EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT ESSENTIAL OILS AND BIO CONTROL AGENTS AGAINST ALTERNARIA ALTERNATA THE CAUSAL AGENT OF FRUIT ROT OF JUJUBE
Majid Hussain Nizamani, Manzoor Ali Abro, Muswar Ali Gadhi, Azhar Uddin Keerio, Mir Shahbaz Ali Talpur, Sajawal, Suman Qazi,
This study was carried out on the evaluation of different essential oils and biocontrol agents against Alternaria alternata the causal agent of fruit rot. For the pathogenicity test against A. alternata was performed through cut and injection inoculation methods. The antifungal potential of different essential oils like turpentine, laung, neem and castus root was carried out at different doses i.e. 5, 10 and 15% by food poisoned method to find out the effective and suitable oil for the growth inhibition of A. alternata and evaluate the effect of some biocontrol agents on growth inhibition of A. alternata. The findings of this investigation stated that cut method of inoculation showed higher percentage (2.60) of rotting as compared to injection method of inoculation (2.35). Minimum colony growth of A. alternata (31.60, 21.25 and 15.16%) was examined under Laung oil at the dosage of 5, 10 and 15% followed by Neem oil (42.60, 31.60 and 21.30%), respectively. Maximum colony growth of A. alternata (62.71, 52.40 and 41.75%) was observed under Castus root oil at the dosage of 5, 10 and 15%. Zero growth of target pathogen was examined under Turpentine at 5, 10 and 15%. Under control the A. alternata showed (90 mm) colony growth. Minimum linear colony growth of A. alternata was observed for Hypoxylon Sp1 (50.31%), followed by Neurospora spp. (52.97%), Lasiodiplodia theobromae (54.7%), Chactomium subaffine (57.07%) and Fusarium sp. (65.4%). Maximum mycelial colony growth (90%) was recorded in control. Based on present investigation, Similarly, for controlling the linear colony growth of A. alternata under in vitro conditions Turpentine oil ranked 1st, Laung oil ranked 2nd, Neem oil ranked 3rd, Castus root oil ranked 4th.
EFFECT OF SULPHUR APPLICATION ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.) UNDER RICE CHICKPEA CROPPING SYSTEM
Fayaz Hussain Makol, Allah Wadhayo Gandahi, Abdul Hameed Memon, Sadam Hussain Jatoi, Jawad Ahmed Abbasi and Imran Ali Buriro.
Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is the most important nutritive pulse crop which is cultivated throughout the world. A field experiment was conducted in order to study the effect of sulphur on growth and yield of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under rice chickpea cropping system. A commercial chickpea variety DG-89 was used for this study under five treatments T1 = 36-72 kg NP haÖ¾¹ + 0 kg S haÖ¾¹ (Control), T2 = 36-72 kg NP haÖ¾¹ + 20 kg S haÖ¾¹, T3 = 36-72 kg NP haÖ¾¹ + 40 kg S haÖ¾¹, T4 = 36-72 kg NP haÖ¾¹ + 60 kg S haÖ¾¹ and T5 = 36-72 kg NP haÖ¾¹ + 80 kg S haÖ¾¹. The results of the study showed that the application of 36-72 kg NP haÖ¾¹ + 40 kg S haÖ¾¹, resulted maximum plant height, more pods plant-1, higher number of branches plant-1, maximum seed index 1000 grain weight and more grain yield over control. The maximum nitrogen and phosphorous content in chickpea were noted due to S application @ 36-72 kg NP ha-1+ 40 kg S ha-1. It is concluded that for better growth and yield of chickpea sulphur application @ 40 kg S ha-1 should be included in the fertilization program of chickpea along with recommended NP (36-72 kg NP ha-1) under rice chickpea cropping system.