries. Until second of  May, 2020, there have been 3,472,040 confirmed cases globally, 244,107 deaths and 1,114,297 recovered have been registered. The WHO called COVID-19 a pandemic in March 11, 2020. Multiple drug trials are going on with some positive results. However, since no vaccine is available, the most reliable way to combat the virus is by preventive methods.  
69 Killing Coronavirus Before They Enter Human Body , Saddam Husain Dhobi, Suvesksha Karki
The objective of this work is to kill coronavirus's presence in the atmosphere because they can survive in atmosphere form few hour to few days. Moreover, the medium of transmission of these virus is atmosphere. This type of killing is suitable in those areas or atmosphere where the density of coronavirus is higher and control spread of coronavirus in different places. In this work the UVs rays energy break the outer spike proteins structure of coronavirus, which play an important role to attached with human cells when it enters human body or human skin. UVs break because it carry the energy which break the glycoprotein from which spike is made up of.
70 Risk of COVID-19 for Household Waste Workers in Nepal   , Tara Prasad Kharel 
The coronavirus is pandemic in the world and Nepal has also been in complete lock down condition from more than 1 month. The majority of waste workers in Nepal represent the poor economic individuals or the migrant employee from different parts of India. This study involved the comparative analysis of Solid Waste Management Act, Guidelines on Nepal with field observation of three different areas of Kathmandu Valley. The act, rules, guidelines has been analysed as secondary data sources and compared with field observation. The study identified the high risk of exposure of waste workers and waste picker towards coronavirus. The analysis further suspected the retransmission of the coronavirus to the community from waste workers/pickers to the community making it difficult to control. The study revealed the fact that there has been proper awareness of symptoms and mode of transmission among waste workers/pickers but due to unavailability of safety means, they are more vulnerable. This study established the fact that the Government’s priority to health sector alone cannot reduce the COVID-19 vulnerability if waste management sector is not prioritized equally.      
71 Combat COVID19 Diagnosis with Combined Test, Outcome: Make Up RT-PCR Shortage and RDB False Negative Coverage , Mohamman Saif Uddin, and Mohammad Mehadi Hasan M. M
COVID-19 diagnosis is now a burning issue in the world. WHO certified only reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique which is used for diagnosis of COVID-19 but another side rapid dot blot (RDB) test is not recognized by WHO due to false positive and false negative issue. RDB test is so much easier and less time consuming than RT-PCR. Around the world huge people affected with COVID-19 daily but only use of RT-PCR in diagnosis is not cover all the existing cases due to some limitation of this test. Real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays were used for detection of SARS-CoV-2 from respiratory secretions collected by nasal and oropharyngeal swabs. Due to lack of technology, technical support for a large portion of people are to be undiagnosed, especially in developing country. If we programed a combined test RT-PCR with RDB, we can enhance test efficiency and efficacy. RDB test will make up RT-PCR shortage, by initial screening test of large population, and remain population confirmed by RT-PCR that make up the false negative of initial RDB test. The real result is come out if we work with.
72 Reflections on the Roles of Information Professionals as Players in Curtailing the Widespread of COVID-19 Among African Countries   , Tor, Shiekuma Felix  
COVID-19 has unarguably become a stern threat to the human race all around the entire globe. Regardless of the measures taken by governments so far to overthrow the virus, world reports are hitherto conveying escalating havoc of the pandemic in claiming scores of lives. And Africa is not exempted from this global ordeal in that the virus has started dropping the population of the continent through deaths. The purpose of the paper is to show how information professionals can be a part of the front liners in combating the extensive spread of CONVID-19, by leveraging trending technologies, to enlighten and disseminate pertinent health information to the African populace as to curtail the widespread spread of the virus across Africa.  
73 Effective and Efficient Smart Healthcare System Aimd Covid-19 Pandemic , Oyeniran, Oluwashina A, Oyeniran, Stella T, Oyeniyi, Joshua O, Ojo, Adeolu O, and Ogundele, RitaA
Nigeria is repeatedly referred to as the Giant of Africa, due to its large population and economy, with approximately 182 million inhabitants, Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa and the seventh most populous country in the world. Good health is one of the fundamental human rights everybody is entitled to and the onus of this rests on the healthcare sector to provide good health services through the three tiers of the government (federal, state and local government) to the citizens. However, healthcare delivery in Nigeria has experienced progressive deterioration due to weakened political will on the part of successive governments to effectively solve a number of problems that have accumulated in the sector over many years. This paper strategizes a robust plan to ensure the wellbeing of the citizens of Nigeria against COVID-19 and all other illnesses by proposing a framework that presents a three module mechanism for the development of an effective and efficient smart healthcare system amid COVID-19 pandemic lockdown in Nigeria. This study recommends that the Government (at all the three tiers) as well as private healthcare providers should look into this proposed framework with the platforms provided during the lockdown session.
74 An Information on the Synchrony of Social Determinants: Influence on Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease , Eugene, E. J
Social, cultural, economic, and biological factors are widely known critical determinants of well-being, and acts across the life course. Biological outcomes are considered as a sequel of exposure in social stratifications, which can be measured at some extent of time. Clinicians and health authorities, who compile these strategies to enhance health and reduce inequalities, must be aware of the societal impact, and not rely on individuals’ ability, which vary according to social circumstances and events, imposing social determinants approach to assessment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. This method would address a wide variation in the incidence, morbidity and mortality across the spectrum of associated clinical conditions.