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1 Study on the Effects of Follow-up Consulting Service on Perceived Reciprocity, Corporate Trust and Relational Embeddedness   ,  DongJu Shin, YenYoo You , JungWan Hong and Seok Kee Lee  
The purpose of this study is to verify the importance of follow-up management and customer relationship that may significantly influence consulting success. This study aimed to examine follow-up consulting service and customer relationships after providing consulting service to SMEs with previous consulting experience. The hypotheses were established based on theoretical consideration and previous studies. To investigate the effects of follow-up consulting services on the client’s perceived reciprocity, relational embeddedness, corporate trust, and long-term relationship orientation, this study set the research subject as SMEs in Korea with the experience of receiving consulting services. A total of 244 copies of the survey were used to conduct basic statistical research on respondents. The empirical analyses in this study were verified under the conditions satisfying the significance level of 0.05, 0.01, and 0.001, and the statistics were analyzed using SPSS 18.0 and Amos 18.0. As a result of testing the hypothesis with the structural equation model, it was confirmed that follow-up consulting service has significant effects on perceived reciprocity, as well as relational embeddedness, corporate trust, and long-term relationship orientation.
2 A Study on the Market Competitiveness of Small-to-Medium Sized BusinessesUtilizing CBMI(Convergence Business Model Innovation) , Eun-Young Park , Dong-Gi Kwag and Sung-Uk Bae  
Background/ Objectives: Businesses in the industrial era of the past could operate under a business model limited to surviving in a single industry by focusing on technological development centered on manufacturing. However, in the present, convergence of various industries and technologies has become prominent and market conditions have come to represent customer-centric thinking, leading to an increased tendency to view the corporate environment as more complex. Methods/Statistical Analysis: This paper seeks to first review the existing research on the convergence industry, business models and customer-centric product realization, and then propose a CBMI model that can vitalize the convergence of small-to-medium sized businesses. The intended methodology for CBMI shall consider the specific characteristics of smallto-medium and venture companies, and focus on simplicity and easy applicability to develop a business model necessary for the planning and commercialization of convergent products.Findings: CBMI methodology aims to propose consists of three stages – establishment of the CBMI scope and design guidelines, formation of an interactive communication channel, and proposition of an innovation process. This process leads to the implementation of the CBMI value flow optimized model. The first stage, by analyzing the business environment within the industry/market to reflect convergence trends and corresponding competitive strategies, establishes the scope of CBMI and the guidelines for activities such as new business model design. The second stage is when customer value may be maximized by establishing an interactive communication channel between the supplier and customers in order to reflect customer needs. It is proposed as an innovation process strategy that includes the process of customer feedback being provided to the supply channel before the final outcome of the product or service reaches the customers. For the third stage includes the supplier-customer interactive communication channel as the convergent element, the business process of how the final outcome is delivered to the customer.Application/Improvements: The concept of CBMI presented in this paper aims to enhance corporate capabilities by merging conventional business models with the current competitive trend of convergence, allowing a cultivation of competitive advantage and the establishment of innovation processes. It is believed that the proposed methodology will be helpful in presenting a strategy for the resurgence of small-to-medium sized businesses, which are facing changing business environments due to intensifying competition and heightened uncertainty
3 The Mediating Effects of Hope between Attitude toward School Physical Education, Academic Stress, Ego-Resilience, and Psychological Wellbeing of High School Students , Kyung Wha Back
This study was to investigate the mediating effects of hope in the relationship between attitude toward school physical education, academic stress, ego-resilience, and psychological wellbeing of high school students. First, the attitude toward school physical education showed a positive correlation with ego-resilience and psychological wellbeing but negative correlation with academic stress. Second, youth participation in school physical education was higher than the median, and academic stress was a little lower than the median of 3. The ego-resilience and psychological wellbeing were more than average median values. Third, a partial mediating effect was shown in the relationships between the youth attitude toward school physical education and academic stress, ego-resilience, and psychological wellbeing
4 Analysis on the Semiotics for the Canvas of Frida Kahlo and Diego Rivera -Focus on the Icon·Index·Symbol of 3 classification Charles S. Peirce’s Semiotic , Man-Ki Kim
Background and Objectives: This study is a semiotic analysis of paintings sublimated to art and love by Frida Kahlo, female genius artist rising from despair, and Diego Rivera, master of Mexican muralist movement. Methods and Statistical Analysis: For the subject and scope of analysis, we selected total 10 pieces of art. We interpreted the pieces based on Charles S. Peirce’s triadic model of semiotics such as icon, index and symbol. Their paintings and the hyperreality image of simulacra will present the standards for cultural meaning, social judgment and economic value as pop culture through practices of looking and way of seeing of visual language in signifying practices. Findings: The limitation of this study is that it added the emotions of researchers toward their paintings, as well as arbitrariness and polysemy felt in signification in the cultural sense. Improvements and Applications: This shows that there are limitations in subjective interpretant of a third party (researchers) to accurately capture the binomial relations of the différence in the extended sense of semiotics and infinite imagery and inspirations of artists with referents like connotative riddles in pictures (signs).
5 A Study on Skin Dose Changes with Changes in Body Weight from Tomotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer , Kim Ki-Oh, Cheong-Hwan Lim, Lee Doo Hyun , Hong-Ryang Jung , Mi-Ja Park and Jae-Yong Lee  
Background/Objectives: When receiving radiation treatment in form of tomotherapy, most head and neck cancer patients show symptoms of weight loss caused by stomatitis and esophagitis, and skin burns. Weight loss may lead to a closer distance between the skin and the target, causing a change in the measured skin dose. This study was conducted to analyze such changes during the radiation treatment period. Methods/Statistical Analysis: The study also analyzed whether factors such as patient gender, age, diagnosis type, and treatment regimen, including surgery or chemotherapy in addition to radiotherapy, might influence the weight changes in patients, and collected values for changes in skin dose using thermoluminescence dosimeters. Findings: The study considered 20 patients with head and neck cancer, and all of these patients showed weight loss and an increase in measured skin dose. In addition, the gender or age of the patients had no direct relationship with their weight changes. Patients who hadn’t undergone surgery prior to concurrent chemotherapy and radiation therapy showed a substantial weight loss. In comparison, the patients who had undergone surgery prior to concurrent chemotherapy and radiation therapy displayed the least amount of weight loss. As the amount of weight loss became larger, so did the skin dose that was measured during tomotherapy (p<.05). Application/ Improvements: It appeared that greater weight loss led to an increase in measured skin dose, From this study, it is implied patients with large weight loss may benefit with an adjustment of their radiotherapy parameters while maintaining their target doses.
6 Fault Diagnosis of Roller Bearings with Sound Signals using Wavelets and Decision Tree Algorithm , Abhijit D. Gaikwad , V. Sugumaran and M. Amarnath
Objectives: Use of an appropriate fault diagnosis methods alerts in advance about malfunctioning and failure of bearings. Vibration and Sound signals of rotating machines contain the dynamic information about their operating conditions. There are many articles reporting suitability of vibration signals for fault diagnosis applications; however, the transducers (accelerometers) and data acquisition equipment used for vibration signals analysis are costly. This prevents small scale industries and low cost equipment from using diagnostic tools on affordability ground. On the other hand, transducers used for acquiring sound signals (microphones) are relatively low cost or/and affordable. Hence, there is a need for studying the use of sound signal for fault diagnosis applications. This paper uses sound signals acquired from roller bearings in good and simulated faulty conditions for the fault diagnosis purpose. Methods/Analysis: Sound signals from bearings having defects on inner race and outer race have been considered for analysis. Since the characteristic sound signals of faulty bearings are complex and are struck in the noise and high frequency structural resonance, simple signal processing techniques cannot be used to detect bearing fault. Hence, wavelet features are used for extracting features from sound ­signals. The energy levels at various levels of wavelet decomposition are used to define features from sound signals. The most contributing features were selected and their classification is done using decision tree algorithm. This paper also discusses the effect of features, effect of various classifier parameters on classification accuracy. Findings: In feature ­classification of the fault signals the RBIO 2.4 wavelet has given the highest classification accuracy of 96.66%. Out of the 120 total instances, 116 (96.66%) were correctly identified while 4 instances were incorrectly classified with an ­error margin of (3.33%). Application/Improvements: An extensive investigation has been made by a J48 algorithm which produced better predictive performance than the other algorithms. The training and the optimization of J48 model with their essential parametric measures are reported. Based on the overall study, J48 with variation in number of ­objects (from 1 to 6) feature was found as the most successful classification algorithm that achieved the best classification ­accuracy of 96.66%. The classification accuracy of the proposed algorithm has been found better with only 4 misclassified features. The classification capability and the performance evaluation of J48 algorithm with confusion matrix and detailed ­classification accuracy is reported and discussed for further study
7 A Semiotics Analysis on the Artistry of Paul Gauguin in Popular Culture Focusing on Saussure’s Semiology and Barthes’ Myth, the Gaze and the other, and Binary Oppositions , Namseoul University , Chungwoon University  and Kingston University  
Background and Objectives: This study anticipates a glimpse into Gauguin's outlook on life, worldview and vision of the universe through his paintings. The scope of this research is limited to seven of Paul Gauguin's masterpieces. Methods and Statistical Analysis: The research methodology uses Barthes' framework of myth, which was Saussure's semiology inverted by Barthes, as the foundation for analysis in this study. This study analyzes the language of the signifier and the signified, the language of the first order of signification; denotation, the second order of signification of myth; connotation, as well as Barthes' myth and Louis Althusser's ideology. Findings: Additionally, this study analyzes the gaze and the other, which are inherent in the paintings, and binary oppositions. The analysis results anticipate the referent of the life between the present and the past in the painting background and characters, the tension amidst material wealth and prosperity and everyday life about the future, anxiety and anguish, anticipation of death, ideal perception and reflection on nature of Gauguin and ourselves, mysticism, original sin, civilization and barbarism, the myth of the frailty of human life and the ideological mental world. Improvements and Applications: Through a semiotic analysis of Gauguin's paintings, the meaning, interest and enjoyment of the paintings within popular culture can be discovered.
8 Analysis on the Types of Infant Leaders’Images among Early Childhood Teachers   ,  Jung-Ju, Kim and Byung-Man, Kim  
This study has purpose to identify image ofleader infant on site recognized by early childhood teachers based on specific and subjective opinion by investigating deeply early childhood teacher‘s recognition of leader infant. To see the characteristics of image type and characteristics by type on leader of infant, Q-method was applied. Data composed Q-population from 200 early childhood teachers, collected P-samples from 36 early childhood teachers to analyze. In the result of this study early childhood teachers recognized images of infant in leader as 3 types such as intelligent, sociable, and curious leader types.
9 Perspectives on Hospice and Palliative Care among the Family Caregivers of Cancer Patients in South Korea , Choi Young Soon, Kwak, Chanyeong , Choi, Ae-Sook and Kim, Ahrin    
Background/Objectives: The utilization of hospice and palliative care services has been limited yet in South Korea. The purpose of this study is to investigate perception and needs toward hospice and palliative care. Methods/Statistical Analysis: A cross-sectional design was used to examine perception and needs on hospice and palliative care. Data were collected from 19th August to 30th September in 2014. 250 family caregivers of cancer patients in South Korea were surveyed from cancer wards or hospice care units using a structured questionnaire. Chi-square tests were conducted to determine the differences in the perception and needs on hospice and palliative care according to participant’s characteristics. Findings: Around 50% of the respondents replied that they had no or vague idea on hospice and palliative care services. Over 80% of the respondents perceived that hospice and palliative care is necessary and they want to use those services. Religion of the respondents, type of ward, dependence of patient, and length of caring were related to perception on Hospice and Palliative care. Type of ward, cancer stage of patient, dependence of patient, type of insurance, length of caring were related to need on those services. Those who had more awareness on hospice and palliative care were more likely to recognize the necessity of those services. Application/Improvements: These findings represent that caregivers’ needs on hospice and palliative care services are high, but its perception is relatively low. To improve awareness about it, public education should be required
10 Performance Evaluation of IEEE 802.11ac and 802.11n using NS3 , N. S. Ravindranath, Inder Singh , Ajay Prasad and V. S. Rao    
Objectives: In this paper, the performance parameters in the WLANs are discussed and we evaluate the superior performance of the new IEEE 802.11ac standard with respect to 802.11n. Methods/Analysis: NS3 is an open source network simulator, the latest version of which (ns-3.24.1) has been appended with features to support 802.11ac. Simulations are performed in NS3 to demonstrate the superior performance of the new 802.11ac standard with respect to 802.11n. Features verified are channel bonding, guard interval and MCS while performance is measured with parameters such as jitter, throughput and delay. Findings: IEEE 802.11ac is a Very High Throughput (VHT) WLAN standard that can achieve data rates in the order of 7 Gbps in the 5 GHz band. This has been achieved by enhancing the features in the earlier IEEE 802.11n standard in the MAC and PHY layers. The simulations reveal improvement in throughput, delay and jitter performance with usage of increased bandwidths
11 The Effects of Stress, Depression, and Family System Perception on the Well-being of Immigrant Women: The Mediating Effect of Mental Violence , Chang Seek Lee andEun Soo Jang  
Background/ Objectives: This study was conducted to identify the structural relationships between stress, depression, family system perception, mental violence, and well-being among 249 immigrant women in Chungcheongnam-do. Methods/ Statistical Analysis: For the analysis, this study conducted frequency, reliability, and correlation analysis, structural equation modeling, and bootstrap validation. Findings: First, there were positive correlations between stress, depression, and mental violence and also between family system perception and well-being. Both well-being and family system perception had negative correlations with stress, depression, and mental violence. Second, depression in immigrant women had a positive impact on mental violence, whereas family system perception had a negative impact; stress also had a positive impact on mental violence. Moreover, mental violence, depression, and stress had significant negative impacts on well-being. In contrast, family system perception had a significant positive impact on well-being. Third, mental violence was a mediating variable in the relationships between stress and well-being, depression and well-being, and family syst
12 Comparison of the Effects of Deep Neck Flexor Strengthening Exercises and Mackenzie Neck Exercises on Head Forward Postures Due to the Use of Smartphones , Eun-Young Kim , Keun-Jo Kim and Hee-Ryong Park
In this study, experimentswere conducted to compare the effects of deep neck flexor strengthening exercises and Mackenzie neck exercises on head forward postures resulting from the use of smartphones. In this study, 25 adult males and females who were students of G University, were using a smartphone for at least three hours per day, had round shoulder postures with a distance between the floor and the acromion exceeding 2.5cm in a supine position during tests, and showed 10 points or higher neck function disability indexes were selected and randomly assigned to a deep neck flexor strengthening exercise group using PBU of 12 subjects which was an experimental group or a Mackenzie neck exercise group of 13 subjects which was a control group and the exercises were performed three times per week for four weeks. When the neck disability indexes and the levels of static deep neck flexor muscle strength before and after training were compared, both the deep neck flexor strengthening exercise group using PBU and the Mackenzie neck exercise group showed significant differences (p<.05). The degrees of changes in the level of breathing, neck disability indexes and the levels of static deep neck flexor muscle strength of the two groups were compared and the results did not show any significant difference. Although no significant differences were shown when the deep neck flexor strengthening exercise group using PBU and the Mackenzie neck exercise group were compared with each other, improvement in neck disability indexes and the levels of static deep neck flexor muscle strength were shown when those before and after training were compared. Therefore, these exercises can be said to contribute to the improvement of posture control. These active exercises can be said to be important in obtaining long-term treatment effects on neck pain.
13 A Study on the Effects of Small Enterprises’ Motivations to Request Consulting from the Perspective of Transaction Cost Economics and Sociological Neoinstitutionalism , SungHee Yoon and YenYoo You
Although there are many motivations to request consulting, this study approaches them within the theoretical frameworks of transaction cost economics and sociological neoinstitutionalism. According to neoinstitutionalism, enterprises do not request consulting for economic efficiency. Instead, they think of it as an institution, and they decide to participate in consulting based on that notion rather than on economic criteria such as rationalization of management decisionmaking, legitimization of organizations, and diffusion of management concepts and innovations. Drawing on the theory of neoinstitutionalism, we identify three factors that influence the decision-making to participate in consulting: “solicitations of enterprises experienced with consulting,” “competitors’ consulting requests,” and “consultants’ solicitations and publicities.” Using the frameworks of transaction cost economics and neoinstitutionalism theory, we study small enterprises’ motivations to request consulting, the outcomes they experience, and their satisfaction with those outcomes. It is confirmed that factors drawn from transaction cost economics have significant effects on all three.
14 Impacts of Emotional Leadership, Self-efficacy and Self-image of Employmees on Organizational Effectiveness   , Mi Hee Yoon and Chang Seek Lee  
This study aimed to investigate emotional leadership, self-efficacy and self-image of 510 employees, and provide basic materials to improve organizational effectiveness. The results of the study are as follows. First, there were significant positive correlations of their emotional leadership, self-efficacy and self-image with organizational effectiveness. Second, it was found that emotional leadership had significant effects on self-image and self-efficacy. Emotional leadership and selfefficacy did not have a direct effect on organizational effectiveness, but self-image did have a direct effect on organizational effectiveness.
15 Study on Establishing Growth Strategy System for Pre World Class Companies , Mun-Jeong Kang , Sae-Hong Cho and Jung-Wan Hong  
Background/Objectives: The local small giant support project for cultivating Korean hidden champions is formal rather than bringing practical effect. This study aims to help companies practically by suggesting customized growth strategies for local small giants. Methods/Statistical Analysis: A growth strategy system for local small giants was presented and the effectiveness of the growth strategy presented was verified. Also, an interview for satisfaction research was conducted with 5 consultants and 14 company managers, who specialize in planning growth strategies for local small giants, using standardized questionnaires. The questionnaire consists of questions about satisfaction, work concentration and strategy compliance. Findings: The growth strategy system maintains the growth strategy systems of the world-class 300 enterprises and reinforces the key technology securing strategies for developing future growth engines, from the perspective of BSC (Balanced Score Card). According to the survey on the effectiveness of these customized growth strategies for local small giants, 94.7% of the subjects were satisfied with the growth strategy system suggested. 55.6% of them replied that it could provide practical help and 38. % of them replied that it lightened the burden of paperwork. All the consultants answered that they got time to concentrate on the companies and it would provide practical help by enabling them to present in-depth data. Application/ Improvements: Further researches for empirical studies to examine whe
16 Analysis of the Efficiency of the U-Healthcare Industry   , Kyoungho Choi  and Jiae Kim  
U-healthcare is a convergence service combining traditional medical industry and Information Technology (IT). It provides a medical service and healthcare which one can access anytime and anywhere, safely and without limit. As the scale of Korea’s U-healthcare market having reached 2 trillion Korean won in 2012, the prospects for this area are bright. At this point, this study has analyzed the efficiency of businesses related to Korea’s U-healthcare using DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) and the Malmquist index. The results show business effectiveness was not as high as expected in efficiency analysis which analyzed 2012 cross-sectional data. However, in the results using the Malmquist index, using 5 years of data to analyze longitudinally, 61.3% of businesses related to U-health have increased their productivity. This study has significance in being the first one to measure the change of efficiency and productivity, domestic U-healthcare, and to be considered to contribute to raising the business efficiency of Korea’s U-healthcare. Analysis of the Efficiency of the U-Healthcare Industry Kyoungho Choi 1* and Jiae Kim2 1 Department of Basic Medical Science, Jeonju University, Korea; ckh414@jj.ac.kr 2 Department of Integrated Bio-resource, Jeonju University, Korea; jiaeblossom@naver.com Keywords: Component, DEA, Efficiency
17 Immediate Detection of DDoS Attacks with using NetFlow on Cisco Devices IOS , Mahmoudreza Tahmassebpou
Background/Objectives: DDoS attacks are usually detected by analysis of the applications that are installed in or close to the current system are carried out. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Although this method is easy to deploy, but nonurgent and sensitive detection of DDoS attacks that reasons are first, the fact that the write current by interrupting the current collector is normally the data for application analysis creates pieces that caused a delay of several minutes to be recognized. Second, if the attack traffic may be strengthened by the process of sending the original package small enough to be part of a small stream. Findings: In this research paper will show how to detect DDoS attacks on the sender instead of the current collection, the data close to the source and immediate fashion, which had access to a streaming surveillance infrastructure with development needs. In this study, to examine whether the detection system may operate on the same network platform is widely deployed Cisco IOS devices. Since the ultimate goal of the research is to identify the attackers and its objectives, the use of NetFlow. Applications/Improvements: In this paper, the DDoS attack detection prototype has been shown to produce a constant load on the underlying platform, even under attack, stressing that detects DDoS attack can be a Cisco Catalyst 6500 models used in production networks.
18 An International Comparison of Social Mobility from the Perspective of Assortative Mating   , Jin-Yeong Kim , Byung In Lim and Seung-Rae Kim
This paper compares the social mobility of OECD countries using PISA data, which contain information on the educational attainment of parents of 15-year-old students. We derive several measures of the degree of assortative mating in terms of educational attainment at the country level from parents’ educational attainment. It turns out that Eastern European countries have a high degree of assortative mating while Northern European countries have a distinctively lower degree. Furthermore, for 12 countries with measures of intergenerational income elasticity, we find a positive relationship between the degree of assortative mating and the intergenerational income elasticity. Compared with other OECD countries, Korea has a somewhat high degree of assortative mating. From the degree of assortative mating by educational attainment, we can infer that the intergenerational income elasticity of Korea might be between 0.3 and 0.4, which is higher than that found in previous studies.
19 A Study on Business Model Consulting Framework for Technology Commercialization of ICT SMEs , Jun Cheol Lee, Jung-Wan Hong and Seok Kee Lee  
Background/Objectives: As for the consulting for the SMEs, of which the scale is not very big and the business is not that complicated, it is effective to base it on the business model and to suggest the measures to diagnose and solve the problems regarding the overall business cycle. Methods/Statistical Analysis: This study analyzes the documents on the business model and examines the possibility of a consulting tool by reconstituting them as well as examining technology commercialization from SME’s perspective. Findings: By analyzing the researches on the existing business models, this study clearly constitutes the relationships between strategies, dynamic capabilities, business models and business processing and suggests the consulting framework based on the business model. This study also suggests a consulting framework for ICT SMEs' technology commercialization which applies the consulting framework based on business model to the technology commercialization. Application/Improvements: Although the suggested consulting framework could be applicable to ICT SMEs' technology commercialization, it is still at the conceptual level.
20 An Analysis of Clinical Features in Individuals with Alzheimer’s Dementia Living in the Community using the Allen Cognitive Levels , Kyoung-young Park , So-yoen Park, Won-mee Jeong, Soo-Hyun Park , Yun-jung Hwang and Jong-chul Youn  
Background/Objectives: There is a need to evaluate the functional cognitive levels necessary for helping and maintaining the roles of dementia patients in the community. Methods/Statistical Analysis: This study examined the ability to perform daily activities, depression, and the quality of life of dementia patients residing in the community according to their functional cognitive levels. 74 subjects participated in this study. Findings: The subjects’ cognitive functions, self-esteem, depression, ability to perform daily activities, and quality of life according to their functional cognitive levels(ACL) exhibited statistically significant differences in the basic cognitive functions, personal and instrumental activities of daily living, and depression between ACL 3 and 4. Also, the results showed that the correlations between ACL, the MMSE-KC, CERAD-BI, DCAP-IADL, GDS, and EQ-VAS had statistically significant correlations in all studied factors. Applications/ Improvement: Future studies should address the application of programs based on the functional cognition of dementia patients in the community, thereby improving the quality of life in dementia patients and their guardians
21 The Mediating Effects of Hope and Family Cohesion between Acculturative Stress and Depression of Immigrant Women for Marriage in Korea   , Hyun Hee Yu and Chang Seek Lee  
This study aimed to identify the depression level of 580 immigrant women in marriage, and the analysis was done on the structural relationship between the influencing variables on depression such as acculturative stress, hope, and family cohesion. We identified whether hope and family cohesion would have a mediating effect in the relationship between acculturative stress and depression. First, there was a positive correlation between acculturative stress and depression and a positive correlation between family cohesion and hope. Second, acculturative stress and hope and acculturative stress and family cohesion had a negative path coefficient. In contrast, acculturative stress and depression had a positive path coefficient. Hope and depression and also family cohesion and depression had a negative path coefficient. Third, this study found a mediating effect of hope and family cohesion, in the relationship between acculturative stress and depression.
22 A Study on the Market Competitiveness of Small-to-Medium Sized BusinessesUtilizing CBMI(Convergence Business Model Innovation) , Eun-Young Park , Dong-Gi Kwag and Sung-Uk Bae  
Background/ Objectives: Businesses in the industrial era of the past could operate under a business model limited to surviving in a single industry by focusing on technological development centered on manufacturing. However, in the present, convergence of various industries and technologies has become prominent and market conditions have come to represent customer-centric thinking, leading to an increased tendency to view the corporate environment as more complex. Methods/Statistical Analysis: This paper seeks to first review the existing research on the convergence industry, business models and customer-centric product realization, and then propose a CBMI model that can vitalize the convergence of small-to-medium sized businesses. The intended methodology for CBMI shall consider the specific characteristics of smallto-medium and venture companies, and focus on simplicity and easy applicability to develop a business model necessary for the planning and commercialization of convergent products.Findings: CBMI methodology aims to propose consists of three stages – establishment of the CBMI scope and design guidelines, formation of an interactive communication channel, and proposition of an innovation process. This process leads to the implementation of the CBMI value flow optimized model. The first stage, by analyzing the business environment within the industry/market to reflect convergence trends and corresponding competitive strategies, establishes the scope of CBMI and the guidelines for activities such as new business model design. The second stage is when customer value may be maximized by establishing an interactive communication channel between the supplier and customers in order to reflect customer needs. It is proposed as an innovation process strategy that includes the process of customer feedback being provided to the supply channel before the final outcome of the product or service reaches the customers. For the third stage includes the supplier-customer interactive communication channel as the convergent element, the business process of how the final outcome is delivered to the customer.Application/Improvements: The concept of CBMI presented in this paper aims to enhance corporate capabilities by merging conventional business models with the current competitive trend of convergence, allowing a cultivation of competitive advantage and the establishment of innovation processes. It is believed that the proposed methodology will be helpful in presenting a strategy for the resurgence of small-to-medium sized businesses, which are facing changing business environments due to intensifying competition and heightened uncertainty
23 Analysis of Wear Resistance, Cracks and Hardness of Metal Matrix Composites with SiC Additives and Al2 O3 as Reinforcement , S. Nallusamy and A. Karthikeyan
Objective: In modern manufacturing technology, now a day’s metal matrix composites are being increasingly identified as new wear resistant material. The main purpose of this article is to investigate the wear down and depth of indentation of the composite material of Al-6061 alloy strengthened with silicon carbide particulate and supported with alumina particulate constructed by stir casting method. Method/Analysis: The wear down rate and frictional properties of the composite were learned by using the dry sliding wear test with a pin on disk wear tester. The investigation was carried out with 1750 meters of sliding distance and 1.55m/s of stable sliding velocity over different loads by 10N and 20N for aluminium metal matrix composite. Findings: The testing result indicated that the wear resistance increases when there is increase in the load as well as in the sliding distance. Additionally an effort was made by keeping 7% of Al2 O3 constant along with increase in 10, 15 and 20% of SiC. It was observed that, the strengthened aluminium metal matrix in addition of SiC and Al2 O3 decreases the range of wear rate. Also found that the coefficient of friction increased by means of raising the load and quantum of reinforcement. Application/Improvements: By using scanning electron microscope the wear surfaces were examined and it was observed that the micro and transverse cracks, mild and severe wear occurred in the composite worn surfaces and wear structure of the composite.
24 Bigdata Platform Design and Implementation Model , Kyoo-sung Noh and Doo-sik Lee
Bigdata software platform technology using Hadoop Ecosystem is the essential element and also underlying technology for application software or service implementation of bigdata analysis. It is required to have bigdata platform technology that can ensure the scalability, reliability and high performance of system for processing and analyzing a variety of bigdata related tasks including structured data, unstructured data, semi-structured data, etc. Bigdata platform can process large amounts of data in parallel unlike those conventional application software solutions and it is an easily scalable system. Its technical components include collection (Flume and Sqoop), storage (Hadoop and NoSQL), search (Solr), analysis (R Analysis), visualization (Node.js), scheduler (Oozie), etc. The purpose of this study is to propose an optimized bigdata platform implementation model through S/W configuration based on open source.
25 Framework of a Conceptual Simulation Model Design Tool   , Hyun-Woo Ra and Seong-Hoon Choi  
Computer simulation is an efficient tool for addressing problems related to complex systems. To ensure a successful simulation study, a systematic project management is the most important factor. This initially requires a proper conceptual model design. However, the importance of a precise conceptual model design is often overlooked, and there is currently no conceptual design tool for field engineers. To address this problem, this paper proposes a framework for a conceptual simulation model design support tool that includes an automatic model generation feature. The components of the conceptual model are defined, and the proper conceptual model design process is examined to present the desirable development concept of the conceptual model design support tool.
26 The Effect of Health Literacy and Self-efficacy on Treatment Adherence of Hypertensive Elders , Na Anand In Sook Park
Background/Objectives: To investigate how and how much health literacy and self-efficacy can make an influence on treatment adherence of hypertensive elders. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Participants were those aged 65 or older who regularly visited one of five seniors welfare centers hosted by D metropolitan ward offices, were diagnosed with hypertension, and voluntarily agreed to participate in this study after. In total, the questionnaires of 190 respondents were selected for the final analysis. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was conducted to identify the effect of participants’ health literacy and self-efficacy on treatment adherence. Findings: First, model that inputs as explanatory variables which were general characteristics of the participant: age, level of education, and gender variables and disease related characteristics: number of associated disease, duration of hypertension, level of stress were statistically significant, and explained 4.8% of treatment adherence. Stress and gender were predictor variables, and these variables were statistically related to treatment adherence. In the second step, when capability of oral health literacy and functional health literacy variables were put in the control condition of general characteristics and disease related characteristics, this model was statistically significant and explained 7.0% of treatment adherence. Predictor variables were stress, gender, and oral health literacy, and they were statistically related to treatment adherence. In the third step, when self-efficacy was put in the control condition of general characteristics and disease- related characteristics, this model was statistically significant and the explanatory power increased to 38%. Self-efficacy and level of education were shown as major predictor variables. Application/Improvements: To promote the treatment adherence of hypertensive elders, it is necessary to develop and apply programs for self-efficacy improvement.
27 RF Control Based Mobile Robotic System for Search Mission with GPS Tracker , Antriksh Sharma and M. S. Balamurugan
Background/Objectives: Robot can do a work with ease, which seems to be impossible for a man and it becomes more helpful if one can control it remotely. Methods/Statistical Analysis:The concept of employing a robotic system for search mission has been proposed for searching of survivors in case of natural disaster like earthquake, hurricane, tsunami and it can also be used as a GPS tracking device as it also has inbuilt GPS device which can give the exact current location of the robot. Findings: There are certain features of the robotic system which makes a complete and versatile system for search mission like it can be controlled wirelessly using RF technique which is considered to be the best with respect to range and interference, this system can also sense the environment with the help of different sensors, it has inbuilt camera which can send the live videos wirelessly to remote device, GPS is also attached with the system which can send the current location to remote device at any point of the time. Conclusion/Improvements: All these features make this robotic system capable of doing things which seems very difficult for the human.
28 Photoplethysmogram Based Biometric Recognition for Twins , Nur Izzati Mohammed Nadzri , Mariana Sulaimi, Lina Fadhilah Umadi and Khairul Azami Sidek  
This paper presents a photoplethysmogram (PPG) based biometric recognition technique for twins. PPG devices have been widely used due to its advantages such as non-invasive, low cost and small in size which makes it a convenient analytical tool. To the best of our knowledge, little has been set pertaining to biometric recognition for twins using PPG signal. A total of six subjects from three couple of twins were used for experimentation purposes. The signals were processed using a low pass filter to remove unwanted noise. Then, multiple cycle of PPG waveforms were extracted and later, Naive Bayes (NB) and Radial Basis Function (RBF) network classifiers are used to categorize the subjects using the discriminant features. Based on the experimentation results, classification accuracies of 97% and 94% were achieved when using Naive Bayes and RBF network respectively which suggests the capability of our proposed system to identify individuals regardless whether the persons is a twin or not. The outcome also provides complimentary mechanism to detect a person besides using the current existing methods
29 The Development and Testing the Effects of Pre-Clinical Placement Program , Eunkyong Ahn and Youngshin Song  
Background/Objectives: This study was to develop a pre-clinical placement program and evaluate its effect for the second year nursing students. Methods/Statistical Analysis: A non-randomized control trial study was used. A total of 106 students participated in experimental group, attending the pre-clinical placement program, which consist of 8 hours of clinical practice after completion of fundamental nursing subject. Control group, 109 students, attended the standards education course. Both groups completed pre/post-test measure of self-efficacy, communication competency, and self-directed learning competency. The differences of main variables between groups were analyzed by t-test using SPSS program. Findings: Results showed that the mean difference of self-efficacy in nursing practice (t = -0.83, p = 0.41), communication competence (t = -0.19, p = 0.85), and SDL competence (t = -0.01, p = 0.99) between pre-test and post-test was not significant. However, the variable of self-efficacy in nursing practice and the mean score for several items such as ‘nursing diagnoses’ (t = 2.66, p = .01), ‘physical examination’ (t = 3.58, p<.001), and ‘self-care education’ (t = 3.11, p<.001) were significantly changed in the experimental group. Moreover, the experimental group had significant improvement in self-efficacy in aspects of nursing such as diagnosis (t = 2.66, p = 0.01), physical examination (t = 3.58, p<0.001), and selfcare education (t = 3.11, p<0.001) compared to the control group. Application/Improvements: The PCP program was effective in improving multiple self-efficacies in nursing practice, such as defining nursing diagnoses, physical examination, and patient education.
30 The Development and Testing the Effects of Pre-Clinical Placement Program , Eunkyong Ahn and Youngshin Song  
Background/Objectives: This study was to develop a pre-clinical placement program and evaluate its effect for the second year nursing students. Methods/Statistical Analysis: A non-randomized control trial study was used. A total of 106 students participated in experimental group, attending the pre-clinical placement program, which consist of 8 hours of clinical practice after completion of fundamental nursing subject. Control group, 109 students, attended the standards education course. Both groups completed pre/post-test measure of self-efficacy, communication competency, and self-directed learning competency. The differences of main variables between groups were analyzed by t-test using SPSS program. Findings: Results showed that the mean difference of self-efficacy in nursing practice (t = -0.83, p = 0.41), communication competence (t = -0.19, p = 0.85), and SDL competence (t = -0.01, p = 0.99) between pre-test and post-test was not significant. However, the variable of self-efficacy in nursing practice and the mean score for several items such as ‘nursing diagnoses’ (t = 2.66, p = .01), ‘physical examination’ (t = 3.58, p<.001), and ‘self-care education’ (t = 3.11, p<.001) were significantly changed in the experimental group. Moreover, the experimental group had significant improvement in self-efficacy in aspects of nursing such as diagnosis (t = 2.66, p = 0.01), physical examination (t = 3.58, p<0.001), and selfcare education (t = 3.11, p<0.001) compared to the control group. Application/Improvements: The PCP program was effective in improving multiple self-efficacies in nursing practice, such as defining nursing diagnoses, physical examination, and patient education.
31 The Development and Testing the Effects of Pre-Clinical Placement Program , Eunkyong Ahn and Youngshin Song  
Background/Objectives: This study was to develop a pre-clinical placement program and evaluate its effect for the second year nursing students. Methods/Statistical Analysis: A non-randomized control trial study was used. A total of 106 students participated in experimental group, attending the pre-clinical placement program, which consist of 8 hours of clinical practice after completion of fundamental nursing subject. Control group, 109 students, attended the standards education course. Both groups completed pre/post-test measure of self-efficacy, communication competency, and self-directed learning competency. The differences of main variables between groups were analyzed by t-test using SPSS program. Findings: Results showed that the mean difference of self-efficacy in nursing practice (t = -0.83, p = 0.41), communication competence (t = -0.19, p = 0.85), and SDL competence (t = -0.01, p = 0.99) between pre-test and post-test was not significant. However, the variable of self-efficacy in nursing practice and the mean score for several items such as ‘nursing diagnoses’ (t = 2.66, p = .01), ‘physical examination’ (t = 3.58, p<.001), and ‘self-care education’ (t = 3.11, p<.001) were significantly changed in the experimental group. Moreover, the experimental group had significant improvement in self-efficacy in aspects of nursing such as diagnosis (t = 2.66, p = 0.01), physical examination (t = 3.58, p<0.001), and selfcare education (t = 3.11, p<0.001) compared to the control group. Application/Improvements: The PCP program was effective in improving multiple self-efficacies in nursing practice, such as defining nursing diagnoses, physical examination, and patient education.
32 Prospects and Strategic Challenges of Korean Sports Movies   ,  Ill-Gwang Kim and Sung-Duck Kim  
The purpose of this study is to examine the current status and characteristics of Korean sports movies and propose the prospect and strategic challenges of them. To attain the objectives, the present study reviewed domestic sports movies of last 10 years and analyzed expert interviews and literatures. Such effort found that 11 sports movies ranked within 200 hit films that have been released since 2004. Of them, the movie “National Team” (by director Kim Young Wha) released in 2009 recorded 8 million audience, ranking on the 9th of the total and top of sports movies. It is expected that sports movie will have further growth potential along with change of existing movies and be digitalized and globalized. In the meantime, the strategic challenges that Korean sports movies have to tackle to grow are to i) target an unconventional segment of audience and make a plot targeting it, ii) break traditional development of events and character composition, iii) make non-fiction movies that can impress audience and iv) make an effort to arouse social interest in unaccustomed area.
33 Effect of Backward Walking on Isokinetic Muscular Function, Low Back Pain Index and Lumbosacral Angle in Unilateral Exercise Athletes , Sun-Ho Kim  and Young-Bok Yoon  
Background/Objectives: Backward walking can be used as an exercise therapy program for prevention of low back pain. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of backward walking on isokinetic muscular function, low back pain index and lumbosacral angle in unilateral exercise athletes. Methods/Statistical Analysis: The subjects are 25 (age 21.37 ± 2.06 years, height 171.85 ± 4.12 cm, weight 71.97 ± 5.74 kg, exercise career 7.03 ± 1.95 years, pain duration was 6.05 ± 0.75 months) unilateral exercise athletes (golf, bowling and shooting player). Backward walking was performed with a frequency of three times a week (Tuesday, Thursday, Saturday), by 60 minutes at a time for 10 weeks. Comparison of related variables before and after backward walking was verified by paired t-test. Findings: The present study shows that extensor and flexor of lumbar were significantly increased after backward walking. Lumbosacral angle was significantly decreased after walking back. In addition, low back pain index such as VAS and VRS were each showed a significant decrease. Application/Improvements: In conclusion, backward walking represents that it improves muscle strength of the lumbar vertebra and reduces the lumbosacral angle and appeared to reduce the pain of the lumbar vertebra showing that the exercise program can be used in the prevention of low back pain.
34 An Exploratory Study on E-business Risks due to the Sector Classification of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises   , SangSun Kim , JeongWan Hong and YenYoo You  
OwingtoInformationandthemobilerevolution,e-businesshasbecomethemostimportantelementofmodernmanagement. E-business has the advantage that an organization can conduct its own business efficiently and effectively at relatively lower cost; however, it also carries the risk of affecting the survival of the entire organization. As the number of clients who use Internet and enterprises entering e-business is increasing, various risk factors have shown constant recurrence, and their importance is inevitably increasing. Although studies on e-business risks have been actively conducted since the mid1990s, there have been limits in applying them in practical work as only few of them have focused on the e-business risk factors of small and medium-sized enterprises and their management methods. Therefore, this study intends to analyze the challenges by classifying the existing studies based on the risk factors and suggesting directions for future studies.
35 Influence of Head Posture on Trunk Muscle Activation during Prone Bridging Exercise   , JaeHo Yu, JiHeon Hong, JinSeop Kim, Seon-Jun Kim, Da-Som Sim, Ji-Eun Lim, DongYeop and Lee  
A Prone Bridging Exercise (PBE) was known common treatment clinically controlling the posture during the bridging exercise was effectively influence on trunk muscle. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of head posture on trunk muscle activation during the PBE. Fifteen healthy men of the S University participated in this study. Subjects were randomly assigned three conditions of trial the PBE with head posture neutral, flexion, and extension. The muscle activation of the Rectus Abdominal muscle (RA), erector muscle of spine (ES), Transverse Abdominal muscle (TrA) and Lumbar multifidus muscle (MF) during the PBE on the three different head postures were measured using the surface electromyography (sEMG). In the PBE, the %Maximum Voluntary Contraction (%MVC) values of the RA muscle during the flexion posture was significantly higher than neutral posture(p<.05). The %MVC values of the RA muscle during the flexion posture were significantly higher than the extension posture (p<.05). The %MVC values of the MF muscle during the extension posture were significantly higher than the neutral posture (p<.05). The sEMG activities of other muscles were not significant difference among the three head postures. The results of current study mean that head posture was effective to activate the trunk muscle during the PBE. We suggested that the PBE with head posture is effective method to make the greater contraction of the global and local muscles.
36 Stability Analysis of the Variable Speed Wind Turbine using Sliding Mode Control   , V. Menon Parvathy and M. Gnanambigai  
The sliding mode control is one among the best techniques for analysing the dynamics as well as maintaining the stability of a system. The problem of lack of stability and robustness in a variable speed wind turbine can be resolved by using this sliding mode control technique. The desired sliding mode dynamics can be attained by a suitable design of the switching function and on the switching surface, the sliding occurs; following the system achieving its desired system dynamics. This paper presents the sliding mode control scheme to improve the overall stability of the variable speed wind turbine system. The proposed strategy is applied and the results are obtained using MATLAB. The results obtained demonstrate its effectiveness in improving the overall system stability.
37 The Mediating Effects of Hope between Attitude toward School Physical Education, Academic Stress, Ego-Resilience, and Psychological Wellbeing of High School Students , Kyung Wha Back
This study was to investigate the mediating effects of hope in the relationship between attitude toward school physical education, academic stress, ego-resilience, and psychological wellbeing of high school students. First, the attitude toward school physical education showed a positive correlation with ego-resilience and psychological wellbeing but negative correlation with academic stress. Second, youth participation in school physical education was higher than the median, and academic stress was a little lower than the median of 3. The ego-resilience and psychological wellbeing were more than average median values. Third, a partial mediating effect was shown in the relationships between the youth attitude toward school physical education and academic stress, ego-resilience, and psychological wellbeing
38 The Effect of Team Projects on Education Satisfaction , Minsoo Park and Myung-Seong Yim  
Background/Objectives: By recognizing team efficacy, interpersonal relationship, and activeness in problem solving as key factors affecting class satisfaction, this study seeks to investigate their causality in actual university team project-based classes. Methods/Statistical Analysis: In this research, survey was performed to collect data. The total of 200 survey questionnaires was distributed during a break in the middle of class. Of them, 34 sets were excluded for missing response, plural response and lining of the same answer inappropriate for study research, leaving 166 sets for the final analysis. For this study research, IBM SPSS v22, IBM AMOS v22, and Microsoft Excel 2013 were utilized. Findings: As a result of this study, the attitude toward learning, team efficacy, and problem solving capability was found to have a positive effect on class satisfaction. Whereas interpersonal relationships showed no effect on class satisfaction, attitude toward learning and team efficacy showed a positive effect on interpersonal relationship and team efficacy showed an effect on problem solving capability. Interpersonal relationship and problem solving capability were found to function as a mediator among team efficacy, attitude toward learning and class satisfaction. Application/Improvements: Based on research results, interpersonal relationship is deemed most appropriate to improve problem solving capability. Also team efficacy and attitude toward learning were found to increase interpersonal relationship
39 The Development of the Bodysuit Pattern on Golden Body Proportion Focusing on Middle-Aged Women , Heh Soon Jung and Mi Hyang Na
Background/Objectives: The aim of this study is to develop the body-suit pattern that enhances the reshaping effect of mid-forties women body type. Methods/Statistical Analysis: In order to produce a basic pattern, body surface shells from gypsum molds of three middle aged females was employed. Golden body proportion was applied to the design of bodysuit pattern and its pattern design. Findings: To calculate the total length of this body suit, outlining the measurement method is required. That is, in the condition of 8 to 10 % reduced ratio, the front part starts at bust point and the ratio of the distance to waist line and the distance to hip, which sets its width, is 1 to 1.2. Ratio reduction is not applied to the body suit length. Naming the body suit design method for this study as 80 BMQ size (80 is under bust circumference size; B stands for breast cup size; M indicates the length of body suit; and Q means hip circumference) is not by body measurement data but by the result of research conducted by a researcher who has produced body suit products with a body suit-specialized company as a part of industry-academic cooperation for a long time. Under bust circumference, waist circumference and hip circumference are reduced by 4 to 6 %; 9 to 10 %; and 1 to 2 % respectively. Application/Improvements: As a result, body-suit pattern for reshaping of mid forty women body was developed. It is required to pay attention to stretching the meaning depending on body suit designs by manufacturing enterprises.
40 Studying the challenges and obstacles of the privatization of electricity distribution companies , Seyed Morteza Moghimi, Reza Dashti, Ali Bostani
Background/Objectives: In the past couple of decades, several counties all around the globe, decided to conduct some reforms in the way that they manage the electrical power in their countries. Even in Middle East countries like Iran have taken the path to intensively privatize their power distribution and pass it over to the non-governmental sector paving way for security, social and economic threats. For this purpose, lack of proper and optimal management results in distribution companies and the government having to explain its threats so that sovereignty could eliminate the threats or reduce their effects. This study discusses the problems of restructuring the electric power sectors and its defects in Iran distribution companies. Methods/Statistical analysis: This paper discusses the problems of re-structuring the electrical power sectors and its defects in the distribution companies. Furthermore, this paper investigates the threats facing the privatization of electricity distribution companies. The threat of monopolization is also analysed in a separate section. Data source gathering is done during 2014-2016. Findings: Establishment of formal and legal framework in this regard is provided in such a way that the interests of all stakeholders, including shareholders, employees, subscribers, and government are provided. Application/Improvements: Establishment of formal and legal framework in this regard is provided in such a way that the interests of all stakeholders, including shareholders, employees, subscribers, and government are provided. Also, establishment of proper implementation of the privatization of electricity distribution companies in Iran.
41 Nematode extract-induced resistance in tomato against Meloidogyne incognita , A Mukherjee, P Mondal, S P Sinha Babu
Objective: Present study was carried out to establish the biocontrol potentiality of nematode extract on Lycopesicon esculentum (Tomato) Pusa Ruby variety infected with Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood nematode. Methods/Statistical analysis: We examine in vitro test, phytotoxicity test, in vivo test, in vivo glasshouse bioassay test, PAL (Phenylalanine ammonia lyase) extraction test to identify the effect of nematode extract on tomato plant. One way analysis of variance, ANOVA test is performed in this experiment. Findings: The result of in vitro laboratory bioassay showed that application of nematode extract safe for second-stage juveniles (J2) of M. incognita. The result of in vivo test revealed that nematode extract increased growth of inoculated plants in terms of shoot length, shoot weight and root length as compared with inoculated untreated plants. Application of nematode extract showed reduction in root gall number and number of nematode eggs in inoculated roots. PAL (Phenylalanine ammonia lyase) activity increased in roots of nematode extract treated plants. Root protein content was greater in inoculated untreated plants compared to treated groups. Application: This is the first study to control plant parasitic nematode M. incognita with nematode extract. In the future it will minimize the global crop loss.
42 Based model: Using knowledge management to enhance information technology training outcomes among markets requirements , Hamad AlBadri, Ashraf Badawood
Background: The present research paper considers the use of knowledge management (KM) to enhance Information Technology training outcomes based on markets requirements, with particular focus on Gulf region. Method: Two key research questions would be answered in the paper, they are: what are the findings of the previous studies on role of knowledge management in supporting successful training outcomes, especially in Gulf region? What model, based on knowledge management concepts, can be used to enhance Information Technology training outcomes particularly in the Gulf region? Findings: To draw conclusions, a critical analysis was performed through comparing and contrasting the findings from observations of previous research and the scarce secondary data contained within the scientific sources. To ensure that KM is distributed in the Gulf countries rather than being centralized in certain organizations, a distributed model of knowledge management is proposed. This is based on a realization that different kinds of knowledge bear different KM implications. Improvements/Applications: The model encompasses best practices for knowledge creation, for knowledge sharing and for knowledge retrieval, which most of the reviewed studies identified as being important for enhancing Information Technology training outcomes in the Gulf region.
43 Arsenic transport in canal water and across rice fields in district Badin , Muhammad Chohan , Mehrunisa Memon, Inayatullah Rajpar , Aijaz Ali Khooharo , Muhammad Ismail Kumbhar , Hidayatullah Kakar
Background/Objectives: Irrigation water at Phuleli and Akram canals carry the waste of Hyderabad city and other places on the way to rice fields at lower part of Indus Plain. The long term use of arsenic contaminated irrigation water can accumulate arsenic in rice soils. This study evaluated total arsenic in irrigation water and transported load to rice sites, in addition to the arsenic concentration in main canals and waste sites on the way to Badin. Methods: Atomic absorption spectrophotometer equipped with hydride vapor assembly was used to analyze the arsenic concentrations in irrigation water. Findings: Currently, the irrigation water quality was generally within the permissible limits of FAO for rice. All types of wastes (14.62-37.2 µg L-1) entering the Phuleli and Akram canals (7.08 µg L-1) on the way contributed to total arsenic (6.30-57.12 µg L-1) in irrigation water at the entrance of rice sites. However, higher arsenic contamination in irrigation water was due to sugar industry waste (37.2 µg L-1) and lowest due to city waste of Badin (14.62 µg L-1). The data indicated that mean total arsenic concentration from irrigation water would load 0.12 and 0.14 mg kg-1 of arsenic annually in soils on the basis of net 1000 and 1300 mm a -1 water application to rice, respectively. Applications/Improvements: The results clearly indicated that waste added from different sources may aggravate the arsenic contamination of canal water and yet the accumulation in rice fields will keep on increasing. It is suggested that waste must be treated before releasing to prevent contamination of rice field.
44 Evaluation and validation of the machine performance check application for TrueBeam 2.5 Linac , Jitendra Nigam, Piyush Kumar, P P Singh, N S Silambarasan, S Navitha
Aim: To evaluate the Machine Performance Check (MPC) 1.1 application for TrueBeam 2.5 and to establish MPC application as a comprehensive daily QA tool after verification. Methodology: An automated daily Quality check application MPC using IsoCal Phantom provided by Varian Medical System (VMS) to perform the essential tests such as beam consistency that is dosimetric performance and mechanical check were performed on TrueBeam. The data was collected over a period of four months (84 days). MPC acquired data consists of a series of generation of images using MV and kV at various gantry, collimator, and couch positions. The collected data is analyzed for daily reproducibility as well as comparison with ion chamber measurements. Findings: The results showed that the reproducibility of MPC was less than the tolerance values for the respective mechanical parameters. The MPC measured isocenter with mean value of 0.35 mm is within tolerance. The Beam Consistency showed that over a period of four months, the mean value of output measurement of 6 MV photon beam as measured by the MPC and Farmer Type Chamber FC65-G differ by less than 1%. It is evident that the MPC proved to be fast and easy to use QA tool for daily checking of machine performance. But it is evident from present study that, inter comparison with a Farmer Type chamber is needed, if the MPC has to replace the other QA tools.
45 Properties of circuits in coset diagrams by modular group , Muhammad Aamir Javed, Muhammad Aslam Malik
Background/Objectives: Graham Higman gave the idea of coset diagrams for the action of modular group PSL(2;Z) on real quadratic irrationals. These special types of graphical figures are composed of closed paths known as Circuits. These circuits can be classified into certain types of even length with respect to the number of inside\outside triangles. This study is to discuss different properties of reduced numbers in coset diagrams of the type (p;q). Methods: In this study, we have investigated different properties of type (p; q) using reduced quadratic irrationals and continued fractions. We have categorized reduced numbers in accordance with their position in the real line. Distance between two ambiguous numbers and reduced numbers is introduced in this article which will help the reader to understand the structural significance of reduced numbers in a circuit. We have explored different conditions under which certain reduced numbers have the same circuit. Moreover, continued fractions have been used to assist the foundation laid by modular group action and different general results have been derived in this context. Findings: It was possible to define new notions of equivalent, cyclically equivalent and similar circuits using partitions of n and discuss various properties of reduced numbers included in coset diagrams of circuits with length up to four.
46 Effect of Psychomotricity Program on Anxiety, Withdrawal and Problem Behavior of Children with Asperger Disorder , Youn Tae Suh and Yun Jung Kim
Background/Objectives: To investigate the effect of applying the psychomotor program on the anxiety, withdrawal and problem behaviors of children with Asperger disorder, which helps improving their confidence by motion activity. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Psychomotricity program was conducted for 50 minutes per session, three sessions a week during 12 weeks against the subjects, two children with Asperger disorder. BAB design was used to analyze the effect of psychomotricity on problem behaviors of the children with Asperger disorder. Problem behaviors were measured for 10 minutes after every 50 minute class using an interval recording method. To confirm the effect on anxiety were conducted using Child Behavior Check List (CBCL) 6-18. Findings: The average occurrence frequency of target behavior of child A, which was more than 9 times lower than the average and target behavior of child B, which was more than 11 times lower than the average. As a result of this study, frequency of problem behaviors of the children with Asperger disorder was decreased during the arbitration and this decrement was maintained until the follow up observation. Also, anxiety problem in pre-observation of the child A was 80 and that of the child B was 90. In the post-observation T score of anxiety problem of the child A was 60 and that of the child B was 69. The anxiety level on post-observation was lower than that on pre-observation. Application/Improvements: We suggest that psychomotricity is effective in reducing the aggression behavior and withdrawal frequency of children with Asperger disorder and in maintaining the lowered level.
47 Rejuvenation of online researchinteractive fora during COVID-19 , Natarajan Gajendran, V Shanthi, M Aalelai Vendhan
Objective:To analyse the usefulness of various interactive fora in sharing the scientific updates among researchers.Methodology:Popular research fora viz. ResearchGate, Academia, Mendeley, Kudos and Publons were considered. A bird’s eye view on emerging benefits of such fora and their dependability are critically analysed using secondary data. It includes published articles and records.Findings:The analysis shows that these interactive fora helpin breaking the geographical, economical and institutional barriers and areable to offer sharing of research knowledge among peer groups. However,these online fora also have their own demerits on reliability of the research interactive outcome. Our analysis clearly shows that if these bottlenecks are removed, the interactive fora can bring paradigm shifts in global research output to the next level. Novelty: With this effect, the authors not only identified the problems cropping in the existing research interactive fora but also put forward an improved interactive platform “Scholarly Needs” by which the motivated researchscholars can be identified for their original contribution, ranked and showcased for their talent. Keywords:Research forum; Scholarly Needs; ResearchGate; Academia; Mendeley; Publons; Kudos
48 Natural language to SQL Generation for Semantic Knowledge Extraction in Social Web Sources , K. Javubar Sathick and A. Jaya
Enormous evolution of web data creates a peculiar myth in the field of computer and information technology for extracting the meaningful content from the web. Many organizations and social networks use databases for storing information and the data will be fetched from the specified data store. Data can be retrieved or accessed by SQL queries whereas the query is in the form of natural lingual statement which has to be processed. So, the primary objective of this research article is to find the suitable way to convert natural language query to SQL and make the data apt for semantic extraction. This Research paper also aims to derive an automatic query translator for Natural Language based questions into their associated SQL queries and provides an user friendly interface between end user and the database for easy access of social web data from different web sources such as facebook, twitter and linkedIn etc.,. This paper is implemented using java as the front end, SQL server as the back end and R-tool is used to collect the data from social web sources. This research article provides an optimized SQL query generation for the Natural Language question provided by the end user.
49 Power Line Communication , Sandeep Banarwal , Ashish Sharma, Sukhbani Kaur Virdi, Himanshu Verma and Gaurav Verma  
Power line correspondence is a progressive thought that phone correspondence is moved on another establishment. Power Line Correspondence (PLC) is one of the advancements that have shown accommodating for control applications. It is broadly use in home robotization, car and web access applications. Power Company have been worked the robotization framework for transferring and supervisory controls by utilizing open correspondence system. Be that as it may, these frameworks must have the strictest necessities of correspondence. Thus, there are great deals of troubles to apply to the Automation System considering the cost, area environment and different attributes of electrical cables. Be that as it may, as of late, the current electrical cable can be utilized as correspondence media by utilizing Power Line Communication (PLC). PLC can be embraced as a primary correspondence implies and other wired/remote can be received as second means. With a specific end goal to this, the high voltage PLC must be utilized as a long separation correspondence system.
50 Dual-Band, Miniaturized, Enhanced-Gain Patch Antennas using Differentially-Loaded Metastructures   , Gayathri Rajaraman, M. Anitha , Athrish Mukerjee , Khagindra Sood and Rajeev Jyoti  
We propose a novel miniaturized dual-band microstrip patch antenna with improved gain for potential wireless applications. Two variants of the proposed configuration have been optimized and the analyzed results presented. The basic patch antenna is loaded with two pairs of Complementary Split Ring Resonators (CSRR’s) on both sides of its non-radiating edges with different dimensions on both sides. The radiation performance of the first variant and its gain is further improved by etching four pairs of CSRR on the ground plane which controls the surface waves effectively. The proposed antenna shows an analyzed gain of 1.80 & 5.67 dB respectively in the two bands 1.68, 2.59 GHz. The antenna may find application in both the ISM (L band) and Wimax applications. In a second variant, the gain is further improved by employing a Reactive Impedance Surface (RIS). In this case, the analyzed gain is found to be 5.69 & 5.12 dB respectively at 2.05, 2.39 GHz. This antenna may be suitable for UMTS and ISM applications. The design dimensions of the patch, CSRR’s and the RIS are obtained from expressions available in literature. Subsequently, simulation and optimization of the structures is carried out with Ansys HFSS®; a benchmarked E.M. simulator. The analyzed results are presented.
51 Solution for a Five Link Industrial Robot Manipulator Inverse Kinematics Using Intelligent Prediction Response Method   , A. Siddique Ahmed Ghias , M. Dev Anand , I. Jacob Raglend and F. Shamila  
Background: Robot kinematics suggests and interprets the relationship exists between the kinematic position connectivity and acceleration of each link. In any of the robot manipulator the kinematics solution may be forward kinematics or inverse kinematics. To determine the joint values for a provided desired end effector orientation and position, the inverse kinematics principle is applied. Inverse kinematics is the usage of kinematics equations of a robot to find out the joint parameters that gives a targeted position of the end-effector. Methods/Statistical Analysis: In this paper, inverse kinematic solution for a five joint robot involving intelligent prediction response method has been developed and the result will be analyzed based on the performance. The intelligent prediction response method will give the performance based result, which shows the five various angles of an industrial robot. The single variation in the joint angle will be analyzed for every joint angles. This method based inverse kinematics solution is much more useful in real-time adaptive robot control where shorter calculation times are required. Findings: The MATLAB 13.0 is used to find the solution for a set of joint parameters. The actual reading and MATLAB program was found acceptable level. Applications/Improvements: To solution provided for the inverse kinematics problem with number of joint angles using the intelligent prediction response method such as artificial neural network is used
52 Secure Data Transfer through Audio Signal with LSA   , R. Valarmathi and G. M. Kadhar Nawaz  
Today’s large demand of internet applications requires data to be transmitted in a secure manner. Data transmission in public communication system is not secure because of interception and improper manipulation by eavesdropper. So the attractive solution for this problem is steganography. Steganography is the scheme of hiding the existence of secret information by concealing it into another medium such as image, video or audio. Cryptography is used to encrypt the data so that it is unreadable by a third party. So to add another layer of protection we can encrypt the key of the hidden message. This paper proposes a new algorithm to hide the data in Audio signal and it uses Linear Subsequence Algorithm (LSA) which increases data protection.
53 Analysis of Seismogenic Perturbations using Bartlett Method for Earthquake Signatures on GPS TEC   , Ch. Goutham, K. Rakesh, K. S. Ramesh, R. Revathi and S. Koteswra Rao P. Chitra and V. N.  
Background/Objectives: Earthquakes are the most unpredictable natural disasters in nature. Spectral analysis of seismoionospheric perturbations will be helpful in understanding the source mechanisms of the earthquakes. Seismogenic perturbations observed in ionosphere for an earthquake occurred on 19th December 2013 are investigated. The earthquake peaked at 4.6 on Richter scale. It took place at 16:41 hour’s green which mean time. International global navigation satellite services data for the station BAKO is considered for the analysis. Methods/Statistical Analysis: In present work Bartlett method is implemented on the vertical total electron content data on the earthquake day. Findings: Earthquake signatures in the ionosphere are indentified. It is also observed that the power spectral density of the perturbations has a giant initial value and abated slowly. Application: These findings will aid us to develop early warning systems for earthquakes
54 Breast Tissue Characterization using Combined K-NN Classifier   , K. Vaidehi  and T. S. Subashini  
Worldwide, breast cancer is one of the top two lethal diseases among women. Breast tissue density is the important risk indicator of breast cancer. Digital Mammography technique is used to detect the breast cancer at its benign stage. Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) tools aids the radiologist for an accurate diagnosis and interpretation. In this work, Statistical features are extracted from the Region of Interest (ROI) of the breast parenchymal region. K-NN with three different distance metrics namely Euclidean, Cosine, City-block and its combination is used for classification. The extracted features are fed into the classifier to classify the ROI into any of three breast tissue classes such as dense, fatty, glandular. The classification accuracy obtained for combined k-NN is 91.16%.
55 Coupling Measures and its Impact on Object-Oriented Software Quality   , V. S. Bidve and P. Sarasu  
Metrics measurement is an important means to access the quality of software systems. Software metrics measurement helps in quick and accurate analysis of software quality. Coupling metrics is a kind of software metrics having a significant impact on several qualities attributes of the object-oriented software. In literature, coupling metrics is used to access the software quality attributes like reliability, efficiency, integrity, maintainability, flexibility, portability, reusability and interoperability, etc. of object-oriented software. However, the threshold values for software coupling measures are still not fully defined. This paper investigates the values of seven coupling metrics and explores the impact of coupling metrics values on different quality attributes of the object-oriented software. The Java source code is analyzed to find coupling between different modules of java code. The coupling values of twenty five Java projects are measured to find behavior of coupling values. Using the resulting coupling values of the twenty five projects, percentage threshold values of seven coupling measures are defined. Also the behavior of coupling metrics is plotted using graph. It is found from the results that the percentage threshold value of parameter coupling is in between 24 to 34. Similarly, the threshold percentage of inheritance coupling is between 3 to 13, global coupling is 0 to 7, data abstraction coupling is 9 to 19, import coupling is 18 to 28, export coupling is 19 to 29 and external coupling is 0 to 5. It means parameter coupling, import and export coupling has higher range of values. Inheritance and data abstraction coupling has a medium range of values and global and external coupling have a least range of values. It is also found that the coupling measures have an impact on various quality attributes of the object-oriented software. If the developer could control the values of few important metrics like parameter, inheritance and data abstraction coupling, it will result in improving the overall quality of object-oriented software. Applications: This work is useful for software professionals to maintain level of coupling while developing software. The data set used in this work is totally new and unique.
56 Multi-Objective Firefly Algorithm for Multi-Class Gene Selection   , G. V. Manoharan and R. Shanmugalakshmi
Multiclass cancer classification is an emerging technique which presents the possibility of cancer identification using microarray data. For selecting genes in the multiclass gene categorization filter methods are frequently used. But the filter method is not applicable for some of the multiclass microarray data sets because of the rigorous heterogeneity of biological tissues and samples. So, for selecting genes decay the multiclass ranking statistics into class explicit statistics and then Pareto-front analysis is used. Also, to identify the Pareto-optimal set the non-dominant sorting genetic algorithm is suggested. But the drawback is this method does not scale with high complexity. Because, where the number of elements which are represented to mutation is large there is an exponential raise in search space size. So, in this manuscript an innovative technique is introduced which is called Multiobjective Firefly Algorithm for Multiclass Gene Selection (MFGS). A firefly has a tendency to be fascinated towards other fireflies with superior flash intensity. The multiple objective firefly algorithms intend to optimize two or more conflicting characteristics represented by fitness functions. In the multiple objective firefly method, a set of Pareto-optimal solutions are created which concurrently optimize the contradictory necessities of the multiple fitness functions. In the proposed method, the genes are selected by optimizing the number of fireflies in the multiple class-specific statistics. An experimental result shows that when compared to the existing method, there is less complexity, high classification accuracy of the proposed MFGS method.
57 Impact of Different Climate of European Countries on Working and Power Dissipation of Electronics Circuits , Diksha Singla, Viren Singh Pathania, Ayushi Chodha and Bakshish Gill  
Background/Objectives: Environment temperature play a pivotal role in leakage power dissipation in any Electronic devices. Methods/Statistical Analysis: We are performing an experiment by using a FPGA system and we have taken the temperatures of capitals of different countries and corresponding power dissipation of our electronic device under test. Findings: When there is increase in temperature due to global warming and other conditions then more supply power is needed due to which there is a depletion in resources. In the other words, if there is increase in temperature then we need to provide more supply power because leakage power is directly proportional to ambient temperature. Application/ Improvements: We can think to regulate temperature of environment with cooling system in order to reduce power dissipation of any electronic device in operation.
58 Satellite Image Segmentation based on YCbCr Color Space   , P. Ganesan, V. Rajini , B. S. Sathish , V. Kalist and S. K. Khamar Basha
Segmentation is one of the most important processes in the satellite image processing to retrieve most useful information from the satellite images. This paper proposed an effective fuzzy based method of segmentation of satellite images in YCbCr color space. The YCbCr Color space represents color as intensity and exploits the characteristics of human eye. Our eye is more sensitive to intensity than hue. The intensity component can be stored with greater accuracy as the amount of information to be minimized. The JPEG file format mostly uses this color space to discard the unwanted or unimportant information. In the proposed approach, the satellite image in RGB color space is transform into YCbCr color space and then the transformed satellite image is split into three different components (channels or images) based on luminance and chrominance. Subsequently Fuzzy based segmentation is applied separately for all three components for efficient segmentation. Finally the threshold is applied to extract the foreground (object) from the background. The experimental result reveals that the proposed fuzzy based segmentation method is efficient and accurate for extracting the necessary information from the satellite images.
59 Experimental Study of Sparse Watermarking Techniques for Multibiometric System   , Rohit M. Thanki and Komal R. Borisagar  
This paper focus on study and analysis of effect of watermarking technique in spatial domain combined with cs theory on verification and authentication performance of multibiometric system. In presented techniques, watermark fingerprint is compressed using CS theory before embedding into host biometric. These compressed fingerprint features embed into face image such that watermarked face image is used for verification and authentication of individual. Compressed fingerprint features are used for cross verification and authentication of individual. The modified LSB substitution based technique and modified correlation based technique using WGN combined with CS theory used to secure biometric data at system database and communication channel between two checkpoints of multibiometric system, respectively. The verification accuracy of multibiometric system using these watermarking techniques is around 96 % with more computational security and high perceptual quality of biometric data. The results show that these watermarking techniques do not have effect on authentication performance of multibiometric system. The novelty of paper is combined compressive sensing theory with watermarking technique for security of multibiometric data.
60 Comparison of Genetic Algorithm with Particle Swarm Optimisation, Ant Colony Optimisation and Tabu Search based on University Course Scheduling System , Venkat Rohini and A. M. Natarajan
Objectives: Planning and allocation of the various resources according to the constraints is a hilarious task. The paper aims to find a suitable method to solve the university course scheduling problem. Methods and Statistical Analysis: This paper compares the usage of Particle Swarm Optimisation (PSO), Ant Colony Optimisation (ACO), Tabu Search and Genetic Algorithm (GA) in the preparation of University Course Scheduling System. Certain hard constraints, which has to be satisfied and some soft constraints that can be satisfied are considered. Findings: The algorithm should check for the satisfaction of the hard constraints and the possibility of satisfying the soft constraints. Application/Improvements: The performance of the suitable method is found by comparing with the other methods based on various parameters.
61 A Hybrid Face Detection Approach in Color Images with Complex Background   , Esmaeil Kheirkhah and Zahra Sadri Tabatabaie  
Human face detection in colour images has been researched extensively over the past decades. Face detection has several applications in areas, such as security access control, visual surveillance, video conferencing, intelligent human-computer interfaces and content-based information retrieval. An ideal face detection system should detect faces from a given image/ video regardless of their poses, illumination, scale, age, race, image quality, and image complexity with optimum speed and very low false-positive rate. In this paper a hybrid approach, based on the skin color information and Adaboost-based face detection, is proposed. The key points of the proposed framework are background elimination and down-sizing using the adaptive skin colour classification and segmentation, as well as sub-window size estimation. Therefore, the skin colour segments, as face candidates, were searched instead of the whole image. Meanwhile, the Viola-Jones Adaboost-based face detector was adopted in this research as the final face detector. In order to test the accuracy of the proposed algorithm, the proposed system was implemented and some experiments were also conducted on the standard image datasets such as Caltech (California Institute of Technology) standard image dataset. The proposed hybrid face detection system was compared with the Viola-Jones face detection system. The experiments showed that the proposed approach could efficiently improve the face detection system in both aspects, namely, accuracy (98.88%) and detection time (259.59 ms).
62 Investigation of UDP Bot Flooding Attack , Bijalwan Anchit and Singh Harvinder 
Background/Objectives: This paper presents the analysis of Bot flooding attack which leads to DDOS (Distributed Denial of Service) using a lab experiment in a networked environment creating a real DDOS attack like scenario. Methods: To study the DDOS attack through UDP (User Datagram Protocol) Bot flooding, a lab setup is done in a networked environment. A UDP flood attack starts by sending a huge number of UDP packets from different IP addresses. The experimentation is performed using NS2. The results generated are used as evidences to prove that a machine is victimized and is facing DDOS attack. Graphical evidence is also presented for the DDOS attack using UDP packets flooding. Findings: The evidences collected from the lab experimentation clearly show the demarcation between the normal network traffic and the traffic containing UDP Bot flood. By making the comparison between normal and abnormal network traffic through the UDP flow graph the possibility of DDOS is predicted.
63 Molecular Phylogeny and Genetic Analysis of Green Leafhopper - Nephotettix virescens (Distant) using Mitochondrial COI Gene   , K. Sreejith and C. D. Sebastian  
Accurate and rapid diagnosis of taxa, is of crucial importance to quarantine, pest management and analysis. Advances in DNA technology has resulted in an exceedingly vary of molecular techniques which might be employed in phylogenetically focussed approaches. Use of DNA sequence data derived from region of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene (mtCOI) has been widely used to estimate phylogenetic relationships at different taxonomic levels across insects. The present study investigates the molecular evolution of the Nephotettix virescens using COI gene (DDBJ accession No. AB976528; ENA accession No. LM994675) and its usefulness for reconstructing phylogenetic relationships within and among the leafhopper species.
64 Active and Reactive Power Management in Microgrid: Analysis in Grid Connected and Islanded Mode of Operation. , Niraj Kumar Choudhary , Soumya Ranjan Mohanty and Ravindra Kumar Singh
Load shared by Distributed Generators (DGs) depends upon the mode of operation; therefore power management in Microgrid (MG) is an important area which needs investigation. This paper investigates the impact of DG on the distribution system, where the study of load sharing among various DGs and utility grid has been performed for two cases: 1. When equivalent source based DG is connected and 2. When Photovoltaic (PV) and fuel cell based DG is integrated to the distribution network. PV and fuel cell based DG doesn’t behave as stiff current/voltage source either due to parametric uncertainties or due to external disturbances like weather conditions and load changes. From simulation results it has been observed that even though the capacity of all DGs are equal but when change in load occurs, it doesn’t ensure that the DGs will equally share the active and reactive power. All the simulation studies have been performed in MATLAB/SIMULINK.
65 Sanskrit Character Recognition System using Neural Network , R. Dineshkumar and J. Suganthi 
In the fast moving world with the amazingly growing technology, character recognitions play a wide role by providing more scope to perform research in OCR techniques. Sanskrit handwritten recognition has been one of the challenging research areas in the field of pattern recognition. Character recognition is the electronic translation of scanned images of handwritten or printed text into a machine encoded text. The character recognition is a standout amongst the most generally utilized biometric attributes for authentication of persons and document. In this paper proposed an off line handwritten character recognition framework utilizing feed forward neural network. A handwritten Sanskrit character is resized into 20x30 pixels and this character is used for training the neural network. After the training process, the same character is given as input to the neural network with different set of neurons in hidden layer and their recognition accuracy rate for different Sanskrit characters has been calculated and compared. The results of the proposed system yields good recognition accuracy rates comparable to that of other handwritten character recognition systems.
66 An Investigation of Model Compatibility Procedure in Interference Identifying Tehran, Iran. , Gharaee Hossein , Seifi Shokoufeh and Solat Abozar
The usual approach of Intrusion Detection System (IDS) systematic is according to model compatibility which determines the vandalism happening on the network using particular models and orders. To perform this algorithm, casual manner of the network are evaluated by modeling and in the next step it utilized as a draft model for specifying unusual manner. This paper, wants to determine and select the most efficient procedure for this performance by investigation, application and also gathering all kinds of model compatibility technique so that the most proper result is achieved over compatibility known attacks with original models. In this study, to gather all procedures associated with the subject, we surveyed the expressing of model adoption performance from various views. The other context of this study is to evaluate the items for setting the procedures whereas the algorithms are categorized according to significant items which has more influence on the operating of model adoption performance.
67 An Empirical Study with Special Reference to Business Schools of Pune Region. , Kanchan Patil.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to investigate knowledge management initiatives and study the factors those have an impact on knowledge management initiatives in business school. Design/Methodology/Approach: To explore business school opinions about knowledge management total of 38 declarative statements were presented to teaching and non-teaching staff members. These were measured on 5 point likert scale. Exploratory factor analysis was used to reduce 38 statements to manageable size. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to show that identified factors positively impact the knowledge management in business schools. Findings: The factors that contribute to the knowledge management in business schools are top management initiatives, organizational culture, ICT adoption and Employee participation. Practical Implications: Business schools are facilitating Industry problem solving. Implementing knowledge management initiatives, business school can trigger and encourage creativity among the staff members for continuous development across business schools. Industry and academic partnership for business development is evident. Originality/Value: The quantum of research into knowledge managementimplemented in the business school is deficient. The significant contribution of this paper is that it provides a basis for conceptualizing a model of knowledge management in business school.
68 Authentication Framework for Military Applications Employing Wireless Sensor Networks and Private Cloud , S. Magesh , K. Nimalaand A. R. Nagoor Meeran
Objectives: To provide an authentication framework between military data centres pertaining to different levels of operations within the private cloud and a simple authentication schema for authenticating users at the wing-commander level in the special sinks deployed in our territory closer to line of control. Methods: In order to achieve the above mentioned objectives, we designed a conceptual defense structure that will highlight the various hierarchical levels of military operations. Military WSNs and data centres will utilize the designed simple authentication schema to improve the lifetime of the WSNs. The methodology adopted primarily consists of modifications to the existing Kerberos setup, so that it could fit the conceptual defense structure by utilizing Heimdal Kerberos distribution. Heimdal’s modified Kerberos distribution is utilized in the cloud gateway system to create Kerberos Distribution Center. The modified Kerberos equations are provided in this paper. Findings: Based on the simulations carried out, it is identified that number of messages required for various dialogs for modified Kerberos is relatively less compared to the original version of Kerberos. The response time for modified Kerberos in single realm and cross realm based on different number of requests showed that modified Kerberos is performing better and efficient with respect to the response time metric. Minimum number of messages required for Kerberos Authentication using v4 (Simple dialog), v4 (Secure dialog), v4 (Authentication dialog), v5 (Request for service in another realm using Inter realm authentication) are 3, 5, 6 and 7 respectively. Response times range for single realm lie in the range of 3ms to 20ms approximately for 10 to 100 requests per minute. Response times range for cross realm lie in the range of 7ms to 47ms approximately for 10 to 100 requests per minute. The authentication time to authenticate instructions received at special sinks from level 1 resource via cloud gateway ranges from 4.5ms to 6ms for message sizes ranging from 100 bytes to 1000 bytes. The response times obtained from single realm authentication indicates lesser values as compared against cross realm authentication which is in consensus with the theory of Kerberos. Applications: The proposed scheme finds its application in all mission critical tasks where the time taken for successful authentication of users should be drastically reduced to improve the system performance.
69 A Robust Instance Weighting Technique for Nearest Neighbor Classification in Noisy Environments , E. Parvinnia, M. R. Moosavi , M. Zolghadri Jahromi and M. H. Sadreddini 
The performance of Nearest Neighbor (NN) classifier is highly dependent on the distance (or similarity) function used to find the NN of an input test pattern. Many of the proposed algorithms try to optimize the accuracy of the NN rule using a weighted distance function. In this scheme, a weight parameter is learned for each of the training instances. The weights of training instances are used in the generalization phase to find the NN of an input test pattern. The Weighted Distance Nearest Neighbor (WDNN) algorithm attempts to maximize the leave-one-out classification rate of the training set by adjusting the weight parameters. The procedure simply leads to weights that overfit the train data, which degrades the performance of the method especially in noisy environments. In this paper, we propose an enhanced version of WDNN, called Overfit Avoidance for WDNN (OAWDNN), that significantly outperforms the algorithm in generalization phase. The proposed method uses an early stopping approach to decrease instance weights specified by WDNN, which implicitly makes the class boundary smooth and consequently more generalized. In order to evaluate robustness of the algorithm, class label noise is added to a variety of UCI datasets. The experimental results show the supremacy of the proposed method in generalization accuracy.
70 BER Analysis of WiMAX using Diverse Channel Coding Schemes , Mahwash Manzoor and Lavish Kansal 
WiMAX is the most popular wireless technology these days for it has high data rates and better performance than other wireless and wired broadband technologies. The performance of WiMAX is severely affected by the multipath fading environment. The efficiency of the WiMAX system can be improved using efficient forward error coding schemes. In this paper a comparison of various FEC schemes such as BCH, RS, LDPC and convolution encoding has been done on two different channels namely-Rayleigh and AWGN. The BER performance of the WiMAX system is further analyzed by utilizing diverse modulation levels over both Rayleigh and AWGN channel. The simulation results show that the best performance is achieved by RS codes and BCH codes followed by LDPC codes and then the convolutional codes. Also, as we vary the code rate of the convolution encoder the BER further degrades. The graphical representations show that the improvement can go as high as 4 dB in some cases in terms of SNR required achieving a particular BER value. The use of RS and BCH encoding schemes will result in better performance in existing WiMAX systems.
71 . A Steganography Approach over Video Images to Improve Security , Mritha Ramalingam and Nor Ashidi Mat Isa 
Nowadays the growth of information technologies makes it convenient for people to transmit mass data like confidential biomedical records, banking or financial data through Internet. However, it also provides vast opportunities for hackers to filch valuable information. Therefore, security becomes an important issue. Steganography is a recently developed technique in the data security field and has received significant attention from both industry and academia. Digital data hiding methods can hide message in multimedia files for secret communications. This paper presents a secure data hiding technique for video images using random key encoding function. Secret data are embedded into the random Red Green Blue (RGB) pixel values of the cover-video images using an encryption key. The cover-video images are pre-processed to prevent overflow/underflow. Experimental results indicate that the extracted data are without any errors. The performance of the proposed scheme is proved in terms of security and (Peak signal noise ratio) PSNR values.
72 Dimensional Arrow Detection from CAD Drawings. , Aditya Mukesh Intwala, Kiran Kharade , Ravindra Chaugule and Atul Magikar.
Objectives: This paper proposes an approach to effectively identify dimensional arrow heads from the CAD drawing images. Methods/Analysis: The proposed approach implements a multi-level thresholding and morphological operations in order to detect arrow like entity and some additional morphological steps in order to filter out non-arrow like entities from CAD drawing images. A histogram based multi-level thresholding is implemented. Morphological Black hat is used to detect solid arrow heads while morphological white hat is used to detect line arrow heads. Properties of arrow heads are used to filter out unwanted entities. Findings: CAD drawings contain arrows to depict dimensions of the models. In many situations, users do not have access to the CAD file for the drawing or do not have suitable software to visualize the CAD file. In such cases, an image of 2D drawing can be processed in automated or semi-automated way to extract dimensional relationships between entities. One step in such extraction is to detect dimensional arrow heads. The approach was tested on variety of images of CAD drawings with increasing difficulties with 96.655% success rate. The F1 score for each image was calculated and the cumulative average F1 score was found out to be 0.9596, precision rate is 95.95%, recall rate is 96.83% which suggests acceptable accuracy. Applications/Improvement: The proposed approach helps to detect dimensional arrow heads from CAD drawing images using image processing
73 Investigation of ANN-GA and Modified Perturb and Observe MPPT Techniques for Photovoltaic System in the Grid Connected Mode , Alireza Rezvani , Maziar Izadbakhsh , Majid Gandomkar and Saeed Vafaei 
The output characteristics of Photovoltaic (PV) arrays are nonlinear and change with the cell’s temperature and solar radiation. Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) methods are used to maximize the PV array output power by tracking continuously the maximum power point (MPP). This paper presents an integrated offline Genetic Algorithm (GA) and artificialneuralnetwork (ANN)to track the solarpower optimallybasedonvarious operationconditionsdue to the uncertain climate change. Data are optimized by GA and then these optimum values are used in neural network training. The obtained results show minimal error of MPP, optimal voltage (Vmpp) and superior capability of the suggested method in the MPPT. The simulation results are presented by using Matlab/Simulink and show that ANN–GA controller of grid-connected mode can meet the need of load easily and have fewer fluctuations around the maximum power point; also, this method has well regulated PV output power and it produces extra power rather than Modified Perturb & Observe (MP&O) method for different conditions. Moreover, to control both line voltage and current, a grid side P-Q controller has been applied.
74 Efficient Dynamic Time Warping for Time Series Classification.  , Kumar Vasimalla, Narasimham Challa and Manohar Naik S.
Background/Objective: Dynamic Time Warping (DTW), a similarity measure works in O(N2 ) complexity. Cause of this it will be used for small datasets only. Methods/Statistical Analysis: In this work, we introduced Efficient DTW (EDTW), which works in linear time. It uses two level approaches. In the first level data reduction is performed, and in the second level warping distance and path are calculated. Findings: While calculating the values of distance matrix, values along the warping path only considered and calculated. For time series of length n, maximum n values of distance matrix are calculated. So it works in linear time. Improvements/Applications: We applied this distance measure to UCR Time Series archive and calculated error rate of 1NN classification. Most of the cases it is matching, some cases it is better, and some other cases error rate is high.
75 Performance Assessment and Comparisons of Single and Group Mobility in Manet.  , J. Deny and M. Sundhararajan.
Objectivities: This paper analyzes the complete performance of institution freedom with single node range of motion method. Check mattress in this assessment is generally based upon community Simulator 2 (NS-2) environment. Methods/ Analysis: Ability to move of nodes is an essential issue in mobile adhoc sites (MANET). Nodes in MANET move around in one network to one other for my part and within the condition of organization. In unmarried client mobility scheme each client performs registration for my own part in new MANET whereas in institution range of motion scheme best one client in a set just like group consultant (GR) functions registration with respect to all the nodes in the group and can be given Health care of address (COA). Internet process (IP) of most other nodes in the group continues to be identical and then your performance examination and reviews of one and group mobility in is reviewed. Finding: Our simulated outcomes demonstrate that group range of motion plan reduces selection of emails and uses significantly less time for subscription of nodes when compared with single node ability to move plan. Consequently community load is reduced in institution range of motion scheme. Novelty/Improvement: The tested end result suggests that group mobility scheme no much longer simplest reduces the selection of messages; in addition, it minimizes the community fill and time for sign up of nodes
76 Image Encryption based on the Reflected Binary Code Method with the Combination of FFT , R. Vijayaraghavan , S. Sathya and N. R. Raajan 
Image encryption is used to protect the data of an image in the most secure way. In this paper, we perform encryption and decryption of the three color planes based on gray code effect and fast Fourier transform. Gray level codes indicate that occurrence of one bit changes from a previous state of current. This process allows the system to detect the error when more than one bit changes occur. It is more efficient than binary bit plane decomposition. The Fourier transform is mainly used to represent the frequency characteristic of a spatial domain image. The color plane scrambling process is done by combining three individual encrypted planes into one composite image. This method which is applicable for any type of image formats as bmp, JPEG, GIF. This paper gives a simple way to scramble the image in unpredictable way. It provides more security than other encryption algorithm. The original images can be retrieved using a correct security key which achieves better results than the other existing methods. By exploiting gray code and Fourier transforms it increases the difficulty of decoding.
77 Electronic Wheelchair for Physically Disabled Persons. , Gurjot Singh Gaba, Paramdeep Singh and Sandeep Kumar Arora.
This paper highlights various physical disorders and its associated disabilities. Plenty of wheel chair have been designed so far. A wheel chair which can assist the disabled people in their day to day life became a necessity. It is possible if their other organs of the body assist the electronic gadgets. Proposed method helps the physically challenged people to make their journey through electronic assisted module whichworks on signal processing over speech and image. This system works via speech or through recognition of hand gesture. To overcome the loss of signal because of real time inputs, different signal enhancement techniques are introduced to achieve high rate of accuracy and stability. The system’s response time is very much considerable as the delays of the system are quite reduced. The operating system created to work on gestures and speech was tested on the test bed with different sets of data. Results marked prominent impression over the conventional ones with accuracy rate of 84.66% in case of image processing and 82.33% in speech signal processing.The refinement of the electronic wheelchair is going to definitely help many suffering from the disease.
78 Design and Development of BIST Architecture for Characterization of S-RAM Stability. , M. Krishna Chaitanya and V. Ravi.
Objectives: The objective is to find the optimum SNM of SRAM and then a BIST architecture is designed and implemented to test the SRAM cells varying the voltage of the bit lines. Methods/Analysis: In this paper we use a detection technique which is digitally programmable to detect the defective SRAM cells by using some additional set of SRAM cells to change the bitline voltage and then apply stress to the CUT. Findings: By using this programmable detection technique, cells can be tested even after the fabrication and accordingly one can find out the bit line voltages at which even weak and bad cells can be made useful. Improvement: The main advantage of programmability is that we can maintain considerable tradeoff between test yield and quality. The results at the end will justify the effectiveness of the BIST architecture
79 Multipoint Search Algorithm for Automatic Segmentation of Tooth from Digital Intra Oral Periapical Radiographs. , Shubhangi Vinayak Tikhe, Anjali Milind Naik , Sadashiv Dattatray Bhide , T. Saravanan and K. P. Kaliyamurthie.
Objectives: In the present study digitally recorded Intra Oral Periapical radiographs (IOPA) are investigated. Methods/Analysis: This paper presents an innovative algorithm for automatic segmentation of the digital IOPA radiograph in one or more qualified regions of interest. Segmentation of IOPA is done repetitively till all teeth in the image are extracted. These segmented images resulting from this algorithm will now have one tooth in one image. Findings: A radiograph with exactly one tooth in image is extremely useful for further study and analysis of individual tooth in many and diverse applications of computer assistance in processing of dental radiographs. The segmentation algorithm proposed in this paper, necessarily being a spatial segmentation method, separates regions of interest without any loss or alterations in the data. The algorithm works successfully on 76 digital IOPA radiographs out of 80 images in test data. Novelty/Improvements: The algorithm proposed in the paper is fully automatic and does not require any human intervention. The segmentation algorithm proposed separates one tooth with its perimeter region intact in one image. The number of output images generated are equal to number of teeth in input IOPA.
80 Automatic Segmentation of Lower Jaw and Mandibular Bone in Digital Dental Panoramic Radiographs. , Anjali Naik , Shubhangi Tikhe , Sadashiv Bhide , K. P. Kaliyamurthie and T. Saravanan.
Objectives: Panoramic x-ray is a medical imaging technique used in dentistry. This paper aims to present fully automatic segmentation algorithm to extract lower jaw and mandible from panoramic x-ray. Methods/Analysis: Panoramic x-rays provide features of various diseases like advanced periodontal diseases, cysts, tumors, impacted teeth, fractures in lower or upper jaw, etc. Image processing techniques are applied on these images to detect diseases automatically. Segmentation is an inevitable step in automation to extract disease features. Majority existing literature use semi-automatic method for segmentation of panoramic x-ray. The algorithm proposed in this paper is fully automatic method of segmentation. Findings: Panoramic x-rays give entire view of mouth and facilitate assessment of hard tissue structures of the facial area rather than assessment of dental carries. Segmentation of panoramic x-rays is an inevitable step in automating diagnosis of oral disorders like, tumor, cysts, fracture, etc. In this paper, an algorithm is developed for automatic segmentation of lower jaw and then mandibular bone in dental digital panoramic x-ray. Dental digital panoramic x-ray is a good quality image which does not require noise removal. The segmentation algorithm uses novel strips method where input image is subdivided in number of strips. These strips are further processed to separate lower jaw and mandible from input image. The algorithm is fully automatic and does not involve human intervention at any level. Paper presents analysis of number of strips as 3, 5, 7 and 9. The algorithm presented in this paper gives 93% success for segmentation of lower jaw and 90% success in segmentation of mandible structure when strip count is 5. Applications/Improvement: Strip method focuses ROI and ignores components like teeth, spinal cord shadow, etc. Central strip is useful to segment lower jaw whereas side strips are useful to detect mandible edge points.
81 CAARD - Context Aware App Recommendation and Delivery using Decision Support Systems. , V. Praveena  Adithya Raam Sankar, S. Jeya Balaji, R. Sreyas Naaraayanan and Srikrishnan Subramanian.
Objectives: To deliver the affinity of user(s) as a service to prospective developers and help them in providing context aware content. Methods: First, the list of apps installed on the mobile device is retrieved using a special module attached to the host application and is then tagged according to its genre. The module then runs a background service to record the active times of each application. All these information is synchronized with the database on the cloud periodically. The CAARD engine analyses the information in the database to predict the affinity of the user(s). Findings: Currently the users are classified based on their location and categorized using search history, browsing pattern which are not so efficient. They sometimes aim to deliver contents based on the web searches. This again does not necessarily mirror the requirements of the user as all the search terms may be trivial and need not always be specific to the user. Most if the previous systems aim to modify web based techniques for the mobile ecosystem which makes it less efficient. This directly reflects on the revenue of the developers or results in the fall of user base. The proposed system understands the user based on the applications that he frequently uses. This makes it even more user centric and helps the developers in delivering content that is specific to each of the users. Applications: One possible application of this system could be to display more relevant advertisements. This persuades the user to read and click the advertisement thus generating more revenue. Another implementation could be to recommend products that the user might be interested to buy
82 Study and Modelling of Green Energy based Micro-Grid for Rural Area. , Kamlesh Pandey, Priya Banerjee and Devavrat Mathur.
Background/Objectives: Green energy based microgrid system is the development of eco-friendly and cost effective system for electrical supply in the area where grid is not feasible. In this paper, the study and modelling of green energy based micro grid for rural area of Tantivela, Gujarat has been done. Methods/Statistical Analysis: In this paper, the analysis has been done on Hybrid Optimisation for Electric Renewables (HOMER) software. Firstly, the geographical data of the area has been collected including the village data and climatic data. By calculating the load demand of the household accordingly the village population and occupation has been estimated. Based on availability of the renewable resources combination of the energy has been modelled. Using the software HOMER software the optimum and cost effective model of standalone micro grid system for rural area. Findings: A standalone type microgrid has been simulated which can handle both AC and DC load. For the Maximum Power Point Tracking system perturb and observe method has been adopted. The standalone system different combination of PV array, charge controller, load controller, inverter, and battery need to be decided based on the load demands and parameters. The biomass, wind and solar are taken to be the main renewable energy resources as for generation. The testing and cost analysis has been done in Hybrid Optimisation for Electric Renewable (HOMER) to find optimum combination of energy which will be cost effective, eco-friendly and have viable architecture. After selecting the resources and decide the equipment’s the final simulation is done. In HOMER we analysed cost summary including total net production cost, operational cost and levelized cost and decide on best possible architecture of PV array, biomass, wind, converter, inverter and rectifier. Applications/Improvements: By simulating green energy microgrid it makes an optimum use of resources that are locally abundant resources with economic viable, affordable and sustainable. It could be improved by proper transmission network and improve surge power capacity to enhance cost- effectiveness.
83 Quasi Affine Generalized Kac Moody Algebras QAGGD3 (2) : Dynkin diagrams and root multiplicities for a class of QAGGD3 (2). , A. Uma Maheswar.
Objectives: To define the class of quasi affine generalized Kac-Moody algebras QAGGD3 (2), completely classify the non isomorphic, connected Dynkin diagrams associated with QAGGD3 (2) and compute some root multiplicities for this family. Methods: The representation theory of Kac-Moody algebras is applied to compute the multiplicities of roots for a quasi affine family in QAGGD3 (2). Findings: The quasi affine generalized Kac-Moody algebras associated with symmetrizable Generalized Generalized Cartan Matrices (GGCM) of quasi affine type, obtained from the affine family D3 (2), are defined; The connected, non-isomorphic Dynkin diagrams associated with this particular family are completely classified’; Multiplicities of roots of a class GKM algebras QAGGD3 (2), with one simple imaginary root are then determined using the representation theory of Kac Moody algebras; Application: Generalized Kac-Moody algebras find interesting applications in bosonic string theory, classifications in vertex operator theory , monstrous moonshine theory etc.
84 Modi’s Make in India drive: Right Time to give a National Call to become Global Manufacturing Hub. , Surya Rashmi Rawat, Samanth Dushyanth, Anant Kediya and Pankhuri Dhruvastha.
Background: In the present scenario “economy” and other related phenomena have taken the centre stage, every area of society; be it politics, business or professional; revolves around the principles of economy. In this competitive world, realising the interdependence of the globe for economic survival, the potential of India to set up production units and easy access to skilled and unskilled labour in the country, Prime Minister Narendra Modi came up with the notion ‘‘Make in India”. Objectives: The objective of this research is to explore the feasibility of launching a national call to become global manufacturing Hub. Method/Analysis: The study is based on both primary as well as secondary sources of information. Secondary data is collected from case studies, articles, journals, newspapers and magazines. Primary data was collected through a questionnaire survey over a group of 300 people from Pune in the age groups of 18-28 years, 28-40 years and 40-50 years in the 1:1:1 proportion. Views of eminent personalities were also duly considered. Findings: At the end the researcher concluded that it is indeed the right time to roll out ‘Make in India’ initiative. According to survey analysis, majority of the population strongly believed that India is fully prepared to host such an initiative which may initially sound difficult but would definitely be paying huge dividends soon in the terms of employment, economic development and prosperity to the nation. Study also delved upon the challenges and threats before the country today and inferred that though on one hand we have major challenges confronting our ways, but none of these barriers are insurmountable. The population strongly believed that we are capable enough to overcome these hurdles and become a global manufacturing hub. Positive experiences in past like Mission Mangalyaan and the fact that India - a democracy with 1.29 billion populations and that too mainly dominated by the young population in the age group of 10 to 24 years with good economic status and literacy rate seems to have affirmed their faith. Applications: On one side where many people are calling Make in India drive just a hoax and results of some studies are also averse to its feasibility, the results of this empirical study conducted over a sample that understands the topic well would be big a respite and very encouraging for the people who want to trust this move. After all it is this faith of the population which will decide the success of this initiative.
85 Transformation of Consumer Attitude through Social Media towards Purchase Intention of Cars. , Prabha Kiran and S. Vasantha.
Background/Objectives: Transformation is an ever changing phenomenon which can impact various spheres of consumer decision making. Attitudes can shape consumer’s minds, make them prefer or ignore objects and products. Hence, the consumer behaviors are impacted by attitudes and force them to behave in a quite consistent way toward comparable objects. The unprecedented rise in social media usage and its impact on consumer’s attitude is also very evident. The study attempts to specify the factors affecting consumer’s attitude towards purchase intention of automobile giving special reference to cars. Methods/Statistical Analysis: In this context consumer based attitude scale was developed and a questionnaire was completed by respondents who either have purchased a car in last one year or are willing to purchase one in next one year. Frequency, t-test, One way Anova and factor analysis were used for data analysis using SPSS 20.0. Findings: In the end five factors were found to have strong impact on consumer’s attitude towards development of purchase intension of cars. It was also found that Attitude of males and females towards car related information search on social media are different from each other. The study also found that there is significant difference in social media information search related to car factors (Economical, Functional and Psychological) considered for purchasing a car between male and female. Applications/Improvements: There is a meaningful relationship between the car related factors (economical, functional and psychological) with respect to their incomes and family types. There was a significant relationship between income and economical car factors. Income was found to have a significant relationship with psychological factors as well. In terms of family types it was found that car factors had a significant relationship. Hence marketers can focus on that aspects too while advertising via social media.
86 Fault Tolerant Control for Spaceborne Dual Ring Counters with Selective Overriding   , Jung–Min Yang , Im Y. Jung and Seong Woo Kwak  
Among primary asynchronous sequential circuits, ring counters are used as an important building block in various ­spaceborne digital systems. As they are subject to adverse effects of radiation, it is imperative that they be given fault tolerance mechanism for robust operation. This paper presents a corrective control scheme for tolerating state transition faults in ring counters. The considered ring counter has the structure of Double Modular Redundancy (DMR), in which some selected memory bits of each ring counter module can override the counterpart values of the other module. With this structure, we can design a static corrective controller that tolerates any state transition fault occurring to the dual ring counter. Though the state information is unavailable, we can implement a simple fault tolerant control scheme using ­corrective control. The proposed control scheme is validated in VHDL experiments.
87 Fault Tolerant Control for Spaceborne Dual Ring Counters with Selective Overriding   , Jung–Min Yang , Im Y. Jung and Seong Woo Kwak  
Among primary asynchronous sequential circuits, ring counters are used as an important building block in various ­spaceborne digital systems. As they are subject to adverse effects of radiation, it is imperative that they be given fault tolerance mechanism for robust operation. This paper presents a corrective control scheme for tolerating state transition faults in ring counters. The considered ring counter has the structure of Double Modular Redundancy (DMR), in which some selected memory bits of each ring counter module can override the counterpart values of the other module. With this structure, we can design a static corrective controller that tolerates any state transition fault occurring to the dual ring counter. Though the state information is unavailable, we can implement a simple fault tolerant control scheme using ­corrective control. The proposed control scheme is validated in VHDL experiments.
88 A Hybrid Approach for Simultaneous Gene Clustering and Gene Selection for Pattern Classification. , Pradeep Kumar Mallick, Debahuti Mishra, Srikanta Patanaik and Kailash Shaw.
Objectives: This study proposes a hybrid model of simultaneous gene clustering and gene selection for gene expression datasets using hierarchical clustering and rough set theory for classification of data patterns. Methods/Analysis: The internal architecture of the proposed model broadly works in three phases, in first phase; the initial clusters are formed using hierarchical clustering and again those resulted clusters are divided into more clusters using based on lower and upper approximation property of rough set theory. In second phase; the reduct property of rough set is applied on obtained clusters from the second phase; and in third phase, the gene ranking and cluster ranking has been employed to rank the genes in clusters to discover significant of informative genes. This method tries to find the genes of interest known as significant genes and maximize the accuracy of the model with reduction percentage. The advantage of this approach is analyzed by experimental results on two benchmark datasets such as Leukemia and Colon Cancer. Finally, the classification performance of the original datasets were recorded using Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier and also with few existing feature/gene selection and clustering techniques. Findings: The experimental results and performance measures proves the efficiency of the proposed hybridized technique over existing feature/gene selection as well as established traditional k-means clustering technique
89 Preparation of Aluminium Alloy Metal Nanoparticles. , Ahmad Hafizuddin Mohammad Roston, Wan Nor Roslam Wan Isahak and Abu Bakar Mohamad.
Background/Objectives: Nanotechnology has been stated in Malaysia New Economic Model and widely used in much application. The article focuses on nanoparticle formation using liquid pulsed-laser ablation technique. Methods: There are two methods have been used to produce the metal nanoparticles namely breakdown and build up method. In this article, the pulse laser ablation (build up method) has been used to generate the metal nanoparticles whereby the metal target is immersed in ultra-pure water. The Al alloy metal nanoparticles were studied using two laser parameters namely laser exposure time and laser power. Findings: The above mentioned method identified can generate the metal nanoparticles. The longer laser exposure time with higher power contribute higher weight loss of the Al metal. The new incoming black dots were detected on the surface of Al alloy metal samples that were shot by a laser beam. It was contributed to the formation of instabilities plasma on the metal surface towards Al nanostructures ejection. The average weight of a mass loss of Al alloy increases with the exposure time of laser shot was increases. It was shown that average of mass loss of Al metal alloy increased dramatically from the 30 second to 60 second at laser power of 1 watt. However, the higher ablation condition of 3 watt for 180s forms the bigger particle size of 900 nm and more. Conclusion/Application: At the condition of 3 watts for 30s, smaller particles size ranging of 76-1281 nm has been formed. The higher power and exposure time subsequently increase the size and homogeneity.
90 Impact Factors Relating to Effectiveness of Health Information in Company and Public Services Workers of Urban-Rural City   , Moo-Sik Lee and Jee-Young Hong  
This study was conducted, based on a specific population group composed of company workers and public services workers residing in one of urban-rural city, to reach relating factors with utilizing health information. This study surveyed 213 company workers and public services workers residing in urban-rural city who were aged more than 20 during the period of February 5th 2007 to February 9th 2007. Concern on health, utility of health information, challenge thoughts, funny and interesting of health information, experience of using health information, household income were significantly associated with intention to use of health information. In conclusion, we should target and consider to this results for planning projects or program on health information.
91 Energy Management for a Sustainable Industry: Their Challenges and Scope. , Kumari Sneha , Bare Pritesh and Patil Yogesh.
Background/Objectives: The paper aims to study the development of sustainable industry at present with the challenges occurring at their every step. Methods/Statistical Analysis: The paper has undergone desk research and has come out with the scope and challenges of a sustainable industry. Findings: The energy driver is an important element of sustainability. The highly contaminated water is also a severe problem for the unsustainability of the industrial belt which has to be taken for further research. Applications/Improvements: The paper is original and claims to cover the sustainable industry which is an essential need for the planet.
92 The Effect of Swiss Ball Stabilisation Exercise on Deep and Superficial Cervical Muscle and Pain in Patients with Chronic Neck Pain   , Hye-Young Cho , Yun-Jin Park , Hyung-Hoon Moon , Sang-Seo Park , Gyu-Min Kang , Wan-Young Yoon and Myung-Ki Kim  
This study investigated the effect of Swiss Ball stabilisation exercise on deep and superficial cervical muscle and pain with chronic neck pain. Thirty subjects with chronic neck pain were randomly divided into the Swiss Ball Stabilisation Exercise Group (n=10, SBEG), Craniocervical Flexion Exercise Group (n=10, CFEG), and Conservative Therapy Group (n=10, CTG). All patients performed 40-50 minutes a day, thrice a week for 8 weeks. The CSA (Cross-Sectional Area) of neck muscles, longuscolli, longuscapitis, Anterior scalene and Upper trapezius, was measured using functional MRI and VAS and NDI obtained from the subjects was analyzed. After 8-weeks intervention, two groups showed the significant improvement in CSA of deep and superficial muscles; CSA change of SBEG was the most significant among groups compared with CFEG and CTG (P<.001). Swiss Ball stabilisation exercise is likely to widen the CSA of deep and superficial muscles in patient with chronic neck pain, and can be an efficacious therapeutic method that can decrease numerical value of VAS and NDI.
93 Comparative Carbon Dioxide Capture from Air between Chlorella vulgaris and Chlorella sorokiniana. , Noor Shazleen Sharfadeen, Muhammad Syukri Abd Rahaman, Siti Rozaimah Sheikh Abdullah and Zuraifah Minhat.
Background/Objectives: In this research, the potential of a commercial microalgae species namely, Chlorella vulgaris and a native microalgae species isolated from a palm oil mill effluent, Chlorella sorokiniana to capture carbon dioxide from the air was investigated. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Both of the species were cultured in Bold Basal Medium (BBM) at three different concentrations denoted as 1.0 BBM, 2.0 BBM and 3.0 BBM. Among the parameters that were analyzed included pH value, optical density, specific growth rate, dry biomass and the rate of carbon dioxide gas captured by the microalgae. Findings: Different medium concentrations caused a different growth rate of C. vulgaris and C. sorokiniana. C. vulgaris favored an environment with a lower pH value ranging from pH 6.0-6.5 while the native isolated microalgae species, C. sorokiniana prefers a higher pH medium which has a range of 7.0-8.0. In addition, C. sorokiniana has a higher specific growth rate, 0.0452 h-1 in 3.0 BBM compared to C. vulgaris that only has a specific growth rate of 0.0013 h-1 in 1.0 BBM. C. vulgaris had the highest dry biomass value of 0.016 g/L in 1.0 BBM in comparison to C. sorokiniana with 2.438 g/L for the dry biomass in 3.0 BBM. It is also observed that the C. sorokiniana microalgae in 3.0 BBM has the highest potential of capturing carbon dioxide gas from air at a rate of 4.584 g/L in comparison with C. vulgaris microalgae in 2.0 BBM that only captured 0.030 g/L of carbon dioxide from air. Application/Improvements: The locally isolated microalgae have shown a vast potential as an alternative for carbon dioxide capture.
94 Process Innovation Case Study of Insurance Industry: Based on Case of H Company , Jong Yang Jeon , Jun Il Lee and Doo Soon Kwon  
The insurance industry is recently trying many types of innovations and improvements to survive in competition. In other words, many insurance companies are increasing work efficiencies and productivities, and furthermore, strengthening business competitive power by fundamentally changing company organization and process. The purpose of this study is classified into two categories based on these discussions. The first is to examine success factor and critical points through BPR methodology and PI construction case of the next generation process innovation. The second is to study consideration of personal, organizational, and social affects complexly using the system through the next generation process innovation. The project for the next generation process innovation should be progress, the method and guideline of large project management should be proposed through these and must be applied to other information system development in the future
95 A Study on the Impact of Google Search on the Reading Habits of Academicians. , Arumugam Balasubramanian and B. A. Sabarish.
Background/ Objectives: The present day students, research supervisors and faculty members depend on Google search engine as a tool for collecting information on any specific topic of interest. There is a need to understand what extent the materials selected is relevant for their work under consideration. This study investigates the outcome of the use of Google search engine for the choice of material and the reading habits among the research supervisors, research scholars, faculty members and graduate students. Methods: Questionnaires were used to conduct the survey. The responses were obtained through telephonic interviews or receiving duly filled in questionnaire through E-mail. Findings: It has been identified that search engines like Google has reduced the level of lateral thinking and force the academicians to depend on Google for information. This actively reduces the thinking process and developing innovative research ideas. Applications/ Improvements: The use of search engine has resulted in thinking less and searching more when it comes to academic purpose, which also drastically reduces the analytical capability.
96 Antioxidant Activities of Solvent-extracted Fractions from Kummerowia striata (Thunb.) Schindl   , Jae-Hyeok, Lee and Jeong-Suk, Park  
During the process of screening for antioxidant effects of natural plants by measuring the radical scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Kummerowia striata (Thunb.) Schindl (Leguminosae) was found to show potent antioxidant activity. It is very plentiful plant, used for treatment of inflammation and fever in Korea. Antioxidant activities of methanol extract and its fractions were determined by DPPH free radical scavenging effects, riboflavin-originated superoxide quenching activity and xanthine-originated superoxide quenching activity assays. Among them, ethyl acetate fraction showed the most significant free radical scavenging effects on DPPH, and the potent riboflavin and xanthine-originated superoxide quenching activities. These results suggest that Kummerowia striata could be used as a functional ingredient for anti-oxidation, anti-aging and anti-inflammation.
97 An Efficient Time Series Analysis for Pharmaceutical Sector Stock Prediction by Applying Hybridization of Data Mining and Neural Network Technique. , Das Debashish, Sadiq Ali Safa and A. Noraziah.
Objectives: The nonlinearity of the stock market is widely accepted all over the world and to reveal such non-linearity the most effective technique has proved to be constructed through application of either data mining or neural network. Pharmaceutical sector is a rapidly growing in Bangladeshi stock market. The objective of this paper is to investigate whether the hybridization of data mining and neural network technique can be applied in predicting the stock price for Pharmaceutical sector of Dhaka Stock Exchange (DSE). Methods/Analysis: This study uses daily trade data for Pharmaceutical sector of DSE. We have analysed the behaviour of daily average price for Pharmaceutical sector of DSE. For this study, 6 top listed pharmaceutical companies have been selected to perform the analysis and selected time frame for the research is 15 years (2000-2015). The analysis is performed in two stages where first stage performs the K-means clustering of data mining method to discover the stock with most useful pattern and second stage applies the nonlinear autoregressive with Exogenous Input neural network method to predict the closing price for the selected stock. Findings: The prediction performance through the hybridization of data mining and neural network technique is evaluated and positive performance improvement of prediction is observed which is very encouraging for investors. The research also depicts that hybridization of data mining and neural network technique can be applied in determining the stock investment decision for Pharmaceutical sector of DSE though the impact of many different information has greater influence in determining the stock price. Novelty/Improvement: We intend to apply the data mining and optimized neural network in predicting stock market. We would like to work with the parameter and learning of the neural network to achieve better result. We will further investigate the effect of various factors viz. dollar price, gold price, FDI, bank interest rate etc. on stock price and index movement.
98 A Tradeoff between National Income and Regional Growth: Evidence from the EU   , Young-Bae Kim  
The purpose of the paper is to empirically investigate the effect of national economic conditions on regional growth from the point of view of local economies. The study utilizes a set of cross-sectional data for sub-national regions in EU member countries. The empirical findings suggest both the existence of a tradeoff between national income and regional growth and the harmful effect of national income on regional convergence. Another finding also confirms the ineffectiveness of EU regional policies, measured by EU structural funds.
99 Weighted Quality of Service based Ranking of Web Services. , F. Ezhil Mary Arasi , S. Govindarajan and A. Subbarayan.
Background/Objectives: The primary objective of the study is to evaluate the performance of Composite Web Service based on the parameters relating to Quality of Service by using statistical methodologies. Methods/Statistical Analysis: By using Web Service Crawler Engine we have collected data on eleven parameters of interest from a more number of Web Services. Among the eleven parameters we have selected six parameters of importance using the sampling of thirty Web Services. We have constructed the weight matrix for the parameters. By using Web Services Relevancy Function ranking has been done for three different scenarios. Using Spearman’s Rank Correlation Coefficient we have compared the scenarios. Findings: The graphical representation of the three scenarios shows varying pattern. The Spearman’s Rank Correlation coefficient of the Web Services Relevancy Function varied widely among the sampled Web Services. F-Test revealed that there are no significant differences in respect of weights of Quality of Web Services for three different scenarios. We concluded that weight assigned for Quality of Service parameters in Scenario I is preferred than the scenarios II and III through the evaluations. Application/Improvements: The technique developed in this research paper can be applied for the comparison of Web Services during discovery to enhance the performance of the Composite Web Service.
100 Does the US Need an Educational Reform for Economic Growth?   , Young-Bae Kim and Chosee Jung  
The paper empirically investigates the effect of education on economic growth of local regions with standard growth regression models using a set of cross-sectional data for sub-state counties of 50 US states. The findings suggest the existence of income convergence among US counties, a strong growth-enhancing effect of human capital accumulation measured by schooling years, a negative effect of the unemployment rate and a positive effect of the net migration rate on the growth rate. In contrast, government expenditure on education appears to have a negative association with growth, suggesting the ineffectiveness of US education policies. Furthermore, the result indicates possible failures of secondary education in the US regions.
101 A Study on College Students’ Knowledge and Educational Experience about Basic Life Support   , Shinhong Min  
Along with consistent economic development and rapid industrialization, occurrences of emergency patients have increased rapidly due to industrial disasters and cardiovascular diseases. When we face the occurrence of emergency patient, the best care is for the first responder to practice the CPR early before the emergency staffs arrive at the cardiac arrest spot. Thus, learning to practice proper emergency measures is important and required for the sake of me and others. The results in this study show the level of college students’ knowledge, experience, and learning of CPR and this will be a basic data for the development of the CPR-related curriculum. Further, this will contribute to the establishment of the CPR-related education program for the university policy. We carried out the survey from 8th of April, 2013 to 30th of April 2013. The participating subjects in the survey were 434 college students in provinces of Seoul, Gyeonggi and Chungnam. Data analysis is performed with the measures of percentage, average, and standard deviation and the T-test and the ANOVA are applied to the analysis using the SPSS program (version 18.0). Results of this study are as follows. 1. The knowledge level of the CPR is very low, making up an average 3.56 (SD=1.37) points out of the total 6 points. 2. The ratio of students not learning the CPR is 48.8%. 3. Among the students who know the CPR, 69.1% of students learned it at the school. Education method with theory and practice has a ratio of 68% and 77% of the students learned CPR by demonstration with dummy. Average education time is 2.8 hours. 4. 98.2% of the students feel the necessity of CPR education and 31.8% among them want to learn CPR in the time of middle school. Educational institutions of school and Korean Association of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation are mostly wished. 5. The most frequent case which the students witnessed practicing of CPR is the TV (74%) and the next is the movie (37%). In conclusion, the college students have low knowledge levels of CPR but have high will of participation and understanding of its necessity. Thus, when CPR education is provided appropriately to the college students, it is expected to have high education effects.
102 Fermentative Production of Xylitol: A First Trial on Xylose Bifurcation. , Tee Zhao Kang , Siti Hajar Mohammad , Abdul Munir Abd Murad , Rosli Md Illias and Jamaliah Md Jahim.
Background/Objectives: Xylitol production through chemical processes pathway involves high energy usage and ­production cost. Alternative method via microbial biotransformation and biocatalyst offer more sustainable and environmental friendly feedstock to be used for xylitol production. Methods: Production of xylitol by Aspergillus niger PY11 using different conditions on 2 carbon source, glucose and xylose, were done for the development of this research. Batch fermentation of A. niger PY11 was conducted for 4 days or 96 hours in temperature set at 30ºC and agitation speed of 200 rpm. Samples were taken at 12 hours interval, filtered and analyzed for cell biomass, remaining sugar and D-xylitol concentration. The production of biomass and xylitol was monitored through dry-mass weight of mycelium and by HPLC, respectively. Findings: From the results of the utilization of single carbon source, fermentation of D-xylose ­produced the highest xylitol yield, which was 0.101 g xylitol/g D-xylose consumed, with the xylitol titre of 1.139 g/l was obtained ­(equivalent to 0.482 g xylitol/ g biomass). However, the highest cell growth was observed when fermentation were ­conducted using a mixture of D-xylose and D-glucose at the ratio of 3:1, which resulted the biomass yield of 0.239 g biomass/g D-xylose (equivalent to 0.211 g xylitol/g biomass). Total amount of 44.94% of added D-xylose was consumed during the fermentation. Applications/Improvements: This paper shown that the addition of glucose had resulted higher biomass growth of A.nigerPY11, thus subsequently increased the bioconversion of xylose to xylitol.
103 A Study on the Biomedical Ethics among University Students with Consideration for Categories of Major   , Soonyoung Yun and Shinhong Min  
This study is performed to prepare baseline data searching of educational necessity and directions for the establishment of desirable ethics and has worked on surveying biomedical ethics among university students of healthcare departments and non-healthcare departments. This is a descriptive research based on inquiry of junior and senior students in four-yearcourse university located in C and D provinces. The data gathering period is from 17th of March, 2014 to 31st of March, 2014. The research tool is a inquiry scale of surveying biomedical ethics which is developed by S. J. Kwon. It consists of a total of 66 questions and is Likert type 4 points scale. The reliability of this study is Cronbach’s α = 0.82. We analyzed the data using SPSS/WIN 18.0 statistical program and used descriptive statistics, T-test, and ANOVA. The results of the study are as follows. The overall average for biomedical ethics among health care department students is 140.18 (SD = 11.50) and that among non-health-care department students is 98.77 (SD = 12.99). This shows that nursing department students give higher statistical significance level against non-health-care department students but this result considerably includes discord factor which can change their values depending on situations and confusion in values. Thus, it is necessary to consider arbitration plan to promote biomedical ethics toward health care department students.
104 Effects of Solvents and Extraction Methods on Herbal Plants Phyllanthus niruri, Orthosiphon stamineus and Labisia pumila. , Nur Aqilah Kamarudin , Masturah Markom and Jalifah Latip.
Background/Objectives: Phyllanthus niruri, Orthosiphon stamineus and Labisia pumila are the three herbs listed in Malaysian National Key Economic Areas (NKEA). This study was conducted to determine the herbs extract yields and activities on antioxidant and cytotoxicity properties. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Cold maceration and soxhlet were the extraction methods employed and water, ethanol and 50% ethanol (v/v) were chosen as solvents. Findings: The results showed 50% ethanol (v/v) was the best solvent for all three herbs in terms of extraction yield. For cold maceration, the extract yields were 14.3%, 17.4% and 7.6% for P. niruri, O. stamineus and L. pumila, respectively. Whilst for soxhlet method, the same trend was observed where 50% ethanol (v/v) gave the highest extract yield of 21.2%, 14.3% and 6.8% for P. niruri, O. stamineus and L. pumila, respectively. Total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity were also highest using 50% ethanol and soxhlet method for all herbs. Application/Improvements: This shows that the food-grade solvents at a certain concentration are suitable for the best extraction of selected herbs.
105 A Study on the Differences between Spiritual Wellbeing and Sexual Attitude Considering the Type of University   , Shinhong Min and Soonyoung Yun  
This study focuses on the provision of baseline data for the intervention programs of building proper sexual attitudes through understanding of the differences between spiritual wellbeing and sexual attitudes of healthcare department students from Christian university and non-Christian university. The survey was carried with questionnaire to the junior and senior students from Christian university and non-Christian university located in the C and D province during period between 24th of March, 2014 and 11th of April, 2014. The results are as follows. Students from Christian university show higher spiritual wellbeing, which is statistically significant (t=5.920, p=0.001). Also, in views of sexual attitude, Christian university students have more affirmative awareness. Except ambivalent sexual values from questionnaire subcategories, they showed statistically significant differences in all other subcategories of sexual opinion, sexual behavior, virginity, and pornographic media. When we examine the correlation of subcategory between spiritual wellbeing and sexual attitude, religious wellness is found to be correlated with existential wellness, sexual opinion, sexual behavior, virginity, ambivalent sexual values, and pornographic media. For the case of existential wellness, it is correlated with religious wellness, sexual opinion, virginity, and pornographic media. Therefore, in the development of intervention program to reduce sex-related problematic behavior, it is required to include contents of spiritual wellbeing improvement for university students to have appropriate sexual attitude.
106 A Study on the Determinants of the Intention of Execution for Management Consulting: Focusing on the Psychological Factors of Middle Managers in Firms   , Tea-Suk Jeoung, Yen-Yoo You and Kwan-Sik Na  
The purpose of this study is to clarify what psychological factors influence the perception of management consulting by middle managers working at general firms in Korea. To this end, the psychological factors of middle managers were categorized into personal factors and organizational factors. Personal factors were then classified into innovative activities, job satisfaction, and achievement needs, and organizational factors were classified into job security and organizational loyalty. Then, the impacts of the perception of management consulting, which is a dependent variable, were examined in terms of the intention of execution for management consulting. For reference, this study examined the differences in personal factors, organizational factors, and mean difference in the perception of management consulting according to socio-demographic factors. The factor of middle level managers regarding the intention of execution for management consulting had a positive impact on achievement needs and a negative impact on innovative activities. It was found that there were no impacts on other factors such as job satisfaction, job security, and organizational loyalty. Moreover, management consulting experience regarding the awareness of execution for management consulting turned out to have no moderating effect. In addition, the variables that had a significant mean difference in the perception of management consulting by middle level managers, according to demographic characteristics, were firm size and income.
107 Secure Data Transmission For Multisharingin Big Data Storage. , M. Indu Maheswari, S. Revathy and R. Tamilarasi.
Objectives: The aim of this paper is to handlehuge dataset in a cloud with privacy and security. Due to rapid growth in the multiuser communication on the cloud infrastructure, the reliability of the data sets is growing rapidly. Methods/Statistical Analysis: We proposed three planning mechanism in this paper, they are anonymity, multiple receiver and conditional sharing. Using anonymity can hide the sender and receiver information details. In multiple receiver, by giving category the receiver can access the sender data before that admin check the condition to share the data. If the authorized receiver means the admin can allow the receiver to access the data. In this paper, we used Data Encryption Standard (DES) and Message Digest (MD5) algorithm for encrypting the data and also used Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) for Re-encrypt the data for high security. Findings: By implementing the above algorithms the data from Hadoop Data File System (HDFS) can be retrieved faster and hence, the time required for the proposed system to fetch the data is reduced compared to the existing system. Application/Improvements: The proposed system has been tested only for small dataset and can be used to analyze large datasets. The proposed system can be used to many real-world applications, such as secure email ­forwarding, electronic encrypted data sharing, where both anonymity and flexible encrypted data sharing are needed.
108 Factors Influencing Career Preparation Behaviours during Career Decision — Case Study on Students Majoring in Dental Technology   , Sook Jeong Lee , In Ho Jeong, Ye Jong Lee and Yong Ju Kang  
The purpose of this study is examined the direct or indirect effect with career goal setting and career preparation behaviour which is between university & college’s career development programs and employment and is finding the structural difference on degree of satisfaction. Selecting one’s career is one of the most important decisions for individuals because it will have a strong influence on his/her life. Especially for college students who are in the process of getting ready to step into the society after the graduation, career decision making becomes one of the most difficult tasks and a real one.
109 Study on the Knowledge and Attitudes of Falls and Awareness of Fall Risk Factors among Nursing Students , Myoung-Hee Kim , Hye-Won Jeon and Mi-Young Chon  
The purpose of this study was to investigate the nursing student’s knowledge of falls, attitudes on falls, and awareness of in-patient fall risk factors. The subjects were 404 nursing students from four universities in Chungbuk, Korea. Data were collected from January to March, 2013 using structured questionnaires which explored students’ knowledge about falls, attitudes on falls, and awareness of fall risk factors. Then the data were analysed using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation and t-test with SPSS/WIN 17.0 program. The average value of the nursing students’ attitude on falls was 3.86 (1-5 scale). The average value of the subjects’ knowledge on falls was 12.86 out of 15 points in total. In conclusion, fall prevention education programs should be developed and provided to nursing students to ensure accurate knowledge and positive attitudes on falls. In addition to this, nursing students should be encouraged to use fall risk tools so as to assess potential fall risk for in-patients during practice at hospitals.
110 Analysis of Elementary Students’ ICT Literacy and their Self-Evaluation According to their Residential Environments   , SeungJin Lee, JaMee Kim and WonGyu Lee  
With ICT advancement leading to the development of various computing technologies, emphasis is being placed on ICT literacy as an essential ability that students must acquire. To evaluate this, studies have been conducted to verify whether there are any differences in ICT utilisation and abilities between the genders and, if so, to what degree. However, there has not been any verification of the relationship between ICT literacy and the students’ surrounding environment nor of their own self-recognition. Accordingly, this study was conducted targeting 1,176 elementary school students in Korea with a goal to analyse differences in students’ individual abilities according to their residential environments. The results indicated that there was no difference in ICT literacy levels between genders and that evaluation scores increased as the quality of students’ residential environment was higher. Through this study, it was observed that students’ ICT literacy levels can vary according to their surrounding environment and that improvedself-recognition can affect students’ abilities to use ICT. This study holds significance in that it discovered differences in students’ ICT literacy levels according to region, rather than by gender.
111 Bio-Alcohol from Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Agriculture and Animal Wastes. , Noor Shahirah Shamsul,Suryani Putri Ramli and Siti Kartom Kamarudin.
Background/Objectives: Efficient management of organic waste is necessary to avoid negative impacts on the environment and highly potential to be converted into biofuel. The objective of this study was to conduct preliminary analysis of organic wastes that used for biofuel production and characterization of bio-liquids produced. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Cow dung, pineapple peel, vegetable waste, fish waste and leftover chicken were used in production of methanol from methane system using anaerobic co-digestion method conducted at room temperature, pH 6.4-7.0 for 19 and 30 days in 500 mL of bio-reactor. Gas Chromatography Thermal Conductively Detector (GC-TCD) was used in determination of methane while bio-alcohol formed was detected by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Findings: Co-digestion of R2 (cow dung mixed pineapple skin) produced highest methane (23.07% wt), bio-methanol (19.08 g/L), bio-ethanol (51.30g/L) and glucose (35g/L). This study proved that co-digestion of organic wastes able to produce biogas and bio-alcohol better than digestion of only one substrate. Application/Improvements: The upgrading stage of bio-liquid produced is required to optimize the yield of the bio-liquid and increasing the productivity in large scale study so that it will be qualified for biofuel application.
112 Assessing the Usefulness of Object-based Programming Education using Arduino   , YunJae Jang, WonGyu Lee and JaMee Kim  
The purpose of this study is to use Squeak etoys and Arduino to design education activities so that middle school students can learn the object-oriented paradigm, and assess how usable the education activities are at the level of middle school students. As for education activities, learning methods, such as imitating, modifying and creating, were introduced. Usefulness assessment was divided into a cognitive domain and a definitional domain before the assessment tools were developed. An object-based programming class for 11 middle school students was then conducted and the results analysed. Positive results were confirmed in both the cognitive domain and the definitional domain. The results of this study are meaningful in that the possibility of object-oriented education was discovered for middle school students as well. Also, considering the sequence of object-oriented education, it was found that it is necessary to develop object-oriented programming education at the level of both elementary and high schools.
113 Feedback Linearization for Input-saturation Nonlinear System Based on T-S Fuzzy Model   , Wang Fa-guang(王法广)  , Wang Hong-mei(王洪梅) , Park Seung-kyu , Wang Xue-song(王雪松)  , Sanghyuk Lee  
Considering input saturation problem of nonlinear system, a linearized model of multi-inputs nonlinear system is proposed in this paper. The final linear model has prescribed poles and has the same convergence nearby the designed equilibrium points. After this, the linear control theorem can be applied. During the calculation of linearization, T-S (Takagi Sugeno) fuzzy model and pole placement method were utilized. Pole placement just was applied only once for the final model comparing the traditional case where it was designed for every fuzzy rule. This means fewer LMIs (linear matrix inequality) will be needed and its solution will be guaranteed as much as possible. In this paper, nonlinear system will be transferred to T-S fuzzy model first. Note that the T-S fuzzy model is still nonlinear. Then, by employing a series of transfer matrix, nonlinear T-S fuzzy model will be transferred into a nearly linear form accompanied with only one nonlinear part. Finally, by designing a proper controller, linear pole placement method is used and the designed linearization controller gains can be calculated out with LMIs.
114 Effect of Sodium Hydroxide Pretreatment on Rice Straw Composition. , Shuhaida Harun and Soh Kwee Geok.
Background/Objectives: Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) pretreatment was used to determine the effect of pretreatment on chemical composition of pretreated rice straw. The experiment was designed to measure the effects in terms of NaOH concentration and pretreatment time mainly on the total carbohydrate content (TOC) and lignin content of pretreated rice straw. Methods/Statistical analysis: Compositional characterization was performed based on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) laboratory analysis protocols. Rice straw obtained from Sekinchan, Selangor Malaysia was dried to reduce the moisture content (<15%) and ground to 2 mm particle size. Rice straw was pretreated with different concentration of NaOH (2%w/v, 6%w/v and 12%w/v) and pretreatment time of 1 and 3 hours, while temperature was kept constant at 55°C. Findings: Rice straw sample pretreated with 12%w/v NaOH for 1 hour gave the highest glucan content, an increase of 85.6% from the native untreated rice straw. This condition also yielded the best delignification effect which reduced the lignin composition up to 79.6%, while sample pretreated with 2%w/v for 3 hours gave the highest composition on total carbohydrate content of 79.16% for which included glucan, xylan and arabinan. Hence, the pretreatment condition of 2%w/v NaOH concentration for 3 hours was the best condition in order to obtain high total carbohydrate content while severe pretreatment condition of 12%w/v NaOH concentration for 1 hours was best to give the delignification effect to the rice straw. Application/Improvements: The results from this work can be used for further evaluation of pretreated rice straw using NAOH particularly for enzymatic hydrolysis.
115 Effects of Environmental and Human Constructs on e–learning Effectiveness in Online University Settinings   , Youngran Park and Keol Lim  
The purpose of the research was to understand effects of environmental and human constructs on the success of e-learning in an online university in Korea. The participants of the study completed an online course entitled “Foundations of Online Learning” during 2013-14 winder semester. The participants were asked to respond to the questionnaires on the course content quality, instruction configuration quality, LMS quality, self-regulated learning ability, and instructor-learner/ learner-learner/learner-content interactions. Among a total of 196 participants, valid data from 177 participants were used for the analyses. The results included effects of some independent variables on academic achievements and class satisfaction. Based on the findings, suggestions were made.
116 Production of Cellulase from Pycnoporus sanguineus. , Muhammad Atif Azhari Mohd Azmi, Rafidah Jalil and Mohd Sahaid Kalil.
Background/Objectives: Cellulase is an important enzyme used in the pulp and paper industries, detergent, textile and food. This work reports on the production of cellulose from white-rot fungi Pycnoporussanguineus. Methods/Statistical Analysis: The fermentation of P. sanguineus was carried out using three different carbon sources that are cellulose, α-cellulose and carboxymethylcellulose to choose the most suitable carbon source for growth and enzymes production by P. sanguineus. The enzyme kinetics parameters (Km and Vmax) and the effect of metal ions on the cellulase enzyme activity were studied. The effects of some metal ions on the enzymes activity were also studied. Findings: The comparison of cellulase enzyme produced from both white rot fungi were done within 5 days of the fermentation time. The comparison was carried out in terms of growth rate of both fungus and the activity of FPase enzyme produced. Results showed that the FPase produced by P. sanguineus was six times higher than S. commune. The highest activity of FPase (18.00 U.mL-1), CMCase (7.28 U.mL-1) and EXOase (5.87 U.mL-1) was obtained on the fourth day of fermentation by P. sanguineus when α-cellulose was used as the carbon source. Then, α-cellulose was selected as the carbon source for the production of cellulase from P. sanguineus. The Vmax (1.54 µmol.h-1) and Km (0.5 mM) values of the cellulase enzyme using filter paper as the substrate were determined using Line weaver-Burk plot. The addition of Mg2+ ions and Ca2+ ions increases the cellulase activity significantly. Application/Improvements: The addition of Mg2+ ions at concentration of 7mM and Ca2+ ions at 5mM concentration increases cellulase activity up to 19.2% and 16.2% respectively.
117 Experimental Study on the Heat Transfer Performance of Rectangular Plate-type Heatpipe   , Jae Young Kim , Tai Heoun Park , Jong Bok Park , Doo seuk Choi and Key Sun Kim  
Heat pipes are nowadays being used for cooling purposes in various fields, including electronic circuit boards and automobile parts that cause large amounts of heat. Nano particles are added to the working fluid, which is a heat transfer medium. In this study, the model of the product does not take on the traditional circular pipe shape, but takes on an integral structure with multiple rectangular channels which have fine grooves on their inner surface. This increases the surface area allowing the working fluid to contact a wider area, thereby improving the heat transfer performance. An empirical study will be performed on the heat transfer effect of this product, examining the temperature change characteristics of each part as a function of time.
118 System Call Analysis of Android Malware Families.  , Sapna Malik and Kiran Khatter.
Background/Objectives: Now a days, Android Malware is coded so wisely that it has become very difficult to detect them. The static analysis of malicious code is not enough for detection of malware as this malware hides its method call in encrypted form or it can install the method at runtime. The system call tracing is an effective dynamic analysis technique for detecting malware as it can analyze the malware at the run time. Moreover, this technique does not require the application code for malware detection. Thus, this can detect that android malware also which are difficult to detect with static analysis of code. As Android was launched in 2008, so there were fewer studies available regarding the behavior of Android Malware Families and their characteristics. The aim of this work is to explore the behavior of 10 popular Android Malware Families focused on System Call Pattern of these families. Methods/Statistical Analysis: For this purpose, the authors have extracted the system call trace of 345 malicious applications from 10 Android Malware Families named FakeInstaller, Opfake, Plankton, DroidKungFu, BaseBridge, Iconosys, Kmin, Adrd and Gappusin using strace android tool and compared it with the system calls pattern of 300 Benign Applications to justify the behavior of malicious application. Findings: During the experiment, it is observed that the malicious applications invoke some system calls more frequently than benign applications. Different Android malware invokes the different set of system calls with different frequency. Applications/Improvements: This analysis can prove helpful in designing intrusion-detection systems for an android mobile device with more accuracy
119 Hybrid Feature Based Face Verification and Recognition System Using Principal Component Analysis and Artificial Neural Network   , Usha Mary Sharma  
In Human Computer Interaction (HCI), the issue of developing an automatic face verification and recognition system has been one of the most important concerns of the researchers due to its wide range of application especially in the areas where there has been a high demand for consistent identification electronic access system for an individual. This paper discusses an approach to verify the human face and recognize the person’s face through a still image. The proposed method is a hybrid approach that considers the local components of the face as well as the entire face of a human being. The local facial components comprises of the lips, nose, left eye and right eye. The proposed system has been implemented using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and the Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The system has been designed to handle the noises, illumination variations and the facial emotions to some extent. Hence, the proposed system proves to be efficient as it gives the correct recognition rate of 93.5% for ideal facial image and approximately 85% for noise affected facial image.
120 A Development of Service Model for Mapping the Ecology of Scientific Research using National Science & Technology Information Service   , Nam Gyu Kang , Min Woo Park, Myung Seok Yang , Kwang Nam Choi , Tae Hyun Kim , Won Kyun Joo and Oh Seok Kwon  
Recently there is an increasing demand for a service that can analyse national scientific research information. Such service can be used it to help solve problems and make decisions on a national level. With such demand in mind, this study analyses the state of the art of domestic and global knowledge maps as well as the NTIS-provided knowledge map in order to improve former knowledge maps and to propose a service model for developing map of the ecology of scientific research. For this purpose different types of knowledge maps that can be drawn out from the NTIS R&D information were investigated. This paper proposes four types (Map of researchers, map of research achievements, map of research institutes, map of research trends) as a service of map of ecology of scientific research.
121 A Dynamic Load Balancing Algorithm for Computational Grid using Ant Colony Optimization. , Hayyan Rajab and Kasem Kabalan.
Objective: To design and implement an algorithm for load balancing with convenient utilization of heterogeneous grid resources. Methods: In this paper, we introduce Ant based Dynamic Load Balancing Algorithm (ADLBA), a decentralized dynamic load balancing algorithm using Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), which selects the best resources to be allocated to the tasksconsidering economic cost, resources' capacity, and local load. Results: We used the Gridsim toolkit to evaluate the efficiency of ADLBA against the Randomized Algorithm (RA) with various number of tasks and resource allocation polices. Our study results show that ADLBA outperforms RA in terms of execution cost and total application execution time (makespan), and they also show that using time-shared allocation policy in the resources leads to better results in both algorithms. Conclusion: We found that ADLBA is suitable for grid users which aim to execute their applications quickly with lower cost.
122 Trends of Seeds in the Era of Climate Change – an Issue of Concern towards Sustainability. , Kumari Sneha and Patil Yogesh.
Background/Objectives: India is an agro-based country where seed is the heartof agriculture. Agood quality seed makes a good crop resulting in high yield and better quality for better economic growth. The objective of the study is to explore the seed trends and critically assess the trends with the changing climatic conditions of Indian agriculture. Methods/ Statistical Analysis: The paper has undergone an exhaustive literature to find out the changing policies of agriculture seeds.The paper clearly shows that Seed can make agriculture sustainable. With time National Seeds Corporation have come up with several policies which has made promotion of agriculture convenient. The paper is based on secondary data obtained from ministry of agriculture and national seeds corporation. The study shows the trends in seed development since 1740 till 2014. Findings: The paper undergoes to concern issues of several research papers for making seeds sustainable in the era of climate change. The paper shows how the seeds policies have tried to adopt the seeds to climate change. Since 1740 till 2014 India’s climate has shown a drastic change. The paper shows how the seeds policies have tried to adopt the seeds to climate change.These seeds policies have not only tried to improve the productivity of plants but also have tried to move the seeds towards the path of being sustainable. Applications/Improvements: This has been an issue of concern in modern era in terms of economic, environmental and social perspective leading to sustainability.
123 Portfolio Management for Chemical Corporations with Managerial Efficiency and Growth Potential   , Sungwon, Yoo and Hyun Joon, Shin  
This study takes into account business operational efficiency with a focus on dividend payout ratio in order to efficiently manage portfolio for the chemical sector. When constructing portfolio, business efficiency of corporations is reflected by DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) method. When it comes to growth potential of the corporations, payout ratio is assessed by the scoring criteria proposed in the paper. This study tests the performance of the proposed portfolio management strategy for KOSPI and KOSDAQ-listed companies in the chemical industry sector.
124 Components of A Business Model and Their Influences on a Firm Performance   , Lark Sang Kim  
A firm’s business model is critical to gain and maintain a competitive advantage, which means that it is critical to the firm’s profitability. The success of a firm’s business model depends on the type of value that it offers customers, the type of customers to which it offers, the range of products or services, how it prices products or services, the types of revenue sources, the connected activities that create customer value, the capabilities, and the strategies used to maintain firm’s competitive advantage. In designing and implementing a business model, a firm’s competitive advantage depends on how it utilizes factors that make the internet impact on the industry. A business model includes values provided, a segmented market, a product or service provided in the segmented market, activities for providing values and capability of performing business activities. This research reviews components of a business model that affect performance of a firm. In this research we present a practical method for building and practicing a business model by analyzing how these elements of a business model are affected by the internet.
125 Retail Online Kirana Stores. , N. Srividya.
Background of the Study: Internet has tremendously changed the face of business arena including e-commerce. Till recent times, ecommerce is confined to only few services like airline tickets, railway tickets, hotel bookings, online mobile recharge etc. Recently E-commerce is emerged into retail and moreover kirana sector also. Objectives of the Study: This paper tries to find the relationship between the age of a person and his or her convenience to buy online and whether there is a relationship between the sex of person and his or her preference to home delivery. This paper also observes the relationship between the perception of quality of products and the type of products they buy. Methods and Analysis: Various data tools are adopted to analyse the data such as Means of the parameters, OnewayAnova and T-test etc appropriately. Sampling is Random Sampling: A sample of 100 is collected. Findings: Many people of the age 20 to 30 are comfortable with buying online. Most of the female customers prefer buying online because they are home delivered. The perception of quality of products effects the buying decision of the products whether it is vegetables, groceries or both. It is also found that the prices in the internet are much cheaper than the prices in local stores. Though we can bargain in the local stores but there are huge discounts and price gap between the stores and the online portals. Applications: E-commerce is trying to consolidate all the suppliers and buyers at a platform to make the market place more comprehensive. Even the big players like Flipkart and Snapdeal are also now encouraging the local kirana players to sell through their web portals. Scope for Further Research: This paper can be further researched on the concepts of mobile e-commerce, e-commerce in food sector, food chains etc.
126 A Synchronization System for an Educational Content Viewer   , Sun-Ock Kwon , Mihye Kim and Kwan-Hee Yoo  
With an increasing number of users having more than one smart device, an environment for delivering the same content through multiple devices has been established via wired and wireless network connections. Consequently, online education services that have provided content on one device screen by dividing it into multi pieces have changed to providing it through more than one smart device using a synchronization system embedded in a content viewer application or an e-book reader. However, most existing content viewers do not support content synchronization. Some do support it, but are platform-dependent. To address these shortcomings, we propose a synchronization system embedded in an educational content viewer that supports a wide range of content types and is platform-independent. To examine the performance of the proposed synchronization system, we conducted experiments on processing time for synchronization by applying it with different network connection types and between smart devices with different operating systems (OSs). The synchronization system performed within a reasonable time on wireless (Wi-Fi) and long-term evolution (LTE) networks, and most of the content, except three dimensional (3D) objects, synchronized in real-time regardless of OS type.
127 A Performance Model for FMCG Sector Employees Using Linguistic Fuzzy Multi Criteria Group Decision Making. , Abhyankar Minal and Metkewar Pravin.
Objectives: To propose a model for ranking the performance of the employees of FMCG sector. Methods/Statistical Analysis: In this paper, authors have used Min Max Method. The data for 100 employees have been generated for identifying the performance of employees through linguistic theory model. The main factors which affect the performance of the employee can be mainly categorized in four sections: job performance, job capacities, job behavior and personal. For each performance criterion the linguistic values has been assigned. Then the relative importance of linguistic variables is calculated. Findings: The major step in the decision making process is to establish a fuzzy association relation between a precise category and every employee’s performance for that group. Considering the significance allocated to each criterion set the highest value for that grouping, the association relation is established by taking the complement of the category set importance. This complement produces a smallest performance value assigned to all employees as per the category. At the end, combined the performances of the employee across all groups in order to achieve a complete assessment by applying the min function to the set. Author got the results that 80 employees needed training in job performance as they have overall rating 0.2; whereas 16 employees needed training in job capacities as they have overall rating 0.40 and 4 employees can be promoted as they have overall rating 0.41 which is highest. Applications/Improvements: The proposed approach of fuzzy evaluation methodology can be used for other sectors like evaluation of students, evaluation of product or quality assessment of software, teacher or supplier evaluation with small modifications.
128 Design and Implementation of OSMD based Learning Management System for Mobile Learning   , Dae Hyun Lee, Jin Gon Shon and Yong Kim  
As the use of mobile devices expands, a Learning Management System for mobile learning has become necessary. However, as various mobile devices are available and due to the fact that the existing Learning Management Systems have to be utilized, it is not an easy task to design and develop a Mobile Learning Management system for Mobile Learning that can used in a wide range of devices. In this study, an OSMD-based LMS, utilizing an existing web-based LMS, has been designed and developed that can provide educational services to users with various devices. Through this, user accessibility and utilization of various devices have been improved and also LMS-development cost has been reduced. Through this study, it is expected that an implication is offered to the OSMD-based LMS development for mobile learning that can support various devices.
129 Perception of Happiness among Health-related University Students: Q Methodological Approach   , Yong-Suk Kim  
Background/Objectives: Happiness is one of the most important values in life. The purpose of this study is to examine perception types of health-related university students on happiness. Methods/Statistical Analysis: A distribution chart of the Q samples was prepared according to the principle of the Q methodology, that is, 34 statements selected by subjects using the Q samples were classified on a 9-point scale. A data analysis was conducted by using the PC-QUANL program. Results: Three types of perception of happiness were identified in the subjects: ‘Comfort’ (15 persons), ‘Self-Contentment’ (10 persons) and ‘Acknowledgement’ (13 persons). The type 1 of this research is the type that explains the most the attitudes of the health-related university students towards happiness and they feel happiness the most when their body and mind are comfortable. The type 2 is the self-contentment type. Although the subjects who belong to this group give importance to looks and their love with opposite works as an important element of happiness, they show an attitude that they don’t care much about getting acknowledged by others. The type 3 is an acknowledgement type and the subjects of this group feel the happiest when they receive recognition or gift from others and when they accomplish what others find difficult to do. Conclusion/Application: Perception on happiness of health-related university students varies depending on individual backgrounds and subjective dispositions, measures to improve happiness with various activities are needed
130 A Comparative Study on Cycling in Relation to the Physical Balance, Muscle Strength, Self-esteem and Depression of Elderly Women   , Hee-kyung Kim , Hyang-soo Kim, Mi-hyeon Park and Hyang-sook Kang  
The purpose of this study was to provide basic data for development of nursing intervention to maintain and enhance healthy life by comparing the effect of the use of bicycle on balance (i.e. dynamic, static balance), muscle strength of upper and lower limbs, self-esteem, and depression of elderly women. A descriptive comparative study verifying difference by grasping balance, muscle strength, self-esteem, and depression intended for elderly women on the use of bicycle. For this study, data were collected for 4 weeks from July 29, 2013 to August 23, 2013 from 69 elderly women in total living in M city of G province, specifically 34 elderly women who used bicycle 3 times a week for 1 year and 35 elderly women who did not use bicycle. The elderly women using a bicycle showed that 25.61 and 7.66 seconds for a point of static and dynamic balance respectively, 17.38 and 14.15 times for the number of times for muscle strength of upper and lower limbs, respectively, and 5.44 and 32.82 points for depression and self-esteem, respectively, meanwhile the elderly women not using a bicycle showed that 15.51 and 8.65 seconds for a point of static and dynamic balance, respectively, 14.09 and 10.66 times for the number of times for muscle strength of upper and lower limbs, respectively, and 5.44 and 32.82 points for depression and self-esteem, respectively. An average difference between the two groups showed a significant difference statistically in balance-dynamic balance (t=1.836, p=.022), upper limb strength (t=3.623, p=.001), lower limb strength (t=5.202, p<.001), and depression (t=-2.697, p=.009). As the use of bicycle leads to enhanced dynamic balance, reinforced muscle strength in upper and lower limbs, and lowered depression, elderly women are encouraged to use a bicycle for improved their physical and mental strength.
131 Application of Bar-Shalom and Fortmann’s Input Estimation for Underwater Target Tracking. , B. Omkar Lakshmi Jagan, S. Koteswara Rao, A. Jawahar and SK. B. Karishma.
Background/Objectives: The Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) using range and bearing measurements is analyzed for undersea target tracking. The Input estimation technique, developed by Bar-Shalom and Fortmann for radar applications is implemented for sonar applications. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Input estimation is used to estimate the target acceleration whenever the target makes a maneuver. Findings: The algorithm estimates target kinematics using zero mean chi-square distributed random sequence residual. Upon detection of target maneuver, this algorithm corrects the velocity and position components using acceleration components. Application/Improvements: Finally, the performance of this algorithm is evaluated in Monte-Carlo simulations and results conform the effectiveness of input estimation technique.
132 Predictors of Pain, Perceived Health Status, Nutritional Risk, Social Support and Self-Transcendence on Depression Among Lower Income Senior Citizens , Hyangsoo Kim , Heekyung Kim and Bokja Byun  
The purpose of this study was to identify the degree of effect that lower income senior citizens’ pain, perceived health status, nutritional risk, social support and self-transcendence have on depression, and to develop a nursing mediation method. This is a descriptive research that was conducted on 164 subjects who were users of the S welfare center and P welfare center, located in D City, Korea. A questionnaire was conducted from July 27 to July 31, 2013 to collect data. Data was analyzed using SPSS 18.0 program, to conclude the descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, Pearson’s correlation coefficients and stepwise multiple regression. The study results show that the mean score for the elderly’s pain was 7.37 and the total of perceived health status was 5.47 points, which is lower than the median. Nutritional risk was 9.85 points indicating a high risk of nutrition, while social support and self-transcendence were 33.67 points and 23.85 points, respectively, which are both below median. Depression recorded 9.53 points, indicating a high likelihood of depression. In the correlation with depression, perceived health status (r=-.463, p<.001) had a weak inverse correlation, nutritional risk(r=.439, p<.001) had a weak correlation, and social support (r=-.470, p<.001) and self-transcendence (r=-.328, p<.001) had a weak inverse correlation. In terms of effect on depression among low income senior citizens, social support (B=-.110, p<.001) had the biggest effect, followed by perceived health status (B=-485., p<.001), self-transcendence (B=-.095, p=.001), nutritional risk (B=.199, p=.003), and number of diseases (B=1.199, p=.037). Overall explanatory power was 44.4%. As a follow-up, a social support system to ease depression among lower income senior citizens, a mediation program to promote mental well-being or self-transcendence, and a social safety net to lower the health and nutritional risks would be needed.
133 Anisotropic Constitutive Model for Predictive Analysis of Composite Laminates   , Gyu-Sei Yi  
An anisotropic plastic constitutive model for fiber-reinforced composite material, is developed, which is simple and efficient to be implemented into computer program for a predictive analysis procedure of composite laminates. An anisotropic initial yield criterion, as well as work-hardening model and subsequent yield surface are established that includes the effects of different yield strengths in each material direction, and between tension and compression. The current model is implemented into a computer code, which is Predictive Analysis for Composite Structures (PACS). The accuracy and efficiency of the anisotropic plastic constitutive model and the computer program PACS are verified by solving a number of various fiber-reinforced composite laminates. The comparisons of the numerical results to the experimental and other numerical results available in the literature indicate the validity and efficiency of the developed model.
134 An Effective Approach for Minimizing Energy Consumption in WSN. , Rakesh Kumar , Gurinder Singh and Gurjot Singh Gaba.
Wireless Sensor Networks finds it difficult to transfer equal amount of data through all nodes, and in minimizing the level of energy consumption during transmission of data. This paper is an improvement to LEACH protocol; suggested to increase the overall lifespan of the network. Formation of clusters is based upon distance of nodes from base station, number of neighbor nodes and distance among neighbor nodes. The cluster heads are selected on the basis of nodes holding maximum energy. We have proposed the concept of selecting the master cluster head from the elected cluster heads based on the strength of energy that CH nodes have and the distance from the Base station. Further, using this concept, the fused data from master CH are forwarded to the sink node. Proposed work reduces the frequency and length of data exchanged between the CHs and the Base station. Simulation results revealed that the proposed method reduces the consumption of energy by 46.85 percent and increases the lifespan of the network efficiently. The parameters for comparison are First Node Dead and Half Node Alive.
135 Modulation of Oral Epithelial Cell Properties by Insulin   , Hwa-Kyung Son , Hye-Sook Choi and Jeong-Ran Park  
The cell culture environment regulates epithelial cell properties by changing a number of signaling pathways and ­intercellular interactions among different cell types. Culture medium contains many components that stimulate cell phenotypic changes. Many studies have reported modulating cells by altering the culture environment. Changes in culture conditions can induce the epithelial to mesenchymal transition and the mesenchymal to epithelial transition. Therefore, microenvironmental interactions between the culture medium and cells entail cytoskeletal remodeling. We studied the characteristics of oral epithelial cells according to insulin concentration, which is used as a cell culture supplement because it delays apoptosis and promotes proliferation. A high insulin concentration turned fibroblastic epithelial cells into a cobblestone-like morphology, shortened cell-to-cell distance, and contributed to increase cell growth. These results ­provide data on the effect of insulin in oral epithelial cells under in vitro culture conditions.
136 A Study on Performances of Passenger Vehicles with Suspension Systems   , Hwan Il Kang and Hwan Soo Kang  
When the passenger vehicle runs on an off-road, the vertical displacement occurs. This vertical displacement variation affects settling time and some oscillations for passengers on the vehicle. The passenger vehicle is simulated with a quarter car system. We measure the vertical peak displacement and settling time using the quarter simulation model using the road profile with semicircular bump stop. The active suspension system with specific feedback control has better performances for the settling time and the peak value of the transient response than the passive suspension system has.
137 A Study on Fire Power Performances of Combat Vehicles with Suspension Systems. , Hwan Il Kang, Jae Jeong Pyun and Hyun Soo Kim
When the combat vehicle runs on an off-road, the vertical displacement occurs. This vertical displacement variation affects fire power performance for a weapon system mounted on the combat vehicle. We focus on the hit probability which is one of the fire power performances. The combat vehicle is simulated with a quarter car system. We measure the vertical displacement using the quarter simulation model. The passive suspension system and the active suspension system with the use of the linear state feedback system are considered. The active suspension system with the feedback control has better performances for the hit probability than the passive suspension system has.
138 An Effective Approach for Minimizing Energy Consumption in WSN. , Rakesh Kumar , Gurinder Singh and Gurjot Singh Gaba.
Wireless Sensor Networks finds it difficult to transfer equal amount of data through all nodes, and in minimizing the level of energy consumption during transmission of data. This paper is an improvement to LEACH protocol; suggested to increase the overall lifespan of the network. Formation of clusters is based upon distance of nodes from base station, number of neighbor nodes and distance among neighbor nodes. The cluster heads are selected on the basis of nodes holding maximum energy. We have proposed the concept of selecting the master cluster head from the elected cluster heads based on the strength of energy that CH nodes have and the distance from the Base station. Further, using this concept, the fused data from master CH are forwarded to the sink node. Proposed work reduces the frequency and length of data exchanged between the CHs and the Base station. Simulation results revealed that the proposed method reduces the consumption of energy by 46.85 percent and increases the lifespan of the network efficiently. The parameters for comparison are First Node Dead and Half Node Alive.
139 Design and Simulation of Hierarchical Control of Two Continuous Stirred Tank Heater in Series. , Normah Abdullah, Ramin Razmi , Tan Chung Chuan , Zulkifli Mohd Nopiah, Azah Mohamed and Mohd Zaki Nuawi.
Background/Objectives: The present investigation was carried out to study the application of process control hierarchy to design an optimal control system for a two continuous stirred tank heaters in series (2-CSTHs). Methods/Statistical Analysis: The optimal control strategy of the 2-CSTHs is designed in a hierarchy of three level structures which employs optimization in the real-time optimization (RTO) control level, feedback control scheme in the regulating control level and sensors, pumps and control valves in the measurement and actuation level. All these levels should be coordinated and require information transfer. The proposed optimal control system of the 2-CSTHs was simulated using MATLAB/ SIMULINK and HYSYS. Findings: The simulation results show that the PID feedback closed-loop of the 2-CSTHs for level and temperature controllers are able to achieve satisfactory performance for servo and regulating control. Simulation on the RTO algorithm also yields results which indicate that the non-derivative technique is an efficient algorithm in minimizing the square of tracking error of temperature in both tanks of the 2-CSTHs. Application/Improvements: The non-derivative algorithm has the advantage over other algorithms in the family of ISOPE algorithm for not requiring process derivatives which make it attractive for industrial applications.
140 A Study on Fire Power Performances of Combat Vehicles with Suspension Systems. , Hwan Il Kang, Jae Jeong Pyun and Hyun Soo Kim
When the combat vehicle runs on an off-road, the vertical displacement occurs. This vertical displacement variation affects fire power performance for a weapon system mounted on the combat vehicle. We focus on the hit probability which is one of the fire power performances. The combat vehicle is simulated with a quarter car system. We measure the vertical displacement using the quarter simulation model. The passive suspension system and the active suspension system with the use of the linear state feedback system are considered. The active suspension system with the feedback control has better performances for the hit probability than the passive suspension system has.
141 Control of Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor using Neural Networks.  , Normah Abdullah, Tan Ching Yee , Azah Mohamed , Mohd. Marzuki Mustafa , Mohd. Haniff Osman and Abu Bakar Mohamad.
Background/Objectives: This paper presents the design of neuro controller NARMA-L2 for composition control in an isothermal Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) by manipulating the input feed composition. Methods/Statistical Analysis: The NARMA-L2 controller design is implemented in two stages in which the first stage is system identification to model the process and the second stage is designing the process controller. For controlling the product composition in the CSTR, the neuro controller NARMA-L2 is implemented in MATLAB Simulink environment. Findings: The simulation results show the superiority of the NARMA-L2 in accurately tracking the composition set-point changes in the CSTR and control the system better as compared to that of the conventional PID. The neuro controller NARMA-L2 can handle nonlinear aspects of the CSTR by transforming its non-linear dynamic into an implicit algebraic model which can control the trajectory of the CSTR efficiently. Application/Improvements: The advantage of using the neuro controller NARMA-L2 is that it requires the minimal online computation compared to other neural network architecture for control such as model reference control and model predictive control
142 A Study on Algebraic Solutions of Trajectory Equations. , Hwan IlKang, Jae Jeong Pyun and Hyun Soo Kim 
The exact trajectory of the direct fire gun results from the standard differential equations given in (1, 2, 3, 4). Under the condition that the elevation firing angle has a very small angle, the standard differential equations may be changed into the solvable differential equations. We compare two trajectories from the exact and the solvable differential equations. For a range distance of 570m, the error between the exact and approximate trajectory is 0.0055m if there is neither crosswind nor range wind. Under the condition of existence of the range and cross-range, their error is 0.2016m for a range distance of 570m. It turns out that the derived new trajectory has a very small discrepancy compared to the exact trajectory derived from the standard differential equations.
143 Physicochemical Properties, Heavy Metal Content and Microbial Limit Test of Bedak sejuk. , Mohd Alif Afife Dzulfakar, Noorhisham Tan Kofli  and Siti Masrinda Tasirin.
Backgraound/Objectives: At present, no study has been conducted to evaluate the safety of bedak sejuk as a cosmetic product. Hence in this study, the safety evaluation of bedak sejuk which is used daily by Malaysians was investigated. Methods: Five assessment tests were studied on physicochemical properties of bedak sejuk which includes determination of pH, moisture and volatile matter, matter insoluble in water, test for solubility of colours and fineness. Heavy metal content (lead) and microbial population limit tests were also executed. Findings: Results showed that bedak sejuk complies with the cosmetic powder standard, in which the pH of bedak sejuk was at 6.0±0.3, the moisture and volatile matter was at 1.1±0.6%, matter insoluble in boiling water was 68±0.7 mg/mass, the results of colour solubility was rated colourless and presented in a normal particle distribution. For the heavy metal content, less than 3.5±0.5 parts per million of lead in the sample was observed while for the microbial population limit test, was valued at 340 CFU/mL. Application:From these results, bedak sejuk has the potential to be be marketed as loose powder in canisters or molded or compressed into cakes and inserted into mirrored compact cases, typically with an applicator, usually a pad, a puff or other implement.
144 A Survey on Collaborative Categorization using Fuzzy Logic for Improved User Suggestions. , M. Anjani and V. Vijaya Kaveri.
Background/Objectives: This paper presents a review on the usage of social tags that can be employed for recommending in social networks. It also focusses on pros and some algorithms as solutions to the problems. Recommender systems are the one used for providing information regarding the categories that belongs to the items which makes use of fuzzy clustering, in which the membership degree of the object is not available in the calculated categories. If calculated categories are available it will provide good quality recommendations to the user. Methods/Analysis: The method suggested in this work is to utilize fuzzy logic to classify the similar users from the clustered users based on their profiles and taste of viewing similar items. Fuzzy logic here plays a vital role in providing recommendation to the similar users once the classification is done. Findings: Hence, by surveying some papers on recommendation in social networking, we propose a solution by creating a dynamic system which would provision recommendations to the user to make the domain selection more effectively. The domains refers to books, movies, songs, which are purely dynamic. This methodology helps to display the most viewed item as the top most item and displays the item ratings in the webpage. The main approach used here is fuzzy logic with the detailed representation of features of objects and modeling user profiles. Applications/Improvements: This type of dynamic domain system will provide better results when compared to the conventional recommendation systems as it allows users to give comments on various products on different domains. This type of recommendation can be consumed by many social networking sites for gaining page rating and it can be further improved in future by combining the online dictionary to classify the terms used in user rating.
145 Relationship Between Factors of Disability Change and Life Satisfaction in the Physically Disabled.   , Yun-Jeong Kim and Hyun-Jung Kang 
This study identified factors that affect changes in disability status and life satisfaction, using data from the first and fifth Panel Survey of Employment for the Disabled and 2,045 survey respondents as study subjects. First, in terms of change in disability status, fixed-fixed group accounted for 52.3%, worsen-worsen group for 19.4%, worsen-fixed group for 19.2%, and fixed-worsen group for 9.1%. The subjects whose disability status remained the same had the highest share, but 28.5% of the respondents viewed their status to have worsened compared to 2008, and 9.1% responded to have even further worsening in recent years. Female disabled subjects reported a change in disability status more often than men. Lower age and higher education level corresponded to a higher percentage in the fixed-fixed group. The percentage of subjects in medium or higher level had the following factors: living in Seoul metropolitan area or in six major cities, no religion, a job, and self-reported socio-economic status. Subjects with a disability that is innate or from an accident had a higher share of the fixed-fixed group. The fixed-fixed group and worsen-fixed group had a higher life satisfaction corresponding to a higher disability grade. The most powerful variable affecting life satisfaction was a change in disability status in the fixed-fixed group.
146 A Study on a Vertical Gun Jump Parameter for Hit Probability. , Hwan Il Kang , Kang Park , Sang Yeong Choi and Hyun Soo Kim 
For the gun, the hit probability is a function of many error budgets. A selected design parameter among error budgets is assumed to be a vertical gun jump. The hit probability depends on the vertical gun jump for a given range. To satisfy a given hit probability for the given range, the vertical gun jump should be confined into the interval. At first, to obtain a vertical variance at the target, the unit partial is determined using the trajectory. The unit partial means the difference between two vertical displacements at a given range under two fire angles whose difference is the unit quantity. Using the unit partial and the variance of the vertical gun jump, we may determine the hit probability using the Polya-Williams’ formula. Finally, we may obtain the allowable interval for a given jump within which the given hit probability is satisfied.
147 CFD Simulation of Gas-Liquid in an Agitated Vessel. , Nur Tantiyani Ali Othman and Mohd Pazlin Ngaliman.
Background/Objectives: In chemical industries, understanding of fluid mixing is significant. The objective is to determine optimum conditions of gas-liquid mixing by changing impeller blade’s gradient, number of impeller and rotation rate. Methods/Statistical analysis: In this work, by using a computational fluid dynamic (CFD); Ansys© Fluent software, we simulated numerically a gas-liquid mixing in an agitated vessel equipped with a pitched-blade impeller. In this study, the range of the impeller blade’s gradient is between 0° to 90° with three number of impellers; impeller (a), (b) and (c) and the impeller rotation speed rate which is between 90 to 120 rpm are used. Findings: The reconstruction images of the nitrogen gas in the distilled water mixing in the agitated vessel are obtained from the Ansys© simulation. Based on the simulation results, the gradient of blades impeller at 60°, three numbers of impeller (c) and 90 rpm rotation rate are chosen as the optimum condition for well mixing condition for gas nitrogen in the agitated vessel. These three parameters indicated the most appropriate condition for distribution of the nitrogen gas in the agitated vessel. Application/Improvements: This modelling have various applications in optimization and design of a wide range of gas-liquid processes industry where the mixing process will affects about 25% of all process industry operations.
148 A Study on the Nursing Student with Academic Self-efficacy, Motivation and Career Aspiration , Min-Suk Kim and Soon-Young Yun 
This study is a correlation research that aims to examine the academic self-efficacy, achievement motivation and career aspirations of the students and to identify the affecting factors on their career aspirations. This study was analyzed with t-test, ANOVA, Pearson’s correlation coefficient, multiple regression using SPSS/WIN 18.0 program. The findings of study showed that positive significant correlations between personality, satisfaction in major, academic self-efficacy and achievement motivation. The multiple regressions revealed that personality (β = .163, p < .01), achievement motivation(β = .348, p < .001), academic self-efficacy(β = .280, p < .001), major satisfaction(β = .114, p < .05) were jointly predictive of career aspirations. The explanation power was 38.8%. A program that can enhance academic self-efficacy and achievement motivation should be developed based on the research findings to allow students to dream of happy future in their school years by letting them choose and decide their career according to their aptitude.
149 An Efficient Integral Power-Elector Method with Enhanced AODV to Avoid Sleep Deprivation in Manet. , S. Madhurikkha and R. Sabitha
Objectives: To Enhance Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector routing (AODV) mechanism with Integral power-elector algorithm and power neural technique to manage node from sleep deprivation attack in Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET). Methods: Sleep deprivation Attack in MANETs make frequent request to the nodes and deplete the battery level. Colony formation technique implemented using power – elector algorithm with power consumption value of mobile nodes as a key value. A group of wireless devices such as Colonies with Processing head and transmission head avoid the sleep deprivation attack by forwarding the packets to the intended destination. Results are simulated through ns-2 tool. Findings: An efficient power- elector method with power consumption value as a key is introduced. The enhanced AODV protocol with extra two fields added helps to know about the Size of packets to be transmitted and also identifies the number of packets to be transmitted to destination. The algorithm imports colony formation technique and adds up with colony chaining method with optimal value checks for each colony nodes for successful transmission of packets by avoiding the sleep deprivation Attack. The Power value of nodes compared and the proposed methodology shows an improvement. Results are simulated through ns 2.34. Improvement: The proposed method has shown improvement on the power values of node. The existing protocol without proposed method decreases the power value while the proposed method improves it and results are shown.
150 The Relationship between Servant Leadership and the Diversity of Performance Measures. , Tae-Jong Leem 
This study investigates the relationship between servant leadership, which has recently received much attention in the field of human resource management, and the diversity of performance measures, which has been consistently emphasised in the field of management accounting. For an empirical analysis, a sample of 88 respondents from the Korean Federation of Community Credit Cooperatives was considered. According to the results, non-financial and financial measures were used more frequently under a high level of servant leadership, suggesting that the use of servant leadership can facilitate the design and use of performance measurement systems, which in turn should improve organisational performance.
151 Performance Analysis of Edge Detection Algorithms on Various Image Types. , Tamilselvi Nagasankar and B. Ankaryarkanni. 
Objective: Various edge detection algorithms are analyzed to find the best and worst performance of edge detection algorithm on various image types. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Only .tif image files are considered for the analysis. Some of the sample images in MATLAB tools and some from web are considered as source for the performance analysis. The performance of the edged image is measured using the entropy and signal noise ratio. High entropy and SNR values specified the high quality of the edged image and the low values indicated the low quality of the image. Findings: Making a deep analysis on various edge detection algorithms is really worth enough in Image processing. Here, five commonly used edge detection algorithms such as Prewitt, Sobel, Robert, Log and Canny are consider for analysis. Matrix form of grayscaled, graysliced, indexed, binary and dither binary image information are taken for the analysis. The analysis is done to find the best and worst performance of edge detection algorithm on various image types. For an image, five different edge detection algorithms applied on five different image information. Totally twenty five edged images are generated as output of an image. From the analysis, it is identified that Canny edge detection algorithm is performing better among the five algorithms. Out of the five image information, Canny algorithm on Dither binary image information yields the high entropy and SNR values. But, the Robert algorithm with indexed image information generates the very low entropy with low SNR values. Applications/Improvements: Edge detection is an important and basic operation to be completed for any image processing activities, image analysis, pattern recognition on various images such as satellite images, medical images etc.,
152 Design of Short-term Forecasting Model of Distributed Generation Power for Solar Power Generation.  , Yoon-Su Jeong , Seung-Hee Lee, Kun-Hee Han , Duchwan Ryu , Yoonsung Jung 
Background/Objectives: For efficient PhotoVoltaic (PV) power generation, computing and information technologies are increasingly used in irradiance forecasting and correction. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Today the majority of PV modules are used for grid-connected power generation, so solar generation forecasting that predicts available PV output ahead is essential for integrating PV resources into electricity grids. This paper proposes a short-term solar power forecasting system that employs Neural Network (NN) models to forecast irradiance and PV power. Results: The proposed system uses the weather observations of a ground weather station, the medium-term weather forecasts of a physical model, and the short-term weather forecasts of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model as input. To increase prediction accuracy, the proposed system performs forecast corrections and determines the correction coefficients based on the characteristics and temperature of PV modules. The proposed system also analyzes the inclination angle of PV modules to predict PV power outputs. Conclusion/Application: In the future, the proposed forecasting system for solar power generation resources will be further refined and run in real environments.
153 Enhancement of Effective Spatial Data Analysis using R.  , S. Palaniappan, T. V. Rajinikanth and A. Govardhan.
Background: The availability of Spatial Data which is a part of GIS is growing day by day in an exponential manner. This high availability of data is throwing challenges to the research community to analyze and draw effective conclusions. The Present Study aims at requirement for effective analysis and to draw Conclusions. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Spatial Analysis requires logical relationships between attribute data and map features.Spatial data Analysis is not a simple single task it requires complex procedures in which combinational techniques namely Hybrid techniques are required for effective analysis. Mathematics and statistics are the fundamentals to spatial data analytics. In this paper, a realistic Spatialcrime data set was considered for analysis. It involves different types of data mining Techniques like Clustering, Classification and Association rule mining techniques apart from Hybrid techniques. These hybrid Data mining Techniques were applied using R. Findings: The Hybrid Data Mining techniques with K-means Clustering and J48 Decision Tree Algorithm was developed and Applied for the enhancement of accuracy. Association Rule generation Apriori algorithm was applied on the resultant K-means clustered data set. The application of 3D visualization techniques also made for further analysis. Applications/Improvements: It is essentially required to analyze these complex spatial data sets effectively. So there is a need of hybrid Spatial Data Mining Techniquesrequirement for effective analysis and to draw Conclusions.
154 . A Study on Job Analysis in Nursing Assistants , Moon-Sook, Shim , Nam-Young, Yang , Ju-Young, Park , Jeong-In, Lee , Sung-Hee, Baik and Mi-Lim, Im 
The purpose of this study is to determine whether the current state examination subjects for nursing assistants are feasible, make a plan to improve the examination subjects for evaluation of practical nursing-assisting ability that meets the changing healthcare environment, and make the examination more feasible. In this study, the job analysis in nursing assistants generated a job-based plan for improvement of the state examination subjects and suggested a total of 100 divisions in 22 categories: 24 divisions in seven categories for the subject of the introduction to fundamental nursing, eight divisions in four categories for the introduction to public health nursing, 10 divisions in three categories for the introduction to public health, and 58 divisions in eight categories for practice.
155 Does Health Promotion Climate Positively Impact Performance?.  , Yunsuk Cha 
Despite the greater importance companies place on employee health, only a few studies have explored the impact of health promotion in the workplace on individual and team performance. Drawing on the broaden-and-build, it was hypothesised that organisations’ health promotion climate influences individuals’ performance. Data were collected from 495 employees on 81 teams in 11 Korean companies. In this study, I conducted HLM to understand the direct relationship between health promotion climate and perceived performance of employees into the organisation. On the other hands, to control some variables which can directly and/or indirectly impact on perceived performance, I controlled leadership, self-efficacy, work-family facilitation and family-work facilitation. This study supports the idea that there is a positive relationship between health promotion climate and perceived performance of employees. The question of great workplace and performance impacts individual performance has been a topic of discussion for a long time. Here, I empirically showed the positive relationship between great workplace and individual performance. In the past, few companies supported health promotion programs of their employees in terms of increasing employee health and performance as well. However, many companies do not support this kind of approaches to increase individual performance, because it looks another cost. Taking into account the new finding of this study, positive relationship between health promotion climate and individual performance, it will be more valuable management perspectives in terms of individual performance.
156 Optimal Design of Fused Chopper based Standalone Hybrid Wind Solar System. , P. Vinoth Kumar, A. Suresh and M. R. Rashmi.
Objective: The target of this paper is to implement an economical chopper and electrical converter for the hybrid windsolar system. Method: a replacement topology of a mix of CUK and SEPIC convertor is used rather than a private DC/DC convertor. The motor load is provided by victimization the two diodes that connects each wind and solar energy singly or along depending on accessibility. With the improved management in DC/DC convertor and within the electrical converter that associated with the auxiliary circuit in accumulation by the closed-loop system PI controller a more robust control is achieved. Findings: The fused chopper replaced the separate solar and wind choppers and rather than typical electrical converter the novel pulse width modulated electrical converter used supplied with a correct pulse width modulation (PWM) control using 3 equal reference signals. The closed-loop system management is achieved with the digital PI controller and MPPT draws the maximum power from the solar that improves the response with the fast raise in load. The system is validated with MATLAB/Simulink and therefore the output voltage of fused chopper for various solar irradiance and wind speed are tabulated. The output voltage of electrical converter and therefore the motor characteristics are analyzed. Applications/Improvements: For standalone applications within the agriculture water pumping the requirement will satisfy with the hybrid wind solar system.
157 Subjectivity about RN-BSN (Registered Nurse-Bachelor Science of Nursing) Student’s Resilience , Jin-Hui Cho and Yun-Jeong Kim 
Background/Objectives: This research studied students in RN-BSN to look at their subjectivity on resilience types through the subjectivity methodology (Q-methodology) and explain the characteristics of resilience. Methods/Statistical analysis: For the Q population, 12 nursing students at a university located in D city were selected, and an in-depth interview and literature review were used to select 34 Q samples for Q-sort. P-sample was made with 43 RN-BSN and Q-sort was performed on a 9-point scale according to their subjective agreement. The analysis by PC-QUNAL program resulted in four types. Results: The result of this study showed 57.33% of total variance, with 25 people(58.14%) of Type 1, positive selfsatisfaction, 10 (23.26% of Type 2, situation-overcoming problem-solving, and 9(20.93%) of Type 3, self-determination. Conclusion/Application: As the result of this study suggests, based on classification of resilience of nursing students, intervention program for nursing students will need to be developed and different, individualised intervention strategies provided.
158 Quantifying Performance Appraisal Parameters: A Forward Feature Selection Approach. , Prafulla Bafna, Samaya Pillai and Dhanya Pramod.
Objectives: The objective of the paper is study and select optimal set of parameters present in performance appraisal (PA). It will result into the best PA. For achieving this, the technique used is “feature selection” and “clustering” and it is supported with the data analytical tool “R”. Methods/Statistical Analysis: The paper covers the data mining analysis. For achieving this, the technique used is “feature selection” and “clustering” and it is supported with the data analytical tool “R”. Findings: This paper focuses on performance appraisal, the multiple parameters available; to be exact it is 34 parameters. To select set of parameters, 13 from the set of 34, which when focused by the employees can have optimum PA. For achieving this, the technique used is “feature selection” and “clustering” and it is supported with the data analytical tool “R”. Applications/Improvements: Usable for every firm where employees have PA. In Organizations today, Human resource and performance appraisal has become very crucial. This is significant from the perception of both the management and the employees. The mechanism of measuring the performance appraisal has also evolved over a period. Recently there are multiple factors and parameters which are taken for measuring the performance appraisal of an individual employee. This complete process is very challenging for both, the employer and the employee. The employer i.e. the organization comes up with different mechanisms and keeps abreast with changing scenarios in order to be competitive in the industry. It is the employees who face the major difficulties in understanding and deciding what to address in their
159 Aging Mentors in the Changing Organizational Odyssey: An Analysis.  , Jaya Chitransh and Shailja Agarwal.
Background/Objectives: As a person advances in age his/her thinking also matures and as a result he/she makes a mature mentor. The present piece of empirical research is an endeavor into exploring the older mentors’ perception about mentorship. Methods/Statistical Analysis: The sample comprised of 260 managers, in the age range of 30 to 50 years, working in public as well as private sector organizations. ‘A Checklist of Mentorship Perceptions’ was used with them. The responses for the questionnaire were obtained from managers who were also assigned the role of mentors in the organizational formal mentorship programs. The sampling was convenience based. The data were analyzed with the help of descriptive statistics, cross-tabulations and chi-squares. Findings: The older the mentors become, the greater is found their belief that sharing of success and failure-stories and providing the mentees with the ethical guidelines is essential for successful mentoring to take place. The older mentors perceive personal experience-sharing and counseling important for mentoring. They believe that ‘mentee competence’ is the issue which is handled by mentors. The perceived frequency of mentorship meetings, is observed to be ‘once a month’. They believe that attitude, interpersonal skill and emotional maturity of mentees are the skills to be developed by them. The existing body of mentoring research provides a great deal of knowledge about the importance of mentoring, relevant structural factors surrounding mentoring relationships and characteristics of mentors and protegees (Fagenson, 1992; Ragins and Scandura, 1994; Scandura and Ragins, 1993). It has mostly dealt with the mentees’ perspective. There is difference in frequency of interaction, organizational level of mentors and proteges and formality of the relationship (Finkelstein, Allen and Rhoton, 2003) which is studied in detail. The present study focuses on the ‘mentor’s perspective’ and the issue of ‘age of mentor’ in mentoring relationships. Applications/ Improvements: By managing an aging workforce organizations can utilize the vast experience, unfathomed potential and mature decision-making lying untapped with this workforce. This will add a Midas touch to the organization and its business.
160 Maternal Health Status and Behaviours of Immigrant Women.  , Jae-Ran, Lim , Mi-Sook, Jung and Hyun-Li, Kim 
Background/Objectives: The purposes of this study were to explore the type and frequency of material health status and behaviors in immigrant women and to examine factors affecting maternal health outcomes. Methods/Statistical analysis: This cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 106 female marriage immigrants. A well-developed questionnaire was used to measure health-related needs and behaviors and socio-demographic data. The data collection was conducted by face-to-face interview and translators were used when needed. Results: The main findings showed that 33% of participants used birth control methods, 54% performed exclusive breastfeeding for six months, 78% received prenatal care, 67% received postpartum care, 19% had at least one health problem associated with pregnancy, and 21% experienced natural or induced abortion. These indicate that the immigrant participants tend to have somewhat different health problems and behaviors as compared with the general Korean female population. Furthermore, determining factors associated with maternal health outcomes were age, original nationality, employment status, communication experiences with husband and parents-in-law, knowledge about public health center services, and needs for childrearing services in public health centers. Conclusion/Application: Developing culture-specific strategies to improve maternal health outcomes and to communicate effectively with their families is necessary to increase the accessibility of public health services in female marriage immigrants.
161 Applying Numerical Indicators of Absorbance Spectrum to Evaluating Color of Flower Petals , Vladimir Koldaev , Artem Manyakhin, Olga Zorikova Svetlana Railko  and Alexander Kolyada.
Background/Objectives: The study deals with spectral photometry of extracts from flower petals. The objective is to apply numerical indicators at turning points of absorbance spectrum contours to identify the colors. Methods: Absorbance spectra of ethanol extracts from red, white and yellow flowers of 15 breeds of plants belonging to 8 genera have been registered by digital spectrophotometer in ultraviolet and in visible light range. The obtained spectra were processed by the proprietary computer program. Student’s t-test was applied for statistical data processing. Findings: Wavelength, absorbency, the values of the first-order derivatives at maximum points, at turning points, at the steps of the absorption band contour and the absorption intensity values have been identified for each registered spectrum. Absorbance spectra of the analyzed extracts from petals of the flowers belonging to the same genus and to different genera with various coloring have been found plausibly and considerably different in terms of their numerical indicators. The most significant differences have been identified in such parameters as wavelength, absorbency at turning points and the values of the first-order derivatives at the step points of the absorbance spectra in the extracts from red flower petals, and in maximum wavelengths and absorption intensity in cases with white and yellow flower petals. The sets of the numerical indicators, grouped at the turning points of the absorbance spectrum contours, are individually specific for the flower petals of each plant genus. Applications/Improvements: The absorbance spectrum numerical indicators of petal extracts can serve as a generalized distinguishing taxonomic attribute to be employed in floriculture for certification of the newly created flowering plants
162 Effects of Social Support for Chronic Mental Inpatients on Self-Care Capacity. , Kyoung-Sun Jeon and Hyeon-Cheol Jeong 
Backgrounds: This research was undertaken to determine the effect of social support for chronic mental patients on their self-care capacity and to provide basic data for the development of health promotion programs for them. Methods/ Statistical Analysis: The subjects of this research were 302 chronic mental patients who were hospitalised in a national hospital in Seoul and they signed on the informed agreement document. The tools used were Multi-dimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support Scale(MSPSS) of Gregory and others, revised by Yang8 and Mental Health Self-Care Capacity Tool (MH-SCA) of West and Isenberg9 revised by Her10. Real number, percentage, t-test, ANOVA, Pearson’s Correlation, and hierarchical multiple regression analysis was analysed using SPSS program. Results: A significant correlation was found among self-care capacity and social support (family members (r =.345, p<.001), friends (r =.382, p<.001), and medical staff (r =.426, p<.001)) for chronic mental patients. Previous researches showed that supports from family, friends, and medical staff had positive influence on self-care capacity and also this study shows similar results (Adj R2 =.229, F = 30.842, p<.001). It was found that the higher social support for chronic mental patients increased, the higher self-care capacity increased. Since chronic mental patients are separated from their families during hospitalisation, enhancing support of medical staff and friends as well as family members can be one of the methods to increase self-care capacity. Conclusion: To enhance the self-care capacity of chronic mental patients, various social supporting systems should be established to help them live an independent life along with the support from family members and medical staff.
163 Landslide Prediction with Rainfall Analysis using Support Vector Machine. , Neenu Rachel and M. Lakshmi.
Objective: The paper aims in presenting a prediction model by using Support Vector Machine (SVM) technique which is meant to possess a strong capability to predict landslides by forecasting rainfall dataset using BigData concept. Methods: The dataset has been taken for the Cherapunjee region which receives the highest intensity of rainfall in India. The aim is to predict the landslide occurrence and classify the risk level associated with the landslide. To improve the reliability in landslide prediction, the proposed model uses pre-processing for removing null values in the dataset. After getting the pre-processed dataset, it will apply normalization, then SVM training and finally the Testing process. Thus the Support Vector Machine concept proved to exhibit a large degree of flexibility in handling tasks of varied complexities because of the non-linear boundary functions. Findings: The study concludes that SVM proved to be an efficient technique to forecast the landslides by predicting the rainfall in advance. The comparative results of SVM in regard with Artificial Neural Networks were proven. The study has been done specifically for Cherrapunjee region and can be implemented for any landslide prone area. Novelty/Improvement: Researchers worldwide are having a great pace to develop early prediction mechanisms for natural hazards. The study uses Radial Basis Function as an initial parameter for predicting the risk level classification of landslide. The novelty is in providing an initial selection of the kernel parameter in order to save the time on finding the best parameters.
164 Experience of Relationship between Mother-in-law and Daughter-in-law among Korea Rural Married Immigrant Women: with a Focus on Daughter-inlaws from China, Vietnam and the Philippines Who Live with their Mother-in-laws in Korea , Min-Jung Kim and Yun-Jeong Kim 
Objectives: This study aimed to understand the ML-DL relationship as experienced by foreign DLs, and to identify the essence of such experiences. Methods: Immigrant women from China, Vietnam or the Philippines who married Korean men and have lived in rural areas with their ML for three years or more were recommended as study subjects by the Center for Support for Multi-Cultural Families. A phenomenological study method was employed. Results: Herein, meaningful phrases were extracted from the statements made regarding the experience of the foreign DLs in their relationships with their Korean MLs. By forming a meaning cluster and a theme cluster, 847 meaningful sentences, 82 general sentences, 22 sub-themes and 6 main themes were drawn. From the clustering, 6 fundamental themes were indicated for analysis, including: ‘a stranger who has a hard time adjusting herself to a new lifestyle’, ‘a mother-in-law that does not treat the daughter-in-law as she would her own daughter’, ‘mother-in-law that hangs onto her son’s every word’, ‘daughter-in-law with a lot of pent-up anger’, ‘someone who understands me’ and ‘living together in harmony as a family.’
165 Experience of Relationship between Mother-in-law and Daughter-in-law among Korea Rural Married Immigrant Women: with a Focus on Daughter-inlaws from China, Vietnam and the Philippines Who Live with their Mother-in-laws in Korea , Min-Jung Kim and Yun-Jeong Kim 
Objectives: This study aimed to understand the ML-DL relationship as experienced by foreign DLs, and to identify the essence of such experiences. Methods: Immigrant women from China, Vietnam or the Philippines who married Korean men and have lived in rural areas with their ML for three years or more were recommended as study subjects by the Center for Support for Multi-Cultural Families. A phenomenological study method was employed. Results: Herein, meaningful phrases were extracted from the statements made regarding the experience of the foreign DLs in their relationships with their Korean MLs. By forming a meaning cluster and a theme cluster, 847 meaningful sentences, 82 general sentences, 22 sub-themes and 6 main themes were drawn. From the clustering, 6 fundamental themes were indicated for analysis, including: ‘a stranger who has a hard time adjusting herself to a new lifestyle’, ‘a mother-in-law that does not treat the daughter-in-law as she would her own daughter’, ‘mother-in-law that hangs onto her son’s every word’, ‘daughter-in-law with a lot of pent-up anger’, ‘someone who understands me’ and ‘living together in harmony as a family.’
166 Optimization of Bio Oil from Palm Oil Fronds Via Fast Pyrolysis. , Natakorn Sareekam , Siti Kartom Kamarudin , and Nor Hazelah Kasmuri.
Background/Objectives: The composition of palm oil fronds that has a potential to produce bio oil is examined and the bio oil yields produced from pyrolysis process is optimized in Response Surface Method (RSM). The chemical components found in bio oil are identified. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Lignocellulosic biomass like palm oil fronds contains 28.36% cellulose, 19.89% hemicellulose and 22.83% lignin. The high percentage of cellulose in this biomass will give higher fraction of bio oil produced. Parameters that have been investigated in this research for the optimization are reaction temperature, reaction time and flow rate of nitrogen gas. Pyrolysis process was done in the fixed bed reactor with Central Composite Design (CCD) in RSM was used for optimization of process parameters. Findings: The optimal conditions was found at reaction temperature of 500°C, reaction time of 60 min and flow rate of nitrogen gas for 2 l/min which produced highest amount of bio oil for 19.68% g of bio oil/g of biomass feed. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis was done and shows the presence of functional group of phenol, alcohol, carboxylic acid, ketones, quinones, aldehydes, alkenes, alkanes and aromatic groups in the bio oil. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis shows that 26 chemical components present in the bio oil. Application/Improvements: Demands for fossil fuel as a source of energy is increasing every year since industry’s revolution era. With this scenario, many countries in the world started to find any possible alternative source of energy to ensure the sufficient of energy supply. Bio oil is the best alternatives to replace the source of energy supply in transportation sector.
167 Health Behaviour, Family Function and Depression of Middle-aged Men.  , Jeong In Lee and Mi Lim Im 
Background/Objectives: Middle aged men are confronted with unstable state, physically and psychologically. This study was confirmed the correlation among health behaviour, family function, and depression on them, which has been underestimated. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Convenience sampling was performed for selection of 190 middle-aged men residing in a large city. The sample size was estimated to be ≥110 using the G Power 3.1 program with the significance level of .05, the effect size of .3, and testability of .95. Of 220 questionnaires completed, 190 were used in analysis, with the exception of those with poor responses. Results: Statistically significant positive correlation was found between the subjects’ health behaviour and family functions (r = .510, p<.001) and statistically significant negative correlation was found between their health behaviour and depression (r = -.473, p<.001) and between their family functions and depression (r = -.529, p<.001). Stepwise regression analysis was performed to determine the factors affecting depression of the subjects and the results are summarized in Table 3. Regarding goodness-of-fit of the regression model, F-value was 47.256, which was statistically significant (p<.001). R2 value was .329; that is, explanation power for the level of anxiety regarding death was 32.9%. The variables having a statistically significant impact on depression of the subjects were health behaviour (β = -.275, p<0.5) and family functions (β = -.388, p<0.5). Conclusion/Application: Putting the results together, depression of middle-aged men must not be underestimated any longer and systematic intervention should be made in their sociopsychological problems as an effort to lower the level of their depression; for example, by maintaining and promoting positive health behaviour and by developing a mental health program for the whole family
168 Effect of Reactant Flow Rate and Operation modes on Direct Formic Acid Fuel Cell (DFAFC) Performance , M. Q. Ong , Z. Rejal , M. S. Masdar, S. K. Kamarudin.
Background/Objectives: The main focus of this research is to study the effects of reactant flow, i.e. formic acid and oxidant, and operation mode, i.e. passive, semi-passive or active conditions, on the Direct Formic Acid Fuel Cell (DFAFC) performances. Methods/Statistical analysis: A single cell DFAFC with 5 cm2 electrode is used in this study. The DFAFC is operated with 10 M of formic acid concentration under four modes of reactant supply: air breathing, air flowing(80 to 600 mL min-1), oxygen flowing (10 to 100 mL min-1) at the cathode, and formic acid flowing (2 to 15 mL min-1) at the anode to investigate their effects on cell performance. Findings:It is obtained that the DFAFC performances are affected by oxidant types, i.e., air and oxygen, flow rate, and the mode of operation. In passive operation, the maximum power density is obtained at 2.95 mW cm-2. The highest performance is achieved in semi-passive using 50 mL min-1 of oxygen with maximum power density of 10.92 mW cm-2. Meanwhile, for semi-passive using air flow condition at 400 ml min-1 shows a maximum power density at which 8.89 mW cm-2. For active operation, the highest performance is obtained using 6 mL min-1 with a maximum power density at 8.52 mW cm-2. Application/Improvements: The semi-passive operation with oxygen could improve the DFAFC performances, and hence the DFAFC could be used as an energy source for electric and electronic applications.
169 Pre-treatments Anaerobic Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) for Microalgae Treatment. , Mohd Sobri Takriff, Muhamad Zuhairi Zakaria , Mohd Shaiful Sajab and Yeit Haan Teow.
Background/Objectives: Pre-treatments Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) by coagulation process and adsorption have been done to enhance light penetration during culturing microalgae process for POME anaerobic treatment. Methods/ Statistical Analysis: Coagulation process was done by using rice starch and tapioca starch and the adsorption process was done using activated carbon from Palm Kernel Shell (PKS). In this pre-treatments study, several parameter for pretreatments study (dosages, pH, stirring speed, particles sizes) were done in order to optimize the suitable method for POME treatment using microalgae. In microalgae treatment, optimum pre-treatment condition of POME was used for culturing Scenedesmus dimorphus, Chlorella vulgaris and Dunaliella salina. Findings: Pre-treatment by coagulation process using rice starch and tapioca starch as a coagulant showed optimum levels for dosages, the pH of anaerobic POME, settling time and slow stirring speed is 2.5g/L, pH 3, 60 min and 10 rpm and 2.5 g/L, pH 3, 80 min and 10rpm, respectively. While, pre-treatment by adsorption process using activated carbon Palm Kernel Shell (PKS) shows optimum levels for dosages, the pH of anaerobic POME, reaction time and the size of the activated palm kernel shell is 25g, pH 5, 120 hours and 0.5mm, respectively. Adsorption process was fixed at the optimum reduction in turbidity, COD and suspended solids at 83.33, 83.91 and 92.30%, respectively, which are higher than the coagulation process using tapioca and rice starch. In microalgae treatment, Scenedesmus dimorphus and Chlorella vulgaris were suitable for culturing microalgae in synth
170 The Effect of Korean Adolescents’ Developmental Assets and Gratitude on their Happiness: A Mediating Pathway of Gratitude , Eun Kim Jung Hyun Choi , Mi Yuand Kyoung 
Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the difference in developmental assets, gratitude, and happiness by gender and socioeconomic status among adolescents and examine a model linking developmental assets and gratitude to happiness. Methods: The participants were 1,373 Korean adolescents aged 12-18. Descriptive statistics, T-tests and ANOVAs were used to analyse the demographic difference. The hypothesised model tested using path analysis techniques within a structural equation modelling. Adolescent Developmental Asset Measure by Jung15, Korea Version of Gratitude Questionnaire by Kwon, Kim, and Lee17 and Oxford Happiness Inventory developed by Hill and Arygle18 were measured. Results: Boys and girls did not differ significantly on total scores of internal development assets, external developmental assets, gratitude, and happiness. There were significant differences in internal developmental assets, external developmental assets, gratitude, and happiness according to SES (F = 30.69, F = 39.46, F = 13.90, F = 21.38, p<.001). Adolescents in middle and high class got more internal developmental assets than adolescents in low class. Adolescents in high class had more external developmental assets than adolescents in low and middle class. Adolescents in high class feel more gratitude and happier than adolescents in low and middle class. The model fit indices suggested that the hypothesised model adequately fit the data (χ2 = 11.71, df = 1, p = .01, CFI = 1.00, TLI = .96, RMSEA = .08). The developmental assets of adolescents directly affected happiness and also influenced happiness indirectly through gratitude. Conclusion: The findings from this study demonstrated the importance of gratitude a mediating factor increasing the happiness of adolescents.
171 Slicing+: An Efficient Privacy Preserving Data Publishing. , M. Nithya and T. Sheela.
Objectives: Privacy and accuracy are always trade off factors in the field of data publishing. Ideally both the factors are considered critical for data handling. Privacy loss and accuracy loss need to be maintained low as possible for an efficient data handling system. Authors have come up with various data publishing techniques aiming to achieve balance between these 2 factors. Generalization, Bucketization and Slicing are well known techniques among the list. Unfortunately they have their own limitation in handling privacy and accuracy. Generalization suffers in handling high dimensional data thus experiencing higher utility loss. Bucketization lacks data privacy where parting sensitive and quasi identifier attributes is a challenge. Slicing on the other hand though offers better privacy and accuracy, there is always scope to improve data correlation aiming in reducing utility loss. This paper explains a new technique called Slicing+ which handles privacy and accuracy factors effectively. This new Slicing+ technique looks promising as it offers flexibility for data publisher to decide on how the data need to be published. Data publisher can tune the Slicing+ technique to get data published with better privacy than accuracy or the other way. Algorithms for the two cases are derived and realized using Orange tool. This paper explains analysis done for the first bucket tuples. As an improvement aspect, similar analysis can be done for other buckets and all the bucket tuples merged and reconstructed for complete analysis. This analysis is applied in the medical records. This hybrid slicing technique is rated against Privacy loss and Utility gain factors. Experimental results are analyzed to justify the performance of Slicing+ technique
172 SEQ-VAS and EQ-5Dindex by Heath Status in the Community Dwelling Elders with Osteoarthritis. , In-Young Yoo 
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to identify the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) using EuroQol-visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS) and EuroQol-5 dimension (EQ-5D)index by health status in the community dwelling elders with osteoarthritis. Methods: Data were extracted from the 5th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2011. Participants of the study included 369 elders over the age of 65 with osteoarthritis. Data was analysed by using SPSS/Win 18.0. Results: The means HRQoL using EQ-VAS and EQ-5Dindex of participants were 59.92(±22.07) and .76(±0.22), respectively. The factors affecting the EQ-VAS were perceived health status, stress, knee stiffness and suicidal ideation (R2 = 0.29). The predictors of the EQ-5Dindex were perceived health status, knee stiffness, activity limitation, low back pain, suicidal ideation and asthma (R2 = 0.44). Conclusion: The findings suggest that the health care program for the elder patients with osteoarthritis should be carefully designed by physical and emotional health status to improve HRQoL. It is necessary to use both the EQ-5Dindex and EQ-VAS to control factors affecting HRQoL.
173 Comparing Analysis Study of Centrality Indices using Paper Information on Secondary Battery.  , Young-il Kwon, Dae-hyun Jeong , Yeongho Moon and Jae-young Yoo 
Background/Objectives: Secondary battery is expanding large secondary battery for various applications. In this study, joint research trends were analysed using network analysis in order to investigate the R&D of secondary batteries. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Degree centrality and betweenness centrality among the network analysis methods, the complex degree centrality was used to analyse the joint research network. Furthermore, the relationships among the degree centrality, betweenness centrality, and complex degree centrality were analysed. The analysis results show that 78 out of 91 countries carried out joint research, with the exclusion of 13 countries that did not participate in international joint research. Results: The joint research between China and USA institutions was most active, and China actively conducted joint research with Asian countries. A cluster analysis of the countries participating in joint research found that there were seven clusters in total, and the USA, Germany, France, and the U.K. played central role in each cluster. A correlation analysis of the centrality indices analysis results by country showed strong positive (+) correlation among the three indices. Furthermore, a regression analysis showed that the greater the complex degree centrality was, the greater the degree centrality and betweenness centrality became, and the increasing rate of the betweenness centrality was very high. Conclusion/Application: This study is meaningful that the correlations between complex degree centrality and other centrality indices were analysed in network analysis and investigated joint research status.
174 A Description of Content Based Image Retrieval using from Block Truncation Coding and Image Content Description. , D. Venkatakrishna and B. Ankayarkanni.
Background: The paper provides framework description for survey of content based image recovery framework block truncation coding for image content description. Methods and Statistical Analysis: The technique of content based image recovery framework by exploiting low level complexity image and block truncation coding is one of lossy picture pressure technique for grayscales image. Findings: And here proposes a idea of content based picture recovery utilizing block truncation coding for image content description using Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) algorithm and image content description is content-based indexing and recovery of pictures are make necessary semantic portrayal for picture content description of mapping from low-level to abnormal state picture application specifics. Applications/Improvement: content based image recovery framework method improves the performance of the existing method
175 Reliable and Authenticated Rumor Riding Protocol for Unstructured Peer-to-Peer Network. , Mary Subaja Christo and S. Meenakshi.
Objectives: Due to the distributed network topology of peer-to-peer network, there are high possibilities for the malicious node, thereby making security a very important criterion in managing the network performance. Methods: Security in the network is ensured by validation using Rumor Recovery (RR) protocol. Trust table verification method guarentees the validity of initiator node and sower node validity. In this method, the initiator node sends its query message to the responder node according to the rumor generation and recovery phase and query issuance phase of the RR protocol. Responder node validation process is used for saving responding nodes from attacks. Findings: In this paper, we mainly concentrate on the detection and elimination of initiator node attack, replay attack, and sower attack. The performance metrics considered for evalution are delay, delivery ratio and throughput. Simulation results show that the proposed Trusted Rumor Riding (TRR) protocol. 1. Out performs RR protocol by 34% in terms of delay, 1% in terms of delivery ratio and 17% in terms of throughput while detecting and eliminating the initiator attack; 2. Out performs RR by 98% in terms of delay, 41% in terms of delivery ratio and 19% in terms of throughput while detecting and eliminating the replay attack; and 3. Out performs RR by 95% in terms of delay, 9% in terms of delivery ratio and 36% in terms of throughput while detecting and eliminating the sower attack. Most of the existing works did not consider these three attacks; only few works considered it, but those were failed to meet the quality of service requirements. The detected attacks are avoided in a effective manner to provide the secure communication. Applications/Improvement: From the results, it is concluded that the proposed TRR protocol can detect several attack while satisfying the quality of service needs.
176 A Multi-Class Based Algorithm for Finding Relevant Usage Patterns from Infrequent Patterns of Large Complex Data.  , Sujatha Kamepalli, Rajasekhara Rao Kurra and Y. K. Sundara Krishna.
Background/Objective: With the development of data mining techniques to analyze large amount of complex data has played an essential role in several areas like cloud computing, medical databases, geographical information retrieval, etc. The automatic evaluation of cloud patterns is a challenging task due to the large amount of interesting patterns can be extracted. However, how to find infrequent patterns is still an open issue in cloud computing. Methods: Conventional approaches are mainly depends on quantitative datasets with support and confidence measures. Due to the large amount of cloud storage data, it is very difficult to extract the weighted association rules based on the server usage statistics. Traditional techniques are implemented on the data samples with the same attribute type. Due to this fact, a multi-class algorithm is proposed to find relevant usage patterns of large complex data. Findings: Proposed approach does not rely on any probabilistic closure measures and quantitative data. This approach minimizes the database scans and optimizes the infrequent cloud patterns. Applications/Improvements: Experimental results show that, proposed work generates high quality cloud patterns compared to traditional quantitative rule mining techniques.
177 A Method of Extraction of Non-text Contents for Extending the Applicability of National R&D Reports , Kiseok Choi, Kwangnam Choi and Jaesoo Kim 
Background/Objectives: A research report is textual information on performance. With the value of science and technology, it is very critical for industrial and economic purposes such as follow-up studies, technology transfer and commercialisation. Methods/Statistical Analysis: The research report information retrieval service provided by the Korea Institute of Science and Technology. Information (KISTI) offers optimal keywords for search conditions by indexing the report contents. However, various forms of non-textual contents such as tables and figures are often left out from the information retrieval without being included in the indexing. In terms of search accuracy and efficiency and user convenience, therefore, it is hard to support them efficiently. Results: Hence, this study developed a method to extract nontextual contents from a research report and use them in information retrieval with a goal of improving the accuracy and efficiency of information retrieval. Conclusion/Application: This study suggested a development plan for a non-textual content processor which can extract and store tables and figures and provide search services. It appears that there would be more opportunity to use high-quality national R&D report database.
178 A Study of IoT in SCM and its nodes in Multimodal Business Process. , Venkatesan Ganesan , G. Maragatham and U. S. Lavanya.
Objectives: In this modern era, technologies play a crucial role in determining a success of an industry, since the market is more volatile, understanding the customer base and forecasting of demand itself is complex, on top of that fulfilling the forecasted demand by meeting all the supply chain bottle necks is much more complex without better IT and coordination between the various business partners. This has pushed the companies to address the gap through various software application and utilizing the eminent data pockets are very important. In order to support this challenge, as a part of the review the impact of IoT in area of Supply chain Management such as with respect to Transportation is discussed. Methods: An analysis has been done in various industries and identified factors influencing the supply chain efficiency in a complex business environment. This is theoretical study is done for effective Business functionality in relating the technological innovations that is the IoT. Findings: Based on the survey conducted, the parameters that could play crucial role in the business operations are identified. In this IT driven world, utilizing the crucial information from the date and gaining the competitive advantage help the business to meet growing market to serve the customer better. Gartner says a thirty-fold increase in Internet-connected physical devices by the year 2020 will “significantly alter how the supply chain operates. Before reaching the customer, products should cross the multiple business partners from manufacturers, suppliers, the Distribution Centers, retailer, and then customer. So it is vital for the business to provide the visibility of product in each stage of Supply chain to have right information about the identity, location, and other tracking information. This study attempts to bring the node of IoT in Transportation. Also, the study highlights the IoT trigger points for tracking the accurate information of the goods that are connected to a common platform. The factors influencing the supply chain management is discussed in section 4. Applications/Improvements: As IoT is in the infant stage, with respect to the global business environment, an attempt have been made to study its impact on the Mutli-modal decision making scenario. This framework would be much useful in the Business environment of how to improve the business to a better scale.
179 Deciding the Optimal Operation Patterns of Steelmaking Facilities using a Network Diagram. , Chang-Sik, Kim and Seong-Hoon, Choi 
Tapping is an important process for determining the final composition of steel products in steelmaking. For efficient tapping, various facilities and constraints are needed. This study presents a systematic methodology that can be applied for deciding the optimal equipment operation patterns in the tapping process.
180 Proliferation of E-Learning in Indian Universities through the Analysis of Existing LMS Scenario. , Zameer Gulzar and A. Anny Leema.
Objectives: The first objective of this paper is to evaluate the present Status of E-learning in India by collecting facts about the usage of Learning Management System, its proliferation and adoption in Indian Universities. The second objective is to prepare a model that could help us to achieve the transformation in teaching-learning process. Methodology: The basic purpose of this study is to understand where does Indian modern education Stand with respect to modern means of technological tools available in the market. The study was based on Content Analysis Methodology that included a survey of visiting more than 700 official websites of Indian universities and the services they offered by using Learning Management System. Findings: As far as India is concerned, Learning Management System has been adopted in the corporate world for in-house training purpose but very much inadequately in Indian Universities, and by the result of that we are lagging behind from benefiting by modern means of educational tools. In this Study, it was found that even with surging internet user’s percentage growth rate in India which is second highest in Asia 28%, still only 6% of Universities in India are using Learning Management System application for E-learning Purpose. The cause for such low percentage might be Very Low broadband speed Connections and Lack of motivational Factors.According to the survey conducted it was found 95% of Indian Universities are using Open source Learning Management System and the approach they use is mostly ICT enabled and few with blended learning approach. Novelty: In this paper we attempt to propose a new Strategic model applicable to the current E-learning scenario in India to make E-learning as well as Learning Management System popular in Indian Universities to provide a way for better E-learning approach
181 Effect of Core Program Exercise for Lumbar Extensor Strength and Pain of the Patient with Chronic Low Back Pain , Dae-Hun Kim and Wan-Young Yoon 
The purpose of this study is to analyse and to compare the difference and the change between lumbar extension exercise group and lumbar extension exercise with core program exercise group in the area of lumbar extension strength through lumbar extensors strengthening exercise. 50 subjects (CP: 25, NCP: 25) were chosen among chronic low back pain patients between 20 and 60 years old patients who have no previous medical history and no abnormalities in lumbar confirmed by medical experts. Before of research, pre-tested the lumbar extension strength of each group. After 4, 8, 12 weeks of strengthening muscle exercise, retested it and compared the data with initial data. All data acquired in this study were analyzed using SPSS/PC V. 10.0 program for Windows. A t- test was conducted for the comparison of extended muscle strength in the lower back before and after the exercise. In order to see changes in muscle strength at various points (before exercise, 4 week point, 8 week point, 12 week point), a repeatedly measured ANOVA was conducted. To compare the statistical difference during the exercise period, a Tukey HSD was conducted as verification. To identify the level of lower back pain before and after exercise in each group, a paired t-test was conducted. The difference between levels of pain across groups underwent an independent t test and significance level was set at p<.05. By analysing results, After 4 weeks and 8 weeks and 12 weeks CP & NCP exercise, there was significant lumbar extensor muscular strength and VAS (p<.05). But there was significant difference to increase in lumbar extensor muscular strength and VAS between CP and NCP. Core program more effective exercises for patients with low back pain and the public in order to achieve more effective lumbar rehabilitation and better muscle strengthening in the field of weight-training or therapeutically exercise. apping is an important process for determining the final composition of steel products in steelmaking. For efficient tapping, various facilities and constraints are needed. This study presents a systematic methodology that can be applied for deciding the optimal equipment operation patterns in the tapping process.
182 Spiritual Culture of the Kazakh People in Films. , Aigul Shaymuratovna Tuyakbayeva and Sharipa Nurymbetovna Urazbayeva.
Background/Objectives: The objective of this study is to analyze the spiritual world of the Kazakh people, their traditions, ceremonies and rituals as they are represented in the films of Kazakh directors. Methods/Statistical Analysis: When studying and presenting the collected material the scientific description method was applied. Also special methods developed in the culturological object field found their application: methods of socio-cultural observations and reflections, culture genesis method. Empirical studies are based on the methods of generalization, reconstruction and interpretation of unpublished sources, the secondary analysis of the results of research conducted by other authors and published in the scientific literature. Findings: The study considers the body of ideas of spiritual and cultural values of the Kazakh people, including ancient traditions, customs and rituals. Specific features of the Kazakh people’s mentality have been analyzed through the prism of their spiritual culture that has developed in the course of this people’s history. The necessity to uncover the roles of old traditions and ceremonies in developing spiritual life and morality of the people has been identified and justified. Old traditions and rituals of the Kazakh people facilitate correct up-bringing of children and developing a healthy nation in general. Based on the results of the undertaken investigation, the authors suggest that a number of events of vital importance for every Kazakh should be considered in more detail. For example, the ritual of matchmaking and marriage, respect to the family hearth, the so-called “cult of fire”, respect to ancestors, the so called “forefathers’ cult”, purification rite and the ceremony of entertaining guests, a ritual related to the birth of a child, etc. Definitions for all those rituals and rites have been given, their principal characteristics have been studied and their values and significance have been analyzed. Improvements/Applications: This study enhances the existing knowledge of ancient traditions, rites and customs of the Kazakh people and it will facilitate further investigations in the sphere of spiritual culture and morality
183 Design and Implementation of Java Dynamic Testing Tool using Instrumentation. , Sun-Myung Hwang and Jihyun Lee 
This work reports the design of Java Dynamic Testing tool by using Instrumentation, which is the statement inserted into the program to count the number of iteration process and conditional statement process in Java Programming by must not affecting the program behavior. In addition, it focuses on Java Source Instrumentation to count the number process of Iteration and conditional statement process by using three main approaches for designing this Dynamic Java Testing tool such as Java controller, Java Iteration and Iteration Counting Process. The Java Dynamic Testing by using Instrumentation is to give the engineer manager the report of counting iteration process which is the main key indicator of knowing the software cost and time as well as the input for estimating project effort which use to calculate productivity and other measurements.
184 The Effect of Cultural Values on Caregiving by Generation , Yun-Jeong Kim and Hyun-Jung Kang 
This study focused on the relationship between cultural values and caregiving, and how such relationship differs across generations. Data from 396 youth, 330 adults and 315 elderly were analysed after quota sampling by generation, gender and residential area (urban vs. rural) in January-February 2014. Cultural values of filial piety and familism were highest among the elderly. When the difference in caregiving is compared, the conscious of caregiving among the youth was higher than that of the adult generations’ caregiving service and the elderly generation’s expectations of caregiving. With higher filial piety, their consciousness of caregiving became high; as more caregiving services were provided, there were higher expectations of caregiving. However, for the adult generation, unlike the youth or elderly, the effect of familism on caregiving services was not statistically significant.
185 An Empirical Analysis on Reducing Open Source Software Development Tasks using Stack Overflow. , Tirath Prasad Sahu, Naresh Kumar Nagwani and Shrish Verma.
Objectives: The cross repository analysis between Open Source Software (OSS) and Community Question Answering (CQA) site is presented in order to speed the development process of OSS. Methods/Analysis: The OSS development is becoming popular nowadays due to fact that the source codes, the developer specifications and bug lists are made available online to the public. Anyone can contribute to the development of software by referring these files. Similarly, Stack Overflow is an interactive CQA site that caters programming related questions with their answers online and turned into repositories of software engineering knowledge. In order to track the correlation of such sites with software development tasks, we employ the two repositories to find the semantic similarity between bugs and Question and Answer (Q&A) posts posted on OSS projects and Stack Overflow respectively. The semantic similarity is analyzed by integrating the contents of the repositories based on text mining approach. The relationship between a bug and Q&A post is established through the semantic similarity and metadata features. Findings: The statistics of our analysis is presented for five OSS projects in terms of number of bugs and average bug fix time. The statistical result shows that the bug fix time can be reduced by posting the bugs into Stack Overflow. Application/Improvement: The presented approach can be utilized to find the similar Q&A posts for reported OSS bug and helps developers of OSS projects to resolve the bugs quickly by leveraging programming skills of users’ in the form of Q&A posts.
186 Enhancement of the Regional Business Legal Structure within the Eurasian Economic Union based on the Use of the European Union’s Experience.  , Galiya Kulubekova, Filippo Viglione and Zhumabek Busurmanov 
Background: The research explains why the regional legal structure is expected to stimulate the creation of new transnational corporations and to contribute to the global competitiveness increase of the Eurasian Economic Union. Methods: The following different methods were used to solve the tasks of the research: the literature research, the comparative legal analysis, the retrospective analysis and logical approach. Findings: The research resulted in the proposals and recommendations for the development of a new regional legal structure within the Eurasian Economic Union based on the most successful international experience. It is obvious that the competitive advantage of the EAEU depends on the productivity of the companies operating in it. The encouragement of the corporate productivity can be achieved by creating the regional business legal structure. This legal structure would facilitate cross-border mergers between strong national companies and encourage competitive governance, which would create favorable environment for the development of business. It eventually would stimulate the shift of the EAEU businesses to the global level. Improvements: The possible enhancement of a new regional business legal structure within the Eurasian Economic Union has never been studied before. Therefore, the research conducted in the frame of this paper is believed to become a theoretical basis for the future studies on transnational corporations within the newly created EAEU. From the practical standpoint, the results of this research might be used for the development of the EAEU corporate law and future amendments to the legislation of its Member States in order to facilitate corporate integration within the region.
187 The Guidelines of Laser on Lung Biopsy under CT Guidance , Min-Cheol Jeon , Man-Seok Han, Hyun-Soo Lim , Jae-Uk Jang , Seungyoul Lee , Yong-Kyun Kim and Ik-Han Lee 
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of laser guidance to target tissue within the lung, while applying Percutaneous CT-guided Needle Biopsy(PCNB) using two lasers. 64 MDCT(Multi Detector Computed Tomography), Chest phantom which was inserted with tissue in Bolus, 20 Gauge needle for biopsy, Two Lasers were used. When the needle puncture chest phantom, Two Lasers which were installed above head and next to side of the chest phantom guide the needle. Using the laser before and after was compared using a needle of biopsy. Each experiment was repeated ten times. As using laser, the average number of puncture was decreased from 2.2 times (before)to 1.4 times (after). It was decreased about 34%. Time of biopsy was decrease about 25%. DLP (Dose Length Product) was decrease about 17 %. PCNB by using two lasers can accurately do targeting tissue within the lung.
188 Ethnic Identity of Young Koreans Living in the Russian Far East. , Klarisa Ivanovna Vorobyova, Inna Ri2 ,Elena Borisovna Gorchakova and Viktor Ivanovich Goncharov.
Background/Objectives: Studies of ethnic identity of the Koreans residing outside their historical native land are usually of sociological, historical or linguistic nature. This research is the first one to analyze the identity of modern Korean youth in the Russian Far East from the perspective of ethno-psychology. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Comparative analysis was used to analyze ethnic identity of modern Russian and Korean youth. The investigation included 260 people: 130 respondents in each group. Findings: As a part of this study, the following facts have been discovered: - the major part of the representatives of modern Korean youth grown up in multiethnic society of the Far East of Russia have preserved mono identity (60% of the sample) with positive perception of their ethnicity; - according to the respondents, modern Korean family is still playing a decisive role in developing and preserving ethnic identity; - considerable part of the representatives of Korean youth (40% of the sample) possesses bi-ethnic identity; - prevailing positive type of ethnic identity among Korean young people, positive perception of the members of other ethnic groups, willingness to enter into interethnic contacts facilitate their effective integration into multicultural environment; - for a group of young Koreans, ethno-nihilism and undervaluation of their ethnic affiliation are a means for effective integration in titular and other ethnic groups living in the Far East of Russia. Application/Improvements: The obtained findings enable to forecast the development of ethnic identity of the Far Eastern Koreans for the purposes of regulating inter-ethnic cooperation, prevention of ethnic conflicts and extremism in the multiethnic youth environment of the Russian Far East.
189 Materials and Microclimatic Characteristics of Dinosaur Footprint Sites in Uiseong and Haenam Area, Korea. , Ji Hyun Yoo and Chan Hee Lee 
The dinosaur footprint fossil sites at Uiseong Jeori and Haenam Uhangri are representative Natural Heritage sites in Korea. This study was performed to analyze the materials and microclimatic characteristics of these fossil sites to enable longterm conservation. The material characteristics of fossil sites showed that the host rocks of these areas were composed of vulnerable sedimentary rocks by weathering. We were also conducted focusing on the microclimate environments within the protective structures of the fossil sites. There is an open protective structure at Uiseong Jeori, which delivers adequate ventilation but is vulnerable to frost weathering in winter. Therefore, it is considered necessary to extend the drain at the back of the protective structure for the site. In contrast, enclosed protective structures with air conditioning were built at Haenam Uhangri. However, although it is possible to control the internal microclimate therein, condensation occurs ­frequently as a result of microclimatic differences in the interior structure, and thus additional measures are required.
190 Design of Supporting Media for Growth of Biofilm in Treating Industrial Wastewater. , Hassimi Abu Hasan, Siti Rozaimah Sheikh Abdullah, Nor Ashikin Shafinaz Binti Whayab, Fathiyyah Mohd Zainudin and Muhammad Farhan Md Yusoff.
Background/Objectives: Effective waste water treatment is needed to prevent water pollution worsening. Waste water treatment can be divided into three types, namely, treatment of physical, chemical and biological. The main goal of this scientific project is to design media support for growth of biofilm in treating industrial wastewater of pulp and paper mill. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Thus, the designed media is then to be compared with plastic media in term of their performance in wastewater treatment. Through AutoCAD 2012 software developed by the company Autodesk, the design for media support for biofilm has produced. In this scientific project, the type of treatment used is a biological waste water treatment for the Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) system. In addition, the pH is also maintained in the range of pH 6-9 for the development of growth and reproduction of bacteria can be maximized. SBR process used in scientific project consists of four phases: namely filling, reaction, settling and production. Findings: Wastewater treatment performance comparisons have been made by comparing the performance of the media that are designed with the existing plastic media. The performance of reducing Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), removal of ammonia nitrogen and analysis of pH and dissolved oxygen is compared between both biofilm media. Through this scientific research projects, the results of the experiment showed that the biomass produced in both reactors containing the respective media support is 771 mg/L for the media hexafilter and 700 mg/L for commercial media after the performance of the wastewater treatment process. In addition, 40.6% removal of ammonia-nitrogen is recorded in reactor containing the media hexafilter has been achieved while the reactor containing a commercial media reaches ammonia-nitrogen removal percentage of 43.6%. The experimental results also showed that in the HRT of 24 hours, the percentage of COD in the reactor containing hexafilter reach up to 67.6% removal of COD compared with commercial media, which recorded the percentage removal of COD at 63%. Moreover, the trend of pH and DO profile is maintained at optimum conditions in both reactors when the pH is in the range of 6.5-7.5, while the average reading for DO for the reactor containing hexafilter is 6.82 mg/L while the commercial media reactor is 6.78 mg/L. Application/Improvements: In comparison between supporting media designed with commercial media, which shows through the experimental results of this scientific project, hexafilter is more effective in wastewater treatment and experimental performance can be compared with existing commercial media.
191 An Indoor Location Tracking using Wireless Sensor Networks Cooperated with Relative Distance Fingerprinting. , Youn-Sik Hong 
We present a method of moving path control of an automatic guided vehicle (AGV) in an indoor environment through recognition of markers. A linear relationship between the relative distance to a marker from the current location of an AGV and the size of the recognized marker image can be built. Thus using the length of the recognized marker image as a fingerprint instead of the received signal strength (RSS) may result in a more reliable estimation of the location. Our simulation results show that the maximum localization error is less than 2cm and thus the range of the estimation error is ±0.025%. The main advantage of the proposed system is that they are highly flexible for on-demand delivery to any location.
192 A Study on the Differential Compression Method for High-speed Transfer.  , Geun-Ho, Lee , Sun-Woo, Ko and Soo-Tae, Kwon 
Nowadays, most of people are using image for communication. And also, SNS (Social Network Service) which is used by young man have to be loaded images. So, we propose a new differential compression method for high-speed transfer. In this proposed method, the feature which is the encoding process according to subjectively image quality can be demonstrated. Human studies have shown that most of people have the interest about special area. Using the individuality, the relatively high quality can be obtained at the special area and the relatively low quality can be obtained at the other area in encoding process. In order to use these characteristics, the image is separated simple and complex block using 8x8 block standard deviation. And also, we have applied low compression rate and high compression rate to each region. The experimental results are demonstrated that proposed differential scheme can achieve better image quality at the high compression ratio. The proposed method is possible to maintain a high quality by differential compression of images. And then, we can apply to MPEC and H.26X.
193 Analyzing Impacts of Cloud Computing Threats in Attack based Classification Models.  , R. Kamatchi  and Kimaya Ambekar.
Objective: This paper makes an attempt to analyze the threats and vulnerabilities of a cloud based system and propose a threat modeling and process associating with. Different models can help policy makers to evaluate common criteria which in turn can help to create threat specific plan to have a customized solution. Methods/Analysis: This paper is an attempt to contribute to the existing research in the area of cloud security. It also analyzes the impact of threats and usage of threat models to improve the security aspects of data in transit and storage. This research uses an analytical research methodology. It tries to analyze various models in terms of their impact and usage to various organizations to combat threats on their data and networks. Existing literature has been studied and analyzed on various parameters to further study the recovery procedures and contingency planning. Findings: Different models can help policy makers to evaluate common criteria which in turn can help to create threat specific plan to have a customized solution. Applications: Cloud computing is an upcoming technology which is fascinating varied type of organizations. Even though it is widely adopted positively by different set of organizations, it also has its own security issues at different levels. To create a better security plan for an organization, precise calculation of attacks at different levels need to be determined and the impact should be estimated. To enable the same, well-accepted methods are to be determined which can help the users to map their systems with the solutions to have a better visualization.
194 Federated Architecture for Ranking the Services in Cloud Computing.  , L. Aruna and M. Aramudhan.
Objectives: To improve Quality of Services (QoS) and ranking cloud service providers in federated cloud environment. It is also aimed to resolve various issues faced by the user and providers in cloud. Methods: In order to avoid the workload of existing cloud model and to compete with the well-known cloud service providers, customized federated cloud provider architecture was suggested. It is suggested to manage and to maintain QoS for the submitted tasks. The proposed architecture consists of external world, middle world and internal world. Each world plays vital role for customizing the request in federated environment to enhance QoS. To avoid starvation in the architecture to suggest the differentiated module and resolves the various key issues using the Stochastic Markov process model and also evaluating the cloud providers based on the quality of service requirements. Findings: Service Level Agreement (SLA) in single and federated cloud plays a vital role in enhancing Quality of Services. Single cloud service provider representation does not provide the skilled QoS, when workload becomes high. Customized federated cloud architecture reduces the drawbacks of single cloud service provider. The proposed architecture was implemented in CloudSim using Java. The simulation result of the proposed architecture proves enhanced QoS to the user and cloud service providers. The proposed federated cloud model enhances the Quality of Services by more than 18% of existing single and federated cloud model. The parameters considered for the simulation for numbers of users, providers, load factor, turnaround time and average load deviation of tasks. Applications: This architecture can be used to rank different cloud service providers and it can be trusted for any distributed cloud services with extended QoS.
195 The Effect of Personality, Situational Factors, and Communication Apprehension on a Blended Communication Course.  , Jin-Young, Kim 
Background/Objectives: This study was to explore the influence of personality types and situational factors on public speaking. Also, it examined the effect of communication apprehension on students’ academic achievement in a blended learning environment. Methods: A total of 182 participants who enrolled in a blended communication course were administered questionnaires that assessed the Big Five personality traits (openness, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism), situational factors (previous experiences, immediacy, level of rehearsal, and motivation) and level of communication apprehension. Results: According to regression analysis, the predictors among the personality traits affecting speech performance were extroversion and openness, and among the situational factors, only the level of rehearsal was found to be a predictor. Also, academic achievements were not affected by Communication Apprehension in a blended learning environment, which does not comport with the findings in traditional face-to-face classes. Implications for theory and pedagogical practice are discussed.
196 Optimized Design of Three Phase Squirrel Cage Induction Motor based on Maximum Efficiency Operating under the Rated Voltage – based on Software Platform.  , Saini Raj Kumar, Saini Devender Kumar, Gupta Rajeev and Verma Piush.
The efficiency maximization of thee phase induction motor operating at rated voltage and under the rated voltage is carried out with the help of JMAG Express. A computer program based on the output equations of three phase squirrel cage induction motor have been developed to check the initial design and performance of the induction motor with the help of graphic user interface (GUI). The output of GUI program is feed in the input targeted values of JMAG Express for parameter calculations and efficiency optimization. To optimize the efficiency as an objective function multiple parameters will be optimized and dimensions of stator and rotor are calculated in terms of sensitivity analysis at efficiency optimization. Calculations of under rated voltages are based on the averages voltages of the three unbalanced phases. The performance of the motor is carried out by considering the copper and aluminum cage rotor respectively. Due to reactive power demand, generally the motors which are designed for the rated voltages, but are operating under the rated voltages away from the utility center. To reduce the energy crises the aim of this research article is to improve the design quality of such type of motors with the help of JMAG Express, which distinguish it from other optimum designed processes based on programming languages, as this software is friendly user.
197 Study on Vibration Characteristics through Torsion Spring Constants within Automobile Muffler.  , Kwon-Se Kim and Doo-Seuk Choi  
In the present study, torsion springs with different spring tensions were designed and produced, and a study was conducted concerning what effects vibration occurring in an exhaust variable valve has on engine performance and back pressure. Therefore, it will be affirmed by designing and producing torsion springs with different spring tensions in the present study what effects vibration produced in the exhaust variable valve has on engine performance and back pressure. According to the results of conducting back pressure experiments with respect to mass flux supply for 4 types of K1, K2, K3 and K4 having different torsion spring constants of an exhaust variable valve, a conclusion was obtained showing a parabolic trend in the order of K1 < K2 < K3 < K4 and it could be seen from burst of speed section and certain section of K1, K2, K3 and K4 that vibration due to opening and closing of the valve occurred in the exhaust variable valve with different torsion spring constants in the order of K1 (0.6 (g)) < K2 (0.8 (g)) < K3 (1.3 (g)) < K4 (1.8 (g)). Therefore, when a pulsation phenomenon occurring in a combustion chamber of automobile engines is minimized, it is considered that more improved performance can be obtained from stabilized engine combustion.
198 Problems of Inter-organizational Interaction of Participants in Motor Transport Cargo Shipments.  , Sergey Mikhailovich Mochalin, Lyudmila Vladimirovna Tyukina, Tatiana Valerievna Novikova, Irina Vladimirovna Pogulyaeva and Elena Vasilievna Romanenko.
Background/Objectives: The study considers currently important problems of inter-organizational interaction of participants involved in automotive cargo shipments and implementation of such concepts as “Just-in-Time” and “Justin-Sequence” in scheduling practices. Methods: The applied Six Sigma methodology is focused on the client’s wishes and requirements for cargo delivery, according to which the slow processes are expensive. The applied “lean production” method is based on the fact that shipping time losses occur during transportation and waiting time. Thus, a refined methodology has been developed synthesizing “Lean production” and “Six Sigma”, one of the tools which is the concept of “just in time” delivery. Findings: It has been concluded that one of the reasons for low efficiency of the day-to-day scheduling efforts is represented by the problems of organizational interrelations between the stakeholders of the highway cargo transportation business. Generalizations of the road haulage practices together with the outcomes of the investigations carried out by Siberian Automobile and Highway Academy made it possible to identify the groups of interaction problems and the causes in this area. A conceptual approach has been suggested to solve these issues based on such logistical principles as “Just-in-Time” and “Just-in-Sequence”. In line with the developed approach, the article justifies the need to introduce the abovementioned principles to scheduling practices to improve the processes of control and management in haulage sector. Developing and implementing “Just-in-Time” and “Just-in-Sequence” philosophy in transport logistics is of crucial importance, as it is only within such system that the cargo delivery process could be comprehensively controlled. This system improves customer relationships, establishes the company at the market, stabilizes its financial standing, and enhances its competitive advantages. Applications/Improvements: The study identifies preconditions and constrains to be taken into account in the course of developing scheduling model for material and information flows in the area of automotive cargo shipments.
199 A Study on the of Justification of Low Dose Chest Computed Tomography during Health Examinations.  , In-Gyu You, Cheong-Hwan Lim and Young-Cheol Joo 
Background:In this study,the justification after evaluating the hazards and benefits of a low-dose chest CT scan in a physical examination was investigated as follows. Methods/Statistical Analysis: 502 people who had undergone a CT scan as part of a regular medical checkup and with no clinical symptoms at H hospital, located in Gyeonggi Province, Korea during the period from January to December, 2013 were dichotomized to two groups of those aged under 40 and those aged 40 years or more. Results: Those aged 40 or more who underwent a lung CT test for the first time accounted for 53% (266/502) and those under age 40 accounted for 20.5%(103/502) of their corresponding age groups. The ultimate purpose of CT tests is the early detection of lung cancer. Eight patients were discovered to have lung cancer and their characteristics were as follows. All were male and the youngest was 44 years old. The average number of calcified nodules in those with a noncalcified nodule was 1.00 those under 40 and 1.58 for of 40 or older, which was also a significant difference (p<0.05). But overall chest CT in this situation was not found to be justified based on considerations of the balance between the benefits of CT and the overall risk of radiation exposure. Conclusion: In order to secure justification, routine chest CT should be conducted from an age of 40 or at an earlier age in those with a smoking history
200 A Hybrid Approach to Content Based Image Retrieval Using Computational Intelligence Techniques.  , Sumaira M. Hayat Khan and Ayyaz Hussain.
Objectives: Improvement in the retrieval performance of the system can be brought by fusion of image features with different similarity measures. Performance of the system can be further improved by incorporating user’s feedback into the system. Method: An extensive system is proposed based on one of the computational intelligence techniques for the effective retrieval of required images from systems. The proposed technique consists of two main modules, namely: feature vector processing and result enhancement. Feature fusion is performed by application of genetic operators to find the final distance between probe and stored images. Subsequently estimated retrieved images are presented to the user, first k-images will be selected by the user as K-NN query images and are ranked according to their relevance values provided by the user. Optimization of retrieved images is done by iteratively providing user’s feedback to the system. Findings: Feature fusion and effective relevance feedback methods can contribute extensive benefits to content based image retrieval. Feature fusion combines different image features in such a way to get a single feature vector for all of them but combination of different image features however is not always beneficial. Semantic gap is reduced by providing user’s feedback after the retrieval of images. This is an iterative process and it defines a set of relevant images in the end. Genetic algorithm based search is applied for a series of weighting functions which helps to maximize the fitness function. Applications/Improvements: Multifarious features are introduced where different image features are combined with different similarity measures and the final distance is drawn by employing genetic programming technique.
201 Factors Influencing Health-related Quality of Life among Male Workers in Korea.  , Eunhee Shin and Heekyung Kim 
The purpose of this study was to provide data of nursing intervention development to develop quality of life related health for male workers by consciousness of influencing factors of quality of life. The subjects were 175 male workers at A, C, D, K, and I cites for descriptive statistics. The data were collected from March 5, 2014 to March 28 by questionnaire survey and analyzed by descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, Pearson’s correlation coefficients, and stepwise multiple regression. The results of study were to show that male office workers of type D personality were 55 people (31.8%). There were significant differences of the degree of life habit, self-esteem, job stress and health-related quality of life between group of type D personality and group of type non-D personality. The correlated factors of male office workers revealed positive correlation for health related quality of life and life habit (r=.47, p<.001), negative correlation for type D personality (r=- .64, p<.001), and medium negative correlation for job stress (r=-.44, p<.001). The result of multiple regression analysis for factors influencing of health related quality of life was to show 40.4% (β=-.35, p<.001) for health related quality of life for type D personality, and 7.2% for self-esteem (β=.28, p<.001), 2.5% for life habit (β=.17, p=.007), and 1.5% for job stress (β=-.16, p=.010). In this respect, these variables presented 51.7% of health related quality of life. Therefore, factors like personality, self-esteem, life habit, and job stress in order to develop heath-related quality of life should be considered. The study especially showed type D personality as a main effect. One need to develop an effective plan for dealing stress by psychological intervention that may help to regulate negative emotions.
202 Constructing and Displaying the Trajectory Path on the Aircraft On-board Cockpit Multifunction Displays.  , V. V. Markelov, A. V. Shukalov , I. O. Zharinov , M. O. Kostishin and A. N. Ershov  
Background/Objectives: development of algorithms for flight plan data transformation into the projected trajectory of the aircraft based on the unification of used trajectories in the horizontal plane to reduce the consumed computing resources. Methods: In order to display the flight route, specialized software is used in the on-board systems enabling to convert a flight plan data set into a predictable trajectory of the aircraft path for its subsequent visualization. Findings: The authors have defined, developed and presented the principles and algorithms for computation of route trajectories ensuring the building of calculated flight path of the aircraft to be displayed on the on-board displays. The route displaying is carried out by consistent plotting of the typical trajectories that constitute the route path and in their turn consist of a set of graphic primitives such as line and arc. The database to be displayed is based on the flight plan, made in accordance with the “Jeppesen” database or similar, after bringing it to the formats of three typical defined trajectories. Applications/ Improvements: The algorithms of the flight plan data conversion into a projected trajectory in the horizontal plane unify the process of information generation for displaying on the on-board multifunction displays and optimize a set of computation data to control the motion along a trajectory.
203 Formation of the System of International Legal Regulation of Telecommunications: Correlation of Legal Regulation at the Universal and Regional Levels.   , Valentina Petrovna Talimonchik.
Background/Objectives: The research is aimed at determining the system of international legal regulation of telecommunications formed at this stage of the information society development based on the patterns existing at the universal and regional levels. Methods: A complex of general scientific and philosophical methods, including the logical, comparative-legal, formal-legal, systemic-structural, problematic-theoretical methods, as well as methods of analysis and synthesis, generalization and description, comparison were used in the research. Findings: As a result of the research, two telecommunications regulation systems were found to be established at the universal level: the International Telecommunication Union deals with the technical issues, the World Trade Organization deals with the issues of the telecommunication services market. These systems do not interact sufficiently. At the regional level, telecommunications regulation is basically connected with the activity of integration associations and the experience of the European Union serves as an example of the legal regulation. Application/Improvements: The findings can be used in activities of international organizations in execution of their functions of unification and harmonization of the international telecommunication law and by national operators in the process of entering international and foreign markets.
204 An Evolutionary Computation Approach for Project Selection in Analogy based Software Effort Estimation.  , I. Thamarai and S. Murugavalli.   
Objectives: Software effort estimation is a critical task in the software development process due to the intangible nature of software. A new model for software effort estimation using Differential Evolution Algorithm called DEAPS is proposed in this paper. Method: In this methodology, the complete set of historical project base is reduced to a set of similar projects using Euclidean distance metric. Then Differential Evolution Algorithm which is an Evolutionary Computation method is used for optimization and the most relevant project is retrieved. The proposed method is validated on Desharnais dataset. Findings: DE has a very effective mutation process which improves the ability of exploration. So we got promising results which indicate that the use of this model could significantly improve the efficiency of Analogy based Software Effort Estimation. The metrics used are MMRE, MdMRE and pred (25%). The results are compared with previous findings and the results clearly show that the proposed method is better than the existing methods. Application: This methodology can be used to minimize the errors in the software estimation so that financial loss and delay in the completion of project may be avoided.
205 The Effect of Human Capital and Social Capital on Cultural Capital of the Korean Elderly.  , Hyeo-Ryun Kang , Yun-Jeong Kim and Hyun-Jung Kang 
In this study, in order to identify the effect of human capital and social capital on cultural capital of Korean elderly. For the collection of data, in November 2013, a survey was conducted targeting 353 elderly people residing in the local community. First, looking at the cultural capital level of elderly, it was 2.12 points in the past, but it is 2.63 now, so the level in the present and the past were less than the central value’s 3 points, but the current cultural capital improved compared to the past. Second, the more of number of certificate as the human capital is, the more official network as the social capital is, the larger the cultural capital of the past is. In addition, the higher the personal reliability as the social capital is, the more the public network is, the larger the current cultural capital is. Especially, the public network was the variable which made most influential power on the cultural capital of the past and the current cultural capital. Thus, this study contributed to re-light the life of the elderly as productive in active aspect by examining the effects of the human capital and social capital on the accumulated and internalized cultural capital through whole life and examining the resource of the elderly.
206 Design and Development of Experimental Hardware in Loop Model for the Study of Vibration Induced in Tall Structure with Active Control. , Nauman Bashir, Mohsin Jamil , Asim Waris, Muhammad Nasir Khan , Mazhar Hussain Malik and Shahid Ikramullah Butt .
Background/Objectives: This paper focuses on the active control of vibration in tall structure prone to high winds and earthquakes using the active mass dampers. Methods/Statistical Analysis: The prototype model was fabricated to measure the response of external forces and control methods have been implemented to minimize the damping. Modeling of servomotor and tall structure was studied theoretically and experimentally in view of controlling the angular velocity and position of the servomotor while displacement for the tall structure. Findings: PID controller was implemented on the structure for effective damping of the vibration which was easy in computation and cost effective. Application/ Improvements: The proposed study is very useful for practical implementations in small scale industries.
207 Early Detection of Down Syndrome Marker by Measuring Fetal Nuchal Translucency Thickness from Ultrasound Images during First Trimester.  , R. Sonia and V. Shanthi.
Objectives: Nuchal Translucency (NT) thickness measurement is a Down syndrome marker for chromosomal abnormalities which is detected by non-invasive test during first trimester. Methods: In this paper, a computerized method to measure NT thickness is proposed. It consists of region of interest extraction, NT segmentation using morphological operation with Otsu thresholding. The NT thickness is measured from the segmented area. The performance is analyzed on 80 ultrasound fetal images. Findings: Proposed approach for NT measurement is implemented in MATLAB software. Experimental results show that NT thickness for normal foetus is 1.99±.62 mm and abnormal foetus is 4.10±.90 mm during first trimester of pregnancy from 11 to 13+6 weeks of gestation. The proposed algorithm efficiently computes NT measurement and produces consistent result during first trimester in singleton pregnancies. Applications/Improvements: Proposed semi-automated technique helps the medical sonographer for accurate NT thickness measurement to detect Down syndrome marker during first trimester ultrasound scan.
208 Effects of Work Environment and Resilience on Job Satisfaction and Organisational commitment of Social Workers in Juvenile Reformatory Schools , Eun Jung Lee and Punghoi Cha 
With a consistent increase of juvenile criminal recidivism, restorative justice tends to emerge as a new paradigm in juvenile justice reform for preventing juvenile criminal recidivism and improving juvenile delinquency treatment. Restorative justice emphasises re-socialisation at the community, shifting from existing facility-centered, public-centered juvenile justice to local community centered, public-private cooperated rehabilitation to juvenile offenders. Thus, it is needed to change the function of juvenile reformatory schools and to assign appropriate profession. In Korea, social workers have newly assigned to juvenile reformatory school with introduction of restorative justice to Juvenile in 2010. This study aims to analyse the characteristics of the work environment and resilience of social workers in juvenile reformatory schools and to identify influencing factors on their job satisfaction and organisational commitment. For this purpose, data were collected by a survey with all 72 social workers atjuvenile reformatory schools nationwide, and for the analysis, hierarchical regression was applied. As a result of the analysis, as for work environment factor, organisational work environment had significant effects on job satisfaction and organisational commitment of social workers but role work environment did not have any significant impacts on them. As for resilience, the more resilient of social workers, the higher job satisfaction and organisational commitment. Based on the findings of study, suggestions are discussed for organisational environment and policy implications in order to improve job satisfaction and organisational performance of social worker in the correctional area.
209 Effect of Rest Method on Fatigue Related Factors and Performance after Submaximal Exercise. , Young-Bok, Yoon and Sun-ho, Kim 
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of rest method on fatigue related factors and performance after submaximal exercise. Twenty seven collegians participated in this study. All subjects performed an incremental treadmill running exercise, not to be able to perform exercise more on a treadmill. Each subject was relaxed for 10 minutes in the way of rest one of the relaxing 3 ways (sitting, lying, and jogging) after submaximal exercise, and it was made to the cycling movement again. The present study shows that fatigue related factors such as lactate, ammonia, glucose, and free radical were significantly decreased after active rest (jogging). On the other hand, the antioxidant capacity shows high level. There was no change of heart rate according to the rest type during the recovery period, 10 minutes. The heart rate, lactate, ammonia, and free radical show low level in the next exercise performance after the rest of activity. On the contrary to this the antioxidant and VO2 max show high level. Also, motor performances such as VO2 max and antioxidant capacity were significantly higher at active rest than passive rest. In conclusion, active rest is to show the fatigue substance lower than that of passive rest method, it was found that the performance capabilities of the next can be improved.
210 Cloud Computing Security with Collaborating Encryption.  , N. D. Jambhekar , Sanjay Misra  and C. A. Dhawale
The security of bigger data is the bottleneck in the encryption and decryption because of the big data size. The single encryption technique using one source is not adequate to accomplish the big data cloud computing security. This paper elaborates the working of cloud computing and the collaborating source security system for the Big Data security. A collaborating encryption technique framework is proposed in this paper to meet the futures’ faster encryption requirements. The traditional information security system is not capable to provide the complete security during the cloud computing. The method described in this research comprises the parallel and distributed encryption system which gets the benefits the homomorphic encryption technique. The encryption facility during the mobile communication of object is tedious. Every cloud has its own security features and can be working in collaboration with the other cloud servers. Therefore, the parallel and distributed encryption facilities can be possible at every next door of other cloud without breaking the sequence of encryption process. The essential resources become the remote resources and the allocation of these resources can be managed at every cloud. Most of the time while working with the cloud computing is the availability of network and other resources. Providing the information security in the unavailability of resources during encryption and decryption is a difficult task. The collaboration encryption technique is a framework where, different clouds can work in parallel with the distributed processing. The security mechanism is improved by the homomorphic encryption.
211 Novel Technique to Control the Metering for Cloud Service using Common Deployment Model. , C.Saravanakumar, C. Arun and S. P. Sivasrinivasan.
Background: The customers always desire to get the required services from a single cloud. It will not provide a high quality of services to the end user because all cloud services are limited to some extent i.e. lack of standard. This problem has been overcome by using the multi-cloud architecture which will provide the high quality of services with reliability. Methods: There are various parameters are analyzed to achieve multi cloud integration. The proposed work focuses on metering control which is a one of the parameter to manage the risk during the time of interaction. Findings: The common deployment model acts as a broker in various cloud interaction to achieve a high quality of services to the customer. The features are extracted from the cloud based on the services which is provided by the service provider. The services are classified and risks are assessed for selecting the suitable services from the cloud. The perfect metering gives the better confident level to the customer using the selected services. There are two essentials implemented in the customer end and provider end they are service control and service registry. The objective of the proposed system is to control the services and its interactions with the supports of cloud metering. Application: The risk assessment has been implemented for assessing the Quality of Service (QoS) with reliable multi-cloud interaction.
212 Network of Technology and Web-based Digital Media Resources.  , Michelle Mi-Hee Choi and Sung Ryong Hong 
Multimedia contents have been utilised as an effective media tool and web-based digital media has been digitalized and integrated into the web for the sake of the development of information technique. This study is about effective multimedia tools and software which can be applied to English by means of exploring multimedia courseware. The first purpose of the research is to compare the various existing network system of technology for application using multimedia resources. The second is to develop digital models and construction based on multimedia approach. The third is to analyse the results of the survey performed by 80 local students in A City, Korea. The groups of 80 students were divided into the two groups of target and control based on the preliminary tests. This evaluation is to show the effectiveness of the application of multimedia tools as well as the network of the technology and web-based digital media. The survey includes 30 questionnaires about the frequency of multimedia application to survey the impact on study attitudes of students, and to evaluate the effectiveness of self-study by using multimedia approach and tools.
213 The Method of Constructing an Integrated Corporate Information System. , Vladimir Vyacheslavovich Kopytov , Andrey Olegovich Shulgin, Sergey Aleksandrovich Fedorov , Nikita Georgiyevich Demurchev , Andrey Vladimirovich Gritsenko and Vladimir Viktorovich Naumenko 
Background/Objectives: This article describes the integration method of mobile applications with Corporate Information System (CIS) through the previously proposed interaction architecture based on integration environment. Methods: The methods of data obtaining and processing and computational load distribution between the components of an integrated corporate system were used to develop a method of mobile application integration with corporate information system, implemented as an algorithm of building an integration environment for cross-platform mobile applications. Findings: Within the framework of this article, the method implementing the process of developing mobile application integrated with the CIS in accordance with the proposed architecture was discussed. The proposed method involves the use of different types of models: transforming data model, data storage model and data representation model. These models combine all necessary technologies of procurement, processing and representation of data circulating in the CIS. The structure of the integration environment, which includes new approaches to the organization of data storage, conversion and presentation, is described in detail. Also this article represents the algorithm for implementation of CIS mobile applications integration including the proposed structure of integration environment. Applications/Improvements: The proposed technology can be used to build various integrated solutions for the education sphere, transportation, security, provided the simultaneous development of mobile applications for multiple mobile platforms, or at the integration of several CIS.
214 Medication Activity Frequency, Competency and Educational Needs among Nurses.  , Yun-Jeong, Kim, Mi-Ja, Kim and Hee-Suk, Sim 
This study is performed in order to comprehend the mediation activity frequency, competency and educational needs, and analyse the elements that affect the perceived competency. The subjects for this study are 216 nurses and the collected data by using SPSS 18.0 program. In nurses’ needs for medication education, ‘Recording the contents of medication’ shows the highest score 6.74(±12.642), ‘Understanding of medication according to the patient’s age and gender’ shows the lowest, 5.68(±9.011). From this result, we can infer that we will need to search for a scheme that can fortify the clinical education related to medication for the nurses. And nurses should maintain and improve their competency through continuous and systematic medication education
215 Assessing Activity of Pedagogical College Students as a Study Activation Tool.  , Lidia Gennadievna Shestakova, Yekaterina Anatolievna Kharitonova and Tatiana Vasilievna Rikhter.  
Background/Objective: The article is aimed at analyzing the effect of assessing activity of pedagogical college students on increasing study activation. Methods: The findings are based on the analysis of the scholarly academic studies. A questionnaire survey was applied to identify the impact of the assessing activity of students on the improvement of their study activation level. Findings: Assessing skills of future teachers within the Federal State College Educational Standard have been identified; various points of view to determine the concept of activation have been considered, students’ assessing activity as an effective activation means and its aspects, subject matter and stages have been reviewed. Based on the analysis of the results of theoretical and experimental work the main assessing management tools have been distinguished, such as: self-assessment and peer assessment, forms of educational work have been correlated with students’ assessment activities. Carried out experimental work has enabled to identify the conditions under which the use of self-assessment and peer assessment will be effective for activating an educational process. Types of training activity have been related to student’s activity. A role of assessing activity of pedagogical college students has been defined. An analysis to determine the effect of assessing activity of students on increasing activation has been performed. Applications/Improvement: The scientific novelty of the research lies in identification of assessing skills of the future teachers within the FSCES, determination of the main assessing management tools as a means of enhancing the educational process in high school, correlation of forms of educational work with the students’ assessing activities.
216 An Optimized Particle Swarm Optimization based ANN Model for Clinical Disease Prediction. , G. Kranthi Kumar . 
Objective: Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) are two broadly used for rule generation process in data mining. ANN have been widely used for pattern extraction from medical databases. Methods: Heart disease is one of the leading death cause disease in all over the world in the present situation. A large number of research works have been carried out for diagnosing heart failures using data mining techniques. As the number of heart disease features increasing along with a number of instances, the traditional approaches such as PSO, ANN and BPSO are fail to predict the exact disease causing features. Findings: In this research work, an improved ANN approach model called Optimized Artificial Neural Network (OANN) was implemented on the medical data sets. In this paper, an Optimized Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) technique is used for disease dimension reduction. Filter based Artificial Neural Network is used for classifying the disease type as positive or negative based on the disease features. Applications/Improvements: The performance of the proposed algorithm is analyzed by using the traditional approaches of Performance plot, Regression, ROC Value and Confusion Matrix. It is proved that the performance of the whole ANN network is optimized after the inclusion of proposed PSO for Feature Reduction.
217 An Influence of Leisure Participation Motives of Married Immigrant Women on the Leisure Satisfaction and Social Adaptation to Korea.  , Young-Mee Kim , Jae-Sik Yang , Jong-Kil Lee , Ill-Gwang Kim and Su-Sun Park 
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of leisure participation motives of married immigrant women on the leisure satisfaction and social adaptation to Korea. For that purpose, this study purposively sampled a total of 620 married immigrant women from 6 areas within the entire nation and the survey on them was conducted. As the survey instrument, the questionnaire which consisted of three parts of measures for leisure motivation, leisure satisfaction, and adaptation to Korea was used. Cronbach’s α values of the questionnaire ranged from .723~.858, so it was deemed to be acceptable. To analyse the survey data, EFA (Exploratory Factor Analysis), correlation analysis, and multiple regression analysis were conducted with SPSS 18.0 program. The results of this study by final analyses on a total of 611 materials excluding insincere ones were as follows. First, self-development and social factors of leisure motivation had significant effects on leisure satisfaction. Second, among the three sub factors of leisure motivation, self-development factor had a significant effect on social adaptation to Korea, self-development and relaxation factors on cultural adaptation, and self-development and social factors on mental adaptation. Third, leisure satisfaction had significant effects on social and cultural adaptation to Korea.
218 Turkic Origins of the Traditional Kazakh Historical Thought and Islamic Influence on its Formation.  , Mukhtar Seitkhanuli Isaev, Khazretali Mahanuli Tursun , Zikriya Zamankhanuly Jandarbek , Kopzhasar Mustafauly Jetіbaev, Dametken Dosmukhankyzy Suleymenova and Lazzat Sarsenbekkyzy Dinashevaj .
Background/Objectives: The study aims to determine the Turkic origins of the traditional Kazakh historical thought and Islamic influence on its formation and to provide a scientific reconstruction of the Kazakh Khanate’s history. Methods: Methodological analysis of the medieval-era written sources presupposes the usage of the methods of forecasting and assumption, comparison and scientific reconstruction, aimed at the disclosure of the content of scientifically-confirmed events and facts that can be found in genealogical tables, genealogies, and traditional written sources. Genealogy is used as an auxiliary method. Findings: As a result, the functions of genealogical data as a unique historical source that reveals the essence of the social and political relationships and social institutions of the traditional Kazakh society were classified. Thus, greater emphasis was placed on the religious and spiritual aspects of ethno-political processes in the society, which previously were not covered in the fundamental studies based on ideological postulates. The paper also provides the periodization of the Kazakh historical thought formation and development, systematizes the process of integration of the Islamic historical thought and the foundations of the Turkic worldview into the genealogical data that strengthened the tribal structure of the Kazakh society. For the first time, the concept of transformation of the ancient Turkic notion of the sacredness of the authority over the Islamic spiritual and political values advocated by the Turko-Islamic Sufi Ahmad Yasawi as a basis of the state ideology of the Kazakh Khanate was proposed. The Kazakh shezhire (genealogy) as a genre of oral history was evaluated methodologically. Applications/Improvements: The results of this study can be used in teaching relevant disciplines such as history,
219 Time Sensitive Business Intelligence - Big Data Processing Methodology for Frequently Changing Business Dimensions. , Anusuya Kirubakara  and M. Aramudhan  
Background: In the competitive data driven business world, business Intelligence (BI) team converts the raw operational data to information for decision making. Operational system captures the day-to-day operations and BI database refreshes operational data periodically. Methods: A component to create the metadata repository which maintains the current BI database summary by logical data partitioning using range based partition for frequently changing parameter which are critical to business. During different time frequency, using metadata repository component identifies the latest data victim between BI vs operational data and refreshes the modified victim to BI database. Findings: In traditional data loading approach from Operational system to BI database, huge volume of data gets refreshed periodically irrespective of modifications, which leads to higher processing time and cost. To overcome this limitation, this proposed methodology helps to identify the latest data victims present in operational systems instead of bulk data replacement which can minimize the processing time and enables faster data transformation to achieve “Time to Decision" and “Quick to Market" implementation for business enhancements. Also component can be scheduled for data refresh with different time frequency for multiple critical to business as well as frequently changing parameters. Applications: In financial, traffic, weather, e-business, Logistics & stock management transactions, data changes frequently and process big data periodically to gain real-time knowledge discovery for time sensitive decision making.
220 Innovative Methods of Foreign Languages Teaching. , Akzhan M. Abdyhalykova.
Background/Objectives: The article reviews innovative methods of foreign languages teaching and different techniques used in the teaching process. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Actual materials reflect the history of pedagogy since ancient times to its modern state. Extracts from the works of Russian and foreign specialists let us know the main trends of development, the formation of new directions in the methodology of foreign languages teaching. The main goal is to introduce innovative methodological techniques. Findings: It has been proven that traditional studies directed only to the transfer and maintenance of knowledge, skills and abilities, and do not demonstrate adequate performance. Modern language education aimed at the formation of a multicultural identity, with the skills of self-analysis and systematization of new knowledge. For this purpose, used competence and culturological approaches. Information and computer technology can improve efficiency and create the conditions for self-study. Applications/Improvements: Innovative methods is an integral part of the modernization of the whole system. Teachers should familiarize themselves with the most progressive approaches and later combine them and use in work.
221 . Study for Main Factors of Technology Commercialisation by its Current Process Analysis , Jongtaik Lee , Jeongsik Lee , Byungcheol Kim and Yun Jeong Choi  
It has become critical to establish firm and efficient networking base more and more for advanced technology commercialisation. In this paper, several main factors for successful technology commercialisation, in terms of networking platform, are discussed through current technology commercialisation process analysis in the United States: demand-driven approach, reality checks, mentorship building, incentive provision, information channeling, and public supports.
222 Dynamically Weighted Combination of Fault - based Software Reliability Growth Models. , Subburaj Ramasamy and A. M. J. Muthu Kumaran.  
Background/Objective: The Software Reliability Growth Models (SRGMs) are mainly used to plan and execute system testing in the Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC). The objective of this research paper is to propose a dynamically weighted fault based combination model for application during this phase of reliability growth testing of software systems. Methods: A dynamically weighted fault based SRGM, which describes equally well the exponential growth and S-shaped growth of mean value function in a software testing process is proposed. Non-linear regression methodology was deployed for parameter estimation of (SRGMs).The curve fitting tool in MATLABTm is used for this purpose. The coefficient of determination R2 , Sum of Squared Errors (SSE), Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) is the goodness of fit measures used to assess the quality of fitting of the SRGMs. Findings: It is found that the proposed combination model describes the failure data better than the constituent models used for combining as revealed by the goodness of fit measures. Applications/ Improvements: The new model can be applied to model reliability growth during testing in software projects with varying characteristics. The model additionally provides vital quality metrics, which can be used to manage the current and future software projects.
223 RST Invariant Image Forgery Detection , Gulivindala Suresh and Chanamallu Srinivasa Rao.
Background/Objectives: Copy-Move Forgery Detection (CMFD) is a very prevalent approach used to detect copy and pasted portions of the same image. The copied portion is rotated, flipped or scaled. The detection method should be invariant to rotation, scaling and translation. Many CMFD methods came into existence; however, some methods fail to withstand attacks such as Contrast adjustment, Gaussian blur and JPEG Compression. Although the methods are able to resist the attacks, they are computationally complex. This paper proposes a Rotation, Scaling, Translation (RST) invariant image forgery detection. Methods: Local Binary Pattern (LBP) is applied on the low frequency content of Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) decomposed image for feature extraction. Findings: The proposed method is invariant to rotation, scaling and translation attacks on the pasted portions of the image and able to resist post-processing attacks and has low computational effort. It is evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively on a CASIA database. Morphological operations are performed to reduce the false alarms. The correct detection ratio is in the range of 80% to 99% and false detection ratio in the range of 7% to 30%. Applications: There is a great demand to detect the forgery, which aids in the digital forensic analysis, in legal document substantiation, and various other fields.
224 Effect of Single Screw Extrusion Parameters on Textural Properties of Rice based Expanded Snacks Enriched with Okara.  , Varsha Kanojia, Mohan Singh, B. M. Khandelwal and Mohammad Azam.
Objective: The objective of present research work is to investigate the effect of single screw extrusion parameters on textural properties of rice based expanded snacks enriched with okara. Method/Analysis: The expanded snacks were prepared through extrusion cooking of broken rice (Oriza Sataiva L) with Okara (a by-product of soy milk)by using a Brabender single-screw extruder. The effects of machine parameters (i.e. barrel temperature (120-160°C), die head temperature (160-200°C), screw speed (50-90 rpm)) and feed parameters (i.e. blend ratio of broken rice and okara (70:30-90:10) and moisture content of feed (14-22 percent w.b.) were analyzed using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) with central composite rotatable design. Multiple regression equations and various response surface plots were generated to show the impact of each independent parameter on the quality of extruded snacks. Findings: The extruded snacks textural characteristics (hardness and crispness) were determined by texture analyser. The product textural characteristics were found to be most dependent on feed moisture content, blend ratio, barrel temperature and die head temperature. The presence of okara in blend ratio contributed to decrease the crispness and to increase in hardness of extrudate. Applications: This research effort to encourage the utilization of by-products of rice mill and soy milk units for the production of new value added expanded snacks. Textural properties (Hardness, Crispness etc.) of expanded snacks have prime importance in the acceptability of extruded product among the consumers.
225 Multi User Profile Orient Access Control based Integrity Management for Security Management in Data Warehouse. , G. Thangaraju and X. Agnise Kala Rani .
Background/Objectives: The Aim of this research work to demonstrate that the security enhancement of data warehousing, the methods face major challenges in integrity management and have the responsibility to restrict the unauthorized user. Methods/Statistical Analysis: There are many access control methods discussed earlier for the problem of integrity management, and some of them have been discussed using the user profiles. Still they suffer from the problem of efficiency in integrity management. Findings: To overcome such issues, in this paper a multi-user profile orient access depths measure based integrity management is proposed. The method maintains a set of Meta data which keep track of data objects in a hierarchical manner according to their importance and sensitivity of the data. The method first identifies a set of objects being specified from the input query and the sensitive tree; the method computes the access depthness measure. The access depthness is computed based on the level of objects being called and the access level the user has been given and the number of objects the user has access. Application/Improvement: Based on computed access depths measure user query is being processed, and the method improves the performance of integrity management.
226 Geochemical Analysis of Domestic Groundwater Sources in a Suburb of Ota, Southwestern Nigeria. , T. Kayode Olusola , P. Aizebeokhai Azegbobor, O. Adewoyin Olusegun, S. Joel Emmanuel and Omeje Maxwell
Groundwater as one of the most valuable natural resources supports human health, economic development and ecological diversity. The activities of many constituents related to groundwater such as micro-organisms, gases, inorganic and organic materials can lead to contamination of well water, municipal drinking water sources and the environment. Therefore, geochemical analyses of domestic groundwater sources within Iju, Southwestern Nigeria have been conducted to determine the groundwater properties of water samples from available hand-dug wells and boreholes within the area. Fifteen (15) water samples sourced from wells and boreholes within the study area were analyzed for their major trace elements using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) in the laboratory and physiochemical characteristics such as pH, total dissolved solids and conductivity were calculated to determine the suitability of such water for agricultural and domestic consumption. The bulk analysis on the water samples revealed that majority of the trace elements when compared with the World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water standards and Acme Laboratory Canada Method Detection Limits (MDL) have values that agree with the recommended limit. These findings show that the present status of groundwater in Iju is good for domestic and agricultural purposes. However, the presence of trace elements such as Lead, Bromide, Copper, Potassium, Manganese, Rubidium and Silicon in fairly high quantities in the groundwater samples which may be as a result of treatment in the water or dissolved salts in the groundwater may constitute major health hazards if not quickly checked. In spite of groundwater studies done in Ota, important information on groundwater resources in Iju is still largely unavailable. Thus, groundwater management can be effectively planned based on these results for the study area
227 SSC Based RS: An Efficient Service Recommendation System for Handling Big Data Applications.  , R. K. Saranya and V. L. Jyothi 
Objectives: To find an appropriate web service and reduce the time taken for introducing web service, to improve parallel processing, to reduce the complexity and to improve its scalability and efficiency in big data environment. Methods: MapReduce framework in Hadoop platform is for increase the efficiency and scalability in big data domain, SSC based RS, web service information are structured in hierarchical format. The proposed system calculates the semantic comparison between the big data applications. Findings: SSC based RS (Semantic Similarity Calculation Based Recommendation System) is used to efficiently suggest better services for the requested users, by using semantic dictionary the semantic similarity will be calculated. Here, the services are stored in the hierarchical structure will increase the recommendation process faster. An experimental result shows that our proposed algorithm provides a suitable recommended service compared to other existing approaches. Applications/Improvement: In Big Data the proposed technique improves the efficiency and scalability by applying MapReduce parallel processing standard on Hadoop environment.
228 A phenomenological Case Study on the Psychological and Spiritual Conflict Resulting from Excessive Use of Smartphones - Focused on Christian University Students. , Ki-Sook Ko 
The purpose of this study is to, through in-depth interviews, identify the problems of Christian student’s excessive smartphone use precipitating a psychological and spiritual conflict. A total of 11 students at a four-year Christian College participated in this study. This study reflects participants experienced both spiritual and psychological conflict do to the high volume of smartphone use. The primary in depth interviews were conducted from June to July 2012. The secondary data was collected from April to May of 2014. The collected data was analysed according to the phenomenological case study method. As a result of analysis, this case study consisted of five categories. Within these categories included a combined total of 17 subcategories and are explained in the following section. The first category featured in the survey is “Addiction”. While the subjects were gradually addicted to the use of smartphones, they experienced Time Concept Palsy, Mental Anxiety, Psychiatric symptoms and General Impairment of daily life. The second major category is “Isolation and Alienation of Existence”. This category consists of the Present on the island, the Emergence of Instrumental Relationships, and the Human Isolation. The third category is “Idolization of the Smartphone”. This topic includes recognising the smartphone as another existing self. In other words, it is called by slavery to the smartphone. The fourth category is “Changing the Pattern of Spiritual Ritual”. This area deals with how the smartphone has changed the way in which college students worship and is comprised of the following subcategories. The emergence of the smartphone culture in the church, Desensitisation of Guilt, Disturbance of the Spiritual Life, and Conflicts of Faith. The fifth area is “Self-Regulation”. This topic includes living a life centered on faith, self-reflection and self-regulation, and seeks the coexistence of faith and smartphone use. Based on the findings, this case study proposes a plan of action to address the psychological-spiritual conflicts due to the excessive use of smartphones in the church and the University.
229 Football as a part of the Process of Development of Competence of Personal Growth in Students by means of Physical Education. , Leonid A. Zelenin, Evgeniy V. Kudryashov, Anatoliy A. Opletin, Valeriy D. Panachev, Yulia A. Korepanova and Marat T. Fazleev  
Background/Objectives: Modern open educational space of the high school implies the system of the educational processes offering conditions for independent development of personal education environments. Methods/Statistical Analysis: The article considers approaches to the phenomenon and essence of the shaping of competencies of personal development with the help of football. Use of football in scholastic process of school for students’ physical education and shaping of athletic competency and competencies of personal development. Theoretical analysis of scientific and scholasticmethodical literature on football. Study and journaling of self-sentiment and personal development, organization of students’ health cards. Testing a level of development of physical qualities. Experiment. Findings: Studies and testing confirmed close liaison between development, speed-power qualities, technical evaluation of health, shaping of athletic competencies and personal development of students practicing football. Presented observations may be used to control the level of development of certain physical and technical qualities in student practicing football, to adjust the process of training changing its direction for formation of physical, sports and self-development competences. We observe positive increase of physical standards of students taking part in experimental program. Students practicing football, are less prone to catarrhal diseases (ARD, ARVI, influenza) and have higher motivation for physical activity. Regular practice of football teaches students discipline, self-confidence, partnership, team spirit; promotes normalization of fitness, shaping of athletic competency and competency of individual development. Applications/Improvements: It is one of ways of physical shaping and development of physical qualities in personality within the process students’ self-realisation in their professions of choice
230 Mathematical Modeling of Wastewater Vibrational Filtering Process. , Jamil I. Safarov
Background/Objectives: The article describes the development of the tools to design wastewater vibrational filtering process based on mathematical modeling of the motion of contaminating particles. Methods/Statistical Analysis: A method of reducing contamination of the filtered surface through forced vibration is considered. To build a mathematical model, we consider the mode of motion of particles without contact with each other. In this case, hydrodynamic resistance forces effect on the particle determined by the difference of water flow velocity at the location of the particle and own velocity of the particle. Findings: The proposed mathematical model is based on representation of solid contaminations of the liquid being treated as a set of spherical particles of different diameters, which allows taking into account the basic properties of interaction of particles with the liquid and contact interaction between the particles and between a particle and the filter screen. Dimensionless performance evaluation criteria of vibrational filtering are proposed, as well as dimensionless parameters to evaluate the properties of the filtering surface with respect to the particle diameter. Applications/Improvements: As a result of mathematical modeling, nonlinear dependence of the average frequency of passage of particles through the filter surface on vibration parameters and on dimensionless parameters of the filter is established. The range of parameters of the filtering element is found ensuring maximum efficiency of the filtering process.
231 Effect of In-office Bleaching Application on the Color, Microhardness and Surface Roughness of Five Esthetic Restorative Materials. , Youn-Soo, Shim 
The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the effect of in-office bleaching application on the color, microhardness, and surface roughness of five different tooth-colored restorative materials. Thirty specimens were fabricated from each restorative materials nano-hybrid composite (Grandio/Voco), micro-hybrid composite (Filtek Z250/3M), flow able composite (Filtek P60/3M), compomer (Dyract AP/DentsplyDeTrey) and glass-ionomer cement (Ketac Molar Easymix/3M)] and divided into 3 subgroups. Specimens in group 1 were stored in distilled water at 37ºC (control) during the hiatus period. Specimens in group 2 and 3 were treated with 15% hydrogen peroxide (HP) and 25% hydrogen peroxide, respectively. The data were analyzed with ANOVA and T-test. 15% HP and 25% HP groups showed an apparent color change (∆E*) than control group. In particular, Dyract AP and Ketac Molar Easymix showed a noticeable color change and statistically significant differences (p<0.05). HP groups showed a reduction in microhardness. Filtek Z250 and Filtek P60 does not have a statistically significant difference (p>0.05), Dyract AP and Ketac Molar Easy mix showed a statistically significant difference (p<0.05). Surface roughness was increased in 25% HP group after bleaching. In-office bleaching agents may affect the surface of existing restorations. Bleaching agents should not be used indiscriminately when these restorations are present.
232 Biometrics as a Cryptographic Method for Network Security.  , Kumar Ankit and Jayaram Rekha 
Background: Cryptography is considered as an effective method for secure transmission of data but falls prey to network attacks. The proposed biometrics-based Encryption/Decryption Scheme uses fingerprints to generate a unique key. Methods: The presented technique combines portions of fingerprint of the sender and the receiver to generate a random sequence, which is used as a public-key for Encryption as well as Decryption. The key thus generated is distinct as it is watermarked with sender's biometric signature. The encrypted message is then sent to the receiver along with the key. The receiver uses this key to decrypt the message to plain text. Findings: This system has a significant advantage as there is no requirement for the asymmetric key to be stored in a protected place, thus reducing the security threats to the minimum. The fingerprint is an inherent trait of every individual and is distinct. Hence billons of unique keys can be created, making it very hard for an attacker to guess the key. Applications: The biometric based system significantly increases the power of traditional crypto-system
233 Effect of Filial Piety and Intimacy on Caregiving Stress among Chinese Adult Married Children Living with Parents. , Yun-Jeong Kim and Hyun-Jung Kang 
This study investigated how filial piety and intimacy were applied to family caregiving stress. Data were obtained from a survey of 295 family caregivers in Xuan Ceobg and Chi Zhou, a city in An Hui Province of China from January to February 2014. The majority of caregiving was being provided for one’s own parents 78.3%, which was twice the rate of caregiving for a spouse’s parents. On responsibility, ‘caregiving by sharing with brothers/sisters equally’ was most common at 52.9%, followed by main caregiver at 27.5% and sole caregiver at 19.7%. Of living with elderly parents, 40.3% of caregivers did and 59.7% did not. The mean score for filial piety was 3.28 points, intimacy was 4.12 points, and caregiving stress was 2.19 points on a 5-point Likert scale. Of caregivers living with parents, filial piety increased caregiving stress but intimacy reduced stress for sole caregivers. Only caregivers not living with parents could reduce caregiving stress with intimacy.
234 The Institute of Biys in the Imperial Russia and Early Soviet Period: From Reforms to Abolishment. , Zhanna S. Mazhitova, Bibihadisha Zh. Abzhapparova , Roza T. Aytbay 
Background/Objectives: The article presents the history of the court of biys in the Soviet period. Methods/Statistical Analysis: The authors note that after political and legal reforms of the Russian Empire in the 19th century, the court of biys was not subject to deep transformation. It continued to be a means of regulation of social relations in the Kazakh society. Also, various legal practices - adat, Sharia law, Russian law, gradual incorporation of local cultural and legal space into the Imperial. However, the state of the court of biys began to change with the Bolsheviks’ rise to power. Findings: In the beginning populist slogans of the Soviet regime about universal equality and equal rights of all the nations formerly being the part of the Russian Empire, weakness and lack of knowledge about government of nomadic peoples made the Bolsheviks to tolerate legal customary practices of local nations. In those years courts of biys continued to exist as Aqsaqal (arbitral) courts and councils. However, with the establishment of the power, the Bolsheviks headed for complete abolishment of all the traditional institutes of the Kazakh society. The government adopted several documents aimed at first at weakening and then at abolishment of legal customary culture of the nation. The measures of the Soviet government revealed persistence of the experience and knowledge in the national conscience. Applications/Improvements: Thus, during the first decade of Soviet period the government went from support of traditional Kazakh court over to gradual abolishment and interdiction of their activity in the territory of Kazakhstan
235 Resolving the Recruitment and Selection Problem as NP-Hard Problem.  , E. Okewu and S. Misra  
Background/Objectives: As organizations increasingly strive to attract and retain high calibre ICT-compliant staff, recruitment and selection is attracting huge attention. This paper classified the recruitment and selection problem as NP-hard problem and applied metaheuristic algorithm to solve it. Methods/Statistical Analysis: This study focused on University of Lagos, Nigeria as case study and applied computational theory in the form of metaheuristic algorithm in a bid to improve on the existing recruitment and selection process. We reviewed literature, gathered requirements, designed a system and statically tested the process-correctness of the proposed system. The operational recruitment and selection data collected and used for statical testing were obtained from secondary materials of the University. Findings: We were able to establish that the recruitment and selection problem in University of Lagos, Nigeria is NP-Hard and equally confirmed appropriateness of applying metaheuristic solution rather than exact algorithm to such problem, given its complex and varied nature. In our view, this is an addition to the growing body of knowledge of the metaheuristic community. Also, the research outcome is an addition to the human resource management community knowledge space. Against the backdrop that human resources are germane to the socio-economic transformation of nations coupled with the challenges of obtaining optimal solutions (best-known candidates) from a teeming pool of applicants, human resource experts are excited that a value-addition metaheuristic solution such as ours can reduce their recruitment and selection stress by about 50%. With the right crop of employees, set organizational goals and objectives can be achieved in the most efficient and effective fashion. Applications/Improvements: The study outcome is a software architecture that will scaleup the search for optimal solutions (best candidates) from any pool of job applicants in a timely and cost-effective fashion. This best-fit search apparatus will help human resource experts in aligning organization’s human resource strategy with its corporate strategy and objectives.
236 An Analysis of Cash Holdings of ICT firms , Milim Chon and Jeongmi Choi 
Objectives: The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether the levels of cash holdings and cash reserves of ICT firms are different from those of non-ICT firms. Methods/Analysis: This study in this paper uses regression analysis to examine the association between ICT industry and level of cash holding and cash reserve ratio. Our final sample contains 1,299 Korean listed firms from 2011 to 2013. The key classification is the distinction between ICT and non-ICT firms. The former are firms in the information and communications technology industry, and the latter are in traditional manufacturing industries. Findings: The results of this study indicate that cash holdings and cash reserves ratio are positively associated with ICT firms. ICT firms and non-ICT firms take different approaches to spending and holding their cash. Firms with high sales volatility and capital expenditures including ICT firms hold more cash, and firms with higher leverage and sales revenue hold less cash. While the cash reserve ratio is unrelated to sales volatility, and firms with a high cash reserve ratio are more likely to have higher sales revenue. Conclusion/Application: This is one of few empirical studies that examine the relationship between cash holding and characteristics of ICT firm. This study simply that the level of cash holdings of a firm is affected by not only its capital structure but also industry characteristics. By examining this relationship, the study offers another consideration of the ongoing debate in Korean market about high cash holdings and conglomerate.
237 The Role of the Russian Legal Mentality in Shaping Legal Policy in Present-Day Russian Society.  , Olga I. Miroshnichenko  and Tamara G. Okminskaya  
Background/Objectives: Through the example of the Russian Federation, this article discusses issues in shaping effective legal policy. Methods: We used the methods of theoretical analysis, the method of comparison, and the method of simulation. Findings: Our proposals do not just reflect the Russian experience but could be of interest in all countries undergoing reform at the moment. We view legal policy as an integrated activity by the state aimed at reforming all the elements in the legal system. In the end, we come to the conclusion that the degree to which law-making is currently being enhanced is insufficient. Application/Improvements: There is a need for the state to actively develop other forms of legal policy, namely those related to nurturing, educational, and ideological activity. Besides, effective legal policy ought to be founded on what the mentality of a particular social community is like – otherwise, any progressive innovations in the legal area are just doomed to failure.
238 Integrated Intrusion Detection Approach for Cloud Computing.  , C. Ambikavathi  and S. K. Srivatsa  
Objectives: Intrusion Detection System (IDS) models and methods are integrated for better detection of intruders and mitigation of false alarms. Integrated IDS is proposed to provide security in a cloud environment. Methods: The distributed and dynamic nature built-in of cloud environment leads to critical issues like huge log analysis, heterogeneous traffic aggregation and scalability, etc. Intrusion specific data classification and false alarms degrades performance. This integrated model integrates both IDS models and IDS methodologies. Host-based IDS (H-IDS) model integrates with network-based IDS (N-IDS) model, as well as signature and anomaly based IDS methods are integrated to get the best of each. Findings: Whenever a Virtual Machine (VM) is created, H-IDS is in-built into its operating system to monitor the activities within that VM. N-IDS is deployed at strategic locations within the cloud network to monitor the traffic between the virtual machines and from the outside environment. Any malicious activity initiated by a cloud user using their virtual machine is detected by H-IDS. The packets flowing through the cloud network are captured and analyzed by N-IDS to detect infected packets send by hackers. The weakness of one methodology is compromised by the other during integration, but if the methods are used separately they are ineffective. Known attacks can be detected by signature based IDS and the new/unknown attack patterns are identified by anomaly based IDS. The major drawback of anomaly based IDS is high false alarm rate. It can be overcome by signature based IDS. This proposed work is implemented using Opennebula, for constructing a cloud environment and tested with IDS tools. Improvements: This integration leads to improve cloud security and trust among consumers. IDS specific issues are also rectified such as false alarms, heterogeneity etc.
239 An Analysis of the Effect of Joint Research Networks on the Diffusion of Knowledge: Focusing on the Renewable Energy Field.  , Dae-hyun Jeong , Young-il Kwon , Geuntae Cho and Young-Ho Moon 
Background/Objectives: The growth of technology is a main driver for technical development. In this study, we analysed effects of joint research among technology adopters on the increase oftechnology adopters. Methods/Statistical Analysis: For this purpose, we measure network density in renewable energy field and use VOS viewer. Also, a regression analysis was conducted on the number of participating countries and the international joint research network density by year using SCOPUS data of renewable energy. Results: As a result, it was found that technology diffusion in renewable energy field increased linearly along with the increasing international joint researches on renewable energy. It was analysed that advanced countries share latest technologies on renewable energy and the shared information influences the late adopters who participate in the related research fields. Conclusion/Application: The findings of this study are meaningful in that they statistically verified the correlations between joint research network density and technology diffusion.
240 Prelimanary Observation On Microbial Population In The Soaking Water During bedak sejuk Production.  , Mohd Alif Afife Dzulfakar, Noorhisham Tan Kofli and Siti Masrinda Tasirin  
Backgraound/Objectives: During the production of bedak sejuk (local face powder cosmetic made from rice), the soaking water were changed intermittently because of its pungent smell, believe to be caused by microbial reactions. In this initial investigation, we monitored the microbial population in the series of batch fermentation of bedak sejuk. Methods: Local polished rice grains (Indica) were soaked in tap water (w/v) at ambient temperature mimicking the usual preparation of bedak sejuk. The overall soaking period was 28 days (two times of soaking, 14 days for each interval). The soaking water was serially diluted and then spread over several types of agar. To count the lactic acid bacteria (LAB), the diluted samples were spread on the M17 media, yeast and mould were spread on Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar (DRBC) while coliforms were spread on Petri-Film. The results were indicated as Colony-Forming Units per milligram (CFU/mL) of soaking water. Findings: For the first batch fermentation, the microbial count in soaking water was 11.44 log CFU/mL. LAB counts increased from 3.02 to 6.14 log CFU/mL at the end of fermentation time. Yeasts count increased from 1.68 to 2.78 log CFU/mL, mould count also increased from 0.73 to 1.31 log CFU/mL while coliform count decreased from 3.88 to 1.21 log CFU/mL. While for the second batch fermentation, microbial count in soaking water was 13.15 log CFU/mL. LAB counts increased from 5.65 to 6.81 log CFU/mL at the end of fermentation time. Yeasts count increased from 2.34 to 3.37 log CFU/mL, mould count also increased from 1.33 to 2.08 log CFU/mL while coliform count decreased from 2.38 to 0.89 log CFU/ml. Application: The results of the study have given the initial background information on the varieties of microbial populations that presence during the natural fermentation of bedak sejuk.
241 Characterization and Performance Evaluation of Ultrafiltration Membrane for Humic Acid Removal. , Yeit Haan Teow  
Background/Objectives: Humic Acid (HA) appears in conventional water treatment processes will compose to carcinogenic disinfection by-products. This has sparked this study to examine the effectiveness of polymeric membranes in HA removal. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Different types of membranes with a wide range of Molecular Weight Cut-Off (MWCO) were used in this study and their separation performances were evaluated by varying the Transmembrane Pressure (TMP) and HA concentrations. The permeates and feeds were analyzed by measuring the UV absorbance at wavelength of 254 nm. Findings: Among four membrane modules that used in this study, it was found that membrane Modules 1, 2 and 3 demonstrated similar performances in HA removal with a separation rate of at least 50%. Excellent HA separation (>90%) was reported with the use of membrane Module 4. Increasing of HA concentration from 0.1 to 0.2 mg/L did not expressively reduce membrane efficiency. These membranes however having severe fouling which contributed to a low permeate flow rates after a few runs. The permeate flux was initially high but reduced over the operation time. Simple cleaning could be conducted to recover the permeate flux but not 100% recovery as compared to the original fresh membranes. Application/ Improvements: Based on the experiments, it can be established that the hollow fiber UF membrane is suitable for HA removal.
242 Various Techniques to Overcome Noise in Dynamic CMOS Logic.  , Misbah Manzoor , ShekharVerma, Tapsi Singh and Mahwash Manzoor  
The advent of dynamic logic especially domino logic has made the use of dynamic circuits very wide for the implementation of low power VLSI circuits. Dynamic logic style is becoming the designers’ choice these days because it has very fast speed and occupies very small area. In this paper we have used various techniques based on domino logic to overcome noise. Each technique has its merits and demerits. Out of these techniques mentioned below we have taken two widely used techniques in domino logic, conditional keeper technique and diode footed domino. We calculated their noise margins at different values of supply voltage. We have done simulations in 90 nm technology. After calculations we found both techniques show fairly good noise immunity but diode footed domino gave better results.
243 Simulation-based Learning of Korean Nurses: A Systematic Review. , Weon-Hee Moon , Young-Ju, Kim and Sung-Yun Ahn 
Objectives:This studyproposes adirectionfor futuredevelopment anda basicdata onthe effectiveness of simulation-based education by conducting a systematic review on the simulation-based education in Korean nurses. Methods: Literaturewas selected in accordancewith the criteria ofPICOT-SDby threeprofessors in nursingwith experience in meta-analysis evaluating the quality of the paper and analysing their content. Among the total of 65 literatures searched through KERIS (2014.4.15) and KAN & KJAN (2014.4.18) DB, a final 8 literatures were selected according to the criteria. 8 articles were collected and analysed according to the Cochrane-handbook and PRISMA’s guideline on reporting. Results: As a result of the overall quality assessment of targeted literatures, it was analysed that 3 literatures that used the study design of RCT was (++) and the other 5 literatures were (+). Most of the literature analysed in this study addressed the theme of simulation with a focus on ACLS (advanced cardiovascular life support) and ER/ICU care. There were many literatures having no educational effect in the cognitive & affective domain of Bloom, but for psychomotor domain, most of the literatures have shown an educational effect of improvement on the clinical performance ability. This study showed that simulation based learning was effective in improving clinical performance ability in Korean nurses. Conclusion: This study has significance in that it was the firstto attempt the systematic review on the simulation education study targeting the Korean nurses.
244 Intra State Recovery System Design for Cloud based Applications. , Komal Mahajan and  Deepak Dahiya.
Background/Objectives: Considering the growingdemandfor cloud services for development and deploying of critical business applications, it is extremely important that cloud provider guarantees a reliable and robust service by providing fault tolerance mechanisms that enable seamless execution of the business transaction execution even in presence of faulty components. The objective of this paper is to propose a collaborative fault tolerant mechanism between cloud provider and cloud client. Methods/Statistical Analysis: The collaborative fault tolerance approach considers collaboration between the cloud provider and the cloud client to develop a comprehensive fault tolerance solution that can be customised to suit to the hosted cloud applications needs.The proposed design is based on usage ofPersistent Map based strategy. Findings: The Persistent Map based strategy saves the state information of execution in the form of P-maps. The P-map is a persistent hash map that stores the current state of execution of a given task. In the case of failure, it can be used to restart the process from the last state at which the task failed and resume the application execution from that point as though no failure occurred.The P-map storage is a crucial element to be considered in the design of the system, that requires careful analysis and can have a huge impact on the execution of an application. Application/Improvements: The authors have considered an approach which requires a collaboration between cloud providers and cloud client to design a fault tolerance mechanism that takes into consideration the complex cloud infrastructure as well behaviour and functionality of the application in focus.
245 Automatic Subject Classification of Korean Journals based on KSCD. , MuYeong, Kang , Jae-Do, Shin and Byungkyu Kim 
Journal subject classification is important in terms of being used for scholarly information service and foundation of disciplinary research analysis. Subject classification by subject matter experts or journal information takes a significant amount of time or does not provide accurate information about subject respectively. In order to overcome these current problems, this research suggested automatic subject classification method by using SCI journal information cited by domestic science and engineering journals, and it also investigated the classification results. We found that using the entire cited academic journals has a better accuracy rate than using the most cited three or five academic journals, and this research showed that the more academic journals included in the analysis the more accurate the rate. Especially, this research utilised the subject category of Web of Science as the standard of subject classification and provided foundations for comparing subject category structure in academic research results in KSCI and SCI.
246 Perception and Eradication of Energy Exhausting Attacks in WSN.  , M. Rajesh Khanna, A. Rengarajan , R. Prabu and S. Siva Shankar .
Microwaves ad-hoc feeler groups are spatially distributed self governing sensors to examine physical or environmental conditions and for conveyance purposes. Besides all the comforts of the life wireless network spouses serious security threats. Here we implement a simulation based model by using both dynamic threshold algorithm and recursive algorithm and hidden terminal process is used to transfer the data packets to the outer region nodes without any hazards. The proposed method detects the attack and restrain from the attacker node in the network based on CS (Cognitive Sensing) node.
247 Design of Frequency-Reconfigurable Microstrip Patch Antenna.  , Himanshu Anand and Anil Kumar  
Background/Objectives: A frequency reconfigurable antenna is presented with operating frequency as 3.35 GHz. This antenna is capable of switching to six different frequencies. Methods/Analysis: A reconfigurable microstrip patch antenna has been designed with slots cut in the ground plane. Three p-i-n diode has been introduced between these slots on the ground plane. The antenna produced six different frequency bands between 4.1818 GHz to 7.2727 GHz at operating frequency 3.35 GHz. The projected antenna has been designed using Taconic35 substrate with a relative dielectric constant of 3.5 and thickness of 1.52 mm. Findings: The proposed antenna exhibits multi-frequency behavior. This antenna is capable of switching to six different frequencies viz. 4.1818 GHz, 4.2424 GHz, 7.3333 GHz, 4.3030 GHz, 7.2727 GHz and 7.2121 GHz. At these frequencies proposed antenna produces six Return loss viz.-19.6476 dBi, -20.8143 dBi, -23.8396 dBi, -22.8885 dBi, -21.5707 dBi and -25.6389 dBi and Gain of 2.5808 dBi, 2.0623 dBi, 2.5694 dBi, 2.2819 dBi, 3.2810 dBi and 3.1969 dBi. Novelty/Improvements: In this paper a compact frequency reconfigurable microstrip patch antenna has been presented with less Return loss and high gain in compare with the conventional one
248 The Association of Blood Heavy Metal Concentration and Components of Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Male Adults , In-Young Yoo
Thepurposeofthis studywas toanalyse the associationbetweenbloodheavymetal concentration(lead,mercury, cadmium) and components of metabolic syndrome (Mets) in Korean male adults. Data were extracted from the 5th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010. Participants were 965 Korean male adults aged 20 years and over. The data were analysed by using SPSS/Win 20.0. The means of blood lead, mercury and cadmium concentration in participants were 2.94μg/dl, 5.98μg/L, and 1.10μg/L, respectively. The means of Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG), Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP), Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP), serum Triglyceride (TG), serum High-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C) and Waist Circumference (WC) were 100.23mg/dl, 123.43mmHg, 81.23mmHg, 161.84mg/dl, 49.64mg/dl and 84.35cm, respectively. After adjusting for demographical characteristics (age, education, income, residential area, occupation, drinking, and smoking), increase of FBS and DBP were associated with the serum cadmium (OR = 1.465) and lead (OR = 1.147), respectively. Mercury was associated with increase of WC (OR = 1.051) and Mets (OR = 1.048). Based on the outcomes of this study, it is necessary to develop intervention strategies for reducing the lead, mercury and cadmium exposure and monitor continuous blood heavy metal concentration.
249 The Association of Blood Heavy Metal Concentration and Components of Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Male Adults , In-Young Yoo
Thepurposeofthis studywas toanalyse the associationbetweenbloodheavymetal concentration(lead,mercury, cadmium) and components of metabolic syndrome (Mets) in Korean male adults. Data were extracted from the 5th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010. Participants were 965 Korean male adults aged 20 years and over. The data were analysed by using SPSS/Win 20.0. The means of blood lead, mercury and cadmium concentration in participants were 2.94μg/dl, 5.98μg/L, and 1.10μg/L, respectively. The means of Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG), Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP), Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP), serum Triglyceride (TG), serum High-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C) and Waist Circumference (WC) were 100.23mg/dl, 123.43mmHg, 81.23mmHg, 161.84mg/dl, 49.64mg/dl and 84.35cm, respectively. After adjusting for demographical characteristics (age, education, income, residential area, occupation, drinking, and smoking), increase of FBS and DBP were associated with the serum cadmium (OR = 1.465) and lead (OR = 1.147), respectively. Mercury was associated with increase of WC (OR = 1.051) and Mets (OR = 1.048). Based on the outcomes of this study, it is necessary to develop intervention strategies for reducing the lead, mercury and cadmium exposure and monitor continuous blood heavy metal concentration.
250 Development and Analysis of Switched Capacitor Four Quadrant DC-DC Converter for Hybrid Electric Vehicle. , A. Geetha, C. Subramani and V. Krithika  
Background/Objectives: The main objective of this research is to develop a bi-directional four quadrant DC-DC converter for an energy efficient electric vehicle. Methods/Analysis: The model of electric vehicle is designed using MATLAB software. The results confirm that the proposed DC-DC converter structure is highly reliable, lighter in weight, smaller in volume, with good efficiency, less electromagnetic interference and lower current or voltage ripple. Findings: The issues on global warming and fossil fuels depletion have created opportunities to Electric Vehicle (EV). The main characteristics of Energy storage system in vehicles include energy density, power density, lifetime, cost and maintenance. Most of the electric and hybrid electric configurations use two energy storage devices, one with high energy storage capacity, called the “Main Energy System” (MES) and the other with high power capacity called the “Auxiliary Energy Storage System” (AESS). Other challenge in electric vehicle is to maintain the state of charge within the allowable limits and sharing of energy between the storage devices. For proper sharing of energy between the storage devices, DC-DC converter plays a crucial role. Novelty /Improvement: A novel Switched Capacitor DC-DC power converter and their controllers are investigated.
251 A Systematic Survey of Vanet Routing Protocols based on Transmission Strategies.  , G. Mary Valantina and S. Jayashri  
Vanet is a super class of Manet with some unique features High speed vehicles moving on roads exchange information among them which helps in making a decision that ensures more safety. Since the vehicles move in high speed the link between any two vehicles exists for only few seconds so within that time period the information transfer has to take place. This could be possible only when the design of routing protocol is reliable and efficient. Communication of information is done in three ways. Point to point routing deals with one source to one destination. Multicasting deals with one source to group of destination and broadcasting deals with one source to all destinations in the network. Challenges are different for different types of routing; depending on the applications the routing pattern is going to be different. This paper discusses about these three types of routing and issues and challenges involved in each of this routing is analyzed. The pros and cons of different routing are discussed which would help in designing a protocol for specific applications.
252 Remineralisation Effect of Fluoride on Early Caries Lesions using a Quantitative Light-Induced Fluorescence-Digital (QLF-D).  , Su-Young, Lee , Soon-Ryun, Lim and Young-Sik, Cho 
The aim of this study was to evaluate the remineralisation effect after fluoride application onto an early caries lesion using a Quantitative Light-induced Fluorescence-Digital (QLF-D). Specimens were prepared by human posterior teeth and were embedded into a plaster cast to exposure the crown part. Specimens were divided randomly into the following three groups; (1) control group, (2) 2% NaF solution, (3) 1.23% APF gel. Artificial enamel caries were formed in specimens (demineralised area) with a 1.0% Carbopol 2050 (pH 4.8). Topical fluoride solution and gel were applied to the specimens of experimental group for 4 minutes and they were immersed in human saliva for 1 hour. Mineral loss of artificial caries lesion was evaluated by fluorescence loss (⊿F) values usingQLF-D.Differences between baseline and post-treatment values in the three groups were assessed one-way ANOVA and post-hoc test was performed with the Tukey’s test (SPSS 18.0). The average ⊿F values of baseline were –6.56 in three groups. ⊿F of APF gel group (1.90) is greatly decreased compared to the baseline and was statistically significant difference compared with two groups (0.12) (p < 0.05). Therefore, the 1.23% APF gel is the most effective in the treatment of remineralisation of artificial caries lesions. Also, the QLF-D could be useful for the evaluation of the remineralisation effect in early caries.
253 Implementing A Novel Biometric Cryptosystem using Similarity Distance Measure Function Focusing on the Quantization Stage , R. Ramya and T. Sasikala  
Objectives: The essential requirement for a successful hashing method involves two distinct stages projection and quantization. In general, the projection stage is given much importance than the quantization stage. This stage has been concentrated in this paper which has equal importance as projection stage. Methods/Analysis: The using of Manhattan Distance method has been proposed in this paper instead of the widely used Hamming Distance, since it destroys the neighbourhood structure while measuring the similarity between points in the hashcode space. Findings: The problem of destroying the neighbourhood structure that existed in Hamming Distance is overcome by Manhattan hashing. Novelty /Improvement: The outperformance of Manhattan distance compared with Hamming distance has been shown and also, this paper has made an attempt to implement them in our Biocryptosystem to show its efficiency
254 The Effects of Convolution Geometry and Boundary Condition on the Failure of Bellows.  , Jin-Bong, Kim 
Bellows have wide applications in automobile, aerospace, piping systems and industrial systems. An optimised shape for the bellows is expected to give good guidelines for practical design. Metallic bellows expansion joints are subject to displacement loading, this frequently results in cyclic strains. The effects of convolution geometry and boundary conditions on the failure of bellows are analysed in this study. Lateral deflection is considered as a boundary condition and a FEM solution for bellows is obtained. The stress distribution and the number of cycles to failure in the conditions of lateral deflection are obtained. Comparing results, the relation between the number of load cycles to failure and the flexible tube radius is obtained. In addition, the relation between stress and boundary conditions for the model in this study is also obtained.
255 Extended Comb Needle Model for Energy Efficient Data Aggregation in Random Wireless Sensor Networks , M. Shanmukhi and O. B. V. Ramanaiah.
Background/Objectives: Energy conservation in Wireless Sensor Network is essential to enhance its life. A sensor node consumes more energy for communication than performing data gathering or data processing. Data aggregation minimizes the data size for communication. Methods/Statistical Analysis: The Comb Needle model is available in literature to perform data aggregation for grid networks (regular deployment). Extended the Basic Comb Needle Model in randomly deployed sensor networks. The simple random network with Comb Needle Model is compared with simple random network without Comb Needle Model. The theoretical analysis and simulation study shows that Extended Comb Needle Model performs better data aggregation. Findings: When we apply the Proposed Model in random network, the communication cost, overhead, and energy consumption are significantly reduced. The simulation results for the proposed Extended Comb Needle Model prove that the energy consumption and overall communication costs are substantially minimized. The simulation comparison is done for simple random network with and without Comb Needle Model in terms of communication cost, energy consumption, delay, packet loss, packet delivery ratio, and throughput. We found that the communication cost is decreased from 82% to 58%. the average energy consumption is decreased from 80% to 40%. Delay is decreased from 76% to 20%. Packet loss in decreased from 67% to 12%. Packet Delivery Ratio is increased from 82 % to 87%. And throughput is increased from 70% to 90%. Application/Improvements: Proposed Model optimizes WSN performance in terms of better packet delivery ratio, improved throughput, minimized energy consumption and reduced delay. Simulation results as well as theoretical analysis affirm the same.
256 Thermal Analysis of Ceramic Coated Aluminum Alloy Piston using Finite Element Method , S. Krishnamani and T. Mohanraj  
The objective of this paper is to establish the temperature distributions in plasma sprayed Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) and magnesia stabilized zirconia (MgZrO3 ) thermal barrier coating on an aluminum alloy piston crown to raise the potential of a diesel engine. The influence of ceramic coating thickness on temperature variations are studied by finite element method using ANSYS. The temperature distribution analyses were conducted for the ceramic coating thickness of 0.3mm over the piston crown surface. The results of the piston coated with two different coatings were analyzed. It is observed that, the peak exterior surface temperature of the ceramic piston with the material MgZrO3 is increased by 32% and 20% for the piston coated with yttria stabilized zirconia compared with conventional aluminum alloy piston. It is concluded that the substrate temperature of the piston coated with MgZrO3 and yttria stabilized zirconia is reduced by 25% and 17% compared with uncoated aluminum alloy piston. The lower substrate surface temperature by coating results in improved heat to work conversion efficiency of the engine.
257 Analysis of the Powder Forging Processes for Vehicle Timing Belt Pulley by Finite Element Analysis.  , Key Sun Kim 
This paper uses finite element analysis to analyze the changes in mechanical properties and micro structural characteristics of vehicle timing belt pulleys, which is a key component of vehicles engines, made using powder forging processes. The timing belt pulley is an important part that transfers the power generated by the engine to the drive shaft of the valve. The process happens as follows: The powder is inserted into a forging mold, and the product is formed from compression and finally sinter heat-treated in a high-temperature heat treatment furnace. This study aims to perform 3D modeling to analyze the forging process at each stage, then predict the changes in mechanical properties of the product in the subsequent heat treatment process through numerical analysis. The results of analysis will give the load upon the mold punch, product density, temperature distribution and stress and deformation distributions as the result of stroke changes during forging. Next, structural change and temperature distribution according to cooling rate will be found for various individual cross sections following the heat treatment process. The results will allow testing the effectiveness of powder forging process analysis.
258 Segmentation of Noise Stained Gray Scale Images with Otsu and Firefly Algorithm , K. Sundaravadivu , A. Sadeeshkumar and M. Nivethitha Devi  
Background/Objectives: The major aim of thework is to propose an efficient multi-level thresholding for gray scale image using Firefly Algorithm (FA). Methods/Statistical Analysis: The multi-level image thresholding is attempted using Otsu’s function and Firefly Algorithm (FA) using standard 512 x 512 sized gray scale image dataset. The robustness of the attempted segmentation process is tested by staining the test images with universal noises. The superiority of the FA based segmentation is validated with the heuristic algorithms, such as Bat Algorithm, Bacterial Foraging Optimization and Particle Swarm Optimization existing in the literature. Findings: The simulation result in this work conforms that, FA assisted segmentation offers better result compared to the alternatives. The robustness of the FA and Otsu based segmentation is also superior and offered improvedcost function, SSIM, PSNR value and reduced CPU time compared with the alternatives. Application/Improvements: In future, the proposed technique can be experienced using standard RGB images availablein the literature.
259 Slope Number On Complete Graphs , A. Antony Mary and A. Amutha
Objective: A straight line drawing is a mapping of an edge into a straight line segment. The minimum number of distinct slopes used in a straight line drawing of a graph G is called the slope number of the graph G. In this paper the slope number of complete graph is studied elaborately. Methods: This optimization problem is NP-Hard for any arbitrary graph. A canonical way of drawing of a complete graph is an existing one. In present paper, we consider the edges of a complete graph are straight line segments in order to obtain the number of slopes. Findings: This paper interprets the characterization of slopes in complete graph according to an odd and even number of edges and investigated in detail. Moreover, the slope number of a complete graph is compared with the chromatic number of complete graph and the results are observed. Applications/Improvement: Slope number is one of the quality measures of graph drawing. It is used to find out different layout methods for the same graph.
260 An Analysis of Digital Media Holograms Usage Intentions: An Extension of the Technology Acceptance Model , HongKun Chin and Jae Young Kim 
This study confirms the impact of information quality and system quality on consumers’ technology experience, it specifically shows that the perceived quality of content and system were found to have a significant effect on users’ perceived usefulness and perceived enjoyment. In addition, social influences had a positive effect on the intention to use digital media holograms. Using the 200 data points from the initial sample, the three constructs and their indicators were subjected to confirmation through a measurement model in AMOS 4.0. The results showed that the effect of enjoyment on PU yielded a value of –.39 (p<.01), indicating a negative relationship that was in contrast to initial predictions. In addition, the effect of enjoyment on PEOU yielded a value of .29 (p<.01), but the effect of engagement on PEOU yielded a value of –.29 (p<.01), also shown to support the TAM, given that the effect of PU on PEOU was .29 (p<.01). Finally the effect of attitudes toward using digital media holograms on behavioral intentions to use media yielded a value of 34 (p<.01). These findings suggest an extension of the TAM model for convergence technologies. This research advances theory and contributes to the foundation for future research aimed at improving the understanding of users’ adoption behavior of convergence technologies. The research and practice implications are also discussed.
261 Classification of Event Image Set Using Mining Techniques , S. Regina Lourdhu Suganthi and M. Hanumanthappa
Objective: To develop a system that will optimize storage, automatically classify and tag images using image content and image context by using classification techniques and construct image archive to enable enhanced reference and inference with a simple query. Methods: The approach uses both image processing and data mining techniques. Multi modal processing of the Human brain has the ability to distinguish the components in an image and understand the content instantly. To automate this processing ability by the Computer, Computer Vision attempts various techniques. Features that describe the objects of interest are extracted by converting the image into Hue, Saturation, Value (HSV) space. Further segmentation, profiling and thresholding techniques are applied. Finally K Nearest Neighbours (KNN) classifier has been used for classifying the images. Hierarchical decision tree has been built by uniquely identifying classes that could be used for tagging. Findings: Two levels of classification have been addressed in this paper. Statistical features are extracted from the H-plane of the HSV color space and with an appropriate threshold obtained from the histogram, images have been classified into indoor and outdoor images at the first level. Further the indoor images are classified using segmentation and profiling, as classes of images with presentation and without presentation. Applications/Improvements: Images can be segmented based on more image content that signify the event by watermarking technique and by extracting more features. These segments could further be used to build the decision trees that will identify distinct classes. The depth of the decision tree will enhance indexing, tagging and improve the efficiency of query based image retrieval.
262 The Analysis of Exposure Dose Related Factors in Abdominal CT of General Hospitals in Daejeon Area.  , Se-Jong Yoo , Man-Seok Han , Seung-Youl Lee , Min-Cheol Jeon , Hyun-Kuk Lee , Sun-Youl Seo and In-Mo Yang
This study intends to investigate whether radiation dose increases as the number of detectors in MDCT (Multi Detector Computed Tomography) increases through abdominal and pelvis CT examination and whether there is a difference in dose depending on the CT equipment, and to analyse associated factors. targeting 1,038 subjects who underwent abdominal and pelvis CT examination together, it was examined whether there was a difference in radiation dose depending on the number of CT detector and manufacturer by applying corresponding variables to the radiation dose management program distributed by the MFDS (Ministry of Food and Drug Safety), based on gender, total CTDI (Computed Tomography Dose Index), total DLP (Dose Length Product), total mAs, and scan area, which may be associated with the radiation dose. 64 detector had average 15.9(±4.9)mSv, while 128 defector had 10.8(±2.6)mSv. 64 detector showed 1.47 times higher dose difference. It can be seen as a result of efforts for reducing radiation dose in each equipment manufacture as a measure of reduction to decrease radiation dose as well as evaluation for patient radiation does.
263 Literature Review on Impact of CRM, SRM, Information Sharing and Goal Congruence on Retail-SCM , Aradhana Gandhi
Background/Objectives: Literature review has been conducted in the area of Supply Chain Management (SCM) to comprehend the various Supply Chain Management Practices (SCMPs), adopted by firms and how these can impact the performance of the organization and thus be a source of competitive advantage to the firm. Additionally, the SCMPs, which are particularly relevant for the retail sector, were identified and a conceptual retail supply chain model was proposed for further validation. Methods/Statistical Analysis: A total of 100 selected refereed journal articles were systematically studied. Findings: A couple of key findings emerged; there are several research articles on SCM in the manufacturing sector, but the field is relatively new with reference to the Retail-SCM. The literature review aids to develop an understanding of the relevant Retail-SCMPs which have an impact on SCP and FP. The proposed conceptual model can then be validated through multivariate data analysis. Applications/Improvements: The findings and subsequent methodological discussions aim at providing practical guidance to Retail–SCM researchers and practioners.
264 Robust Planning for High-Tech Supply Chain Networks under Uncertainty. , Sungwon Yoo , Hyun Joon Shin 
The decision making on production and distribution for high-tech companies is one of most important work in terms of right time and accuracy as well as total cost. This study proposes an efficient robust production and distribution planning methodology to cope with demand uncertainty inherent in supply chain networks of high-tech manufacturing. Computational experiments show that the performance of the proposed method is superior to that of deterministic approach using various scenarios.
265 Evaluation of Endoscopy Based H. pylori Diagnostic Techniques in Iraqi Patients with upper Gastrointestinal Disorders , Ali Ibrahim Ali Al-Ezzy
Objectives: The aim is to detxermine the accuracy and degree of agreement of invasive methods. Methods: Gastroduodenal biopsies examined by Homemade Rapid Urease Test (HM-RUT), culture, Gram staining, Hematoxylin and Eosin staining (H&E) and insitu hybridization (ISH). Results: A total of (106) patients with mean age (44.70) years, male to female ratio was 1.25/1. H. pylori associated disorders diagnosed in (33-41), (69-77) and (24-32) years, mainly gastritis(37.7%), gastropathy (27.4%), gastric ulcer (15.1%), duodenal ulcer (12.3%), duodenitis (5.66%) and Pre pyloric ulcer (1.89%). Positivity of tests were HM-RUT (82.08%), HE (61.32%), Gram stain (60.4%), culture (21.7%) CagA-ISH (45.28%). Accuracy measures were HM-RUT, H&E staining, Gram staining, CagA-ISH and Culture respectively. Good agreement (82.08%) was recorded between H&E and Gram stain. Moderate agreement (79.25%, 78.30%) between HM-RUT, H&E and Gram stain respectively. Fair agreement (55.66%) between H&E and culture, Gram stain and culture, Gram stain and Cag A-ISH, Culture and Cag A-ISH (61.32%, 59.43%, and 68.87%) respectively. Poor agreement between HM-RUT - culture and CagA-ISH, H&E and Cag A-ISH (39.62%, 55.66% and 55.66%) respectively. Conclusions: HM-RUT was the most accurate and can be used as gold standard alternative for H&E and Gram stain for H. pylori diagnosis. Culture alone cannot be used as gold standard due to sensitivity, diagnostic accuracy, agreement with other tests was low. Cag A-ISH is not favora-ble for routine diagnosis but for tissue localization of H. pylori Cag A.
266 A Study on the Acceptance Factor for Telehealth Service According to Health Status by Group.A Study on the Acceptance Factor for Telehealth Service According to Health Status by Group.   , Sung-Soo Kim
The purpose of the study is to find out the causal relationship of the factors to telehealth service adoption based on Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and practically demonstrate the difference of adoption factors according to health conditions.608validsamples exceptingquestionnaireswhichwere judgedtorespondunfaithfullyandexceedthe answering time were collected among 1165 adult respondents with the online panel survey method using structured questionnaires. Reliability analysis and factor analysis were performed to verify the reliability and validity of the measurement items and structural equation modeling were performed to confirm the causal relationship among latent variables respectively. In addition, two-step cluster analysis regarding the health factors was performed to analyze the difference of the factors influencing the adoption intention of telehealth service according to customer segmentation. As for the structural relationship of the adoption factors using structural equation modeling, service quality, innovativeness of medical technology, and social influence had statistically significant effects on perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness on the use of telehealth service. As a result of customer segmentation using two-step cluster analysis regarding the health factors, they were divided into two groups, the group who showed high health involvement and good health practice and the opposite group. The analysis results according to the two groups showed the statistical significant difference of innovativeness of medical technology and perceived ease of use. The study has important significance in empirically analyzing the structural relationship regarding how the related external variables influence the intention to use telehealth services through perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness. In addition, it provides academic basis of the necessity of the development of various telehealth services by identifying the difference of the influencing factors on the intention to use according to the segmentation groups formed by the characteristics of health factors, and will contribute to the vitalization of future telehealth service based on it.
267 Robust Fuzzy C-Means Cluster Algorithm through Energy Minimization for Image Segmentation , T. V. Sai Krishna and A. Yesu Babu  and A. Ananda Rao 
Background: The Fuzzy c-means (FCMCA) cluster algorithm with spatial information is adopted for image segmentation. In the direction of acceptable segmentation concert on noisy images, the anticipated technique exemplifies the foreign spatial evidence derived from the image and also inherits appropriateness which correspondingly reflects on the universal fuzzy fitness and fuzzy isolation among the clusters. Methods: Segmentation combines two regions firstly, the physical dimension of the image and contextual data through energy reduction function. Secondly, since the kernel metric value is merged with fuzziness of the energy level, the dynamic delineation progresses is steadily deprived of the reinitialization progress for the level set process. Afterwards generating the bunch of non-conquered clarifications, the concluding clustering elucidation is preferred through Cluster Validity Index (CVI) by consuming the foreign spatial evidence. Additionally, the total number of clusters incorporates the actual oblique mutable string length scheme to encrypt the cluster groups in terms of grouped chromosomes spontaneously. Findings: This novel fuzzy and nonlinear type of energy functionality brands the modernizing of region group’s added strength against the noise and edge of the image. The projected method is undergone with image polluted through noise and likened with fuzzy c & k means, dual FCM cluster based approaches with predefined spatial data and dynamic string size is inherited by fuzzy clustering procedure. Applications/Improvements: The investigational outcome demonstrates that the anticipated technique performs thriving in developing the sum of clusters and procurement in acceptable performance on noise in image segmentation process.
268 Methodological Approaches to Investment Management at Small Businesses , Yury A. Doroshenko , Sergei N. Glagolev, Irina V. Somina, Aleksandr Ya. Arkatov and Petr I. Ospishchev   
Background/Objectives: The article deals with theoretical and methodological aspects of estimation of efficiency of innovation investment management at small businesses. Methods/Statistical Analysis: We have defined the essence of social and economic efficiency of innovative activity at small innovative business entities. We have also defined peculiarities of estimation of efficiency of own capital and borrowed capital, and dependence of estimation of investment efficiency on the type of innovation it is injected in. Findings: Study of management of investment processes at small business entities from the point of view of estimation of innovation investments revealed following: 1. From the point of view of a small company it is possible to talk about investment efficiency as well as about efficiency of investment management. At this, social and economic efficiency of investment activity of a small entity is significantly wider then positive indicators of monetary flows, as it assumes establishment of new enterprises and jobs, engagement of entrepreneurs into investment activity, increase of general level on investment activity of all business units. 2. Efficiency of participation of own capital in the project and borrowed capital can be different – this should be taken into account upon forecasting of parameters of innovation investments at a small business entity. 3. From the point of view of innovation investment management, management innovations are crucial, as all the other innovations are associated with them. Efficiency of management of investments into each innovation depends on the structure of innovation investment and share of investment into management innovations. Applications/Improvements: May be applicable in order to increase efficiency of decisions on management of innovation investments.
269 Formation of the Future Specialists’ Pedagogical Creativity , Shynar I. Ismuratova  
Background/Objectives: The article deals with the formation of the future specialists’ pedagogical creativity by means of scientific research activities. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Methodology extensively focuses on the methods and means of efficient knowledge acquisition on practice, seeks out the methods and means for this knowledge development. As there is a system of knowledge in the basis of method (e.g. mathematical, philosophical, logical etc.), its methods may be diverse. Findings: The pedagogical creativity is the scientific research activities, ultimately focused on acquisition by a person of new material and spiritual values, uniting all the internal connections and meeting the requirements of the modern world. The future specialist’s endeavor to improving his or her knowledge through the scientific research activities provides successful solution for the issues of pedagogical, social and professional activities, in other words it forms and develops professional creativity. Applications/Improvements: The ideas of Russian and foreign scientists regarding the aspects of the scientific research activities were highlighted. The authors dwell on the issue of the future specialists’ pedagogical creativity and consider its concepts.
270 Sensor System Implementation for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. , Sunny Bhardwaj , Akhil Warbhe and Bhavisetti Raj Kumar 
Now a days, to monitors any parameter of a system, sensors are widely used because of the fact that it does not affect the parameters. In this paper, we are analysing the obstacle detection and collision avoidance by using the ultrasonic sensor and also the dropping and lifting of an object by using micro gripper for an UAV’s. In the field of research related to unmanned aerial vehicle, its design, production, application and maintenance, sensor implementation comes very handy. Talking about key devices-ultrasonic sensors is most significant. The Unmanned Aerial vehicle (UAV) is an emerging technology being used for a various range of applications
271 Mobile Based Home Automation and Security System. , Monu Pandey, M. Rajasekhara Babu , Javvaji Manasa and K. Avinash 
Smartphone captured fifty-five percent of the total market of mobile phones, these Smartphone have high computational power rather than the normal mobile phone to run more sophisticated application for home security system. Due to vast development in pervasive computing daily lifestyle of human change drastically, people interested to handle their home security issue and control their home devices from anywhere. Till now there is no such unified application that addressed the both issue i.e. security and automation in a single system. This paper implements Intelligent Security and Automation System (ISAS) application. This application is developed on android platform and it is not limited by android platform and it can be accesses by web browser with limited functionality.
272 Analysis of Non-Isolated Bidirectional Active Clamped DC-DC Converter for PV and Battery Integrated Systems , S. Usha, C. Subramani, B. Dinesh Naidu and M. S. R. Vishnu Venkatesh
Background/Objective: A novel soft switching technique is implemented in a Bidirectional DC-DC converter by using an Active clamped Auxiliary switch and in turn it achieves continuous current of inductor and operates at constant frequency is used to turn ON and turn OFF the switches. Methods/Statistical Analysis: The Power electronics converter systems have DC bus voltages they are connected to batteries or supercapacitors. Bidirectional converters which are connected to battery, supercapacitor allows them to charge or discharge. A new soft switching Bi-directional direct current to direct current converter is presented in this paper. This converter is operated in zero voltage and zero current switching, continuous inductor current and constant frequency that frequency is used to turn ON and turn OFF the switches. The switching stresses are reduced in this proposed method by auxiliary switches compared to traditional methods. The simulation results are obtained by using MATLAB software in this paper. Findings: The proposed converter is implemented by using an Auxiliary switch with soft switching technique. The output is ripple free DC voltage of 63.5V. Improvements: The Bidirectional Converter will operate at continuous inductor current also with less ripples in output voltage.
273 Cluster Based Multipath Dynamic Routing (CBDR) Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks. , G. N. S. Abhishek Varma , G. Aswani Kumar Reddy, Y. Ravi Theja and T. Arunkumar 
QoS of WSN routing protocols are measured in terms of energy-efficiency, end-to-end delay and packet delivery ratio. Multi-path routing provides an easy mechanism to distribute traffic, balance networks load and fault tolerance. However disadvantage of employing multipath routing is delay in path switching and every node has to maintain information of every other node and has to update the whole information periodically which consumes lot of energy. So to overcome this drawback we employ clustering mechanism which divides the entire network in to clusters and multipaths are restricted to these clusters by which traffic will be distributed only to the cluster without propagating entire network and does not cause delay, energy wastage and increases delivery ratio between nodes. Performance is compared between proposed protocol and EQSR protocol by simulating in NS2.
274 Evaluation of Strength Behavior of Self-Compacting Concrete using Alccofine and GGBS as Partial Replacement of Cement , S. Kavitha and T. Felix Kala  
Background/Objectives: The study investigates that alccofine and GGBS combination can be used in the SCC as the strength enhancer. SCC being a high performance concrete after the addition of alccofine, produces a high performance and high strength concrete. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Mix design for SCC can be carried out by Nan-Su method which is considered as a simple mix design and the dosage of super plasticizer will be determined by trial and error as substantial result of characteristics of fresh and hardened concrete and effect of alccofine (5%, 10%, 15% and 20% by volume) by keeping the GGBS percentage constant (30%) on rheological properties and strength properties were investigated. Findings Applications/Improvements: The improvement in behaviour of SCC is because of enhancement in union strength and pore refinement by GGBS. The outcome implies that the workability of SCC with 5% and 10% alccofine by volume of concrete leads to decline of other rheological properties given by codal provisions (EFNARC). In contrast, the improvement in properties of concrete like compressive strength from 36.6 to 42.9 N/mm2 , splitting tensile strength from 3.8 to 7.9 N/mm2 and flexural strength from 4.9 to 8.3 N/mm2 at 28 days was observed with increase in alccofine dosage. Finally the conclusion has been drawn that alccofine and GGBS combination can be used in the SCC as the strength enhancer.
275 Fair Allocation of Reactive Power Contribution by Generators in Ancillary Services Market. , Sravya Pentela and S. V. N. L. Lalitha  
Objectives: In re-structured power systems, knowledge of reactive power supplied by the ancillary services and generators is required separately for accurate and fair cost allocation. The main objective is to price the reactive power based on each generator contributions and static capacitor contributions to individual loads. Methods/Analysis: A Y-bus matrix method is used to obtain the contribution of individual buses to loads. But this bus contribution doesn’t give the fair cost allocation. So, the individual generator contributions should be found. Findings: To find the individual generator contributions a new methodology is proposed in this paper. This new methodology takes the bus inflows and outflows into consideration for finding the bus injections at the generator buses. Using this data, the contribution of generators to the loads can be obtained which gives rise to fair and transparent cost allocation. Applications: This method is applied on simple 5 bus system and on IEEE 30 bus system and obtained results are tabulated and compared with other existing methods.
276 Sequential Ordering of Code Smells and Usage of Heuristic Algorithm , T. Pandiyavathi  and T. Manochandar 
The process of removing the bad smell results in introduction of new smells due to dependency between the codes in the program. This process increases human effort and time. Automated tools are used for detecting the bad smells in the program. This problem is called as ripple effect and we aim in reducing and removing this effect in the program. We apply refactoring process for reducing the amount of bad smells in the code. Since there exist more number of code smells in the program, we generate a sequence in which the refactoring has to be applied by which the evolution of new bad smells is enormously decreased. The refactoring methods that have to be applied to the source code are also ordered using a heuristic algorithm.
277 Real Time Level Control of Conical Tank and Comparison of Fuzzy and Classical Pid Controller.  , C. Dinesh , V. V. Manikanta, H. S. Rohini and K. R. Prabhu 
This paper describes about the level control of conical tank by using PID control and fuzzy logic algorithm. Many process industries are equipped with conical tanks because of easy discharge of contents present in it. But level control in the conical tank is most challenging parameter which is to be monitored. This non-linearity can be overcome by different controlling techniques. Conventionally used controller in most of the industries is PID controller. Further the controller is updated with fuzzy logic controller for the enhanced response regarding level control. A result of fuzzy logic controller is compared with conventional PID to analyze the performance in terms of high stability, reliability and robustness.
278 Learning Fraud Rating for Mobiles using Aggregation Appliance , D. Priyanka, G. S. N. Murty and V. A. G. Raju  
Objective: Identification of ranking frauds in mobile application is one of the interesting issues in the current research field and technology. Fake ranking can be maintained by the various application developers with programs like “bot farms” or “human water armies”. Methods/Analysis: In this paper we are proposing a novel approach for rank fraud detection of mobile application based on improved leading sessions with session duration, rating based, review based and a novel aggregation mechanism. Findings: Efficient rank implementation with session identification and removal of fake injection of comments over products. Improvement: Our proposed approach gives more efficient results than the traditional approaches.
279  Predictive Control of Three-Phase Cascaded Multilevel Inverter.  , W. Razia Sultana, Sarat Kumar Sahoo, Kavuri Seshasai Kiran, Gangireddytarakarajasekhar Reddy and Pasam Harshavardhan Reddy 
This paper investigates the performance of a Cascaded Multilevel inverter (MLI) controlled by Model Predictive Control (MPC). This inverter can be used for many applications such as for the induction motor drives or the grid connected systems. The cascaded MLI has 125 discrete space voltage vectors out of which many vectors are redundant. In order to reduce the complexity of calculations only 61 non-redundant vectors are used. The simulation is carried out in MATLAB/ SIMULINK software and the results obtained are discussed. From the results, it can be verified that the MPC Controlled Cascaded MLI achieves a minimum current Total Harmonic Distortion (THD). Further, it also shows an excellent response when the load is dynamically changed.
280 A Hybridized Clustering Approach based on Rough Set and Fuzzy c-Means to Mine Cholesterol Sequence from ABC Family , Ramamani Tripathy , Debahuti Mishra  and V. Badireenath Konkimalla  
Objectives: The current study is focused on design of a computational model for human ABC transporters; wherein the TM-sequences matching the CRAC/CARC motif are extracted. Methods: The postulation of cholesterol binding motif (CRAC/CARC), its presence in different proteins and validating its interaction with cholesterol has indeed established the importance of the motif in cholesterol-mediated modulation of protein/signaling pathway. Several viral proteins and membrane proteins (especially alpha-helical trans membrane proteins) such as GPCR transporters are reported to be modulated by cholesterol. The experimental studies are so far performed on only a few proteins in a family but based on an evolutionary conservation and consensus an exploration can be done confidently within a family. However, the representation of motif has a low consensus yielding several false positives thus reducing its reliability. Findings: A computational hybrid clustering method based on rough set with fuzzy c-means algorithm is used to mine the cholesterol sequence from ABC family. Higher weightage is given to those sequences based on the following parameters: motifs with more number of sub motifs, number of helices bearing the motif in a protein and compliance with the orientation of the cholesterol in the membrane for its interaction with the motif. Improvement: A detailed study in a given super family with an approach to reduce redundancy and enrichment can improve its predictability
281 Assessment of the Potential of Clusterization of Fuel and Energy Complex of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) , Eduard I. Efremov, Grigoriy S. Kovrov, Valentina V. Nikiforova, Nikolay N. Konstantinov and Majya V. Kurneva  
Background/Objectives: The article deals with the issues of clusterization of the region’s economy. The objective of research is to assess the potential of clusterization of basic region’s economic sectors. Methods/Statistical Analysis: On the ground of study of methodical basis of clusterization the authors suggest a complex methodical approach to the establishment of regional industrial cluster. It consists of 3 stages and defines a system of internal coefficients and key figure blocks, characterising potential of clusterization of the region’s economy. Author’s approach also suggests criteria of assessment of clusterization of basic region’s economic sectors (low, middle and high). Findings: According to suggested methodical approach the authors analysed and assessed social and economic figures of subjects of the Far Eastern Federal District. This revealed that in the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) the “extraction of commercial minerals” and “production and distribution of electricity, gas and water” are main types of economic activity, which can serve as basis for establishment of regional industrial and intraregional clusters. For practical approval of potential of clusterization the authors have considered fuel and energy complex of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) (FEC SR (Ya)). Applications/Improvements: The results of calculations show high level of potential of clusterization. The authors also suggest a structural pattern (a model) of fuel and energy cluster of SR (Ya).
282  LMI Control of Conventional Boost Converter , P. Rajesh Kumar Reddy, S. Giri Kumar, K. Sandeep and N. Arun 
This paper analysis about a design of a robust control conventional boost converter using linear matrix inequalities (LMI). LMI is the control technique where we can solve a problem exactly by efficient optimization algorithm LMI (solvers). The small signal model is used to analyze the conventional boost converter The proposed LMI methods guarantee a robust design with uncertainties and non linearity’s. Here we use standard optimization algorithm is used for a multi objective robust controller which is computed automatically. The proposed method gives an efficient boost converter in which poles placed are implemented by the operational amplifiers. Here PSIM simulations are used to validate the desired output waveforms.
283 Prospects of Using Oak Wood Integrated Processing Products in Winemaking, Dealing with Shortcomings on the Base of Implementing Oak Wood Derivative Products , Tariel M. Panakhov 
Background/Objectives: Our studies were aimed at exploring the use of oak derivative products for treating and correcting wine flaws and faults, in particular, mousy taint. Methods/Statistical analysis: To assess condition and stages of disease development in selected wine materials and to define traditional schemes of their processing, which will be used later for control, we conducted research of their physical, chemical and microbiological criteria. Additionally, the wine materials were tested on their susceptibility to turbidity caused by the elevated content of multivalent metals salts (metal casse) as well as colloidal (reversible and irreversible), crystallic and biochemical turbidity in accordance with generally accepted methods. The authors also tested the wine materials for a fault “mousy taint” with the help of the so called “soda test”. Findings: Use of oak derivative products has a positive effect of treating and eliminating mousy taint and improves organoleptic characteristics. Use of oak derivative products for treating faults and correcting mousy taint in dry and fortified wines should be accompanied by preliminary sulfitation and acidification of wine materials to the concentration of titratable acids at least 6.0 g/dm3. To make the processing with oak derivative products even more efficient, it is reasonable to use chips in filtering bags of lavsan or capron fabric, and it is recommended to mix it 2-3 times. Applications/Improvements: Obtained results suggest that the proposed method for treating and correcting wine flaws with oak derivative products is efficient and can be implemented into production.
284  Co-Operation based Resource Selection in Cognitive Radio Network via Potential Games.  , K. Poongodi  , Hiran Kumar Singh and Dhananjay Kumar 
Cognitive Radio is a forthcoming technique to improvise the utilization of radio frequency spectrum in wireless network. However, Cognitive Radio Network has several challenges such as channel selection, efficient spectrum sharing, network throughput, etc. This paper presents a resource (channel) selection strategy by the Secondary Users (SUs) in a dynamic environment via game theoretic approach namely potential games. A distributed, Stochastic Learning based Resource Selection (SLRS) and Q-Learning based Resource Selection (QLRS) are the two different algorithms proposed here. The strategy followed by the SU is based on its own action-reward history, even without knowing the actions in other SUs. The simulation results prove that the QLRS algorithm achieves higher throughput and fairness performances than the SLRS algorithm.
285 Quarter Plane ARMA Model for Analysis and Classification of Histopathology Images: Application to Cancer Detection , D. Vaishali, R. Ramesh and J. Anita Christaline  
Objective: Cancer diagnostic using clinical pathology have been proved as a standard method in which histologist/ pathologist examines biopsy sample for cell morphology and tissue distribution. Pathologist detects random growth and random placements in tissue samples. These diagnostics are very subjective and based on experience/knowledge base of pathologists. This work presents the use of 2D Autoregressive And Moving Average (ARMA) model in computer assisted automatic cancer detection. Analysis: ARMA model parameters have been considered for representing entire histopathology image. These features have further used for analysis and classification. Parameter estimation has been carried out by Yule walker Least Square (LS) method. Histology images have been classified into healthy and malignant images according to ARMA parameters. K- Fole cross validation has been performed with Linear Kernel support vector machine classifier for classification. Findings: As an outcomes of this experimentation, it is proven that ARMA model parameters works as an excellent discriminating features. These ARMA features are capable of extracting hidden information of the underlying cancer decease. This study also presents the role of neighborhood pixel in image analysis and classification. Improvement: This work have described innovative way of using ARMA features in histopathology imagery and can be implemented in computer assisted diagnosis.
286 Comparison of ANFIS and ARIMA Model for Weather Forecasting. , N. Ramesh Babu, C. Bandreddy Anand Babu Dhanikar Pradeep Reddy and Medda Gowtham 
In this paper quickly illustrate the correlation investigation of Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving and Average (ARIMA) and Adaptive Network Based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) models done by climate estimating .The climate determining is taken from University of Waterloo. The information is taken as Relative Humidity, Ambient Air Temperature, Barometric Pressure and Wind Direction utilized within this paper. The paper is carried out by analyzing the exhibitions are seen by demonstrating of ARIMA and ANIFIS model like with Sum of average of errors. Versatile Network Based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) demonstrating is carried out by Mat lab programming and Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving and Average (ARIMA) displaying is produced by utilizing XLSTAT programming. ANFIS is carried out in Fuzzy Logic Toolbox in Mat Lab.
287 Beamforming Networks to Feed Array Antennas. , V. S. Geethanjali , Thushara Mohan and I. Srinivasa Rao 
A beamforming Network (BFN) to feed phased array antenna using butler matrix is designed and simulated. BFNs are designed in S band and the frequency of operation is 3.5GHz. The BFN is designed with suitable phase shifters and couplers to obtain various phase changes to steer the beam in the required direction which will be useful in communications. The simulated results show that the beam forming network is able to produce a phase shift of 0.2 degree.
288 State and Prospects of Engineering Development within Structural Economic Diversification of Kazakhstan , Shuakhbay Z. Zamanbekov 
Background/Objectives: The article is devoted to problem connected with engineering development on innovative basis that is the most important condition of diversification and modernization implementation of national economy and restructuring assurance. Methods/Statistical analysis: Necessary conditions for achievement of rather high rates for a short period according to historical measures were created due to successful implementation of economic reform in transition market period and a number of state programs after 2000 provided transition of the country to qualitatively new stage of development focused on innovative character. Findings: Analysis to a current state of engineering and necessary justification of its advancing development for innovative updating of technical equipment production in branches of the economy as well as increase of their competitiveness is given in the article. Much attention is paid to implementation of restructuring of the operating machine-building enterprises for acceleration of innovative process in this branch. Priority directions of engineering development for improvement of its branch structure and possibility of cluster approach use and public-private partnership mechanism that opens wide prospects of production increase in machine-building production, including innovative production which replaces import one delivered to the country for ensuring its internal requirements are considered. Applications/Improvements: Efforts of the state hashould be aimed at providing needs in state investment into large infrastructure projects for the purpose of receiving benefit from innovation and effective state service management.
289  A Novel Approach for Single Image Super Resolution by Sparse Signal Representation , Anirudh Ranga and G. Suryanarayana 
This paper presents a new approach to obtain a high resolution image from a single image low resolution by a technique of sparse representation. Sparse representation is a way of representing a signal sparsely i.e. with fewer non zero elements. In this method we find the sparse representation of the input low resolution image patches and then use the coefficient of this representation to generate the high resolution image output.
290 The Requirements for the Formation of Future Fine Art Teacher`s Pedagogical Competence , Abdikarim O. Kamak , Nurziya B. Rakhmetova  and Leila Imankulova  
Background/Objectives: The article is based on the results of long-term pedagogical activities and conducted experiments. It covers some problems of vocational, pedagogical, psychological and methodical training of future school arts teachers and educational system of training in the fine arts in pedagogical higher education institutions. Methods/Statistical analysis: The authors represent methodical recommendations on formation of students' cognitive activities and analytical independence, evaluation of practical works performed during the fine art classes. Some criteria of the analysis and evaluation of works are suggested, as well as examples of their usage in educational process. Findings: The improvement of students` artistic knowledge level to qualitative professional level directly depends on formation of cognitive relation of fine art in every stage. In order to prepare the professional qualified student who can study the methods of fine art properly, we should focus on the following: understanding the content of art works, the purpose and tasks of each stage of lesson; formation of analyzing ability in accordance with requirements of perception, understanding of drawing figure`s size and structure, specific description; development of using ability of fine art tools and ways of usage which is required to do the duties of drawing; improvement of psychological and practical skills, ability and creative skills which enable the students to complete the task qualitatively during every lesson. Teaching the future fine art teachers by art education and by all methods of pedagogical professional specialty is a closely related educational process. Therefore, the content of practical lessons should be regularly updated by innovative forms of art education that give a great opportunity for students to get the pedagogical, methodical, psychological knowledge that is necessary for their future profession. Applications/ Improvements: These requirements are considered to be a foundation for professional pedagogical competence of a future school teacher, because future teacher of fine art is a mentor-teacher who brings up the spiritual and esthetic education of young generation.
291 The Role of Students’ Classroom Independent Work in Higher Educational Institutions , Zhanna V. Smirnova, Marina L. Gruzdeva , Zhanna V. Chaykina, Olga S. Terekhina, Aleksandra A. Tolsteneva and Natalya H. Frolova  
Background/Objectives: The paper reveals the role of classroom independent work in education establishments. Methods/Statistical Analysis: The structure and content of independent work in higher educational institutions are represented. The significant criteria of students’ independent work influence on shaping graduate’s professional competence are identified. The main modern forms and methods of independent work are considered. Findings: The paper includes a research within the framework of polling of teachers and students. The purpose of using classroom independent work in training future specialists is revealed. Issues of independent work of K. Minin Nizhny Novgorod State Pedagogical University’s students are considered. Personal data of teachers and students who took part in the experimental activity are analyzed. Requirements for intensification of independent work in higher educational institutions are examined. Applications/Improvements: Two main trends of educational process building based on independent work are considered.
292 Fabrication of Al-TiB2 Metal Matrix Composites for Evaluation of Surface Characterization and Machinability. , R. Ramanujam , K. Venkatesan, Nikhil Kothawade, Joshi Shivangkumar and Himanshu Dusane 
The present study discusses about the fabrication of Al MMC with TiB2 as 2% reinforcement with 400 mesh particle size by novel vacuum stir casting method. A series of experiments performed to know morphology and surface topography of developed MMC. Micro structural observation along with the SEM and XRD testing has been carried out to investigate the distribution of TiB2 particle reinforced in Al2014 matrix. EDAX report has been generated of a standard specimen to know the weight percent of all the materials that were developed during the casting process. Machinability test has been carried out on medium duty lathe with coated carbide insert by using Taguchi L9 orthogonal array to know the surface roughness values with a selection of different cutting parameters as cutting speed, feed rate and cutting depth respectively for three different levels. The optimal cutting conditions were found using the Signal-to-Noise (S/N) ratio of surface roughness parameters (Ra, Rz) and material removal rate according to “the-smaller-the-better” and “larger-the-better” criteria respectively. Taguchi response analysis is used to optimize the parameters influencing the objectives. To get good surface finish high cutting speed and lower feed rates has been found as optimal parameters of developed Al-TiB2 MMC.
293 An Efficient Decentralized Control Strategy Applied to an Interconnected Multi-Machine Electric Power Grid , Vu Duy Thuan , Nguyen Ngoc Khoat and Thai Quang Vinh  
Background/Objectives: It is essential to design an efficient decentralized control strategy to deal with the stability against various disturbances in a practical electric power interconnection with nonlinearities and uncertainties. Methods: This paper presents theoretically a decentralized control strategy which is appropriately applied to an interconnected power system. Such an electric power grid is mathematically modeled first, then the design of an efficient control scheme for a stabilized solution will be presented. Finally, the feasibility and superiority of the proposed approach will be verified through various simulation cases using MATLAB/Simulink platform for a typical three-machine electric power system. Findings: It should be obviously found that a practical multi-area electric power network, which is considered to be a typical example of large-scale systems, composes of many synchronous generators. These machines are strongly interconnected via a number of nonlinearities such as parameters of transmission lines, thereby this feature brings a big challenge to the modeling of the network and the design of an efficient control strategy for an electric power interconnection in order to ensure its stability and reliability. Decentralized control strategies have been applied to be more suitable for tackling the stabilization problem of such an interconnected power grid in comparison with the centralized control scheme. In the present paper, an efficient linear decentralized control methodology based on a number of modified Riccati equations to calculate a proper feedback control law will be studied as a typically feasible candidate to this issue. The promising simulation results obtained in a three-machine interconnected power system model with various cases of initial conditions are quite able to demonstrate the superiority of the proposed control methodology. Application/Improvements: The proposed decentralized control strategy is successfully applied to a three-machine electric power interconnection model as a typical case study. Hence, this control methodology can afford to be efficiently adopted to a practical power network.
294 An Efficient Decentralized Control Strategy Applied to an Interconnected Multi-Machine Electric Power Grid , Vu Duy Thuan , Nguyen Ngoc Khoat and Thai Quang Vinh  
Background/Objectives: It is essential to design an efficient decentralized control strategy to deal with the stability against various disturbances in a practical electric power interconnection with nonlinearities and uncertainties. Methods: This paper presents theoretically a decentralized control strategy which is appropriately applied to an interconnected power system. Such an electric power grid is mathematically modeled first, then the design of an efficient control scheme for a stabilized solution will be presented. Finally, the feasibility and superiority of the proposed approach will be verified through various simulation cases using MATLAB/Simulink platform for a typical three-machine electric power system. Findings: It should be obviously found that a practical multi-area electric power network, which is considered to be a typical example of large-scale systems, composes of many synchronous generators. These machines are strongly interconnected via a number of nonlinearities such as parameters of transmission lines, thereby this feature brings a big challenge to the modeling of the network and the design of an efficient control strategy for an electric power interconnection in order to ensure its stability and reliability. Decentralized control strategies have been applied to be more suitable for tackling the stabilization problem of such an interconnected power grid in comparison with the centralized control scheme. In the present paper, an efficient linear decentralized control methodology based on a number of modified Riccati equations to calculate a proper feedback control law will be studied as a typically feasible candidate to this issue. The promising simulation results obtained in a three-machine interconnected power system model with various cases of initial conditions are quite able to demonstrate the superiority of the proposed control methodology. Application/Improvements: The proposed decentralized control strategy is successfully applied to a three-machine electric power interconnection model as a typical case study. Hence, this control methodology can afford to be efficiently adopted to a practical power network.
295 Fuel Adulteration Detection System , V. Jersha Felix, Purohitam Adithya Udaykiran and K.Ganesan 
The emissions from automobiles result in increase of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide. One of the major reasons for increased emissions is adulteration of automotive fuel. The adulterant that is mixed with petrol and diesel generally is kerosene. The reason why kerosene is chosen as an adulterant is its low cost. This adulteration results in reduced performance and lifetime of engine and other components of an automobile. Diversion of large amounts of kerosene for the purpose of adulteration reduces its availability to the poor people. So this has forced them to use wood as an alternative to kerosene for their household purposes. This indirectly leads to increase in global warming by increasing air pollution and cutting down of trees. So to prevent all these ill effects, an approach to automatic fuel adulteration detection and reporting system is proposed in this paper.
296 Regression Tree based Ranking Model in Federated Cloud , S. Mourougan and M. Aramudhan  
Background/Objectives: Federated cloud architecture is heterogeneous and distributed model that provides infrastructures related to cloud by aggregating different IaaS providers. In this position, it is an exciting task to pick the optimal cloud provider for the services and deploy it in affordable cost. In this paper, an effective new methodology for establishing trust and the different cloud providers based on the trust value using SMI attributes based on regression tree model is to enrich security and privacy in the federated cloud. Methods/Statistical Analysis: The scoring is computed based on the depth of the traversals in regression tree. Policy based trust, SLA verification trust; reputation trust and Evidence based trust are proposed in the architecture to build secured federated cloud. Findings/Conclusion: Broker trust level can also be identified and classified into four different categories such as completely trusted, partially trusted, minimally trusted and not trusted. Simulation results show that the performance of the ranked based mechanism depends on its implementation and better than without rank based federated cloud. Applications/Improvements: Will focus on mathematically formal frameworks for reasoning about trust, including modeling, languages and algorithms for computing trust.
297 Compressive Strength Index of Different Types of Light Weight Plastic Aggregate Concrete , D. S. Raghavendra and A. Sivakumar 
The study on potential usage of industrial waste products and other wastes in the concrete is going on globally. In this study an attempt has been carried out to explore the utilization of plastic wastes in concrete. Four different types of Light Weight Plastic Aggregates (LWPA) are prepared from the non-recyclable plastic bags of size 20-40μ thick by heating on a container at 120-150 oC. 100% replacement of Natural Aggregate (NA) with different types of LWPA is carried out, based on trail mix a suitable mix proportion was arrived. The compressive strength and Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity (UPV) tests for different types of plastic aggregate and conventional aggregate concrete are carried and outcomes are analyzed. The replacement of NA with LWPA reduces the density of the concrete and overcome the double issue of safe disposal and raw material shortage of non-recyclable plastic wastes.
298 Compressive Strength Index of Different Types of Light Weight Plastic Aggregate Concrete , D. S. Raghavendra and A. Sivakumar 
The study on potential usage of industrial waste products and other wastes in the concrete is going on globally. In this study an attempt has been carried out to explore the utilization of plastic wastes in concrete. Four different types of Light Weight Plastic Aggregates (LWPA) are prepared from the non-recyclable plastic bags of size 20-40μ thick by heating on a container at 120-150 oC. 100% replacement of Natural Aggregate (NA) with different types of LWPA is carried out, based on trail mix a suitable mix proportion was arrived. The compressive strength and Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity (UPV) tests for different types of plastic aggregate and conventional aggregate concrete are carried and outcomes are analyzed. The replacement of NA with LWPA reduces the density of the concrete and overcome the double issue of safe disposal and raw material shortage of non-recyclable plastic wastes.
299 Influence of Quarry Dust on Compressive Strength of Concrete , P. Jagadeesh, P. Sundara Kumar and S. S. Bhanu Prakash  
Objectives: In the present study, by-product of stone crushed, quarry dust is replaced as a fine aggregate with 20%, 30%, 40%, 50% replacement. Methods/Analysis: The fine aggregate is being replaced with fine aggregate and the compressive strength is determined for the concrete by testing the sample cube. The properties such as the specific gravity, fineness modulus, moisture content etc. are determined for the sample. Findings: Quarry dust is a decent option for normal sand and it is likewise very temperate, as quarry dust is a waste left from quarries. Novelty/Improvement: The quarry dust displays better quality because of good holding attributes.
300 Analysing Multi Sensor Fusion with Distinctive Approach , J. Gitanjali , C. Ranichandra and Anup Basil 
Information companionship is a central issue in multitarget-multisensor following. It involves selecting the most possible cooperation between sensor estimations and target tracks from a huge set of conceivable outcomes. With N sensors and n focuses in the location extent of every sensor, even with immaculate recognition there are (n!) ways which renders infeasible an answer by immediate reckoning even in unobtrusively estimated requisitions. We use apriori calculation to for taking care of the ideal information affiliation issue in a conveyed manner; which are an influential apparatus for encoding the measurable conditions of a set of irregular variables and are generally utilized as a part of numerous requisitions .We then foresee the position and speed of target utilizing the visualized information within placing it into the Kalman channel.
301 Myth and Kazakh Mythology: Retrospective Analysis and Prospects of Research , Rauza N. Uskembaeva, Elmira T. Zhanysbekova, Hafiza Orazbaeva and Karlygash J. Saparbaeva 
Background/Objectives: The only source of various mythic ideas is the living word with its metaphorical and consonant expressions. To show the necessity and naturalness of myths’ creation one has to refer to the language history. Methods/Statistical analysis: The model of reality perception fixed in language makes a linguistic view of the world. The present paper considers some matters of mythology development history, scientific approaches that can be applied thereto, and also the matters of history of Kazakh’s linguistic view of the world development by means of mythology reflected in the language. Besides, the paper reveals the term of myth and its properties to represent national history, language and the nation’s spiritual world. There is a brief analysis concerning researches of Kazakh myth, meaning of mythological symbols and words and patterns of their use. Findings: The only source of various mythic ideas is the living word with its metaphorical and consonant expressions. To show the necessity and naturalness of myths’ creation one has to refer to the language history. Learning of languages in different periods of their development by survive historic monuments of literature lead philologists to the fair conclusion that material perfection of language is in the reverse ratio to its historical destinies: the more ancient the studied epoch of language, the richer its material and forms; the more evident losses that human speech suffers in its structure. In this regard Kazakh mythology for future generations is prominent historical value to learn language, history and believes. Applications/Improvements: It’s important that linguistic means for mythological world-view reflection used in Kazakh myths are yet more proof of the richness and omnitude of our national language, and without doubt can be an object of new researches.
302 Biomedical Text Mining for Diagnosing Diseases - A Review , R. Priya and R. Padmajavalli 
Diagnosis of diseases is a difficult work that has to do in accurate manner. Text mining deals a great job in this field. A huge mass of data is available in biomedical field, using this data we can diagnosis many diseases by text mining techniques in efficient manner. Text mining methods are used to retrieve useful knowledge from large data. Objective: The aim of this paper is to review several text mining methods used in biomedical field. This survey is helpful to select a best text mining method for biomedical data. Methods/Analysis: In this paper, classification method is used to study the biomedical text mining for diagnosing diseases. In the field of biomedical, classification can be done on the basis of patient disease pattern to separate the patients into high risk or low risk The classification techniques have two methods they are Binary contains two classes and multilevel contains more than two classes. Classification method is widely used in biomedical text mining. In this paper different classification techniques can be applied to categorize the text they are SVM (Support Vector Machine) NN (Neural Network), K-NN (K-Nearest Neighbor), Bayesian Method and DT (Decision Tree). Findings: In this paper, different classification techniques were surveyed and their merits and limitations have been discussed. The various classification techniques were applied in medical data where useful patterns and knowledge were extracted. The important task is that to select the suitable data and classification method for disease diagnosis. The objective of this survey is that how the classification methods are applied in biomedical application and to select which method is suitable and efficient for diagnosis of a particular disease. Novelty/Improvement: The main advantage of the survey is that it can be applied to any kind of dataset, it is a description dataset or not. For future improvement, we will implement our proposed methodology on using some major chest diseases datasets and measured performance in terms of training time and accurate diagnosis.
303 Income and Expense Tracker.  , P. Thanapal , Mohammed Yaseen Patel, T.P. Lokesh Raj and J. Satheesh Kumar 
To avoid Income and Expense calculations and in the same manner to remind a person, we develop an android application which may helpful in all the situations and it can be installed in our android phones. It help us to remind and add some information that what are the income comes from other persons and what are all the expenses or payments we have to pay in specific date or month. In expense tracker we have categories like add expense, expenses of each month, add new expense, view categories of expenses, export expenses in a date range, remove export files, view categories wise expenses..
304 Comparative Analysis of Similarity Measure Performance for Multimodality Image Fusion using DTCWT and SOFM with Various Medical Image Fusion Techniques , C. Karthikeyan and B. Ramadoss  
Objectives: In this paper, the performance of similarity measures such as Edge Based Similarity Measure and Structural Similarity Index Measure is evaluated and also compared with the existing medical image fusion techniques. Materials and Methods: Multimodality Medical Image fusion is the process of fusing two Medical images obtained from two different sensors for better diagnosis. Medical image fusion combines and merges all relevant and complementary information from multiple source images into single composite image which facilitates more precise diagnosis and better treatment. The fused image should convey a better description of the scene than the individual images. The performance of the fused image is evaluated by various metrics such as Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR), Entropy, Standard deviation, Edge Based Similarity Measure (EBSM) and Structural Similarity Index Measure (SSIM). This paper proposes a method for fusion of Medical images using Dual Tree Complex Wavelet Transform (DTCWT) and Self Organizing Feature Map (SOFM). Findings: The performance of the proposed fusion algorithm is evaluated over pairs of CT and MR images obtained from patients in comparison with existing fusion techniques such as Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT), Nonsubsampled Contourlet Transform (NSCT) and Fast Discrete Curvelet Transform (FDCT). In this paper, performance is evaluated by using the metric; Edge based Similarity Measure (EBSM), and Structural Similarity Index (SSIM). Applications / Improvements: Through the simulation result, as compared with the DWT, FDCT, NSCT and DTCWT fusion methods, it is concluded that the Multimodality image fusion using DTCWT with Robust Second Order First Moment (SOFM) gives better Edge based similarity measure and Structural similarity index measure.
305 Securing Online Bank Transactions from Phishing Attacks using MFA and Secure Session Key , S. Manasa , P. Mullaimalar, G. B. Gnanaprakash Singh and S. S. Manivannan  
Phishing is an online criminal activity using the collection of social engineering methods such as messages and emails to make the users to disclose their sensitive information such as personal details, username /password4 , etc. Since 2007 Net-Banking transactions are the target of the phishers. The strong techniques are required to avoid phishing attacks. In our paper, we proposed Multi Factor Authentication (MFA) and secure session key generation using Gaussian distribution to reduce the attacks caused by the phishers. Multi Factor Authentication technique authenticates the users using user’s signature image recognition8 and secret question answer. After successful authentication of user using Multi Factor Authentication technique, session key generated using Gaussian distribution is sent to user’s mobile phone. User proceeds with the transaction only after entering the session key received1 . By incorporating above mentioned techniques users can perform online transactions safely and securely.
306 Content Extraction Studies using Neural Network and Attribute Generation , Kolla Bhanu Prakash and M. A. Dorai Rangaswamy
Objectives: The amount of information available on web today is more than at any point in history, and greater challenges arouse due to this huge wealth of information available. Also to deal with this information overload, challenging tools are required. Method of Analysis: Internet in the present day especially in India is spreading both in rural and urban areas. Bilingual and Multilingual websites are increasing to a larger extent. Even websites are becoming multitasking. Our main problem is to deal with multilingual web documents and ancient documents. Because, content extraction becomes difficult when such documents are considered. The present paper proposes a neural network approach and attribute generation to justify the content extraction studies for multilingual web documents. Findings: Results obtained are well defined and a thorough analysis is done. Novelty/Improvement: The method is versatile in using pixel-maps, analytically stable in that the matrix input is used and is demonstrated for adoption to different models.
307 Effect of Mechano Activation on Size Parameter of Aluminosilicate Rocks , Еkaterina V. Fomina, Valeria V. Strokova, Natalia I. Kozhukhova and Аlexander E. Fomin  
Background/Objectives: In this work the change of size heterogeneity of mechanoactivated aluminosilicate natural and industrial rocks is studied. Methods/Statistical Analysis: The following raw materials alumosilicates were used: Mukhor Talinsk perlite (Buryat Republic) as magmatogene-effusive rock; Honguruu zeolitized tuff (Yakutia) as sedimentary rock; Korkino argillite and gaize as by-product when coal production; Nizhne-Olshansk quartz sand. Findings: It is established the studied natural aluminosilicate raw materials have polymineral composition and contains significant quantity of amorphous silica. Differences in mineralogical and genetic characteristics of aluminosilicate rocks, amorphous phase content as well as previous heat treatment effect on variety of size parameters of raw when mechanoactivation. The kinetics of mechanical action on the raw material provided by enhancement of grindability, changing of granulometry as well as significant increasing of specific surface area is accomplished. The results obtained allow monitoring a size parameters of raw materials during mechanoactivation process. It is the important factor to improve reactivity of raw as well as optimization of grinding process. Applications/Improvements: The reasonability of application of aluminosilicate rocks to reduce the energy intensity at stage of raw preparation by grinding is demonstrated.
308 Border Gateway Protocol Performance and its Protection against Disturbed Denial of Service attack.  , Rakesh Kumar Achar , M. Swagath Babu and M. Arun 
Now a day the internet has become very popular in the world. Simple work to complicated work you can accomplish by using internet. Such popularity leads to chances of exhaustion of Internet protocol version 4 which is currently available. To overcome such problem, IPv6 comes in the picture. IPv6 provides more address space, better addressing mechanism and equipped with high security protocol. Unfortunately these IP versions are not compatible to each other. To make such protocol compatible, various tunnelling mechanism are using. Along with tunnelling mechanism, various inter-networking attack like DDoS etc. become serious issues for various routing protocol e.g. Border Gateway Protocol (BGP). Such attacks make an impact to the performance of system such as delay, more updates, insufficient bandwidth utilizations and loss of valuable signal. In this paper we propose a tunnelling mechanism which is based on the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP). BGP is an inter domain routing protocol basically designed to provide loop-free routing links between organizations. BGP is designed to work over a trustable transport layer protocol; it uses Transport Control Protocol TCP port 179 as the transport protocol layer because TCP is a connection-oriented protocol. We have also proposed two theorem to secure the Internet from Domain Name Server (DNS), Distributed Denial of service(DDoS) attacks which is using Border gateway routing protocol, first one to isolate defected region and correct region, suppressed unnecessary updates without hampering any effect on the define path. Secondly, to cut down the route swinging which is responsible to generates hell lot of updates and the paths selected are scrutinized to remove the attacked links. Our simulation shows the methods to eliminate false number of unwanted updates under the influence of the attacks, and isolate the effected part from the network.
309 Low Temperature Synthesis and Annealing effect of Transparent ZnO Thin Films on ITO Substrate by Sol-Gel Method , K. Poornima, K. Gopala Krishnan and S. Dinesh Kumar  
Transparent Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films to be prepared and annealed on the Indium tin oxide - ITO substrate using simple solution gel dip coating technique. Methods/Analysis: Thin films have been carried out by different characterization techniques such as X-ray diffractometer - XRD, Scanning Electron Microscopy - SEM, Energy dispersive analysis - EDAX, UV spectroscopic and FTIR spectroscopy. In the contemporary work, the ZnO films have been prepared on ITO substrate by dipping in the solution and annealed at the 300 °C. Findings: XRD pattern reveals that the annealed thin film is standard wurtzite zinc oxide hexagonal structure. SEM Morphological studies have been investigated using scanning electron microscopy and the elemental analysis confirmed by EDAX. Optical measurement shows the greatly transparent and the thin films are direct energy gap Eg of 3.70eV. FTIR confirm the metal oxide bond in the molecular structure. Novelty/Improvement: This research work helps for the future researcher’s preparation of undoped Zinc oxide thin film for solar cell applications.
310 Powder-Mixed EDM Machining of Aluminium-Silicon Carbide Composites.  , Khalid Hussain Syed, G. P. Anuraag , Gangarapu Hemanth and Shaik Abdul Subahan 
In the present work, the effects on the Characteristic Material Removal Rate (MRR) of aluminium based Metal Matrix Composites (MMC) are observed while varying peak current and aluminium powder concentration in kerosene dielectric fluid. Aluminium MMCs prepared by reinforcing Al with different concentrations of SiC (6%, 9% & 12%) using stir casting process are machined in EDM machine using a Copper Tool of Ø6mm while varying the considered process parameters which are the peak current (2A, 4A & 6A) and the concentration of Al powder in dielectric fluid (0g/l, 1g/l & 2g/l). Experiments were conducted at a constant pulse on-time of 65µs at a duty cycle of 70% and a constant voltage of 40V. It is observed from results that the MRR increases at low peak current of 2A during PMEDM machining of Al/SiC composites.
311 Powder-Mixed EDM Machining of Aluminium-Silicon Carbide Composites.  , Khalid Hussain Syed, G. P. Anuraag , Gangarapu Hemanth and Shaik Abdul Subahan 
In the present work, the effects on the Characteristic Material Removal Rate (MRR) of aluminium based Metal Matrix Composites (MMC) are observed while varying peak current and aluminium powder concentration in kerosene dielectric fluid. Aluminium MMCs prepared by reinforcing Al with different concentrations of SiC (6%, 9% & 12%) using stir casting process are machined in EDM machine using a Copper Tool of Ø6mm while varying the considered process parameters which are the peak current (2A, 4A & 6A) and the concentration of Al powder in dielectric fluid (0g/l, 1g/l & 2g/l). Experiments were conducted at a constant pulse on-time of 65µs at a duty cycle of 70% and a constant voltage of 40V. It is observed from results that the MRR increases at low peak current of 2A during PMEDM machining of Al/SiC composites.
312 An Empirical Analysis on Quality of Service(QoS) in Cloud Computing , J. Amudhavel, R. Vigneshwaran, A. Janakiram , S. Jarina , K. Prem kumar , B. Anantharaj and D. Sathian  
Background/Objectives: To analyze the Quality of Service in Cloud Computing and improve its services in the cloud environment. Method/Statistical Analysis: With the increasing use of services in cloud environment needs the improvements in the Quality of Services (QoS). Most cloud providers support Qos and it attract the customers due to its services. The Quality of Service (QoS) in cloud making the services efficient in the shared or distributed infrastructure and some companies are providing the cloud services are Microsoft, Amazon, Google and IBM.The use of Quality of Services based on the three approaches is comparison, evaluation and trustworthiness of the services to be analyzed and the QoSalso analyzed with the help of scheduling algorithms. Findings: Cloud services have some problems in which the data stored in cloud are not secure and occurrence of network dependency. The QoScan be decided for the services are based on the set of parameters such speed of the performance, processing, storage,memory allocation, security, functions, service response time and total throughput. The Quality of Services can be predicted based on the workflow model and the ranking prediction approaches. Applications/Improvements: The result observed from this work will serve as the motivation to improve the quality of service in cloud environment. The service response time and total throughput improvement will improve the QoS of cloud services.
313 Application of Multi-Core Parallel Programming to a Combination of Ant Colony Optimization and Genetic Algorithm , Rishita Kalyani 
This Paper will deal with a combination of Ant Colony and Genetic Programming Algorithm to optimize Travelling Salesmen problem (NP-Hard). However, the complexity of the algorithm requires considerable computational time and resources. Parallel implementation can reduce the computational time. In this paper, emphasis in the parallelizing section is given to Multi-core architecture and Multi-Processor Systems which is developed and used almost everywhere today and hence, multi-core parallelization to the combination of algorithm is achieved by OpenMP library by Intel Corporation.
314 A New Topology for Regulation of Active Power by Battery Storage System with Cascaded Multilevel Inverter using Three Phase System , G. Balasundaram, S. Arumugam , J. Gowrishankar and C. Dinakaran
The battery plays a major role for energy storage in non conventional energy systems. This paper proposed an AC-DCAC converter using Pulse Width Modulation Technique for Multilevel inverter. Normally the voltage drop increases when the load increases. Because the load voltages are consume more than the source voltages. To overcome this problem, the battery energy depot system is linked to the converter for controlling the active power. The performance of the proposed topology is a present active power regulates in battery energy depot scheme has been verified by simulation MATLAB/ SIMULINK environment.
315 Secured Transaction for Distributed Service System , M. Abhinivesh, Mayank Garg, Karishma and D. P. Acharjya 
With the rapid growth of networking and Internet-dependent activities in our daily lives, security has become an important issue. In general, security is more important when concerned to web services and on-line transactions. Web services in general has configuration that represents the constraints and capabilities of the security policies at both internal and end node. It defines security index that are acquired, encryption algorithms that are used, and privacy rules that has to be employed at all nodes. Present realizations of Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) on Reduced Instruction Set Computing (RISC) do not support encryption and decryption. In addition, it only allows a specific cipher block size. In order to overcome the limitations, in this paper we propose and analyze a secured system web service which generate dynamic key and support parallel encryption and decryption.
316 Implementation of Getting Similarity Images using the Concept of IWSL , M. Saravanan and V. L. Jyoth  
Normal social media sites like flickr, amazon are continuing expanding giving the components thattransferring the pictures, imparting the pictures to different sorts of annotations like gatherings and labels. This sites information bases comprises mass measure of pictures which has been transferred by different clients with different annotations. Consequently recovery of the pictures from that rich data heterogeneous systems relying on the client asked for inquiry and positioning the pictures as per the question likewise somewhat difficult assignment. In this paper, we are presenting another idea called heterogeneous picture rich data systems and answer for the current issues in the sites which are expressed previously. To accomplish the answer for existing issue we are proposing two calculations to be specific hmok-simrank calculation for likeness checking and positioning of the pictures so as to store it in the database, and iwsl calculation for incorporation which will be clarified in the paper about its utilization and its execution contrasted with existing calculations. We contrasted our outcome and the datasets of google and flickr, it demonstrates a huge execution than existing framework, this locales turn out to be as rich data systems with heterogeneous pictures. Presently the issue comes into picture while.
317 Foam Modeling Approaches in Enhanced Oil Recovery: A Review , Hamed Hematpour, Syed Mohammad Mahmood, Saeed akbari and Abdolmohsen Shabib Asl  
Nowadays, gas injection is one of a convenient method to increase oil recovery. The drawbacks of gas injection have been solved, to some extent, via introducing the foam assisted process. In order to accomplish an advantageous foam flooding a suitable model for foam is required to be able to predict the foam behavior appropriately. Analysis: This paper describes the basic concept of foam as well as different foam model approaches for foam assisted process in Enhanced Oil Recovery. In addition, pros and cons of each approach has been tabulated and discussed. Finding: We able to provide the advantages and disadvantages of each modeling approach as well as those parameters which have a significant effect on each model. The result depicted that, the best way to simulate the foam flooding in the commercial simulator is the Empirical approach. However, this model is not able to predict the behavior of foam in unsteady state properly. Novelty: The lack of a brief and informative study about basic of foam modeling approaches is the motivation of this study. Accordingly, this study presents the general overview in foam models which has been developed in the past three decades.
318 Centralization of Network using Openflow Protocol. , Ankita Vinod Mandekar and Krishna Chandramouli 
Traditional network is used have distributed nature which face complexities while modifying, monitoring, securing the network. The centralization of network is proving very effective in terms for management, implementation of new applications, monitoring the network. The programmable network using programmable devices helps to implement centralization of network successfully. To reduce the latency in the network the control parameters of control plane are used for making the forwarding decision by the centralized controller. Software Defined Network (SDN) is emerging technology having the centralized policy to design cloud network topology. The abstraction of control plane from data plane is isolating the control parameters from the flow of packets for making an efficient forwarding decision by programmable device. This device is known to be controller; it also reduces the complexities to process the data overhead. The OpenFlow protocol is used for abstraction and transferring the control parameters over secure channel. The protocol enables the enterprise to design well managed and secure cloud. In this paper, the experimental test bed is built which provides the centralized System Center Virtual Machine Manager (SCVMM) controller in the private cloud. The cloud provides its virtual Platform as a Service (PaaS) to the client by creating multiple Virtual Machine instances on single machine. The Virtual Private Network is created by using the Network Virtualization Generic Routing (NVGRE) tunnelling Protocol for the client to reach up to the hosted platform.
319 Effect of Shear Wall Location on the Linear and Nonlinear Behavior of Eccentrically Loaded Buildings , P. Mary Williams and R. K. Tripathi  
Objectives: To discuss the effect of shear wall and its location on the linear and nonlinear behavior of irregular buildings with different eccentricities. Analysis: The behavior of eccentrically loaded buildings with and without shear wall is compared using linear static, linear dynamic and nonlinear static analysis with the help of a finite element based software. The parameters considered are Base shear, Storey drift, Torsion and Reinforcement in columns and hinge formation in the structure. Findings: The study concludes that provision of a box type shear wall at the core gives the best behavior but it is not desired from architectural point of view. Hence shear wall on the outer edges is more advisable to improve the behavior of asymmetric buildings. The location of shear wall do not have significant effect on the nonlinear behavior except that the position of hinges vary. Novelty: The study of effect of shear wall location in eccentrically loaded structures, especially its nonlinear behaviour gives a more precise idea on provision of shear wall.
320 An Approach for Enhancement of Bit Error Rate Analysis in SAC-OCDMA. , K. Shyam Kumar , Shaik Sardar and A. Sangeetha 
In this paper, a new method is presented to calculate the execution of Spectral Amplitude Coding Optical Code Division Multiple Access (SAC-OCDMA) network. A new code proposed is Dynamically Cyclic Shift (DCS) code to assess the execution of the network. Bit error rate is the parameter of performance studied. A Dynamically Cyclic Shift (DCS) algorithm is used at the transmitter section and a detection technique called AND-Subtraction technique is used at the receiver. The most astonishing aspect in the detection techniques the reduction of Multiple Access Interference (MAI) and the correlation values lies between 0 and 1, for the developed DCS code. SAC-OCDMA network is more consideration in view of their capacity to totally avoid multiple access obstruction by utilizing code successions with settled in phase cross correlation (lc ). The performance is calculated using the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and the experiment is simulated at 8 Gb/s for a link length of 15 km using optisystemTM ver.12 simulation software from optiwave. The BER obtained is 4.66 × 10–17 using DCS code.
321 An Approach for Enhancement of Bit Error Rate Analysis in SAC-OCDMA. , K. Shyam Kumar , Shaik Sardar and A. Sangeetha 
In this paper, a new method is presented to calculate the execution of Spectral Amplitude Coding Optical Code Division Multiple Access (SAC-OCDMA) network. A new code proposed is Dynamically Cyclic Shift (DCS) code to assess the execution of the network. Bit error rate is the parameter of performance studied. A Dynamically Cyclic Shift (DCS) algorithm is used at the transmitter section and a detection technique called AND-Subtraction technique is used at the receiver. The most astonishing aspect in the detection techniques the reduction of Multiple Access Interference (MAI) and the correlation values lies between 0 and 1, for the developed DCS code. SAC-OCDMA network is more consideration in view of their capacity to totally avoid multiple access obstruction by utilizing code successions with settled in phase cross correlation (lc ). The performance is calculated using the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and the experiment is simulated at 8 Gb/s for a link length of 15 km using optisystemTM ver.12 simulation software from optiwave. The BER obtained is 4.66 × 10–17 using DCS code.
322 Simulation and Modeling of 6-DOF Biped Mechanism , Roopa Nadgiri, Ayesha Saha, Avirup Ghosh and Vivekanada Shangmuganathan 
This is an approach of designing and implementing walking postures for bipedal robot. The project presents efficient mechatronic architecture describing mechanical to software issues related to designing and execution of locomotion. The aim is to simulate and exhibit the robustness and the efficiency of the controller architecture using PD controller in MATLAB. The mission is to develop a biped to walk using Arduino Mega 2560.PRO-E simulation is done to calculate motion parameters. Trajectory planning is accomplished using Matlab.
323 Obtaining Description for Simple Images using Surface Realization Techniques and Natural Language Processing , C. S. Reddy, B. Janani , S. Arvind Narayanan and E. Mamatha  
This paper aims at developing a simple mechanism to deduce corpora pertaining to an image through various computer vision and natural language processing techniques. The output of the vision detection is combined with the sentence formation approach to get the visual content in textual form. Vision detections are smoothed using a number of approaches to prune undesired combination of words that are semantically incorrect. Descriptions are generated based on syntactic trees and Markov Chains and compared for human likeness based on survey. The results of the survey indicate that the descriptions generated with the help of Markov Chains sound more human like. These generated descriptions can be indexed in lucene and image search can be made more efficient bridging the semantic gap.
324 Smart Pill Box , Aakash Sunil Salgia, K. Ganesan and Ashwin Raghunath 
Untimed medicine administration can always show adverse effects on the health of the patients. The proposed system is designed to help these patients to take the required medicine in the right proportion at the right time. The basic ideology is integrating the principle of Alarm clock with Light based slot sensing on a normal pill box. An alternate to the light based sensing method using capacitive fields is also employed. To make it more state-of-the-art, it is inbuilt with a GSM module for alerting the patient and also the chemist at the needed instant.
325 Offloading Computation for Efficient Mobile Cloud Computing , Hitika Atre, Karan Razdan and Raj Kumar Sagar  
Background/Objectives: Mobile and cloud are two of the most used technologies today and it is only a matter of time before these technologies combine. In this study we try to combine these two. Method/Statistical Analysis: To study the combination of these two technologies, we offloaded a certain amount of computational work from a mobile device (An android device in our case) to a cloud server (AWS) and studied the real world performance benefits and battery gains that we achieved with it. Findings: We found a clear gain in terms of the load on the CPU of the device as well as the battery life consumption. This could lead to high real world gains in performance. Applications/Improvements: This technology can be used to create cloud-first mobile applications that not only just store their data on the cloud, but also rely on it for its computational needs.
326  VoIP over Mobile Wi – Fi Hotspot. , G. Usha Devi, K. Venkata Kaushik , B. Sreeveer and K. Srinivasa Prasad 
Ever since the internet took off as a data network for sending email and browsing websites. The option of putting voice traffic on to the net has been in consideration ever since internet was able to transmit media. This is otherwise called Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). VoIP is implemented in Mobile Adhoc Networks (MANET) but its range is considerably small. This leads to congestion and improper Quality of Service (QoS). Current implementation of VoIP over MANET has issues like hidden and exposed terminal problems. In order for MANET to expand its connectivity, there should be at least one node within its range. As the range of MANET is a disadvantage, distant connectivity is an issue. In this paper, a method has been proposed to use mobile Wireless – Fidelity (Wi-Fi) hotspot instead of MANET for VoIP. For this, mobile nodes are connected within a range of a hotspot network (100 ft.) for audio transmission. This scenario would be simulated using both mobile hotspot and MANET and the results are compared for better understanding. Main aspects like efficient data transmission, QoS and security are taken into account.
327 Quantifying Resilience in the Personality of Millennial leader , N. Bargavi , P. James Daniel Paul  and Anand A. Samuel
Objectives: The primary objective of this study is to assay the resilience in Millennial leader’s personality by preparing a survey instrument which would be useful to organizations to measure the leadership skills, personality traits and their resilience (flexibility). The desideratum is to examine whether this variance poses as threat to today’s workforce. Methodology: The empirical results are presented and a new scale is developed to assay resilience in the personality of Millennial leaders, which includes different stages of descriptive research. Expert opinion was performed among 62 specialists, Exquisite surveys were conducted with 92 Gen Y leaders and final data assimilation was done from 525 Millennial leaders in the I.T industry using stratified proportionate random sampling. Findings: The final results of this study led to the development of a standardized 30-iteminstrument, augmented by construct validity and scale’s reliability. Thus, it can be avouched that it possible to quantify resilience of Millennial leaders; and the personality traits of Millennial leaders explain for a substantial amount of variance (18.1%) in their resilience behavior. Further, Extraverted Millennial leaders agreed that their tendency to be flexible/resilient depends on their personality traits; and they sought to take chances in variating personalities. This posed as a threat to their work profiles, where Gen Y leaders still preferred to pursue this variating resilience in their personality. Therefore, it can be acknowledged that the variation in the resilience of Millennial leader’s personality certainly poses as impendence to the organizations. Applications/Improvements: Even though there are several works published around the personalities of millennials, this paper builds upon the authors’ motive to explore about the flexibility in personality of Gen Y leaders in organizations.
328 A Comparative Study on Various Data Mining Algorithms with Special Reference to Crop Yield Prediction , Hetal Patel and  Dharmendra Patel  
Objectives: To compare different data mining algorithms with the same parameters on the 10fold cross validation test to predict the crop yield. Methods/Analysis: Different data mining classification algorithms like K-nearest Neighbor, K-means, Neural Network, Support Vector Machine, Case-based Reasoning, Decision Tree algorithm, etc. are applied for various application of agriculture domain. A comparative study is done by using J48, Naïve Bayes and Simple Cart algorithms to determine which classification algorithm is best fitted for crop prediction. Findings: In this study, this work reveals the superior performance of J48 classification algorithm with accuracy 89.33% for crop prediction than the other two classification algorithms Simple Cart and Naïve Bayes. Novelty /Improvement: This study first time demonstrates the application of different data mining classification techniques (as discussed above) in the domain of agriculture for yield prediction.
329 Implementation of One Cycle Control Technique in Dc-Dc Buck Converter.  , K. Subramanian , V.K. Sarath Kumar, E.M. Saravanan and E. Dinesh 
A nonlinear control technique is used to controls the duty ratio (T) of a switch in switching converters. i.e., an improved one cycle control technique which is conceptual to the concept of technique of one cycle control. This one cycle control method gives firmness to the source side disturbances, but this technique shows infirmness with the load side disturbances. The proposed new improved one cycle control technique rectifies the drawbacks of one cycle control technique. It strongly rejects both source side disturbances and load side disturbances. Simulations with the buck converter results using MATLAB are given to verify the proposed work. To implement and demonstrate the feasibility of this new control technique over the disturbance, an experimental buck converter prototype has been designed, built, and tested.
330 Implementation of One Cycle Control Technique in Dc-Dc Buck Converter.  , K. Subramanian , V.K. Sarath Kumar, E.M. Saravanan and E. Dinesh 
A nonlinear control technique is used to controls the duty ratio (T) of a switch in switching converters. i.e., an improved one cycle control technique which is conceptual to the concept of technique of one cycle control. This one cycle control method gives firmness to the source side disturbances, but this technique shows infirmness with the load side disturbances. The proposed new improved one cycle control technique rectifies the drawbacks of one cycle control technique. It strongly rejects both source side disturbances and load side disturbances. Simulations with the buck converter results using MATLAB are given to verify the proposed work. To implement and demonstrate the feasibility of this new control technique over the disturbance, an experimental buck converter prototype has been designed, built, and tested.
331 Management of Quality of Higher Education , Akzhan M. Abdyhalykova  
Background/Objectives: Available education quality management models are not efficient due to the rapid development of science and technology. Implementation of a mixed evaluation system, involvement of all members of the educational process into competition formation will allow establishing competitive conditions for the trainers. Methods/Statistical Analysis: The ability to choose a subject and a teacher is a natural way of screening out weak research assistants and, consequently, is a way to improve the quality of education. The combination of autonomous and external regulators for managing the quality of education is possible only in the case when there will be no boundary between them. For the purposes of our experiment we used anonymous evaluation by collecting subjective opinions of the students who are direct recipients of educational services. We also assessed the recipients themselves and indirectly the trainers using the method of analysis of final creative works. The analysis was performed by an independent expert commission of a public regulator. Findings: Group evaluation of results: Teaching of less successful students by the leaders, strive for leadership is an important aspect which is actively implemented within Bologna system of education and that is an essential part of modern teaching philosophy. Integrated approach to obtaining knowledge of high quality will enable to provide basic training for future specialists that is in full compliance with labor markets requirements. Our experiment may serve as an empirical part of the given research. We applied the system of competitive loyal management of the higher education quality. Our experiment proved the efficiency and validity of the offered theory about organization of the system of managing the quality of education. Significant improvement of students’ performance, better motivation of both the trainers and the students are the critical factors for developing modern science. Applications/Improvements: The proposed model is based on Bologna educational system and implies the ways of modernization which are not costly and do not require changes in education. It justifies flexibility and efficiency of the model not only on the stage of implementation but also in the process of its application.
332 Design of Reconfigurable 2-D Linear Feedback Shift Register for Built-In-Self-Testing of Multiple System-on-Chip Cores , Md. Shabaz , Anand Patel, Suraj Iyer, S. Ravi and Harish M. Kittur 
Due to the continual downscaling of technology, System on Chip (SoC) is becoming denser and denser with multiple IP cores within. As the number of cores within a SoC increase, so does the number of faults within the chip. Along with the designing aspect of a chip, design for testability too is a major area of concern. Testing methods like Built-In-Self-Test (BIST) allow the chip to test itself without the need for external testing equipment. Test patterns for BIST are generated using Linear Feedback Shift Register (LFSR) which produces test vectors in a pseudo random manner. This paper concentrates on improving the hardware in terms of area and number of logical gates in the 2-D LFSR used for testing an SoC with multiple IP cores so that vectors in various patterns can be generated using a single reconfigurable 2 Dimensional LFSR. The proposed technique is much more useful for testing System on a Chip with large number of cores as the same configuration network is used to test different SoC cores.
333 Data Mining: Building Social Network. , Sayali Nishikant Chakradeo , Riya Mary Abraham, Beeda Anusha Rani and R. Manjula 
Data mining is one of the fields of computer science wherein we discover patterns through large databases using some computational process or some other methodology. Extracting such data from social media makes such patterns available which can be helpful for different businesses, markets and for other purposes. In this paper, we have extracted data from Wikipedia and blogs regarding ten different attributes of writers, politicians and athletes and find the similarity between them using some of the pre-existing methodologies and finally build a social network amongst them. We have also conducted some mathematical experiments on them so as to examine the efficiency of our analysis.
334 Finding Bugs in Android Application using Genetic Algorithm and Apriori Algorithm , Mamoon Rashid and Lovepreet Kaur  
Android is the leading operating system that is currently being used in the smart phones. In this approach apriori algorithm and genetic algorithm is used to find the bugs in the application which will be eventually be helpful for developer in order to resolve those errors and make application more efficient. It is believed that this study is unique in its own kind and it enhances the security of Android app in its development phase only.
335 Preventing Cloud Attacks using Bio-Metric Authentication in Cloud Computing , S. Srinivasan and K. Raja  
Objectives: To provide a secured and efficient solution for end users to access their personal files in the cloud servers using biometric authentication. Methods: In this Minutiae Map (MM) algorithm is implemented for processing fingerprint based authentication. The user personal files are stored in free public multiple cloud storages namely Dropbox and CloudMe using splitting and merging techniques. RC4 algorithm is used to improve the security in cloud environment. Cross site request forgery (CSRF) and Cross site scripting (XSS) prevention techniques are used to provide security against cloud attacks. Findings: This study analyses that MM algorithm is the best accurate fingerprint feature extraction algorithm compared to Orientation Map, Gabor Filter and core point detection techniques. The proposed approach measures the user personal files upload time in cloud servers namely Dropbox and CloudMe. The study also analyses the presence of CSRF and XSS attacks in the application. Applications/Improvements: The proposed system can be improvised involving preventive measures for more security threats and integrating other biometric authentications.
336 Application of Ant Colony Optimization in Tuning a PID Controller to a Conical Tank , K. V. Lakshmi Narayana, Vaegae Naveen Kumar, M. Dhivya and R. Prejila Raj 
In this paper, PID controller with ant colony optimization is developed for the conical tank. Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is a recently developed meta-heuristic approach for solving hard combinational optimization problems. Each individual ant can find a solution or at least part of a solution to the optimization problem on its own, but only when many ants work together they can find the optimal solution. Since the optimal solution can only be found through the global cooperation of all the ants in a colony, it is an emergent result of such cooperation. The results of PID controller with ant colony optimization provides a remarkable improvement in tracking a given set point, when compared with the Ziegler Nichols closed loop tuning and feed forward plus feedback controller tuning methods.
337 v Impact of Profile Modifications and Rear View Mirror on Aerodynamics and Fuel Economy of Goods Carrier. , Ganesh Raut, M. Chilbule Chaitanya, Awadhesh Upadhyay and Mohan Jagadeesh Kumar 
This paper focuses on the improvements to the truck trailer aerodynamics this can be achieved by the aerodynamic drag reduction devices. The Devices are used on the truck and trailer undergone aerodynamic analysis, CFD evaluation, fuel economy assessment, these modifications provide combined fuel saving 15% at an average velocity of 30 m/s, the improvement in fuel economy correlates the equivalent drag reduction of 21%. CFD analysis shows that addition of these modification on truck trailer has no negative impact on the stability, the effect of exterior rear view mirror on the truck trailer aerodynamic drag is analysed. Result shows that modification intruck trailer geometry can reduce the drag and fuel consumption.
338 Suitability of Partial Replacement of Pulverized Plastic as Fine Aggegate in Cement Concrete , R. Dharmaraj and G. Iyappan 
Objectives: Disposal of plastic was a major problem in the present era, as the usage of plastics was growing day by day and it takes hundreds of year for plastic material to degrade. The effective ways to recycle and reuse of plastics are being formulated. Methods: Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) Bags was taken into consideration as it was easily available and had low density than other type. The used plastic bags were collected, ground in to smaller components. Melted and pulverized in order to get granules of plastic of about 1 mm size. The density of the pulverized was found to be 920 Kg/m³ and its specific gravity was 0.89. Seive analysis were carried out and about 95% of the plastic bags were found to be in the range of 1-1.15 mm. 45 Nos of 100 × 100 × 100 mm cement concrete cubes of M20 mix were cast for 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% fine aggregate being replaced with pulverized plastic material. Volumetric proportioning was adopted instead of design mix since the low density of plastic bags material was too low. Workability test, mechanical properties were determined. Findings: The test results revealed that the compression strength of concrete at 28th days of conventional concrete is 23.56 N/mm². By partial replacement of 5% of Burned LDPE bags in concrete the 28th days increased by about 0.36 N/mm² when compared to conventional concrete. By partial replacement of 10% of burned LDPE bags in concrete the 28th days increased by about 1.02 N/mm² when compared to conventional concrete. By partial replacement of 15% of burned LDPE bags in concrete at 28th day increased by about 2.27 N/mm² for when compared to conventional concrete. By partial replacement of 20% of Burned LDPE bags in concrete the 28th days increased by about 1.16 N/mm² when compared to conventional concrete. Thus it is inferred that partial replacement of Burned LDPE bags up to 15% can be adopted. Novelty/Improvement: It is thereby suggested that utilization of this Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) bags in concrete will reduce the requirement for convectional fine aggregate thereby resulting in conservation of natural resources.
339 Compressive Strength of Concrete based on Ultrasonic and Impact Echo Test , P. H. Arundas and U. K. Dewangan  
Background/Objectives: This paper presents development of non destructive testing methods for calculating the compressive strength of concrete. Methods/Statistical Analysis: The compression tests along with impact echo tests and Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity (UPV) tests are carried out at different load which was the increased compressive loadat certain interval on concrete cubes of various mixes. The frequency spectrum and the ultrasonic pulse time are recorded. A MATLAB based code is used to calculate the maximum frequency of the sound signals corresponding to each impact echotest under a certain compressive load. The graphs for frequency and compressive load are plotted. The graph for ultrasonic pulse velocity on the various compressive load are also plotted for different samples of concrete. Findings: Important observations are found from the graphs of frequency and ultrasonic pulse velocity. The frequency and ultrasonic pulse velocity peak values were continuously found decreasing under the increase in the compressive load. After initial crack formation with the further increase in load the frequency was found increasing trend but with showing a small increased value. Whereas the ultrasonic pulse velocity was found reducing trend in nature. These plots give the clear indication of crack formation. Application/Improvements: These graphs are used for comparison of variation of frequency and ultrasonic pulse velocity to predict the undamaged and damaged state of concrete under compression. A mathematical expression is developed between compressive strength, frequency and ultrasonic pulse velocity
340 Object Separation Using Saliency Algorithm , Shailesh Kishore, Ramneek Singh Grover and N. Sandeep 
In this paper we are examining saliency algorithm with utilization of a straight forward image signature or image descriptor. With the assistance of image signature we can summarize the foreground area of an image inside the zone of signal mixing. At this point with the assistance of experimentation we are going to figure out whether the rough foreground area and the areas which are not outwardly clear overlap with one another. The proposed work will be fulfilled with the assistance of saliency algorithm utilizing image signature. The procedure includes division of all the item scenes and the dark image, this partition methodology is called Figure Ground Separation or FGS. Human intelligence can decipher image and can perform reckoning effectively yet doing so with the assistance of electrical gadgets will be a difficult task for analysts. Using saliency algorithm we are recreating brain tumor discovery
341 Analysis of Maximum Loadability of a Bus for Different Load Models using New Algorithms , J. N. S. Mrudveeka, S. V. N. L. Lalitha and M. Ramamoorty  
Objective: Load modelling has a prominent place in present scenario of power systems research. In this paper various load models are considered for assessing maximum loadability using new algorithms. This has got a lot of significance in the voltage stability studies. Methods/Analysis: Generally constant representation of loads was considered. But the load characteristics significantly affect the power system’s performance. Constant models can not accurately describe the actual nature and behaviour of loads. Findings: Constant Power, Constant Impedance, Constant Current as well as composite (ZIP) load model are considered for assessing maximum loadability using a new algorithm. Constant Impedance, Constant Current Load models are established using node elimination technique. Application/Improvements: Case studies are conducted on IEEE 14 bus system with different load models and the test results are compared.
342 Optimal Resource Allocation and Power Management for Mobile-to-Mobile Communication in Cellular Network.  , M. Arun, A. Anudeep Kumar Reddy and V. Thulasiram 
If in a cellular network two mobile units communicate with each other without use of base station then it is termed as M2M communication and such thing can improve efficiency of spectrum. However such operation may cause interference to conventional cellular network. This paper proposes a resource allocation scheme to maximize throughput of a network while maintaining quality of service (QOS) for both M2M users as well as conventional cellular user. The proposed scheme first performs admission control and later allocates required power for each M2M pair and their respective partnered cellular units that have been admitted into network. Now in order to maximize throughput of network a suitable CU are selected as partners to admit M2M pairs. The results enclosed specifies the behavior of macro fading and shadowing effects at various CU position apart from this a cumulative distribution function for SNR has been provided along with its energy distribution and delay
343 Role of PI/Fuzzy Logic Controlled Transformerless Shunt Hybrid Power Filter using 6-Switch 2-Leg Inverter to Ease Harmonics in Distribution System , S. Sai Keerthi  and J. Somlal 
Background/Objective: The intention of this paper is to propose a Transformerless Shunt Hybrid Power Filter (TSHPF) using 6-Switch 2-Leg Inverter (SSTL) to enhance the power quality in distribution systems. Methods/Statistical Analysis: The TSHPF comprises of SSTL inverter and passive filter coupled to Point of Common Coupling (PCC). Here SSTL inverter acts as Shunt Active Filter (SAF). The DC bus voltage in SSTL inverter is retained by using PI/Fuzzy controller. To generate switching pulses in inverter linear control method is used. Here a TSHPF incorporated with fuzzy controller is developed and comparative analysis is made w.r.t conventional PI controller. Findings: The proposed system is simulated in MATLAB/ SIMULINK for both control strategies. Simulation results shows that compared to PI, by including fuzzy controller the total harmonic distortion is reduced from 8.64% to 3.40%. Improvement: The PI controller is not feasible because explicit mathematical model is needed. Hence, fuzzy controller based TSHPF is much efficient for enhancing the power quality
344 Novel Approach to Automatically Generate Feasible Assembly Sequence. , Arun Tom Mathew, Aniket Kavlekar and Ishan Kossambe 
Today the assembly sequence for the items is regularly completed manually and its definition, typically, is extremely extravagant, not ensuring ideal arrangements. Gathering arrangement arranging utilizing a business framework regularly depends on a master assembly sequence organizer, and it is dominatingly done manually. The difficulties to consequently produce gathering arrangements utilizing CAD models lie as a part of smart thinking and investigation of the displayed assembly information. This work displays a programmed approach expected to characterize gathering sequences, based on the data containing the mates, obstruction and the volume information existing among the parts, which is acquired by the assembly CAD model of the item. This paper exhibits a framework that can examine and use assembly information accessible from a CAD model to produce gathering arrangements. The framework likewise considers client input as a kind of assembly obligation. The framework is equipped for creating a set of positioned attainable assembly arrangement plans for an administrator to assess. A matrix approach has been embraced to process the data held from a CAD model. Obstruction and volume studies are completed amid the formation of assembly sequence plans.
345 Role of PI/Fuzzy Logic Controlled Transformerless Shunt Hybrid Power Filter using 6-Switch 2-Leg Inverter to Ease Harmonics in Distribution System , S. Sai Keerthi  and J. Somlal 
Background/Objective: The intention of this paper is to propose a Transformerless Shunt Hybrid Power Filter (TSHPF) using 6-Switch 2-Leg Inverter (SSTL) to enhance the power quality in distribution systems. Methods/Statistical Analysis: The TSHPF comprises of SSTL inverter and passive filter coupled to Point of Common Coupling (PCC). Here SSTL inverter acts as Shunt Active Filter (SAF). The DC bus voltage in SSTL inverter is retained by using PI/Fuzzy controller. To generate switching pulses in inverter linear control method is used. Here a TSHPF incorporated with fuzzy controller is developed and comparative analysis is made w.r.t conventional PI controller. Findings: The proposed system is simulated in MATLAB/ SIMULINK for both control strategies. Simulation results shows that compared to PI, by including fuzzy controller the total harmonic distortion is reduced from 8.64% to 3.40%. Improvement: The PI controller is not feasible because explicit mathematical model is needed. Hence, fuzzy controller based TSHPF is much efficient for enhancing the power quality
346 Investigation on Effectiveness of the Top Down Nanotechnology in Mechanical Activation of High Calcium Fly Ash in Mortar , L. Krishnaraj , P. T. Ravichandran and P. R. Kannan Rajkumar  
Background/Objectives: Many synthetic additives have been using for improve cement mortar and concrete characteristics, but natural additive is a friendly environment option.In this work, the attempt is made to study, to reduce the pollution from cement production and other materials used in the construction by replacing of Secondary Cementitious Materials. Methods: In this study, the effects of cementitious materials like Ultra-Fine Fly Ash (UFFA) and Nano Silica (NS) on strength development, water permeability of mortar and the optimum use of UFFA and NS in mortars are investigated. Class C Fly Ash which is used as partial replacement of cement was subjected to ball milling for a total duration of 2 hours to obtain UFFA. The NS is a by product obtains from the silicon industries are also used as a replacement material of cement. Cement was partially replaced with four percentages (15%, 30%, 45% and 60%) of UFFA and NS by weight. The specimens used to determine the compressive strength and split tensile strength at the age of 3, 7, 14 and 28 days. Crystallite phase and grain size of UFFA and NS were determined by using X-ray diffraction test and the shape and texture was studied using SEM analysis. Findings: The test results show that strength increases with increase of secondary cementitious materials up to 30% of replacements of cement. Test results indicates that the physical, chemical, mechanical and durability properties of the cement are also enhanced with the influence of the secondary cementitious material. Application/Improvements: Increase in use of fly ash in cement mortar in the construction industry reduces the consumptions of cement as well as the cost of construction.
347 Design of Low Power and Area Efficient 4-bit Arithmetic and Logic Unit using Nanoscale FinFET.  , Deshpande Akshay, Sanidhya Mohan Sharma, Lochan Anil Vyas and K. Sivasankaran 
In order to strive in VLSI Technology, we have to keep up with the Moore’s law which states that in every 18 month number of transistors gets doubled on a chip. But as we scale down the transistor size problems like Short Channel Effects (SCE), Sub-threshold voltage variation, Drain Induced Barrier Lowering (DIBL), Gate oxide tunnelling leakage etc., comes into the account. To overcome the above problems we moved towards the FinFET based transistor. In this paper we have proposed the “Design of Low power 4-bit arithmetic & logic unit using nanoscale FinFET”. Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) is the backbone of any processor, we have performed the logical operations like AND, OR, Inverter, 2’s complement of the number etc. & Arithmetic operation like addition, subtraction, multiplication, parity generation etc. Different techniques are used to achieve the low power on different modules in the design.
348 K-Means Demographic based Crowd Aware Movie Recommendation System , Kathpal Mohit, Boparai Rajdavinder Singh and Singh Gurpreet   
In this paper we put forward a novel technique of K-Means based crowd-aware recommender system in which we select the closest crowd to the particular user and locate the preference of those to suggest that user a set of movies at that time in the same province. K-Means is the clustering algorithm that is used to cluster the specifiedspot among the set of spots in the dataset. Here we make groups of the crowd and then locate in which cluster a particular user belongs. Following classify the user in particular category of the crowd, system will find the set of movies among the crowd, which is most preferred by that set of crowd in which the user is classified. The proposed approach is likely to attain the high precision, effectiveness and will take less time as judge against other techniques for movie recommendation.
349 Effect of Masonry Infill Structure with Openings during Progressive Collapse by Removing a Middle Column , M. Sakthi Seethalakshmi, M. Prakash, K. S. Satyanarayanan and V. Thamilarasu  
Background/Objectives: Progressive collapse occurs when primary structural element fails due to many reasons such as impact, bomb blast, earthquake, abnormal loading etc., resulting in the failure of adjoining structural elements, which in turn causes partial or total collapse of the structure consequently. It is studied widely in Reinforced Concrete (RC) framed structure. Methods/Statistical Analysis: The present study investigates the comparative behaviour of four bay, five storey RC bare frame, infilled frame and infilled frame with openings and to assess the effect of infill to resist the progressive collapse. A linear static analysis is carried out using finite element software using SAP 2000 and maximum moment (M), shear force (V), axial force (P), deflection (U) for both beams and columns generated before and after middle column removal are studied and compared. Findings: There is an average of 30% and 34% decrease in moments for infilled frames when compared to a bare frame. The percentage of decrease in moments increases to an average of 71% when the column is removed. Similarly, the deflection for infilled frames decreases by35% when compared with bare frame and only 17% increase when infills are provided with openings on removal of column there is average of 88% decrease in deflection for infilled frames when compared with bare frame. It shows that the presence of infilled frames will delay the progressive collapse when compared to bare frames. Application/Improvements: The study can be extended to the non-linear range and also to find its dynamic response.
350 An Ontological Approach for Originating Data Services with Hazy Semantics , R. Saranya, S. Gowri, S. Monisha and S. Vigneshwari  
Objective: The tremendous growth in volume of data is increasing the complexity of data handling. The existing content based search is not only complex and expensive, but also leads to poor processing and unacceptable latency for massive amount of data. Data accessed from large dataset using existing approach will slow down the query response rate. High resource cost is the severe performance bottleneck caused by query operations. The semantic based search can be carried out on the data, In order to reduce the complexity in data handling. The proposed method uses Resource Description Framework (RDF) with Ontology Web Language (OWL). Thus the RDF is used for non domain based search and OWL is used for domain based search. The non domain based search provides the composition of best data services from master RDF. The triplets from different RDF are combined to form master RDF. And the domain based search is one which provides recommendations for the user based on their search query. The main objective of this approach is to provide semantic search using RDF and recommendation using OWL. The search result will be the high similarity result sets as the method uses the combinational RDF to form large master RDF.Statistical Analysis/Methods: The user is provided with two methods of searching which is domain based search and non domain based search. The domain based search is one which provides recommendation for the user based on the search query. And the non domain based search originates the data services from master RDF. Agriculture data set is chosen as a sample data set for domain based search which can be extended further for any other domain. The web services which contain general information about the world and also related web services is chosen as a data set for non domain based search. Findings: The statistical analysis of ontology based semantic search with keyword based search produced the precision value of 0.8 out of 1.0 using the search results obtained from both semantic search and keyword based search. Applications/Improvements: The application can be further improved by adding realistic data sets and increasing the size of the database. The domain based approach is not restricted only to agriculture but it can also be extended to some other applications like Health care, pattern recognition and so on.
351 Design of Low Power and Area Efficient 4-bit Arithmetic and Logic Unit using Nanoscale FinFET.  , Deshpande Akshay, Sanidhya Mohan Sharma, Lochan Anil Vyas and K. Sivasankaran 
In order to strive in VLSI Technology, we have to keep up with the Moore’s law which states that in every 18 month number of transistors gets doubled on a chip. But as we scale down the transistor size problems like Short Channel Effects (SCE), Sub-threshold voltage variation, Drain Induced Barrier Lowering (DIBL), Gate oxide tunnelling leakage etc., comes into the account. To overcome the above problems we moved towards the FinFET based transistor. In this paper we have proposed the “Design of Low power 4-bit arithmetic & logic unit using nanoscale FinFET”. Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) is the backbone of any processor, we have performed the logical operations like AND, OR, Inverter, 2’s complement of the number etc. & Arithmetic operation like addition, subtraction, multiplication, parity generation etc. Different techniques are used to achieve the low power on different modules in the design.
352 Framework for Improved Question Answering System , Muthukrishnan Ramprasath and Shanmugasundaram Hariharan  
Background/Objectives: The proposed frame work uses statistical based similarity measure for QAS, which gives short and exact answer to user query. The entire frame work is focusing similarity computation between question and answer pair. Methods/Statistical Analysis: The involvement of similarity computation between question and answer pair should be investigated in this work QAS. Statistical based similarity measure is an important issue as compared to similarity computation in many fields such as, Natural Language Processing, Information Retrieval, Ontology Mapping, Knowledge Acquisition and Question Answering System. Semantic web has been used to present the structure knowledge representation between questions and answer keywords. Ontology can be used as important proposal to enable semantic similarity between keywords present in the question and answer pairs. Findings: The proposed frame work investigate, how the statistical based similarity measure used in these system helps to improve the performance of the QA system for all Wh-questions. We find the keywords having most similar meaning will return the answer as the final answer. The best performance is achieved by extracting the relevant snippets information form Google search engine. The performance of the system will change as the retrieval of the document is increases beyond 15; this could indicate that restriction in the retrieval of document is helps to optimize the performance of the system. Application/Improvements: This frame work is applicable to all type of search engines which helps to finds most relevant answer to user questions. In future, we implement our frame work for questions having more than five keywords.
353 Content based Image Search using Rough Set and Representative Graph. , G. S. G. N Anjaneyulu, C. Kaushika and Anugrah Kumar 
Until now, the search carried out in devices using the conventional, textual form of search now seems tedious, considering the advances made in human software interaction since the emergence and development in touch-screen interfaces. In the past decade finger-touch or multi-touch interfaces have completely altered the way we interact with the devices. The input method implemented in search mechanisms, use the textual form of string input method that can be extended to graphical search which would enhance the interaction of human to software and also is efficient. This Paper proposes a new content based Image search Algorithm using Rough Set and Relational Graph.
354 An inventory Model for seasonal Goods with time Dependent Seasonal Revenue and Profit Loss in Fuzzy Sense , N . Nalini  and E. Chandrasekaran  
Background/Objective: To develop fuzzy set theory and the fuzziness in the inventory problem, the purpose is to find the optimal order quantity corresponds to the total cost and the associated cost also fuzzy. Methods/Statistical Analysis: This approach is to find the quantity which has the minimum cost with maximum profit. When the profit gained from selling one unit of the item without deterioration and other shortage cost must be avoided. Findings: Mathematical model has been developed in two steps. (1) The Fuzzy economic order quantity and with the fuzzy total cost, (2) The Fuzzy revenue and the related with fuzzy net profit, (3)Fuzzy economic order quantity and the total cost values with seasonal/ time dependent revenue corresponding to the profits. Applications/Improvements: Our aim is to find total cost and profit with fuzzy sense. Numerical examples are given and sensitivity analysis is carried out to conclude the result.
355 Efficient VCO using FinFET , Siddharth Saxena , M. Srikanth, Shantanu Jawale and R. Sakthivel 
In this paper the two different architectures of voltage controlled oscillator using MOSFET (Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor) and FinFET are compared and analyzed. The comparison is on the basis of different parameters of VCO (Voltage Controlled Oscillator). The parameters which are analyzed are Voltage swing, Tuning Range, Power Consumption, number of stages and phase noise. Two architectures of VCO namely Current Starved Ring Oscillator and Source coupled VCO are implemented on Cadence Virtuoso simulator. The results of simulation indicated that implementation using FinFET, gives very high tuning range of VCO as compared to MOSFET. The Tuning range in Current starved VCO using FinFET is found out to be 23 GHz to 32 GHz compared to MOSFET which is only 3 GHz to 6 GHz. The phase noise in Source coupled VCO FinFET is better than MOSFET for low frequency domain. According to power consumption analysis, Source coupled VCO FinFET is much better than Source coupled MOSFET.
356 Efficient VCO using FinFET , Siddharth Saxena , M. Srikanth, Shantanu Jawale and R. Sakthivel 
In this paper the two different architectures of voltage controlled oscillator using MOSFET (Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor) and FinFET are compared and analyzed. The comparison is on the basis of different parameters of VCO (Voltage Controlled Oscillator). The parameters which are analyzed are Voltage swing, Tuning Range, Power Consumption, number of stages and phase noise. Two architectures of VCO namely Current Starved Ring Oscillator and Source coupled VCO are implemented on Cadence Virtuoso simulator. The results of simulation indicated that implementation using FinFET, gives very high tuning range of VCO as compared to MOSFET. The Tuning range in Current starved VCO using FinFET is found out to be 23 GHz to 32 GHz compared to MOSFET which is only 3 GHz to 6 GHz. The phase noise in Source coupled VCO FinFET is better than MOSFET for low frequency domain. According to power consumption analysis, Source coupled VCO FinFET is much better than Source coupled MOSFET.
357 A Comparative Study for Alleviation of Current Harmonics using PI/Fuzzy Controller based PV-APF System , M. Yateesh Kumar and P. Srinivasa Varma    
Background/Objectives: The main ideology behind this paper is to design a Fuzzy Controller based Photo Voltaic-Active Power Filter (PV-APF) combinational system for alleviation of Current Harmonics. Methods/Statistical Analysis: The efficiency of PV module can be elevated by operating at Maximum Power Point (MPP) to achieve utmost power output. Hence, Maximum Power Point Methods (MPPT) methods. Here the Voltage Source Converter would act as active power filter compensating the current harmonics that are produced in 3-Ф 3-wire system there by the system power quality can be improved. Also, in this paper comparison is performed among fuzzy and PI controllers. Findings: The unified system is simulated in MATLAB/SIMULINK software based on simulation results obtained, we can able to conclude that compared to PI the total harmonic distortion of Fuzzy Controller is reduced to 3.68%. Application/Improvement: The THD value obtained from Fuzzy Controller is accurate. Hence Fuzzy Controller based PV-APF System is used for Alleviation of Current Harmonics.
358 Parametric Study on Behaviour of Seven Storey Single Bay Infilled Frame with Pneumatic Interface , V. Thirumurugan,S. Anjali, S. Muthu Kumar , K. S. Satyanarayanan, and T. P. Ganesan  
Objective: The aim of this work is to study about the behavior of seven storey single bay infilled frame with pneumatic interface under various levels of pressures with lateral loads.Method: Linear analysis was carried out using a finite element based software by modeling various 2D frames. The dimension and reinforcement details for the frames are chosen based on the experimental study. For infilled frame with pneumatic interface different pressure configuration at different levels shall be considered in the study. Findings: The study of behavior includes stiffness, bending moment, axial force and shear force. The analysis of infilled frame with cement mortar interface and bare frame was also carried out to compare the frame stiffness and member forces of these frames.Interface characteristics have also influence the structural behavior of infilled frame. It has effect on overall stiffness and of the in-plane moment of inertia of composite frame and modifies energy dissipation. Applications: The research idea can be implemented in construction field so that the structural failure during earthquake will be minimized. The research work has been done relevant to study the behavior of infilled frame and to adopt new technique which can improve its performance. This study can be the basis of further studies which can increase the number of parameters under various conditions.
359 Embedded Web Server Application for Industrial Automation. , Ajith Kumar P. Shetty, K. Ketan and M. Shanmugasundaram 
Web Server based monitoring has been an issue for industries as they make use of PC-based servers which consume large power and occupy large area. This limitation can be overcome by replacing the existing PC-based server by an Embedded Web Server using Raspberry Pi. The prime objective of this paper is to design a remote data acquisition system which is controlled by Linux portable ARM processor and web server application with General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) technology. This system focuses not only on device monitoring but also controlling it. The monitoring and data collection is accompanied by a Short Message Service (SMS), an email alert which is initiated in order to avoid the occurrence of a critical event. The system is capable enough to withstand power failure and capable of restarting from the point of failure.
360 Behaviour of Cold Formed Steel Starred Section Subjected to Axial and Eccentric Load Condition , M. Guru Agastheesh and S. Senthil Selvan 
Objectives: This paper presents the ultimate load carrying capacity and behaviour of Cold Formed Steel (CFS) starred section with different end conditions and the specimens are subjected to axial compression. Methods: Theoretical study is carried out by using Euler’s load equation. Six plain sections of different sizes of 2mm thickness were tested as short columns. The analytical study is carried out using FEM software. The specimen used for testing have different dimensions, 60×60×2mm and 50×50×2mm with welded end condition, balled end condition and bolted end condition. The specimens are also tested experimentally by applying axial compression loading. Findings: The analysis is numerically carried out using FEM software and the results are compared. The experimental investigation of the cold-formed steel column is carried out by testing the column under loading frame with load applied manually and the test results are found match with the theoretical values. Compression tests were carried out on cold-formed steel starred angles under different end connections. As a result, welded end condition provides more strength than balled end condition where balled end condition provides more strength than the bolted end condition. Applications: This results can be further used with different section size or with different end condition under different loading conditions to find the ultimate strength of cold formed steel.
361  Implementation of Fuzzy Logic Controller for Cascaded Multilevel Inverter with Reduced Number of Components , K. Yamini , B. Vasudha, Avinash Sharma and P. Ponnambalam 
In this paper, cascaded multilevel inverter with fuzzy closed loop control is proposed. The proposed cascaded multilevel inverter needs lower number of dc voltage sources, power semiconductor switches hence the complexity and the cost of the overall system decreases. Pulses for the switches are generated by using sinusoidal pulse width modulation. Procedure to generate voltage levels is developed. Closed loop control using fuzzy logic is used to improve the RMS output voltage. Simulation results are observed for seven level inverter with fuzzy logic.
362 Modeling and Study of Behavior of Infilled Frames with Different Interface Materials under Static Loading , S. Muthu Kumar, G. Saranya, M. Lakshmipathy and K.S. Satyanarayanan  
Objective:The aim of this work is to study the linear behavior of infilled frames with different interface materials like cement mortar, cork and lead under static lateral loading. Method:This paper presents the analytical study of a two bay three storeyed reinforced concrete infilled frame under static lateral loading.A bare frame and infilled frames with various interface materials (cement mortar, cork and lead) have been analysed.Findings:In particular, the paper discusses the lateral stiffness of the frames and gives a comparison on the effect of interface materials on the lateral stiffness of the frames under static lateral load. It is found that cement mortar interface has higher stiffness when compared to lead and cork. Applications/Improvements: The results of this paper can become the basis for further studies on the behaviour of these interface materials under seismic loading
363 Self Sensing Concrete using Carbon Fibre for Health Monitoring of Structures under Static loading , K. S. Sathyanarayanan and N. Sridharan
Background/Objective: To find an easy method to health monitor structures. Method: Self sensing or smart behavior has been observed in mortar or concrete with the addition of small amounts (0.2 to 0.5% by volume of cement) of short (5mm length) carbon fibres. It is seen that there is an increase in electrical resistance on loading upto crack propagation or fracture. On reaching the inelastic stage, the resistance change is not reversible. Findings: A method is developed which can be used in place of, often used strain gage technique or fibre optic technique for health monitoring of structures. There is an increase in resistance during fibre pull out in the elastic range. The change in elastic resistance was measured by a four probe method and was seen to be reversible for elastic deformation. Also, the crack propagation and fibre breakage of the specimen can be identified by irreversible resistance change. The stress vs strain and resistance vs strain graphs when plotted show similarity. Application: This phenomenon can be made use of to find the real time weight of vehicles in traffic and finding stress values of a loaded structure etc.
364  Reliable Connectionless Transport Protocol for Fast Message Delivery , Pranav Patel , Rutul Shah, Chirag Patel and V. Vijayarajan 
TCP and UDP are the most used transport layer protocols in computer networks. These two protocols are used for almost all types of data transmission including files, messages, real-time streaming of media etc. In cases where loss of a single data unit then it makes the entire data transfer useless such as file transfer, TCP is used because it ensures reliability. UDP is unreliable and can be used where little loss is acceptable and sender does not need a conformation of successful delivery to the receiver. In past decade a large variety of network applications has emerged requiring different requirements for transport layer protocol. Currently in cases where a message needs to be sent to a destination and sender needs confirmation of successful delivery of the message TCP must be used. However TCP requires 3 way handshakes and has large over head of header bytes which may be not required in such cases. This paper proposes a transport layer protocol that is connection less like UDP and has very less header overhead bytes and ensures reliability of transmission. This protocol saves from connection establishment phase and overhead of additional header bytes. From calculation it can be observed that this protocol improves efficiency of transmission in certain cases.
365  Reliable Connectionless Transport Protocol for Fast Message Delivery , Pranav Patel , Rutul Shah, Chirag Patel and V. Vijayarajan 
TCP and UDP are the most used transport layer protocols in computer networks. These two protocols are used for almost all types of data transmission including files, messages, real-time streaming of media etc. In cases where loss of a single data unit then it makes the entire data transfer useless such as file transfer, TCP is used because it ensures reliability. UDP is unreliable and can be used where little loss is acceptable and sender does not need a conformation of successful delivery to the receiver. In past decade a large variety of network applications has emerged requiring different requirements for transport layer protocol. Currently in cases where a message needs to be sent to a destination and sender needs confirmation of successful delivery of the message TCP must be used. However TCP requires 3 way handshakes and has large over head of header bytes which may be not required in such cases. This paper proposes a transport layer protocol that is connection less like UDP and has very less header overhead bytes and ensures reliability of transmission. This protocol saves from connection establishment phase and overhead of additional header bytes. From calculation it can be observed that this protocol improves efficiency of transmission in certain cases.
366 Behaviour of Reinforced Concrete Building Frame Subjected to Different Types of Blast Loading , Dasari Sudheer Kumar , Pallavi Rai, Rajneesh Kumar, Somnath Karmakar and Showmen Saha  
Objectives: To assess the behaviour of reinforced concrete building frames under different types of blast loads. Methods: The method adopted for the analysis was ConWep blast load method. This is a computational method and is based on collection of conventional weapon effects calculations developed by U.S Dept. of Army 1998. The finite element modelling of the building was carried out by using the standard hydrocode software LS_DYNA_971 R 7.1. The charge weight was considered as 226.8 kg of TNT explosive. Findings: Building structures are constructed throughout the world in accordance with building codes. The available codes lack substantial design considerations to prevent or minimize the impact caused by any sort of blast. The attacks by terrorists mainly focus on the iconic buildings like school buildings, government offices and hospitals etc. which affects the safety of the structure and causes loss of lives. So before the design it is required to know the behaviour of the entire building and its critical elements to design to resists the blast loads. In this study, the material models used for the representation of concrete and steel are CSCM_CONCRETE and PIECEWISE_LINEAR_ PLASTICITY respectively. The details of the modelling of building and its progressive collapse, material properties are also discussed. Improvements: The codes which are available for blast design are not provided the different types of failure conditions, for this reason this study was conducted and the failure conditions are observed.
367 Robotics in Construction Industry , V. R. Prasath Kumar, M. Balasubramanian and S. Jagadish Ra
The robotization of on-site reinforcement mat preparation robot, interior/ floor finishing robot, quality inspection robot, drones for carrying loads and proximity detection sensors are considered. Costs and benefits of applying the proposed robot system for construction works are outlined and estimated. Conclusions regarding the profit obtained and time reduced of work performed by robot and its economic feasibility are drawn. Objectives: To analyse the efficiency usefulness of automation and robotics in construction, to measure cost effectiveness of automation in comparison to manual work practices and to improve safety and quality standards in construction using automation. Methods: By adopting the methods such as value estimation, payback period, return on investment and straight line method for each and every robot the cost parameter is analysed. Findings: Automated instruments are found to be efficient by reducing average time consumed for major activities by 57.85% of time taken, automated equipment’s are found to reduce cost incurred in net working cost by an average of 51.67% in comparison to cost incurred for performance by manual labor and Quality of output is greatly increased and cost incurred for rework and scrap is reduced by 66.76% by employing automation. Application Improvement: By utilizing these robots in real time constructions the various parameters such as time, cost and quality can be improved.
368 An Architecture of Class Loader System in Java Bytecode Obfuscation , Magesh Vasudevan, Shah Pratik , C. Gopichand and Anthoniraj Amalanathan 
Obfuscators are tool to make the software Intellectual property protected. The protection is from the reverse engineers who crack the code for Intellectual Property or license benefits. This paper discusses about obfuscation with Java Byte Code; Java compiles the code into byte code that runs on Java Virtual Machine (JVM). The byte code is more expressive than the object code. The byte code in name of .class files can be transported to any machine that can run JVM. The aim is to obfuscate the java byte code such that the reverse engineered code is not understandable by making ambiguous view approach. The approach changes the flow such that it is functional identical but difficult in understanding the function or the approach the code has built upon. There are many ways the code can be obfuscated such as control flow, encryption of string literals, multiple overloaded methods. The approach in this paper is making the string literal null such that the literals used cannot be identified. This can be enhanced further by using java class loader where the class name is String; when the string is found empty in the reverse engineered code the decompiled code will be of no understanding because the classes called itself will not be identified. The Java byte code engineering library used is ASM.
369 Evaluation of Anaerobic Digestor for Treating Paper Mill Waste Water , S. Dhanasekar  and B. Sasivarman  
Background/Objective: The Indian paper industry accounts for about 3% of the world’s production of paper. So the generation and disposal of paper and pulp industry wastewater is very high. Disposal of untreated mill effluent will damage the environment. Therefore treatment of papermill effluent is necessary. Methods/Statistical Analysis: In this investigationthe bleach liquor from thepaper mill wastewater is subjected to biological treatment process. Usually bleach liquor is not effective in the biological treatment process.In this study along with the effluent, cow dung and activated sludge from domestic wastewater are added as a seeding materials by the ratio of 20%, 30%, 40%, 50% replacement in the 500ml serum bottle and closed tightly to maintain anaerobic condition. The wastewater initial characters are analyzed and evaluated the biogas production daily. Finally if the gas production stopped the wastewater and the seeding materials inside the reactor is characterized. Findings: The 50% wastewater and the 50% seeding materials (cow dung and activated sludge combination) gave the high yield of biogas and degrade the organic contaminants effectively. Improvement/ Applications: Theactivated sludge is used as a seeding material to biodegrade the organic pollutants present in the wastewater especially the bleach liquor. It will help to improve the biological treatment process of bleach liquor effluent treatment with activated sludge in continuous mode of operation to treat the effluent.
370 Low Cost Smart Home Design , F. Valiyullah Khan, Narayana Siva Teja, A. L. Aaqib Parvez and Rashmi Ranjan Das
In this paper, we are presenting the design of a smart home which is controlled by Arduino microcontroller and an android based smart phone. It controls the switching of all household appliances besides controlling the speed of a fan, brightness of a lamp using a mobile phone. This paper also presents a low cost smart door controlled via an electromagnet. Our system includes an android based smart phone, a Bluetooth module, Arduino microcontroller and various domestic appliances. Thus this work aims for a low cost smart home design available to all sections of the people.
371 Evaluation of Response Reduction Factor of Irregular Reinforced Concrete Framed Structures , Divya Brahmavrathan  and C. Arunkumar  
Background/Objectives: Most of the seismic codes used today, incorporate the nonlinear response of a structure by the provision of an appropriate response reduction factor ‘R’ so that a linear elastic force based approach can be used for design. The value of R factor varies from 3 to 5 in IS 1893 for RC moment resisting frames, but it does not provide information on the components of R factor. This study focuses on the evaluation of the actual value of R for stepped buildings. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Three dimensional models with varying number of storeys in each step were created, consisting of both ordinary RC moment resisting frame and special RC moment resisting frame having 3, 6 and 9 storeys. Nonlinear static pushover analysis is carried out on the analytical models using finite element analysis software SAP 2000. The R factor components such as ductility and over strength factors were computed from the results obtained from the nonlinear static pushover analysis and finally the response reduction factor is calculated for all the models. The pattern of variation in R factor with the increase in the number of stories is investigated for both OMRF and SMRF in this study. Findings: The actual value of the R factor was found to be less than the value assumed during the design process and its value was found to decrease with the increase in the number of storeys. A certain percentage reduction in the response reduction factor has to be considered for irregular buildings. Application/Improvements: This study is focused only on the influence of height on the value of response reduction factor. Further research is needed considering a wider set of parameters.
372 Anti Fuel Theft Alarm , Dhananjay Shukla, M. Liaquath, K. Chidambaram and S. K. Khadeer Pasha 
In this work we are presenting a new electronic design for an anti fuel theft protection system that is simple and inexpensive solution to protect vehicle fuel from being stolen and from unauthorized users by exploiting microcontroller based system. The two major parts of this circuit are transmitter and receiver section. Transmitter is fitted in the vehicles near the fuel tap and the receiver in room of your office/house. An audio indication will be received when someone goes near to fuel tap
373 Anti Fuel Theft Alarm , Dhananjay Shukla, M. Liaquath, K. Chidambaram and S. K. Khadeer Pasha 
In this work we are presenting a new electronic design for an anti fuel theft protection system that is simple and inexpensive solution to protect vehicle fuel from being stolen and from unauthorized users by exploiting microcontroller based system. The two major parts of this circuit are transmitter and receiver section. Transmitter is fitted in the vehicles near the fuel tap and the receiver in room of your office/house. An audio indication will be received when someone goes near to fuel tap
374 AIsolation and Characterization of a Heavy Metalreducing Enterobacteriaceae Bacterium Strain DRY 7 with the Ability to Assimilate Phenol and Diesel , M. H. Hamdan, M. A .Othaman, Z. Suhaili, M. S. Shukor, M. I. E. Halmi, S. R. S. Abdullah , N. A. Shamaan and M.Y. Shukor. 
Background/Objectives: Molybdenum, phenol and diesel are toxic to organism, and are part of global pollution. Their removal using microorganisms with multiple detoxification ability is being intensely sought as a cleaner and economic approach. Methods/Statistical analysis: A soil suspension was spread plated on a minimal salts media supplemented with molybdenum. Blue colonies, indicating molybdenum reduction was then screened for phenol and diesel degradation capabilities. Findings: A molybdenum-reducing bacterium locally isolated showed the ability to grow on phenol and diesel. The bacterium required pHs of between 5.8 and 6.3 and temperatures of between 30 and 40o C for optimal reduction. Among the carbon sources tested for supporting reduction, glucose was the best. A critical concentration of phosphate at just 5 mM was required, while molybdenum (sodium molybdate) was required between 15 and 25 mM. The absorption spectrum of the Mo-blue produced showed a characteristic maximum peak at 865 nm. The reduction of molybdenum was inhibited by the ions mercury, copper, chromium, lead and silver by 78.9, 78.4, 77.4, 53.5 and 36.8%, respectively. Analysis using phylogenetic analysis identifies the bacterium as Enterobacteriaceae bacterium strain DRY7. Growth on phenol and diesel as carbon sources showed that the optimal concentrations supporting growth was between 300 and 400 mg/L and between 300 and 500 mg/L, respectively. Application/Improvements: The capacity of this bacterium to detoxify a number of toxicants is an important property or bioremediation of soils contaminated with multiple toxicants.
375 Spatial and Temporal Mapping of Groundwater Quality using GIS based Water Quality Index (A Case Study of SIPCOT-Perundurai, Erode, Tamil Nadu, India) , S. Durgadevagi, R. Annadurai and Mohan Meenu  
Groundwater is an important source of drinking water especially in rural areas of Tamil Nadu. Over exploitation of groundwater for industrial use has become a major challenge. Therefore, it is very important to assess the quality of groundwater. The present study is about the geostatistical analysis of groundwater quality for SIPCOT Industrial estate, Perundurai, Erode, where Groundwater is the main source of water for drinking and irrigation purpose. The aim of the study is to map the current situation of groundwater quality in the study area. The groundwater samples collected from 35 wells in and around the SIPCOT industrial estate are used for this purpose. The major water quality parameters such as pH, EC, TDS, TA, TH, Ca, Mg, Na, K, F, Sulfates, Nitrites, Nitrates, Chlorine, Carbonate, Bicarbonate, Sodium absorption ratio, Residual sodium carbonate, and Sodium have been estimated for all the samples and the results were compared with the BIS standards. The spatial distribution map of these groundwater quality parameters were derived and integrated with WQI through GIS. GIS is used as a tool for analysis of spatial distribution of water quality. The resultant map shows the Water quality index for both pre monsoon and post monsoon season of the study area.
376 Ontology Centric Access Control Mechanism for Enabling Data Protection in Cloud , M. Auxilia and K. Raja  
Background: Cloud computing provides access to a large scale of resources. Access control is the indispensable requirement for protecting cloud resource. A cloud service provider is responsible for enforcing access control and they normally rely upon conventional access control mechanisms. Methods: These access control policies, consider the access control primitives in separation which may lead to abuse of access control. These aforesaid problems motivated our research to center around the provision of access control by considering the association among the three access control primitives namely the user making access request, resource upon which access is requested and operation performed by the user on the resource. Hence Ontology Centric Access Control (OCAC) is being proposed in this paper. Findings: This OCAC circulates authorization rules among the primitives of access control say subject, object and action by reducing the various associations among the associations among the access control elements; it is observed that there is less chance for security violation. Ontology is used since it reduces the times of agreement while exchanging the authorization policies across the security domains. For reducing the number of statements and rules in policy base, subsumption property is used. This reduces the space and time complexity. Applications/Improvements: We are applying our work to protect bank data as banks are embracing clouds to store huge data by cutting their IT costs.
377 Study on Behaviour of Soil with Phosphogypsum as Stabilise , K. Divya Krishnan , Mani Deepika , P. T. Ravichandra, C. Sudha  and Ajesh K. Kottuppillil 
Background/Objective: Civil engineering structure resting on expansive soils needs more attention since it causes undesirable engineering behavior when the soil comes in contact with water. The areas consisting of expansive soil need a proper stabilization method to solve the site problems faced by the civil engineers. Pavements constructed on such soil shows signs of damage continuously during the service life of the pavement eventually increase the maintenance costs. Stabilization of these soils is a usual practice for improving the strength. Methods: In this work an attempt was made on the utilization of Phospho Gypsum (PG) with soil by adding various percentages of 2, 4, and 6% in soils and accessed their geotechnical behaviour for different curing periods. The effects of PG treatment on the microstructure and strength improvement of compacted expansive clays are studied based on Microstuctural analysis and Unconfined Compression tests for different curing periods of 0, 14 and 28 days. Findings: UCS performed on these mixes and identified that addition of phosphogypsum attained high strength with the increasing percent of phosphogypsum in soils. From the test results, it was observed that the UCS peak stresses were increases to 162kPa and 336kPa from 75 kPa and 122 kPa for soil samples S1 and S2 at 28days of curing. X-ray Diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy were carried out for microlevel analysis and the results confirmed the presence of minerals and cementation nature in the treated soil. Improvement: From the experimental study, it is observed that the treatment of the expansive soil with the addition of Industrial waste material Phosphogypsum is more efficient in subgrade modification and other geotechnical applications.
378 Secure Data Storage in Cloud Environment using MAS , T. P. Latchoumi  and Latha Parthiban 
Objectives: The objective is to introduce multi-agent systems to enhance the security rules through the access right to build a distributed warehouse in the cloud environment secure manner. The work aim is to take a smart decision making using MAS in a timely manner. Analysis: Cloud computing is a very powerful, and predictable in computing infrastructure for implementing complex agent-based applications. Cloud computing in Multi-Agent System (MAS) appears as an approach to current challenges in many areas. The distributed data warehousing is used to do based on how data’s are distributed in the multiple servers.Its main problemishow the Collaborative work of a multi-agent system designed for distributed data warehousing in the cloud environment. Findings: In the existing approach, a major issue is to retrieve the relevant data from the cloud storage is a very difficult task. Other issues in attributes are increasing the network loads (traffics) and response time, the need of secure data storage, data retrieval from the cloud environment and the database updating is very slow.Cloud infrastructures provide a platform to run the MAS in the real-time, because it takes large execution time by havinga large amount of data processing and dynamic memory. Improvement: In this paper, we introduce data warehouse in the cloud computing through the multi-agent system technology. This enables cost and time saving. The technique based on data warehouse in the cloud environment using Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) technology to consider security and privacy in data storage and transmitted. The proposed system is the use of an MAS in the cloud environment, introduces autonomous decision making in the critical situation to speed up the execution time, response time, database updating and security enhancing. We apply this propose system in any application like e-banking, hospital management, election department, etc.
379 A Novel and Hybrid Secure Digital Image Watermarking Framework Through sc-LWT-SVD , Koyi Lakshmi Prasad, T. Ch. Malleswara Rao and V. Kannan 
Background: In the recent internet world, the watermarking security dispute has incurring design challenges on watermarking techniques. This article has anticipated a robust and secure watermarking pattern, based on SC-LWT-SVD which is projected so as to challenge the numerous serious watermarking security disputes, i.e., copyright protection through encryption, unsanctioned interpretation, false positive recognition, and numerous prerogatives of tenure complications. Methods: Initially SC-LWT is accomplished to split the input values, in order to acquire approximate coefficients. The SVD is applied on LWT coefficients to originate singular constants. Findings: The proposed SC–LWT– SVD constructed watermarking arrangement is verified with numerous malicious and un-malicious outbreaks and the experimental outcomes illustrate that it comprehends the security prerequisites which resolves false positive detection and copyright protection. Furthermore, this pattern is deliberated to blind scheme. Application: The simulation model is accustomed to verify the viability of the anticipated pattern and its forcefulness in contradiction of numerous outbreaks and to link with some earlier systems.
380 A Small Signal Analysis of DC-DC Boost Converter , M. Sai Krishna Reddy , Ch. Kalyani, M. Uthra and D. Elangovan 
This paper presents simulation and small signal analysis of dc-dc boost converter with closed loop control. Small signal model of the boost converter used to analyze the small deviations around the steady-state operating point which will help in modeling the closed loop converter parameters. Complete state-space analysis is done to obtain output voltage to duty ratio transfer-functions for both ideal and Non-ideal boost converter. PI controller is designed using root locus plots for both ideal and Non-ideal cases. The model of the converter is designed and simulated for both the cases with closed loop voltage mode control providing load disturbance using MATLAB. Results are observed and compared for both ideal and Non-ideal cases.
381 Characteristic Analysis on Energy Waveforms of Point Sparks and Plamas Applied a Converting Device of Spark for Gasoline Engines , Kwonse Kim and Dooseuk Choi  
Background/Objectives: This research analyzes waveforms of surge and discharge voltage in the plasma ignition and point ignition through realization of plasma spark by self-producing a plasma generator apparatus. Methods/Statistical Analysis: The components including batteries, ignition pulse generator (self-produced), pencil type ignition coil, iridium ignition plug, and nonresistance ignition plug were used in the experimental device. The experimental method involved assessing the gap change of the ignition plug and the engine rotation count by setting the range of measurement from 1,200 rpm to 5,200 rpm. By connecting an additional device, impedance value increased due to the influence from the internal elements and components. Findings: The plasma ignition discharge energy discharges plasma completion from 0.75 to 1.5 ms to show that the point and plasma have different energy characteristics and when the ignition plug gap is increased, the energy characteristics of discharge voltage increased. However, the starting point of the discharge responded 2.5 ms faster compared to the point ignition due to the plasma discharge point delay of 0.75 compared to the point ignition. By connecting an additional device, impedance value increased due to the influence from the internal elements and components. This helped to find the cause behind the relatively delayed 3rd phase amplification’s plasma discharge starting point in comparison to the point ignition. Application/Improvements: We believe that better result will be drawn when the electrode diameter and formation are re-engineered with the optimized volume change of plasma produced between the ignition plug electrodes.
382 Simulation of Brick Infill and Effect of Openings on RC Frames using ANSYS.  , Prashant Motwani, Rajendhiran¹ and A. S. Santhi 
An infill frame is defined as a dual system, which consists of bricks or concrete blocks filling the inter-planar voids between lower and upper beam and space between side columns of reinforced or steel frame. Despite the fact that infill enhances both strength and stiffness of the moment resisting frames; their role is ignored in the design due to insufficient knowledge of the composite behaviour of infill and frames. It is credible, that a major portion of the lateral load is shared by the infill. This paper deals with translating existing experimental data into analytical methods. To understand the behaviour of brick masonry, a G+1 structure was modelled in ANSYS and results were obtained. The present study is also aimed at finding the effect of openings in brick walls and captive column effect. When infill walls are omitted in the bottom storey, a soft storey is formed compared to stiffer stories at top. By response spectrum analysis it has been proved that the structural time period for frame with infill decreases by 2 to 3 times compared to frames without infill. The results showed that the soft storey building frame attracts 40% more shear force than frame excluding soft storey effect. The variation in time period at different mode shapes, with and without infill is presented in the paper. The phenomenon of captive column was replicated and formation of short column is shown in the pilot study
383 An Implementation of a User Location-based Lighting Collaboration System , Young-Ho Kim , Sook-Youn Kwon and Jae-Hyun Lim
Background/Objectives: This study proposes a user location-based lighting collaboration system that guarantees the target illuminance and uniformity at local position of the user in an indoor space and minimizes energy consumption. Methods/Statistical Analysis: The proposed system is divided into the dynamic cell positioning process and lighting collaboration process. The dynamic cell positioning process finds the specific location of a user based on the RSSI signal intensity of the BLE beacon and smartphone that the user carries. The lighting collaboration process calculates each output of the surrounding lights in consideration of the target illuminance at the user position and then performs dimming control accordingly. Findings: To evaluate the performance of the proposed system, this study includes two control groups - two similar systems - and compares the target illuminance, uniformity, and lighting energy consumption. Control Group A is a system that comprehensively controls all light/light fixture installed in that space while Control Group B divides the space to sub-zones and groups lightings in each zone for controlling. The system performance evaluation result shows that the lighting energy consumption of the proposed system was 1,804W while those of Control Group A and Control Group B were 2,644W and 2,511W, which indicates a savings of as much as 31% and 28%, respectively. In addition, the proposed system satisfied a uniformity requirement as high as 0.8 while maintaining the target illuminance. Application/Improvements: The result indicates that the proposed system had energy saving effect as much as 31% compared to Control Group A and 28% compared to Control Group B.
384 Implentation of Pi Controller for Level Process using Non Contact Sensor , Ch. Sai Vamsi  , Manoj Mohan, Naveen Chandrakar and K. R. Prabhu 
The accurate information about the fluid level in the process station is of much significance in order to maintain a desired level in the process tank by controlling the process through various controllers as the primary objective of all the industries is to maintain the level at desired set points in spite of the external disturbances. The contact type sensors which are used for sensing the level in the process tank usually gets affected by corrosion which results in reduced life span of sensor and in-turn gives a poor and in-efficient performance, and also loss of accuracy in determination of the fluid level. The use of non contact type sensor will be greatly useful in finding the fluid level in the process tank and helps in calculating the error with regard to the desired level and helps in controlling the level by means of the PI controller. The use of PI controller would result in maintaining accurate desired level by removing the offset error. Therefore the ultrasonic transceiver which in this case used as a non contact level sensor would have a good life span as compared to the contact type sensor by reducing the effects of corrosion to a minimum level.
385 Realization of Multi-User Tangible Non-Glasses Mixed Reality Space , A-Leum Jung, Min-Geun Kim , Woo-Cheol Shin and Kyounghak Lee  
Background/Objectives: Studies on convergent space, where multiple users can participate simultaneously, are lacking despite the spatial characteristic of mixed reality space where several people can coexist. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Based on the Unity3D engine, four-sided mapping was done using a multi camera in a CAVE type space. An autostereoscopic 3D image was provided by forming a parallax barrier using binocular disparity, and a space capable of multiple user participation was formed by implementing a multi-tracking system using Kinect. Findings: The development of technologies that allow autostereoscopic virtual reality and mixed reality experiences are currently underway, but a technology that can implement a mixed reality space for multiple users to experience virtual reality without special glasses in a real spatial environment is still in the development stage. The present study created an autostereoscopic 3D environment for resolving user discomfort, and implemented a multi-tracking system aimed at multiple user participation. As a result, the study was limited in that the definition of the screen differs depending on the light in accordance with the characteristics of beam projectors and that the restrictions to CAVE space only allows a restricted number of personnel to participate. Application/Improvements: Active research must be conducted on contents that are usable in mixed reality space implemented for vitalizing virtual reality space research.
386 Average Current Mode Controlled Power Factor Correction Converter , Sachin K. Kupati  , Mukul Chavan, Sunil Bhattad and N. Arun 
This paper explains the simulation of Boost Power Factor Correction (PFC) Converter. The DC–DC boost converter circuit is analyzed, designed with feedback controller. The closed loop operation of boost converter is made to work in average current mode. Design is such a way that unity power factor is achieved. Design equations are derived and it is modeled in MATLAB. Extensive simulation is carried out and results are compared.
387 Average Current Mode Controlled Power Factor Correction Converter , Sachin K. Kupati  , Mukul Chavan, Sunil Bhattad and N. Arun 
This paper explains the simulation of Boost Power Factor Correction (PFC) Converter. The DC–DC boost converter circuit is analyzed, designed with feedback controller. The closed loop operation of boost converter is made to work in average current mode. Design is such a way that unity power factor is achieved. Design equations are derived and it is modeled in MATLAB. Extensive simulation is carried out and results are compared.
388 Analysis of Structural Relationships among Predictors of Collective-creativity in Communities of Convergence , Sung-Mi Park  and Hwang-Kyu Yang
Background/Objectives: This study examined the impact of variables (mutual collaboration, participative negotiation, creative activities, innovative alternatives) collective-creativity in communities of multidisciplinary convergence. Methods/Statistical Analysis: 1,177 students among engineering, science, social science, art colleges in nationwide were sampled. For the statistical analysis, analysis of covariance structure by AMOS 18.0 was applied. Findings: Results from structural equation modeling analyses indicated that a hypothesized model produced a better fit to the data than a comparative structural model. The hypothesized model shows the following results. On the basis of the hypothesized model, mutual collaboration effected to directly participative negotiation and innovative alternatives and participative negotiation effected to directly creative activities, creative activities effected to directly innovative alternatives, mutual collaboration effected to indirectly innovative alternatives by participative negotiation and creative activities, participative negotiation effected to indirectly innovative alternatives by creative activities. Application/ Improvements: This study suggested the mutual collaboration, participative negotiation, creative activities and innovative alternatives are significantly variables to facilitate the collective-creativity in multidisciplinary convergence.
389 Enhanced Performance of a DVR using Mixed Cascaded Multilevel Inverter , K. A. Siddartha , N. Manikanta Babu, Y. Suresh and M. Varun Mohan 
This proposed paper studies the design and performance of a new ‘Dynamic voltage restorer’ (DVR) using a new hybrid 7 level PWM inverter. The new multilevel inverter is a combination of the capacitor clamped and the cascaded H-bridge type multilevel inverters. This new topology provides different levels of output voltages and high modularity. In the paper, the sag or swell are detected in a transmission line and the voltage is injected from the multilevel inverter through a boost transformer. Simulation results in matlab show that the performance of the new mixed multicell inverter is better than the traditional MLIs and normal inverters with the advantages like absence of the filter.
390 Overcoming the Low Efficiency of Box Type Solar Cookers , S. Paranthaman 
The solar cooking is not so popular in India owing to the reason of prolonged cooking time of conventional solar cookers. The conventional solar cookers work on the principle of green house effect. Here the incident rays fall on the top of the lid which is usually painted with black. The delay can be attributed mainly to the air gap in the top portion of the utensil between the lid and the food. Convection loss also delays the cooking process. This paper suggests a cost effective Fresnel reflective concentrator to concentrate the solar beam to the bottom of the utensil.
391  Fuzzy Logic Based Fuel Flow Control System in a Dual-Fuel Diesel Engine. , V. Abhijith, M. Antony Richard, Renjith Ravi, S. Denis Ashok and B. Ashok 
Reducing emission from the engines is very difficult task these days since emission norms are becoming very strict on NOx , HC, CO etc. Recently, duel fuel diesel engine which use Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) and diesel fuel is widely employed for better emission control and fuel efficiency. Proposed system uses a Fuzzy logic approach to control the LPG flow into the engine and diesel as a pilot fuel. Also, Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system will reduce the NOx content in the exhaust gas. Both EGR and LPG are controlled by a fuzzy control system to improve the performance of the dual fuel engine.
392 Developing an IP Address Usage Measurement Index: The Case of South Korea , Ha-Young Kim , Sung-Kyu Park and Tae-Sung Kim 
Background/Objectives: IPv6 adoption index of existing has a limit to survey. Also, the index can’t know actual usage because they measure readiness. Therefore, we improved the index to IPv6 usage measurement. Methods/Statistical Analysis: The usage measurement methods of IPv6 and case studies in domestic and international were examined. Then using the Delphi method, evaluation and verification of previous IPv6 measurement indices were conducted. Findings: The final improved IPv6 usage measurement index is categorized by ‘USER’ and ‘CONTENTS’. The USER indices are indices to measure terminals that are actually using IPv6. The CONTENTS indices are an index that measures whether content service providers support IPv6 for actual use. Meanwhile, infrastructure hierarchy can be the most appropriate measurement points to determine the current state of IPv6 during communication. But accurate measurement is currently not possible in terms of traffic flow. So, the index were deleted. Application/Improvements: There is a need to develop an accurate measurement of IoT terminal, mobile application and PC software. Also, developing method to the traffic measurement in infrastructure is needed.
393 Analysis of Microstructure, Hardness and Wear of Al-SiC-TiB₂ Hybrid Metal Matrix Composite , Gaurav Mahajan, Nikhil Karve, Uday Patil, P. Kuppan and K. Venkatesan 
Good mechanical and thermal properties of hybrid metal matrix composites make them more demanding in various fields such as automotive, aerospace and structural applications.In this paper an effort has been made to fabricate a hybrid metal matrix composite, silicon carbide and titanium diboride reinforced in Al 6061 matrix using stir casting method. Microstructure and mechanical properties such as micro hardness and wear are studied for various compositions of reinforcements, 10% SiC and 2.5%, 5% and 10% TiB₂. The results indicate that the hardness value increases with the addition of the SiC and TiB₂ reinforcements to matrix Al6061, while the wear resistance increases up to certain amount and reduces drastically when crossed the transition load.
394 A Study on Improving Comparative Analysis and Providing Information on Bicycle Roads through Big Data Analysis , Tae-Gu Kang , Yeong-Real Kim, Dong-Woo Ki and Seong-Taek Park 
Background/Objectives: The present study analyzes an improvement plan for bicycle roads by using the public data of Seoul and proposes its implications. Methods/Statistical Analysis: In this study, an analysis was performed by utilizing a big data analysis tool, R. The present study, after defining the deducted problem phenomenon, conducted a process of planning which included the necessary information for finding an alternative for resolution and a data and application analysis technique. The data needed in the analysis was obtained from the Seoul open data square and the public data portal. The study attempted analysis and visualization by using the open source tool of R for analyzing the data, and conducted a process of interpretation. Findings: In this study attempts to find an alternative that can prevent bicycle safety exercises. The study presents the problems of current bicycle roads and their improvement plan by big data analysis which includes the relationship between the installation rate of bicycle roads and the bicycle accident rate, the location of bicycle roads, the location of bicycle amenities, and population data. In this study attempts to find an alternative that can prevent bicycle safety exercises. To achieve this, the study presents the problems of current bicycle roads and their improvement plan by big data analysis which includes the relationship between the installation rate of bicycle roads and the bicycle accident rate, the location of bicycle roads, the location of bicycle amenities, bicycle satisfaction, bicycle use statistics, and population data. The generalization of bicycle roads to regular residences implies a construction by considering the connectivity and stability of bicycle roads, but atypical infrastructure construction has played a part in increased damages resulting from the ignorance of bicycle users to traffic safety regulations. The perception of bicycle users must change and the building of bicycle roads must be based on people centered transportation infrastructure. Application/Improvements: The results of this study can be used as part of improvement of bicycle road accidents by central government and local governments. The results seem to be applied in policy, such as building bike paths centered around pedestrians.
395 Development of HMD-based 360° VR Content of Korean Heritage , Jung-Yeob Han Jung-Yeob Han  
Background/Objectives: The purpose of this was to present production and detailed workflow of 360° VR contents systematically for some world cultural heritages of Korea. For methodology, VR content criteria and conditions were presented based on theoretical backgrounds of VR. Methods/Statistical Analysis: For the scope, production techniques and scenarios were derived for 360° imaging contents or heritage-related contents among VR platform contents provided by Oculus Rift, the most prominent platform for VR contents. On that basis, heritage VR content development plan and results were systemized. Findings: Regarding the results of this study, the study presented whole processes including VR content planning, scenario configuration, equipment preparation, shooting, latter part works using stitching, special effects (VRVFX), unity and unreal engine for Seosan Maae Samjon Bulsang (Rock-Carved Buddha Triad) through 360° shooting, and derived the following results. 1. Intelligent 360° VR contents are presented as the direction for future development, enabling simulation in heritage space through application of LBS (Location Based Service) and motion recognition technology (Kinect), etc. 2. Heritage 360° VR contents are developing into mixed contents integrating 360° images, interactive and mobile contents. 3. 360° VR images which have excellent compatibility can find wide range of applications even to different types of devices and 360° web. 4. HMD-based Korea heritage 360° VR contents are evolving into experiential information formative space. Improvements/Applications: HMD-based heritage 360° VR contents are developing into simulation, mixed realization, and informatization types and evolving into experiential information formative space, and therefore require systematic and detailed research.
396 A Framework for detecting Malicious Nodes in Mobile Adhoc Network , Y. Haripriya, K. V. Bindu Pavani  , S. Lavanya and V. Madhu Viswanatham 
A wireless network consists of nodes which cooperate with each other for transmission. In adhoc network the nodes are mobile forming temporary network dynamically. These networks don’t provide special security mechanics where attacks are highly possible through malicious nodes. Malicious nodes don’t cooperate with other nodes and acts selfishly by reserving the resources for its own use. This decreases the performance of the routing protocol in the network. In order to increase the performance of the routing the malicious nodes has to be detected and that route has to be prevented from routing. In the previous paper the malicious nodes are just simulated and analyzed. In this paper the malicious nodes are detected in prior to the routing using consensus based algorithm and then that route is prevented for transmitting data between nodes in mobile adhoc networks.
397 The Potential Knowledge Recommendation System using User’s Search Logs , Kinam Park  
Background/Objectives: This paper proposes a potential query recommendation system based on the user search history so that information search system users can express their potential information needs in a query, and the information they want can be searched. Methods/Statistical Analysis: The proposed system used users’ search query to analyze the associative relationship with existing users’ search history, and extracted users’ potential information needs. The extracted potential information needs are recommended to users in the recommendation query. Findings: This paper used 27,656 pieces of search history data for analyzing the utility of the proposed system and conducted a behavioral experiment. The experiment found that the subjects showed a statistically higher level of satisfaction when using the proposed system than when using a general search engine. Improvements/Applications: In the future, it will be possible to secure the reliability of recommended queries by expanding and solidifying the search history through researches on personalization
398  Android Application for Ticket Booking and Ticket Checking in Suburban Railways , Subarnarekha Ghosal, Shalini Chaturvedi, Akshay Taywade and N. Jaisankar 
Technological development has resulted in a boundary free digital world. This development has resulted in transaction through virtual money instead of real ones. One of the most popular forms of online trading is E-ticketing. Android Phones can reduce the trouble of the customers to stand in queue and book the tickets. With the advent of the smart cards the overhead of waiting for ticket was reduced but the user should always remember to carry the card with him. Moreover one has to pay attention that it is not misplaced or stolen. After that came E-Ticketing where passengers have to carry a SMS or a printout of the ticket booked online. But that required laptops or desktop for booking. Thus came into front the use of smart phone application where carrying a smart phone will do all the work. Thus the introduction of smart phone application overcomes all the drawbacks of the earlier systems. This paper deals with the development and implementation of smart phone application which is more effective and simple than current ticketing system. The “Android Suburban Ticket (ASR)” can be bought easily anytime, anywhere and ticket will be present in the customer’s phone in the form of “Quick Response Code”. GPS facility is used for validation of the ticket at the source and deletion at the destination. The information for each user is stored in a CLOUD database for security purpose which is unavailable in the current suburban railway system. Also the ticket checker is provided with an application to search for the user’s ticket with the ticket number in the cloud database for checking purposes.
399 Analyzing the Appropriateness of ‘Functions’ in the Physical Computing  System Domain in Informatics , An Young Hee, Kim Ja Mee, Lee Won Gyu  
Background/Objectives: The informatics curriculum, which has been used with focus on ICT use since 2010, is changing. Information education is emphasizing the maker education in which learners make projects for themselves. Methods/ Statistical Analysis: As part of the maker education, personal computing was also added to the revised informatics curriculum, and ‘functions’ were proposed. Findings: This study had experts analyze whether the ‘functions’ proposed in the physical computing of the revised informatics curriculum are appropriate for accomplishing the intended purpose. The analysis result showed that designing and programming were appropriate functions in all domains consisting of suitability, importance and necessity, and cooperating was not playing the role as a function in any domain. Some viewed programming and implementing as similar functions, and managing were too conspicuously low in suitability and importance to be viewed as functions that can be expected after leaning in high schools. Improvements/Applications: The purpose of this study is to clearly propose functions to be performed after learning in future information education through analysis of physical computing ‘functions’.
400 Understanding of Quantum Tomography for Determining the Superposed and Entangled States in Quantum Computing , Manoj Singh Rajput 
In this brief review paper aims at the understanding of experimental and theoretical work done so far on the quantum tomography and its relevance to quantum computing. In order to determine ortho normal and entangled states the procedure adopted is explained and understanding of two superposition states in a qubit is defined. The concept of the Bloch sphere to understand the reconstruction of quantum states is also discussed. Attempt has been made to understand various mathematical techniques used by other authors to determine state superposition by efficient algorithms such as Shore’s and Grover’s algorithms. The basic experimental technique used in quantum tomography to experimentally determine the orthogonal and superposition states uses homodyne balanced detection which is discussed and described in detail here. Also explain a simple procedure for writing and reading a qubit. A complete characterization procedure is discussed for any quantum state of two orthogonally polarized states and the paper gives a systematic procedure to collect the necessary data.
401 Extremophiles as Biofactories of Novel Antimicrobials and Cytotoxics – An Assessment of Bioactive Properties of Six Fungal Species Inhabiting Rann of Kutch, India , Kartikeya Rajpal , Nafe Aziz , Ram Prasad , RG Varma and Ajit Varma 
Objective: In this study we report the antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of the fungi isolated from Little Rann of Kutch, India. Methods: Antibacterial activity of crude extracts of 35 fungal isolates was assessed at an initial concentration of 40µg/ml against Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. Promising fungal isolates were identified by their morphology. Extracts of identified isolates were further tested at varying concentrations (10-40µg/ml) against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus apart from K. pneumoniae and E. coli. Cytotoxic activity was assessed against cancer cell line MCF7. Phenol, flavonoid and alkaloid estimation was done to understand the fungi’s chemoprofile. Findings: In preliminary screening, six isolates showed significant activity against K. pneumoniae (14-17 mm) and E. coli (14-22 mm). These were identified as Aspergillus flavus, A. cremeus, A. versicolor, A. terreus, Penicillium purpurogenum and Eurotium amstelodami. On further evaluation of fungal extracts against four test pathogens, A. versicolor was found to be the most effective (8-11 mm), followed by A. terreus (8-10 mm) and A. cremeus (8-10 mm) at 10µg/ml each. A. versicolor and P. purpurogenum were found to be most cytotoxic, with IC50 values of 6.26 and 6.30 respectively, followed by A. flavus, E. amstelodami, A. cremeus and A. terreus. Phenolic content was highest in A. versicolor (268.77±0.18 µg/mg GAE); flavonoid and alkaloid were maximum in P. purpurogenum - 91.17±0.44 µg/mg QE and 89.13±0.28 µg/mg PNE, respectively. Improvements/Applications: Six fungi isolated from Little Rann of Kutch, India, hold tremendous potential as a source of novel antimicrobials and cytotoxics. The results warrant more exhaustive bioassays and identification of active principles.
402 An Optimal Ant Colony Algorithm for Efficient VM Placement.  , V. Ashwin Kumar Sarma , Rahul Rajendra, P. Dheepan and K.S. Sendhil Kumar 
The process of mapping virtual machines to physical machines is known as virtual machine placement. In cloud computing environment optimal placement plays an important role for the improvement in power efficiency and resource utilization. In this paper, we study the Ant Colony optimisation and Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm for the virtual machine placement problem. We propose an algorithm that combines both multi-objective algorithm and ant colony optimization. We also have designed an architecture for the proposed system. The algorithms were tested using some instances from the literature.
403 Comparison of Performance in Text Mining using Categorization of Unstructured Data , Lee Junyeon, Shin Seungsoo and Kim Jungju  
Background/Objectives: The text mining would help finding information to the users in the enormous documents. The text mining has been actively developed and utilized in various fields, mainly English-based document, but Study on the Korean text mining has been relatively limited. The importance of the Korean text mining has emerged with increasing big data including Korean text data, the needs for the intensive study and application of Big Data are increasing. Methods/ Statistical Analysis: In this study, we compared the performance of these classifications by applying the method of Bayesian methods, k-NN, decision trees, SVM, and as a neural network in classification of unstructured newspaper article into given categories. Findings: In the experiment result, the SVM model has a high F-measure value relative to other models, and has shown stable results in the classification information and recall rate. Also, this model showed a high F-measure value in the classification of a more granular list. Application/Improvements: The methods of k-nn and decision tree show slightly lower performance than SVM, they are turned out to be appropriate models using classification problem cause of having advantages to easy interpretation and short learning time.
404 Context-Aware Abnormality Monitoring Service for Care-Needing Persons Using a Probabilistic Model , Sol Ji Kang, Kyung Mi Lee and Keon Myung Lee
Background/Objectives: Care-needing persons usually have routine life patterns in their visiting places and routes. Probabilistic models are useful tools to capture the inherent patterns for care-needing persons from a collection of data and to make inference for uncertain situation. Methods/Statistical Analysis: A dynamic Bayesian network model is proposed to capture the traveling patterns for care-needing person. A collection of traveling data having location, date, and battery charge state information is used to train the dynamic Bayesian network model, in which the training travel data are preprocessed to filter out noises using a smoothing filter. The model makes probabilistic inference for the latent random variables on the fly with respect to the arriving captured sensor data. To conduct the probabilistic inference, the Rao-Blackwellized particle filter is used for fast execution. To take protective steps at potentially abnormal situations, the context-based service rules are defined that specify what to do in which situations the care-needing person is. Findings: The situations of interest are evaluated based on the deviation of the inferred probability distribution from the trained ones regarding the latent random variables. The service rules enable to realize value-added services such abnormal state alerting, abnormality notification to stakeholders, and situational information collection at abnormal states for future forensic or tracking. A real data set has been collected from a young student and the proposed method has been trained and tested in an implemented prototype system for young child care. In the experiments for a 6 weeks data set, the method detected all new test routes successfully when the deviation distance is greater than about 20 meters due to the limited precision of the GPS sensors. Improvements/Applications: The proposed model can be applied to context-aware abnormality service for care-needing persons like young children, mentally ill or disabled persons, and elderly persons are exposed to various dangers in daily life.
405 Will the Certification System for Information Security Management Help to Improve Organizations’ Information Security Performance? The Case of K-ISMS , Hee-Kyung Kong , Jeong-hun Woo , Tae-Sung Kim and Hyuk Im 
Background/Objectives: Recognizing the importance of systematic security management in organizations, the government of South Korea introduced the Information Security Management System (ISMS) certification. Methods/ Statistical Analysis: In this study, based on prior studies dealing with the goal and evaluation items of ISMS certification, we developed a model to measure the performance of ISMS certification, using the SERVQUAL models, which are service evaluation models. Also, we carried out a survey of organizations that have acquired the certification in order to prove the model’s validity and suggest ways to develop ISMS certification. Findings: In the present study, we found that investment and concern in security can influence organisational security performance based on prior research, and developed survey items for performance measurement by acquisition of ISMS certification. We conducted surveys of organisations that required ISMS certification and tried to find some factors recognisable as a performance of ISMS certification. The result of the experiment was that factors influencing security performance are responsiveness and specialty. Application/ Improvements: Future research is increased ISMS certified company in accordance with the satisfaction and effectiveness of the ISMS certified company improved through systematic empirical and hope enhance the overall security level.
406 Research and Implementation of Type-1-Based Virtualization Security System in Smart Devices Environment , Ki-Bong Kim , Yong-Ho Kang , Chin-Hoon Kim and Chang-Bok Jang   
Background: The mobile virtualization security system can provide enhanced security with separated environment of simultaneously and independently operating multiple OS on the Hypervisor Abstraction Layer. Methods Analysis: This paper introduces the research and implementation of Type-1-Based Virtualization Security System in Smart Device Environment. Its detailed functions are mobile virtualization management, security authentication, security policy and access control, encryption/decryption, and safe storage that provide secure communication among the guest Operating Systems. This paper also introduces an experimental product operating a mobile office application. Findings: In the comparative test with the existing TEEMO Type-2-based Virtualization Security System, it measured processing times of compulsory loading situation and no-loading situation for 12 major security APIs. As a result, our system has showed reduced API processing time from 48% to 85%, faster processing speed in both compulsory loading situation and noloading situation. Its average processing time has been 0.189 in the situation of consecutive API callings. Therefore, our system has proved acceptable processing time for real users as well as enhanced security with authentication and safe storage in the mobile hypervisor virtualization system. Application/Improvements: This research can offer assistance in providing secure communication and speed improvement among guest OS in mobile virtualization environment.
407  Performance Analysis of MAC Layer Scheduling Schemes for IMM Applications Over High Speed Wireless Campus Network in IEEE802.11e.  , M. K. Alam , S. A. Latif, M. Akter, M. Y. Arafat and S. Hakak 
n IMM traffic, while establishing a voice or video conversation, the sender and the receiver (the participants) should be mutually benefited by ensuring QoS like minimum data loss, sharing sufficient bandwidth and achieving high throughput over the WCN. To improve the network performance, scheduling mechanism is a challenging issue in the transmission of IMM traffic and it still needs to be solved over WCN. This paper aims to employ three different MAC layer scheduling mechanisms such as FIFO, RED and WRED for analysing the performance over the network, based on variation of traffic load in IEEE802.11e, and to evaluate the proposed schedulers’ performance using different performance metrics in WCN. Here, the traffic load is varied by increasing the packet size and the traffic arrival rate, respectively. In order to analyse the network performance, the simulation has been done in QualNET 5.1 simulator. In the simulator, the mobility model is chosen as ‘Random Waypoint’ to change the node position randomly and the application as CBR. Simulation results show that increasing the packet size enables RED and WRED schedulers to perform better than FIFO in terms of all the performance metrics. On the other hand, increasing the traffic arrival rate helps to enhance the performance of the FIFO scheduler compared to the FIFO scheduling mechanism in the previous case. It is conclusive through the performance analyses that all three schedulers perform comparatively better when the traffic arrival rate is increased compared to increasing the packet size.
408 Forming Analysis of Bellows by Hydroforming Method , Kwang-Soo Lee and Key-Sun Kim   
Background/Objectives: Recently, problems of noise produced in the vehicle body are emerging. The apparatus for discharging exhaust gas produced after combustion should suitably absorb vibration and noise from the engine. Methods/ Statistical Analysis: The workpiece was used AISI 316. Characteristics shown under an internal pressure of 8~12MPa and a die speed of 9~235mm/sec were observed. With an assumption that all external conditions were the same, internal pressure due to forming-oil and speeds of die and punch were controlled. Meshes were generated in a total element number of 9,282. For plastic finite elements analysis, DEFORM 2D as the specialized plasticity code of US was employed. Findings: It was shown to be affected by internal pressures rather than by the speeds of the punch and die. Crease was affirmed to be produced in a stable manner from the minimum internal pressure of 10MPa. The gap between die and crease was shown to be smaller, the higher the pressure. And it was shown to be smaller as the speed was increased. Although formability is improved with an increase in the speeds of the punch and die, produced equivalent stresses were determined to be increased. The equivalent stress produced in the crease did not exhibit a large amount of variation as a function of internal pressure and die speed. However, as the center part of the bellows was approached, smaller equivalent stresses were observed, and while larger stresses were produced, the closer it was to the punch. Similar tendency was also shown for the load acting upon die. Therefore, it appears that speed of punch and acting load should be carefully considered in production of bellows. Application/Improvements: Characteristics of plasticity according to each case were identified, and parameters were secured allowing a comparative analysis with experimental data through future experiments.
409 Simultaneous Coordinated Design of Power System Stabilizer 3 Band (PSS3B) and SVC by using Hybrid Big Bang Big Crunch Algorithm in Multi-Machine Power System.  , S. Jalili  and R. Effatnejad 
Power System Stabilizers (PSS) are appropriate for nominal conditions of networks and can induce the required damping; but, with changes in the working condition, systems will encounter some difficulties. Power System Stabilizers 3 Band (PSS3B) as another type of stabilizers shows better results with changes in the working conditions of systems. On the other hand, after determining the remarkable result of Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) equipment in oscillation damping, nowadays, this equipment is increasingly used in power systems. Regarding the nonlinearity of power systems, it is not appropriate to use linear methods for calculating their parameters. In this paper, Hybrid Big Bang-Big Crunch (HBBBC) algorithm was applied for consistently designing PSS3B parameters in four generators of a two-area 11 and control parameters of static VAR compensator considered in this network. Then, to investigate the effect of changing system conditions on stability, working conditions of generators were changed in two steps and a comparison was made between PSS and PSS3b and the calculated parameters in the initial mode.
410 First report of Geochemical Characteristics of the Sangan Manganese Occurrence, Northeast Khash (Iran). , Mahmoudreza Kahrazehi  , Mohammad Lotfi , Majid Ghaderi  , Mohammad Mohajjel  and Mohammadreza Jafari 
The Sangan manganese deposit is located 28 km northeast of the Khash city (Southeast of Taftan volcano) in the Sistan & Baluchistan province. Structurally and lithologically,this depositlies in the central part of Iranian flysch zone. The ore body is layer in shape and lies above the Shalewith intercalation meta sandstone -lithic tuffs oftheQuaternary volcanic units contact and is completely hosted within dark gray to black lithic tuffs and in places interlinks with the dark gray to black lithic tuffs, so that the lithic tuffs play role keybed (line exploration) of manganese ore in the region. The geochemistry characteristics of the Sangan deposit was studied by means of major oxide, trace and Rare Earth Element (REE) contents and the origin of mineralization was discussed. The relatively high Al concentrations (5.95 to 7.22 wt.%, average = 6.61) in the ore of Sangan Mn deposit might result from lithic tuffs, which are the host rocks of the ore. Low titanium values (0.24 to 0.36 wt.%, average = 0.31)indicate limited clastic material entry during mineralization. In chondrite normalized REE graphics in all ore samples were characterized by slight negative Ce (0.10 to 0.11, average = 0.11) and negative Eu (0.18 to 0.22, average = 0.20) anomalies. The negative Ce anomaly was typical to hydrothermal deposits and negative Eu anomaly indicates contamination from the continental crust and or sediment contribution via dehydration. The available data like; Mn:Fe (average 4.07), relatively high Ba (average 508,50), Co:Ni (average 0.18), Co:Zn (average 0.34), total REE (average 117.94), LREE > HREE, LREE:HREE (average 10.33), La:Ce (average 0.56), slight negative Ce and Eu anomalies and discrimination diagrams for Mn deposits indicated that the Sangan manganese deposit is hydrothermal type volcano-hydrothermal mineralization.
411 Study on effect Size of Walking Speed According to Corridor Shape , Soo-Ho Lee , Gyu-Yeob Jeon, Jun-Ho Choi , Wook-Jung Na and Won-Hwa Hong Soo-Ho Lee , Gyu-Yeob Jeon, Jun-Ho Choi , Wook-Jung Na and Won-Hwa Hong 
Background/Objectives: The walking speed is not steady and is influenced by corridor shapes. Most of evacuation simulations are using fixed walking speed, and it possible to cause an erroneous value. Methods/Statistical Analysis: In order to determine the changes and influence of walking speed depending on the shape of the pathway and the type of the crossroads, the maze-set experiment is conducted. Total 30 participants recruit as experimental subjects, and ratio of gender is same (male: 15, female: 15). The experimental site has 5 types of crossroad and all pathways of participants recorded that used experimental cameras. Findings: The average walking speed of participants is 1.08 m/s (male: 1.12 m/s, female: 1.04). The result of walking speed is lower than speed in general situation which is 1.40m/s and can form the hypothesis on walking speed affected by corridor shapes. The walking speed change by each shape corridor has meaningful difference. Based on this, the cause of different walking speed estimates that corridor shape has various effect sizes and through one-way ANOVA, it can compute by using eta squared. Application/Improvements: Corridor shapes used in paper is not representing as all of actual building. From the result, however, walking speed is not fixed value and interacts with corridor shapes
412 Method of Secure App user Authentication from Auto-Login in the Mobile Device , Hyung-Jin Mun, Yong-zhen  and Kwangyoun Jin 
Background/Objectives: At the present where services are provided using devices, the importance of mobile device authentication is increasing. We propose secure authentication method from auto-login function. Methods: Mobile carriers remotely prevent using the device after the process getting the report of missing cellphone, but that can’t be a complete solution when the USIM is removed or connection is made via wifi. This paper suggests a method with which when the service is requested by an app from mobile device, Service Provider decides to provide services after checking whether the device is lost through a trusted authority. Findings: A user, the owner of a cellphone, registers serial information of Phone, pSN, and reports when the cellphone is lost, and carries out a process to withdraw services. The service provider, whenever a service is requested, decides whether to provide the service through lost device checking process. In this way, the vulnerability of auto-login function of a lost phone can be fixed. Proposed method with the process to check the loss added authentication time compared to existing methods, but in terms of security and privacy protection, proposed method is superior because it provides services only when the device is not lost. Application/Improvements: With regard to solution to BYOD vulnerability and secure SSO, which have been recent issues, proposed method can be utilized as an effective method.
413 Comparative Analysis of Semantic Web Service Selection Methods , S. Maheswari and G. R. Karpagam 
The objective is to compare semantic web service selection methods based on Quality of Service (QoS) attributes. The investigation is carried out in three phases namely: Preprocessing, discovery and QoS based selection phase. Preprocessing phase deals with registration of services in the repository. Discovery phase deals with retrieval of functionally similar services using matchmaking techniques. The third phase focuses on QoS based selection using three methods namely Analytical Hierarchical Processing (AHP), Logical Scoring Preference with Ordered Weighted Averaging (LSP and OWA) and Fuzzy with Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution (Fuzzy Topsis). Further this paper analyzes the selection methods based on range of user preference criteria and compares them using Analysis of variance (ANOVA). It is a statistical hypothesis testing used for making decisions using data. Another objective of this paper is to propose a new approach to improve the performance of service selection using Iterative MapReduce. QWS dataset has been used for analyzing above mentioned three methods. Experimental results show that the Fuzzy Topsis scheme outperforms the other web service selection methods.
414 A Study on Blue Light Cut-off Filter for White Light LED , Hui-Chul Ju andYeon-Serk Yu
Background: Now a days, high efficient LED light source are used commonly for the energy saving lighting. The portion of blue light in the white LED light is harmful to the eye. Objectives: In this study, we investigated properties of the blue light cut-off filter and then designed and manufactured a modified filter in order to block the blue wavelength region which has indicated a detrimental effect to the human eye due to the spectrum range of the white light LED. Findings: The blue light cut-off filter was designed and manufactured by the minus filter design method using two materials with differing refractive indexes. The relative spectral distribution, color rendering index, luminance and chromaticity coordinates were measured while applying the manufactured blue light cut-off filter to white light LED. The relative spectral distribution of the white light LED with the filter applied decreased by an average of 24.17% at a rejection band of 435 nm to 440 nm and by an average of 3.6% at the pass band than when the filter is not applied. Improvements/Applications: The general color rendering index of the white LED was 82.75 and when applying the filter to the white light LED, it was measured to be 81.375. When multiplied by the blue light hazard weighting function to relative spectral distribution, the blue light hazard was reduced 19.35%.
415 Chaotic Vibrations of a Nonlinear air Suspension System under Consecutive Half Sine Speed Bump.  , Javad Marzbanrad and Ahmad Keshavarzi 
Chaos is harmful for a nonlinear mechanical system. For a vehicle, chaotic vibrations may lead to early damage to the component of vehicle or even bring physical injury to crewmember. In this paper, first a two degree-of-freedom quarter car nonlinear model with nonlinear air springs and nonlinear dampers is established then studied the possibility of chaotic vibration of this model under consecutive speed control humps on the highway, the nonlinear dynamics is investigated by numerical simulation. It reveals that various forms of vibrations, such as periodic, quasi-periodic and chaotic vibrations, could appear in the system with the change of the velocity. Further it is found that quasi-periodic motions will affect vehicle ride comfort most. Results are conductive to deep understanding of nonlinear vibration in vehicle.
416 An Efficient Bioinformatics Processing Scheme using AHP Algorithm in Big Data Environment , Yong-Tae Kim , Yoon-Su Jeong and Gil-Cheol Park  
Background/Objectives: Bioinformatic information in many diverse areas is being collected, managed, and stored in relation to the genome project. However, studies related to bioinformatics until now has very low efficiency due to improper management of the bioinformatic information. Methods/Statistical Analysis: In this paper, a data processing scheme applying the AHP algorithm is proposed for efficient management of bioinformatic information. The proposed scheme improves information accuracy by assigning property weights by hierarchically classifying the property information (type, property, priority, etc). Findings: Furthermore, the proposed scheme interconnects weighted bioinformatic information according to the weight to minimize the process time between the server and user, thereby improving the information accessibility. Application/Improvements: As a result of performance evaluation, the proposed scheme obtained improved results compared to the conventional schemes in terms of throughput and process time between the LSS (Location Service Server) and user.
417 Real-Time Energy Imbalance Management Scheme for Electric Vehicles in the Smart Grid , Naila Zareen and Mohd Wazir Mustafa 
Electric Vehicles (EVs) as the alternative of the current fossil fuels vehicles represent the most promising green approach to the electrification of a significant portion of the transportation sector. Taking the randomness of EV’s charging/ discharging characteristics into consideration, a significant uncertainty will be added to the grid by the large penetration of EVs. Consequently, charging/ discharging management of EVs in presence of large scale intermittent Renewable Energy Resources (RERs) are considered as the most significant challenge for the future smart grid. In this context, a novel marketoriented energy imbalance management scheme is proposed for the seamless integration of EVs to the grid. The proposed scheme which, unlike previous works, utilizes the grid’s operating characteristics model within the signaling game-theoretic approach for the successful operation of electicity market. Optimal decision strategies for both EV owners and utility are devised by capturing the conflicting economic interests of players together under load/generation uncertainities. The maximization of the profit expectation of each market player in the presence of independent multi-generation resources is considered. This facilitates both the customer and utility to derive their robust bidding strategies. The efficacy of the proposed approach in reducing peak loads while satisfying customers needs are demonstrated by simulating the various scenarios of different penetration levels of EVs to the grid. Results show that the proposed methodology can successfully alleviate the peaks caused by the mass adoption of EVs with the better utilization of RER.
418 Hierarchical Group Data Management Scheme using Priority Information Big Data Environment , Nam-Kyu Park and Yoon-Su Jeong 
Background/Objectives: With the advancement of mobile phone technology, services such as SNS and Facebook have become more popular and has dramatically increased the use of Big data. However, there are not many users who are satisfied the search results of their desired data. Methods/Statistical Analysis: This paper suggests a scheme that group-manages Big data by considering the similarity of data after first allocating priority to the data among a large volume of Big data. Findings: The suggested scheme pursues high accuracy and short processing time of the search results of Big data. In particular, the suggested scheme has faster processing velocity than existing scheme as it group-manages Big data by grouping the priority information according to the similarity allocated to data. Application/Improvements: The performance evaluation results indicated that the suggested scheme showed processing time 11.1% shorter and accuracy 8.3% better than the existing scheme on average.
419 A Study on the Development of a Visual Media Education Program: With a Focus on the Korea Media Rating Board’s Education Program for Teenagers , Seong-Won Kim , Hee-Seung Lee, Hyung-Gon Kim and Dong-Sik Hong  
Background/Objectives: Media education is considered essential in terms of fostering abilities to utilize information and to express creatively, which are demanded for individuals to excel in the increasingly media-intensive 21st century. Methods/Statistical Analysis: This study first examines the reasons why media education is necessary and reviews the current media education programs that are conducted in Korea. Then it suggests a model of a media education program for teenagers that can be implemented by the Korea Media Rating Board. Findings: The present study examines the measures to implement an effective media education program. To this end, the suggested model encompasses the essential contents of media education as well as information regarding the Korea Media Rating Board. In other words, the suggested model complies with the founding mission of the Korea Media Rating Board and the objectives of its core projects, but also provides useful lessons regarding the Korea’s media rating system and trains teenagers with appropriate media ethics. Meanwhile, this study has limitations due to the need to distinguish the model from existing media education programs conducted in other organizations and the nature of the Korea Media Rating Board. Application/Improvements: The program proposed will contribute to changing the perceptions about the need for media education in public education and to broadening the spectrum of media education in Korea.
420 A Position Balanced Parallel Particle Swarm Optimization Method for Resource Allocation in Cloud.  , R. S. Mohana 
Objective: The main objective of this research is to allocate the resources with high profit and achieve high user satisfaction level in the cloud computing environment. Methods: An innovative technique called Position Balanced Parallel Particle Swarm Optimization (PB-PPSO) method is introduced for allocating resources. The main intent of PB-PPSO is to find the optimized resources for the set of tasks with less make span and minimum price. The set of rules are generated from the optimized resources for the training process. In the testing process, the resources are allocated to the new users by learning the rules from the training process. Results: PB-PPSO method shows high profit when compared to the existing methods such as Support Vector Machines (SVM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). In the PB-PPSO method, the optimized set of resources is determined for the set of tasks by using the particle swarm optimization algorithm. Then the rules are generated for the classification process. If the arrival rate of users is 500, the total profit is 720$ and the response time is 78ms. Based on the comparison and the results from the experiment shows the proposed approach works better than the other existing systems with high profit and less average response time. Conclusion: The findings demonstrate that the PB-PPSO is presented and this method has high efficiency in terms of total profit and average response time for allocating the resources for the users.
421 Some Results on Fuzzy Hyper BCK-ideals of Hyper CK-algebras , Muhammad Aslam Malik and Muhammad Touqeer 
The fuzzification of (weak, strong, reflexive) hyper BCK-positive implicative ideals in hyper BCK-algebras is considered. It is shown that every fuzzy (weak, strong, reflexive) hyper BCK-positive implicative ideal is a fuzzy (weak, strong, reflexive) hyper BCK-ideal. Relations among weak hyper BCK-positive implicative ideals, hyper BCK-positive implicative ideals, strong hyper BCK-positive implicative ideals and reflexive hyper BCK-positive implicative ideals are given. It is proved that the product of fuzzy (weak, strong, reflexive) hyper BCK-positive implicative ideals is also a fuzzy (weak, strong, reflexive) hyper BCK-positive implicative ideal. Lastly the relations among fuzzy (weak, strong, reflexive) hyper BCK-(implicative, positive implicative, commutative) ideals are being discussed.
422 Information Authentication Selection Scheme of IoT Devices using Conditional Probability , Sang-Ho Lee1 and Yoon-Su Jeong  
Background/Objectives: With the recent development of smart technology, services that connect various objects in daily life with the Internet are increasing. However, there is a possibility that user information (e.g., privacy) may be revealed and maliciously used by third parties in the process of receiving services by connecting things with the Internet. Methods/ Statistical Analysis: In this paper, an Internet of Things (IoT) authentication scheme based on joint probability in the IoT environment is proposed, which allows the safe sharing of user information for users of various IoT services. Findings: The proposed scheme improved the security of IoT devices by assigning random variables to critical information of the IoT devices in the information transmission and reception processes. Furthermore, the information of IoT devices to which random variables were assigned was interconnected through joint probability to improve the information accessibility of users. Application/Improvements: The performance evaluation results indicate that the proposed scheme improved security strength by 5.2%, information process time by 7.8%, and lowered the server overhead by 3.5% on average.
423  Behavioural Aspects of Software Project Management - In-House Software Development , R. Nagarajan A. Velanganni Joseph and S. Sujatha 
The study was aimed at looking into the behavioural aspects of software project management in in-house software development centres in India. It was considered to investigate the relationship between sector type and major organisational factor as perceived by the in-house software project head and the collective behavioural perception of in-house software project heads on human resource management, project management practices and supportive skills and environment where in-house development happens. The study was based on survey explorative design by using a structured questionnaire which was pre-tested with 35 in-house software project heads. After making necessary modifications from the collected feedback, questionnaires were sent to nearly 300 in-house software project heads in four different sectors and finally 200 responded. The collected data was analysed using chi-square analysis, correlation and other statistical tools to draw conclusions. The study revealed the collective perception of the in-house software project heads, in the descending order of their perceived interests, towards the factors of human resource management, project management practices, and supportive skills & environment. It was also found out that there is a relationship between sector type and organisational factor as perceived by the in-house software project head. In-house development centre heads need to be concerned with the behavioural aspects of developer community in their organisation, and beginning to consider these variables in their management practices will surely help to turn out successful projects both quantitatively and qualitatively. It is time to prove through further research and experiments that the behavioural aspects of software project management in the inhouse development centres in India still need to catch up with the practices to match the global standards as set by major software development companies both in India and abroad.
424 Study on Performance Characteristics of Ignition Device using in High Voltage Piezo Electronic Ceramic , Hongju Kim , Kwonse Kim and Dooseuk Choi  
Background/Objectives: This research involves the production of testing device that simulates the gasoline engine ignition devices and an ignition system with the application of high voltage piezoelectric ceramic aimed overcome the limitations of the existing ignition devices. Methods/Statistical Analysis: The experiment was conducted by using a high voltage to the piezoelectric ceramic as a way to overcome the limitations of the conventional ignition device. The experiment was configured the same as the number of revolutions of the engine by varying the duty ratio of the pulse, the ignition time was used as the duty ratio of 8:2 (on:off). Findings: As applying piezo electrode ceramic of high voltage, it might be confirmed to increase the secondary voltage comparison with existing ignition system which generating high energies. It also, the energies changed as variable pulses frequencies were indicated the increasing trends proportionally according to distance of ignition plug gaps. Thus, saving capacities of surge voltage were considered to be stable when returning at piezo electronic ceramic because discharged energies were also increased no matter how surge voltage was high size. Application/Improvements: As the changed size of energies, it was expected to be more clear realization for lean combustion than conventional ignition device
425 Study of the Optimization of the SCR Catalyst Position in by Exhaust System of using Mixer , Munseok Choe  and Dooseuk Choi  
Background/Objectives: This research analyzes the influence of Urea SCR System’s mixer and optimization of the Catalyst’s position through post technologies in order to satisfy the Euro 6 regulations. Methods/Statistical Analysis: The simplified modeling was facilitated to interpret the current exhaust system. Considering the latter as the background, ANSYS was used for the Analysis. As for the method of Analysis, 5 flux variables were considered from exhaust flux of 1,000rpm~3,000 rpm in increments of 500 rpm. Findings: When the flux passes through the mixer, the speed dispersion increased and as the rpm increased, the results showed that 1,000 rpm compared to 3,000 rpm, the back pressure elevated over 500 Pa. By assessing the degree of uniformity, the uniformity expanded faster at high rpm and in low rpm, the flux itself is low so the uniformity gradually increased as it reached the latter part. Overall efficiency of over 95% was achieved at approximately 15~20 cm and in the points after that, the degree of uniformity gradually decreased in the graph. Therefore, it was determined that optimal position for the SCR catalyst should be 20~50 cm from the posterior of the mixer. Application/Improvements: This research was analyzed of the distribution uniformity effect in the exhaust system, the analysis result could be optimized of catalyst-position and improved uniformity index.
426 Optimization of Radio Resource Allocation in Energy Efficient OFDMA Systems , M. Vadivel 
Background/Objectives: Proficient usage of available spectrum and energy are playing an essential role in case of wire communication as well as wireless Communications with necessitate of high data rate and superior quality. To enhance energy efficiency and spectral efficiency in OFDMA systems through effective allocation of radio resources. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Optimization problem is formulated to minimize the power consumption and maximize the energy efficiency. �y using the proposed algorithms which include Adaptive sub�carrier allocation algorithm� sub� channel assignment algorithm and Transmit Power allocation algorithm� it is possible to increase energy efficiency and spectral efficiency with reduced bit error rate. Results/Conclusion: The parameters and its value used for simulation result of proposed system are given in the form of table. The proposed optimized algorithm can achieve higher energy efficiency by considering total power� cell radius� number of users and average channel gain to noise ratio.
427 A Study on the Establishment of Policing Governance by Utilizing Big Data based on Cloud , O. H. Seiyouen
Background/Objectives: This study is to confirm the possibility of crime prevention and response by analyzing crime data that is stored as separate database for each institution. This method has the advantage of faster and more accurate information sharing. Methods/Statistical Analysis: To this end, we first look over the link between Cloud and Big Data then present an efficient procedure for utilizing the proposed method by analyzing case studies of each sector in accordance with the establishment of Policing Governance. In the field of crime prevention concerning a crime, related with Policing Governance establishment. Findings: First, we collect the data related to the crime and the damage that is possessed by various agencies such as the police, criminal justice agency and others in order to expand the collection channel. Crime related data refers to the information of criminal identification, crime locations, time, and date that is possessed by public agencies, private organizations, and non-profit organizations respectively. Second, collected data is stored and categorized within each crime category in a Cloud zone for proper analyzation. Finally, analyzed data is sent to each agency for real time visual observation in need. Based on the integrated information analysis, patrols and security can be reinforced on the anticipated crime scene and time. As a result, crime prevention possibility can be enhanced through flexible operation of the police force. Application/Improvements: This is to diversify the collection channel and it also acts as a complementary measure for the disadvantages of existing system since it stores the data in a Cloud zone that allows easier access and usability. In terms of information utilization aspect, it is expected to be useful for solving and reducing crime as all the related agencies.
428 A Simulation Analysis Study on the Mechanical Behavior of a Mode 1 Test Specimen Composed of CFRP , Gue-Wan Hwang  and Jae-Ung Cho 
Background/Objectives: CFRP has been utilized widely at various fields at the modern industry. This paper investigates the behavior of cracks propagated at mode 1 in the joined CFRP through simulation analysis. Methods/Statistical Analysis: The joined structure for mode 1 composed according to thickness is applied under the tensile load. The specimens with four kinds of thicknesses are modeled by three dimensions. The joined specimen model of mode 1 is composed with upper and lower sides. As the contact condition is maintained on the area touched with each other until the maximum tensile bonding strength, this stress can be evaluated. Findings: As the displacement of adhesive interface is increased, the reaction force applied to specimen is increased linearly. At the point on which the adhesive interface is fallen off, the nonlinear behavior is shown. It is thought that this reason is due to the abrupt reduction of bonded area. At the specimen thickness of 40 mm, the highest value of reaction force is shown as 1000 N and the lowest value is shown at the specimen thickness of 25 mm. But, to the contrary, the phenomenon of falling off is happened most rapidly at the specimen thickness of 40 mm. Whereas 14 MPa was produced at the initial 25 mm in the stress at the adhesion interface, a reduction to 6.3 MPa at 40 mm was be observed. A lower occurrence of fractures of adhesive interfaces could be seen due to the reduction in stresses when the thickness was increased. Through this study result, the fracture behavior until falling off at the bonded interface of structure can be examined. Application/Improvements: The safety of joined structure can be evaluated and the safe design data at the structure can be obtained by applying this result.
429 Soft h-ideals of Soft BCI-algebras , Muhammad Aslam Malik and Muhammad Touqeer 
The notion of soft h-ideals and h-idealistic soft BCI-algebras is introduced and their basic properties are discussed. Relations between soft ideals and soft h-ideals of soft BCI-algebras are provided. Also idealistic soft BCI-algebras and h-idealistic soft BCI-algebras are being related. The intersection, union, “AND” operation and “OR” operation of soft h-ideals and h-idealistic soft BCI-algebras are established. Using soft sets, characterizations of (fuzzy) h-ideals in BCI-algebras are given. Relations between fuzzy h-ideals and h-idealistic soft BCI-algebras are discussed.
430 A Study on the Influence Factors on Successful Small Business Start-Ups - Micro Credit Received from Seoul Credit Guarantee Foundation , Oh-Geun Lee, Joo-Sang Jeon and Do-Sung Na  
Objectives: This study aims to analyze the differences between successful and failed businesses, find out the factors that affect the success of start-ups and requirements for stable management of a business, and use them to make policies to support small businesses. Methods: In advance, we conducted survey 500 the success and failure. And then we collected data which extracted 345 samples that had positive answers through survey, questionnaire and interview process remove the inappropriate surveys, used a total of 124 samples in the study. Findings: Successful and failed businesses have differences in educational background, type of business, motivation, existence of representative products, existence of constant suppliers, revenue management, and training of employees, and age and educational background turned out to be influential in the possibility of success. Applications: The factors deduced through this study will be used as base data in the policy-making process for the training for start-up businesses and consulting project that are provided for small business owners by Seoul City and from Seoul City Credit.
431 The Role of Water Supply Management in Rural Economy with an Emphasis on Earth Dams Construction (Case Study: Bakhazr County).  , Lesani Mohammad Taghi  and Jafari Hamid 
Since long ago, qanāts and springs have been the main water resources in the foothills rural areas and heights margin of Iran. These water supplies are mostly fed by the underground waters of top and shallow layer. Regarding the continuous droughts during the recent years,theDebi ofthese water resources has been severely reduced. To feed qanāts and springs in watershed management, one of the practical strategies is to construct earth dams. This is aimed to feed qanāts through the penetration of runoffs and floods in watercourses. In some villages of Bakhazr County, Khorasan-e Razavi Province, earth dams have been constructed to feed qanāts and springs since 65 years ago. The main objective of this study is to see how these earth dams affect rural development including villagers’ satisfaction and the reduction of their migration motivation. Objective-wise, this study is an applied research. Yet, in nature and method, it is a descriptive-analytical research. This is carried out using document (library) research and filling out questionnaire (survey). Results show that constructing earth dam increases villagers’ income and employment.
432 An Analytical Study on Mechanical Behavior of Crack Propagation in CFRP Mode 2 Adhesive Specimens through Simulation Analysis , Gue-Wan Hwang and Jae -Ung Cho 
Background/Objectives: CFRP has been utilized as composite material at various industrial fields. This paper investigates the fracture behavior at the part joined with adhesive of the structure for Mode 2. Methods/Statistical Analysis: The bonded structure for Mode 2 composed according to thickness is applied under the tensile load. As the fracture behavior is investigated by the finite element method, the previous data are secured before experiment. The contact condition is maintained on the area touched with each other until the maximum tensile bonding strength. So, the bonding condition on this model is cleared when the occurred stress becomes beyond this stress. Findings: As the thickness is increased, the reaction force and the displacement are increased until falling off at the bonded interface. By the separation at the adhesive interface of the joined part with an increase in thicknesses of the two joined specimens, an increase in structural stability for the joined structure could be seen. The various stress distribution and the transferred direction of load at bonded interface can be investigated. As the thickness of a specimen applied to the joined CFRP was increased, equivalent stresses due to displacement could be seen to be gradually increased. At this time, the stresses produced at the adhesive interface could be seen to affect the specimens and the equivalent stresses could also be seen to be increased. However, since the fracture of specimen could be seen not to occur at a lower value than the tensile strength of the applied specimen, the stability of the structures could be seen as being guaranteed. Application/Improvements: On the basis of this study result, the safety of bonded structure can be evaluated and the safe design data can be obtained by applying this result
433 Numerical Analysis of Seepage of Concrete-Coated Water Transmission Channels Considering Saturated – Unsaturated Conditions , Saeeid Karimi and Saeid Abrishami 
Seepage of water transmission channels means waste of water, and is considered an undesirable phenomenon. A proper channel coating design can prevent this phenomenon. For this purpose, it is necessary to analyze the seepage of these channels and based on the results of this analysis, the best channel design is achieved. Since the soil around the channel is unsaturated, there is no possibility to analyze it with conventional methods, and using methods such as semi-empirical equations for estimating seepage gives approximate results. Although increasing the accuracy of field experiments, acceptable and accurate estimation of the seepage at various time intervals can be given, it should be noted that these methods are time consuming and costly. However, using numerical methods, a high volumes of data can be processed in a short time with minimum cost. Therefore, present study discusses numerical analysis of seepage phenomenon considering saturated-unsaturated conditions and assesses the ability of seep/w software model in estimating water seepage of concrete channel of Xiang River basin in China. Comparing these results with experimental results show that the results of numerical analysis is quantitatively consistent with physical models, and our model has a high capacity in estimating the seepage of water transmission concrete channels in the study area.
434 What are Software Developers’ and Medical Experts’ Priorities for Adopting a Healthcare Software Platform? , Yong-Young Kim and Mi-Hye Kim  
Background/Objectives: Many policies are provided for promoting the software market. However, little research has studied medical experts’ or software developers’ requirements with regard to software platforms that focus on healthcare. Methods/Statistical Analysis: With a literature review and interviews with experts, questionnaires were developed in order to measure five topics: Fields to be developed, expertise, problems, effect and the factors that facilitate the platform. The survey was administered on a website for two weeks. The participants were medical experts and software developers. 97 software developers and 79 medical experts completed the survey. All of these completed surveys were analyzed using rank and priority test method. Findings: From the results of the survey of software developers and medical experts, it is possible to see the relevant priorities of these two groups. First, software developers and medical experts believe that health condition measurement and the prevention of disease/disorder are new markets that should be opened. Second, they want to share their expertise and knowledge if they participate in a healthcare software platform. Thus, we can verify that software developers and medical experts do not differ regarding the fields that should be considered and the expertise that should be offered. Third, software developers have concerns about the absence of preparation for healthcare software certification, the absence of preparation for a healthcare database and a shortage of information about the healthcare software market. Further, after adopting a healthcare software platform, software developers expect that it will enable them to utilize a specific healthcare database, utilize expertise and develop competitive content and share domestic/ foreign information on healthcare. Finally, there are priority factors that software developers believe can facilitate the platform. Application/Improvements: It is relevant for this study to survey two key participating supply-side groups. The results may be utilized to help provide useful directions for Korean government’s healthcare software platform policies
435 Investigation of Some Quantitative and Qualitative Characters of Medicinal Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) under Different Organic Substrates and Different Levels of Phosphorus Fertilization , Reyhaneh Pajooheshgar , Majid Azizi , Hossein Nemati and Reza Khorasani 
Understanding the interactions and relationships between fertilizer and minerals help to have optimum fertilization ­practice­with­the­lowest­costs.­ In­a­split­plot­ field­experiment,­we­studied­the­effect­of­some­organic­substrate­(control (soil),­spent­mushroom­compost­(SMC),­cow­manure­and­vermicompost) and­different­levels­of­phosphorus­(at­0,­75,­100 and­125­kg­h–1 )­to­investigate­the­best­treatment­for­some­characters­of­medicinal­pumpkin­(Cucurbita pepo­L.)­such­as:­ leaf­and­branch­number,­plant­height,­fruit­number,­fruit­weight,­seed­number,­oil­percentage,­zinc­and­phosphorus­content of seeds. Results showed that vermicompost is the best organic substrate for improving of the most characters. For phosphorus­application­alone,­100­(kg.h–1 )­was­the­best­treatments­for­most­characters­and­in­combined­application­of­organic substrate­and­phosphorus,­vermicompost­with­100­(kg.ha–1 )­was­the­best­treatment­ to­increase­the­morphological­and yield factors.
436 A Study on the Ways to Promote off-Line Electronic Micro-Payment using Transportation Cards - Focusing on the Analysis of Strategic Cooperation Model using Game Theory , Ki Ho Kim , YenYoo You and Seok Kee Lee
Background/Objectives: The purpose of this study is to clarify why strategic cooperation model is needed in the electronic micro payment business. And it provides the ways to promote off-line electronic micro payment using transportation cards. Methods/Statistical Analysis: This paper used two-by-two games to compare with each pay-off matrix. Findings: This study was to investigate the reason using the game theory why both of the stakeholders do not obtain a satisfactory conclusion easily in bilateral trade and also proved in order for the deadlock to be resolved having a tripartite cooperation including new stakeholders could be suggested as a solution Application/Improvements: This study was significant in that it presented a model to promote electronic micro-payment market by applying game theory in the area of electronic micro-payment.
437 The Artificial Feeding of Qanat: An Approach towards Satisfaction and the Reduction of Villagers’ Migration Motivations (Case Study: Bakhazr County).  , Lesani Mohammad Taghi and Jafari Hamid 
The In Iran, the reduction of qanats water supplies has encountered most villagers’ social and economic activities with challenges. Due to water shortage, they leave their home and village and migrate to large cities to work as workers or do other activities. In some villages of Bakhazr County, Khorasan-e Razavi Province, earth dams have been constructed to feed qanats and springs since 65 years ago. The main objective of this study is to see how these earth dams affect rural development including villagers’ satisfaction and the reduction of their migration motivation. Objective-wise, this study is an applied research. Yet, in nature and method, it is a descriptive-analytical research. This is carried out using document (library) research and filling out questionnaire (survey). Results show that feeding qanats through constructing earth dam leads to villagers’ satisfaction and reduction of their migration motivations.
438 Privacy Issues of Unmanned Autonomous System , Jinkeun Hong  
Background/Objectives: This paper reaffirmed the issue of privacy, which is a fundamental right in center of standardization and organization of unmanned autonomous environment. The privacy protection is important both individual and society in respect of value and function. Recently, the research and application of the unmanned autonomous environment with privacy is activated. Also the important of privacy issues in the unmanned auto equipment should be reconsidered. Findings: It can find privacy direction and concerns of unmanned aerial through EC and international standard organizations, whose are activated research and application of unmanned autonomous system. Also the main issue of privacy design is whether or not how efficiently is configured objectives, methodology and evaluation system. Application/Improvements: On the other hand, we can see that the importance of scalability, flexibility, persistence, opportunity and technology in unmanned autonomous system environment. In additionally, the various countermeasures are required to address the privacy issue in unmanned autonomous environment.
439 Research on Improving the Education System for Cultivating Expert Talent in the Aerospace Sector , Sung-Uk Bae , Dong-Gi Kwag  and Eun-Young Park  
Objectives: Survey of aerospace-related major students was conducted to evaluate their satisfaction levels (or importance levels) for the various curriculum and support systems of convergence-oriented talent development. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Statistical forecast analysis software IBM SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) was utilized for the research data of the aerospace major students’ understanding of their curriculum. This data can be used as base data for future curriculum settings. Findings: The difference between this study and prior research on convergence curriculum is as follows. First, whereas the subject of previous research was convergence education based on the convergence of disparate fields of study, this research dealt specifically with the aerospace field where cutting-edge technologies converge. Second, while previous studies focused on the general direction of convergence education and its teachers, this research proposed a direction for convergence education from the learners’ point of view. Application/Improvements: The research analyzed which factors affected the development of convergence-oriented talent development. The results may be used for the future planning and establishment of education programs to facilitate convergence-oriented talent development.
440 Responses of Various Corn Cultivars under Supplementary Irrigation ManagementResponses of Various Corn Cultivars under Supplementary Irrigation Management , Marjan Zohrabi  , Ebrahim Amiri  and Parisa Shahinrokhsar 
This project was executed in a split-plot experiment using the randomized complete block design with four replications in the research field at the Gilan Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center to evaluate the effects of various irrigation regimes on three single cross hybrids in corn. The major factor was the irrigation treatment (one irrigation before flowering, one irrigation at flowering and one at seed filling stages, no irrigation or rainfed farming), and the minor factor the cultivars ( the single cross hybrids 704, 260, and 400). The three irrigation regimes and the three cultivars had significantly different effects on seed yield at the 5% and 1% probability levels, respectively. Comparing the means of irrigation regimes showed the maximum yield (6580 kg/ha) belonged to the treatment of irrigation at flowering and at seed filling stages and the minimum (4888 kg/ha) to the treatment of irrigation before flowering. Irrigation at flowering and seed filling stages increased yield and yield components, while the hybrid SC704 was the suitable cultivar under water stress conditions.
441 Study of U.S. and ROK Bilateral C3 Interoerability , Young C. Park 
Background/Objectives: In order to facilitate bilateral command, control and communication (C3 ) planning and coordination between the Republic of Korea (ROK) and the United States (U.S.), we studied command and control interoperability of two countries. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Survivability of C3 facilities, continued operational capability of ADP (Automated Data Processing) support and reconstitution of the U.S. and ROK telecommunications network are addressed in Phase 1 study. The Phase 1 study team identified the principal combined, U.S. and ROK C2 facilities that house the interfacing C2 organizations and the telecommunications networks that link the C2 facilities. Findings: The survivability of the theater-level combined U.S. and ROK C2 facilities, the capability for continued operation of the C2 ADP systems and the U.S. Defense Communications System (DCS) transmission network in Korea that supports inter-facility communications are studied in this report. Improvements/Applications: From this Phase I study, we found that operations of a transportable Alternate Command Post (Alt. CP) need to be fully practiced to ensure the ability of exercising command and control under degraded situation.
442  Microfacies Analysis, Environmental Reconstruction and Determination of Sea-Level Fluctuations in Permian Deposits of the Kalmard Area, Khan Gorup (Kuh-e-Ahaki Section).  , Shahram Habibi Mood, Javad Shahraki , Mohsen Jami , Mohammad Javad Javdan and Mahdiyeh Nastooh 
Lower Permian deposits in the Kalmard block, which are known as Khan Formation, enjoys different characteristics in various outcrops. This formation, from bottom to top, is interpreted to be a group of three formations, namely Chili, Sartakht and Hormoz. It is mainly composed of carbonate rocks, dolomite, sandstones, shale and marl. The Kuh-e-Ahaki section in Chili formation is 87 meters thick. According to lithological and microscopic studies, deposits of Khan Gorup in Kuh-e-Ahaki section are deposited in beach sub-environments, open to semi-restricted lagoon sub-environments, shoal sub-environment and open submarine sub-environment in the rocks of this part of formation, triggering fluctuations in sea level. Vertical changes of microfacies and the curve of its depth change point to the high thickness of the facies of shoal and open marine sub-environments. The rocks of Khan Gorup are deposited in a low-angle homoclinal ramp located in southern Paleotethys Ocean.
443 The Effect of Benefits of Mobile Application useDiffusion and Purchase Intention in Service Management , Ki -Heung Yim and Jin-Hee Kwon  
Background/Objectives: One of the biggest recent issues in the communication market is the explosive distribution of smart phones. One of the reasons why a smart phone could have seen this rapid distribution in terms of the service management is because it enables the access to the Internet without getting restricted by place and time through customization by a user, unlike a feature phone which only has the existing functions mounted on that were already chosen by a suppler. The other reason is because of its applications. Methods/Statistical Analysis: This study performed a survey for a sample of people who have ever used the online shopping applications. It is looking on the demographic characteristics, among a total of 215 people. In order to verify the formed hypotheses and models, this study evaluated reliability using the Cronbach's Alpha scale and it was found that the high reliability had been acquired as most of the variables showed high values above 0.8. In advance of the verification of hypotheses, the reliability analysis was carried out to examine reliability of the measurement items for each construction concept used in this study. Also, to verify the hypotheses of this thesis, a structural equating model was set up and a path analysis of the relationship between construction concepts was carried out. Findings: This study aimed to make an empirical investigation of the impact of each of the different convenience types of mobile applications on the usage and the use diversity, consider the process of use diffusion and find out whether there is a difference in the effect of each convenience type on the use-diffusion. According to the findings of this study, it was firstly shown that the effect of each convenience type on the use-diffusion is different and secondly, it appeared that the more various functions of the mobile applications are used, the usage increases. Improvements/Applications: It is supposed that the portability and accessibility was less easy because they were the studies for a PC. On the other hand, in case of a mobile phone like in this study, it has the excellent portability and accessibility compared to anything else including a PC. Therefore, it is supposed that more usage and more chances to access to its functions must have had a positive impact on the increase of the usage.
444 Sustainable Spatial Land Use Optimization through Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II (NSGAII): (Case Study: Baboldasht District of Isfahan).  , Mahmoud Mohammadi  , Mahin Nastaran and Alireza Sahebgharani 
A heuristic method named as non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm version two (NSGA-II) is developed for multiobjective land use allocation based on the concept of sustainable development which is the predominant notion of land use planning. Numerous plans are generated and optimized by NSGA-II according to land use allocation objectives: maximizing compactness, maximizing floor area ratio, maximizing compatibility, maximizing economic benefit and maximizing mix use. These objectives and constraints are formulated and combined through weighted sum method. This paper moves the previous studies forward in several aspects: 1) application of non-linear objective functions which represent the complexity of real word better than linear functions, 2) modification of NSGA-II operators to fit it for application in urban land use planning framework, and 3) adding density related objective functions which represent the concept of sustainable development more comprehensive. Application of NSGA-II in land use allocation of Baboldasht district, demonstrates effectiveness and the potential of this algorithm in development of planning support system through representation of optimal solutions with different preferences.
445 A Strategy of Selecting a Maximal Set of Sleep Links for Energy Saving in Core IP Networks , Chimoon Han and Sangchul Kim  
Background/Objectives: Nowadays the energy consumption of ICT networks is about 10% of the total worldwide power consumption and is predicted to increase remarkably in the near future. Methods/Statistical Analysis: We study energy saving methods for IP networks in a way to select qualified links and place them in sleep mode under network-level QoS constraints. An energy saving strategy is proposed which is based on the concept of delegation process with a user-specified condition for limiting the increase in hop count of paths. The main feature of our strategy is delegation process through which a maximal set of sleep links can be found under the user-specified constraint. Findings: For maximizing energy saving, we present two heuristic algorithms for link selection under QoS constraints, and evaluate the characteristics of the algorithms by a computer simulation. Our two algorithms provide three kinds of methods, namely, max_set, min_traffic and min_traffic. This paper shows that in terms of link saving efficiency, the max_set is ranked first, the mini_traffic second, and the min_path last. The link saving efficiency of the max_set reaches about 65 % under certain conditions. Also, the max-set method is shown to find a larger set of sleep links than previous works, enabling more energy saving. On the certain conditions, we confirm the increased mean hops of the path within 1.2 hops in case of using the max_set for selecting sleep link. This value does not have a significant impact on the real end-to-end delay. Application/Improvements: We expect that our algorithms will provide the ISP with a mechanism for achieving the required level of energy saving by adjusting the delay of paths
446 A Survey of League Championship Algorithm: Prospects and Challenges , Shafi'i Muhammad Abdulhamid, Muhammad Shafie Abd Latiff , Syed Hamid Hussain Madni and Osho Oluwafemi 
The League Championship Algorithm (LCA) is sport-inspired optimization algorithm that was introduced by Ali Husseinzadeh Kashan in the year 2009. It has since drawn enormous interest among the researchers because of its ­potential efficiency in solving many optimization problems and real-world applications. The LCA has also shown great potentials in solving non-deterministic polynomial time (NP-complete) problems. This survey presents a brief synopsis of the LCA ­literatures in peer-reviewed journals, conferences and book chapters. These research articles are then ­categorized ­according to indexing in the major academic databases (Web of Science, Scopus, IEEE Xplore and the Google Scholar). The analysis was also done to explore the prospects and the challenges of the algorithm and its acceptability among researchers. This systematic categorization can be used as a basis for future studies.
447 A Study on Improvement of Fire Protection Systems based on Failure Characteristics accodrding to Yearly Variation in Old Commercial Buildings , Wook-Jung Na 
Background: Safety assessment of fire protection system is very important. Especially, Fire Protection system is central to minimizing damage to human lives and property. They’re not in demand at normal times but are definitely needed in times of fire or other disasters. Concerns of performance loss or failure owing to yearly variation remain but the nature of fire protection system challenges users from detecting equipment failure or defects early on. Methods: This study sets a certain inspection score to defect probability, which is calculated by quantitative defect probability arising from yearly variation in fire protection systems by part of fire protection systems observed by time and use the score as the basis to determine replacement and inspection of parts. This study also aims at suggesting hazard calculation associated with aging based on criticality and yearly variation of fire protection systems. This method can realize active and quantitative management and the old fire protection system. Findings: Presented in this study Performance Assessment Tool allows a more effective replacement and inspection of firefighting equipment in structures and eventually calculate hazard of firefighting equipment performance in a quantitative manner, thereby serves as an effective diagnosis tool for maintaining and improving performance of aging firefighting equipment. Improvements: For improvements of this study, data on defect rate of fire protection systems should be recorded to deliver higher reliability and aging of fire protection systems arising from time variance should also be monitored by building detailed data to come up with a methodology that ensures reliable management
448 Efficient Utilization Condition of MACD on Stock Market and Nontrend Status Detecting Indicatior , Jung-Youn Lee and Sun-Myung Hwang   
Background/Objectives: In the trend stock market, when low frequency components determine wave form of stock price, MACD can be useful for predicting stock price. The MA and MACD occurs time delay and whipsaw problem. In order to use the MACD efficiently, we propose indicators are derived from the power measurement of the price waveform. Methods/ Statistical Analysis: The proposed method differentiates trend market against nontrend market. In this method, given stock signal is converted into the sum of many frequency components by using the fourier transform and the power of low frequency components is measured. Findings: When power values increase rapidly it is highly likely that market is in trend market and when the values linearly decrease then the inflection point in stock price waveform can be occurred. Therefore, once appropriate reference line is set up, one can determine that trend market is in progress if values increase passing the reference line, that opposite trend market after inflection point is in progress if values decrease passing the reference line using power calculation. Improvements/Applications: The market is determined as ‘trend market’ if the power value is larger enough, and it is remarkably helpful and particularly useful at automatic trading systems.
449 Analysis of Allelic Variation in HMW-Glu-1 Gene Blocks in Iranian Wheat Cultivars using ALP Molecular Marker.  , HaYasub Shiri , Mahmood Solouki  and Massih Forootan 
In order to study the allelic variation of Glu-1 gene (High molecular weight glutenin), 100 Iranian wheat cultivars including imported and domestic genotypes were analyzed using ALP-PCR technique. Four specific primer pairs were used based on the genetic loci of Glu-A1, Glu-B1, and Glu-D1 to perform the chain polymerase reactions. PCR reaction products were resolved on %2 agarose gel. Since allele “a” had the largest relative frequency (0.707), two alleles (a 344bp; b 362bp) were identified by P1-P2 primer for Glu-A1 locus. Three alleles (a 800bp; b 500bp; c 300bp) were detected for Glu-B1 locus by P5-P6 primer, and allele “b” was assumed as the highest relative frequency (0.618). Two primer pairs were applied for Glu-D1 locus. Ultimately, four alleles were identified, where allele “c” had the highest relative frequency (0.525). The observed genetic variation value for Glu-D1 locus (H=0.648) exhibits the maximal polymorphism. Using cluster analysis, the relationship between the observed polymorphism and geographical variation was investigated. The results indicated that there exists a remarkable variation in Glu-1 locus between the Iranian wheat cultivars.
450 The Development of a Multi-port Slow Charger for Electric Vehicles , JeaHee Lee , ChangJin Seo and KwangSeob Shin   
Background/Objectives: The EV charging infrastructure consists largely of the power supply facilities, charger, interface, and information system. Charger that supply electricity from an electricity provider to EV batteries can be classified as direct charging, noncontact charging, and battery exchange. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Direct charging is divided into slow charging and fast charging based on the charging time. At present, 90% of the charger market is slow chargers. The points to be solved of slow charger is the user discomfort and installation cost due to limitation of space and time. Findings: To solve this point, proposed the multi-port slow-charging system in this study. It reduced the installation and maintenance costs in comparison to existing chargers and improved user convenience by providing a multi-port charging feature, which enables multiple EVs to be charged simultaneously with one charger, and by providing a user interface through the driver’s smart phone to implement the V2G standard. A prototype of the proposed multi-port slow-charging system was implemented, and performance tests were conducted in situations similar to the actual environment to verify the performance of the proposed system. An analysis of the performance test results reveals that the proposed system was above the KC(Korea Certification) standard values. Furthermore, the proposed multi-port slow-charging system can reduce costs by about 50%, compared to the existing charging system, based on the manufacturing and maintenance costs of the charger. Application/Improvements: The user interface of the charger was interfaced with the driver’s smart phone, implementing a communication system that is similar to the V2G protocol in order to construct an ICT charging system
451 Effect of Minimum Quantity Lubrication with Gamma-Al 2 O3 Nanoparticles on Surface Roughness in Milling AISI D3 Steel.  , Mostafa Hadi  and Reza Atef 
This paper presents an investigation into the Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) and MQL with gamma-Al 2 O3 nanoparticles in end milling processes of AISI D3 steel work material to analyze the effects of cutting parameters on surface roughness with Taguchi method. The experimental results show when gamma-Al 2 O3 nanoparticle dispersed to vegetableoil with volume fraction 1%, the surface roughness decreased about 0.3μm and improved about 15% than pure MQL. Also by dispersing gamma-Al 2 O3 nanoparticle to vegetable oil with volume fraction 2%, surface roughness decreased about 0.5μm and improved about 25% than pure MQL. This results indicate better performance application of gamma-Al 2 O3 nanoparticles when it is dispersed in vegetable oil.
452 Efficient Mobile Agent Path-search Techniques using Genetic Algorithm Processing , Hongil Ji and Chang Jin Seo  Hongil Ji and Chang Jin Seo  
Background/Objectives: Although the efficiency of genetic algorithms improves with the creation of each generation, a number of generations are needed to obtain the desired results. In addition, when ad hoc unit increases are linked to a network, it may be necessary to compare all cases. Methods/Statistical Analysis: This requires the simultaneous generation of multiple algorithms at one time. Where a single process is used to manage all such algorithms, the overall efficiency of the network will decrease. Findings: The algorithm proposed in this thesis introduces router group cell units for use in the distributed processing of previous genetic algorithms. The experimental results showed that the proposed algorithm reduced path processing costs caused by the alternative path setup by approximately 27% when compared with Dijkstra’s and the Munetomo algorithm. Operation time for the alternative path setup was approximately twice as fast as that of Dijkstra’s algorithm. These results suggest that the algorithm proposed in this paper is more efficient than either Dijkstra’s or the Munetomo algorithm in terms of alternative path setup during router failure. Application/ Improvements: The study presents ways to reduce overall search delays across a network through the use of a cell-based genetic algorithm.
453 Fixed Point Theorems and Generalizations of Dislocated Metric Spaces.  , P. Sumati Kumari , Ch. V. Ramana , Kastriot Zoto and D. Panthi  
In this note we discuss some topological properties and generalizations of dislocated metric space and establish some fixed point theorems. Mathematics Subject Classification: 47H10, 54H25.
454 Fixed Point Theorems and Generalizations of Dislocated Metric Spaces.  , P. Sumati Kumari , Ch. V. Ramana , Kastriot Zoto and D. Panthi  
In this note we discuss some topological properties and generalizations of dislocated metric space and establish some fixed point theorems. Mathematics Subject Classification: 47H10, 54H25.
455 Quality Control Measures for Distance Education Institutions that are Part of the Academic Credit Bank System , Sook Ryeol Rhyou , Hongil Ji and ChangJin Seo   
Background/Objectives: This study discusses quality control measures for use in distance education institutions that are part of the academic credit bank system of lifelong education in South Korea. Methods/Statistical Analysis: This study proposes a standard model, which measures quality control from two perspectives, namely, learning content and Learning Management Systems (LMS). Findings: This model will operate as a guideline for the development of a quality control system in distance education institutions. As self-directed learning programs are important in measuring quality control from the content viewpoint, this paper suggests pre-quiz narratives, thinking, formative assessment, regular tests, assignments, and discussion methods. Application/Improvements: The study aims to contribute to the field of quality education by ensuring that the distance learning education system in South Korea meets a specific level of education quality in the future.
456  A Low Cost Device for Anti Fuel Theft Alarm Control System. , Dhananjay Shukla, M. Liaquath , K. Chidambaram , K. C. Saranya and S. K. Khadeer Pasha 
In modern days diesel/petrol theft of vehicles, which has been parked outside the office/home, is quite common. In this work we are presenting a new electronic design for an anti fuel theft protection system that is simple and inexpensive solution to protect vehicle fuel from being stolen and from unauthorized users by exploiting microcontroller based system. The two major parts of this circuit are transmitter and receiver section. Transmitter is fitted in the vehicles near the fuel tap and the receiver in room of your office/house. An audio indication will be received when someone goes near to fuel tap.
457 Brute-force Attacks Analysis against SSH in HPC Multi-user Service Environment , Jae-Kook Lee, Sung-Jun Kim and Taeyoung Hong  
Background/Objectives: The brute-force attack is one of popular cyber security threats in the secure shell (SSH) service environment. The SANS Institute has warned about SSH brute-force attacks against remote services. Methods/Statistical Analysis: We describe two brute-force attack detection methods are applied in the High Performance Computing (HPC) service environment which has been operated by KISTI in KOREA. The first way parses failed authentication logs of systems. The second way analyze dropped events of network firewalls. Findings: We analyze SSH brute-force attacks that are detected applying these methods in our service environment. The analysis results show that SSH brute-force attacks are classified ‘1:N’ or ‘N:1’ types of attack between source and destination IP address. And a duration of attacks that is generally the time it takes to execute attacks keeps enough long times. Improvements/Applications: Two detection methods which are deployed in our HPC multi-user service environment are complementary to each other. These methods will be also able to apply for other service environment.
458 A Study on the Web Service of Cloud Environment based on User Requirements , Sungho Sim and Hanyong Choi 
Background/Objectives: The main purpose of this study is to suggest a method for searching a kind of cloud service which is suitable for users by applying. Methods/Statistical Analysis: A variety of methods are developed in order to be used for utilizing some of the existing system and resources more effectively in accordance with the universalization of internet and IT service. However, interworking in a distributed environment contains a lot of difficulties and problems by itself. It lacks consideration for users since it is too much inclined toward physical network environment. In addition, there is a need to find out a proper service that is suitable for requirement of the clients the increase of web services that provides a similar feature has become very common nowadays. It is necessary to look for a web service that can satisfy users by reflecting the requirements of clients to break away from the provider oriented service. Findings: A Cloud service guarantees constant level of service quality through constant discussion based on minimum level of requirement and measuring standard for provider and user in the cloud computing environment in order to provide a reliable and consistent quality to users. Nevertheless, there is a limitation in providing a customized content that is analyzed for each individual since the services provided differs from each other in some way. The method we propose in this study consists of web service searching method based on user requirements. Also, it is composed of SLA specification and user requirement information to bring about positive effects for a proper service search in a Cloud environment. Application/Improvements: The user-friendly system suggested in this study enables users to select an appropriate service provider through the utilization of the proposed system.
459 To Study the Indian Perspective on the Concept of Work from Home. , Kriti Srivastava, Amritha Sethumadhavan, Harini Raghupathy, Shreya Agarwal and Surya Rashmi Rawat 
Cranky boss, long working hours, and standing behind line of cars. Work from home shall save you time, for reduction in expenses shall save you lots of time There comes a time in every employee’s life when he pictures himself free from his monotonous nightmare of long office hours and then getting stuck in traffic. Nonetheless, there also comes a time when he feels that his office brings the best out of him.Working From Home (WFH)is a debatable conceptwhich is being explored by an increasing number of organizations across the globe. The main objective behind this research paper is to focus and understand the current perception of the concept of WFH. The study aims to seek the correlation and analyze its suitability in the Indian work environment. The paper also highlights its merits, demerits and proposes certain recommendations. The research methodology includes primary data over a survey sample of 50 employees, belonging to the IT Sector of Pune. The secondary data includes information collected from analogous research papers, case studies and articles that were sourced from the internet, as well as newspapers and magazines.
460 A Study on the Safe and Efficient Method of Transmitting Data in ZigBee Networ , Jae-Young Lee  
Background/Objectives: The main purpose of this study is to find a way to improve the sliding window method which is used in ZigBee network data transmission. We focus on a process that gives a solution for solving a problem when there is a loss of data in the first stage and reduces unnecessary message which occurs because of power saving feature of ZED in non-beacon mode. This allows a safe and efficient data transfer in ZigBee network. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Among the data transmitted in sliding window method, only the first data includes the window size. As a result, when there is a loss in the first data, the receiving node cannot send out ACK message since it can’t figure out the window size. Accordingly, the sending node cannot send out the following data. Therefore, we propose a method for including window size information in all of the data transferred. Findings: As the window size is included in every data, the receiving node has no problem in sending out ACK message even though the first data is lost. Also, the window size information can act as a Sequence Number for the received data, which makes it easier to identify the data which is lost in the transmission process. Data Request message refers to a message that informs other devices that ZED which has a Power Saving feature in the non-beacon mode is Power on. Data Request message is sent out whether it includes data for ZED or not. Devices that received Data Request message transfer ACK message to ZED. The core point dealt with in this paper shows that it is possible to reduce unnecessary message transmission by including Power On time information in the last ACK message of ZED. Improvements/Applications: This paper suggests a problem solving method for reducing unnecessary message transmission and data loss in the ZigBee network to enable safer and efficient data transmission.
461 Efficient Remote Software Management Method based on Dynamic Address Translation for IoT Software Execution Platform in Wireless Sensor Network , Minwoo Jung, Dae-Young Kim and Seokhoon Kim   
Background/Objectives: In this paper, an efficient remote code execution technique is proposed to implement a storage-less sensor in the Internet-of-Things (IoT) paradigm. Methods/Statistical Analysis: To realize a flexible code update mechanism and to optimize the use of an IoT device in terms of utilizing its various functions, we adopt the concept of remote on-demand code execution (ROCE) to implement a storage-less sensor. Findings: Instead of using a conventional on-chip flash memory for an instruction code, an instruction memory is used wherein the remote storage area based on the IoT platform is virtually mapped onto the address space of the instruction memory using a dynamic address translation technique. The proposed storage-less approach using the remote resource as a virtual code space may be adopted to reduce the high access current and chip area overhead of an on-chip code flash memory. Application/Improvements: The proposed technique reduces the energy consumption and the packet delay of an IoT device for executing the remote embedded software, as well as realizes a storage-less sensor architecture.
462  Compliance driven Cost Control for Telecom Infrastructure Operation Management , Pavan Totla, Sumit Saini  , Anand Bhele and Vikram Jupal 
For a major telecom infrastructure company operating pan India including the state of Haryana, over 400 of their telecom infrastructure operation sites in Haryana had connected running power load more than the load sanctioned by the Haryana State Electricity Board (HSEB). As per the Standard Operating Procedure of this telecom infrastructure company (SOP), these 400 plus sites did not qualify under load upgrade category since the load had been increased without attracting any new tenancy i.e. Base Transceiver Station (BTS) of other telecom operators (service providers). Power load at these 400 sites had increased because of additional load due to sector expansion, cabinet expansion and 3G additions.Since running power load for a BTS cannot be more than the sanctioned load, these 400 sites were non compliant as per HSEB norms. If these sites were to be inspected by State Electricity Board inspectors and identified for non-conformity, it would have lead to heavy commercial penalties and even permanent disconnection of electricity to these sites. This inturn would entail using 24x7 diesel generators to keep sites active, increasing the operation cost manifold and also threatening environment pollution.A business case was prepared for this problem using the Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve and Control(DMAIC) methodology, a Six-Sigma approach. Cause of power overload and its effect was detailed out using root cause analysis and possible optimal remedial solution was arrived at for this project. The total penalties calculated as per the HSEB guidelines came out to be Rs.35 million whereas the total expenditure being involved in complying and coming out of this issue came out to be Rs.12 million approximately, thus making it a net saving of Rs.23 million for the telecom company. It was also observed that for the sites where the sanctioned load was 35% - 50% of the required load, net saving potential was more compared to the sites where the sanctioned load was 55% - 80% of the required load. A similar business case was carried out by the same company in the state of Himachal Pradesh and found that net saving potential was more compared to the state of Haryana.This was practically achieved by calling different partners (vendors) to discuss this project in an open forum. Non compliant site allocation was carried out on the basis of partner’s confidence, band width and operational capabilities to deliver these sites. A reward per site was declared to motivate the partners for quick achievement of the desired results (compliance) with a gate criterion of ≥80% of the total site allocation done. The partners provided power usage receipts from HSEB as a proof of job done and payments were released accordingly. The change in power load was reflected in the subsequent electricity bills. The target set for the change over to the HSEB compliance was three months during which rigorous monitoring and review mechanism was put in place including circulation of Daily Progress Report to all internal and external stakeholders. To ensure that this issue does not repeat in future, the technical guidelines (SOP) was amended in terms of the power load to be upgraded for every new asset being deployed at site.
463 Understanding the Stickiness of Corporate Social Responsibility Reporting as a Post Globalization Digital Marketing Strategy: A Study of Multinational Automobile Companies in India , Sabyasachi Dasgupta and Anurupa Ghatge 
Digital Marketing Initiatives of Firms are considered as one of the most influential marketing strategies of corporates to maximize the benefits of their businesses. One of the marketing approaches of businesses to find sophisticated ways of linking social and business values at individual and stakeholder level is through Corporate Social Responsibility ( CSR) reporting on websites. There is a “mad” race to promote CSR in order to enhance corporate visibility towards societal welfare. The objective of this paper is to evaluate whether there are elements of stickiness in CSR reporting as published in the websites of multinational automobile companies in India. Basically, Stickiness refers to a site’s ability to retain users and drive them further into a site5 . This paper takes into consideration four elements of stickiness as conceived by Gillespie, Krishna, Oliver, Olsen, and Thiel 15 . Comprising four broad components, they suggest that stickiness drivers in a website are content, customization, real-time interaction, and site promotion. The methodology adopted in this paper is thematic analysis of the CSR reporting of major (according to Forbes ranking) multinational automobile companies in India. The findings from this paper would suggest: firstly, whether all the four elements as proposed by Gillespie, Krishna, Oliver, Olsen and Thiel are prevalent in websites of these companies; secondly, the parameters that are more prominent among the automobile companies; thirdly other parameters (if at all) to be taken into consideration in order to enhance the stickiness of CSR Reporting
464 Innovation Activities and the Business Performance of Small and Medium Manufacturing Companies - Moderating Effects of Organizational and Network Characteristic , Jinkwon Kim and Tony Donghui Ahn  
Background/Objectives: Management innovation in manufacturing companies is becoming more and more important to secure competitiveness in rapidly changing technical environment and the diversifying expectations of customers. The purpose of this study is to empirically examine the relationship between management innovation and business performance, and especially, the moderating effect of organizational and network characteristics between them. Methods/ Statistical Analysis: This study established a research model through existing literature reviews and empirically verified the research model through a field survey. It explored the relationship between the 4 areas of management innovation-system, product, process, and human resource-and the 2 factors of business performance-customer satisfaction and financial performance. To determine the moderating effect of organizational characteristics which have over the influence of management innovation on business performance, the level of formalization, centralization, and networking characteristics was considered. For the data analysis, a multivariate analysis has been performed using a statistical analysis tool. Findings: Management innovation was shown to have a significant positive effect on management performance, while organizational characteristics and network characteristics had a moderating effect. The organization’s formalization level especially had a significant moderating effect in the relationship of “system innovation and customer satisfaction”, and “product, process innovation and financial performance”, while the centralization level had a marginally moderating effect. Furthermore, the level of internal and external network of an organization had a moderating effect on system, process innovation and customer satisfaction performance. This study corresponds to previous research, which has found that management innovation has a positive effect on business performance. In addition to that, this study provides useful findings how each organizational characteristics have over the influence of each innovation activities on business performance. Application/ Improvements: The findings of this study imply that when a company tries to induce management innovation, it should consider the organization and network characteristics to maximize the result of innovation. On the other hand, a company should try to set up the appropriate organizational and network environment prior to the management innovation.
465 Progressive Importance of the Drivers of Employee Engagement , Rabiya T. S. Sange 
Some of the best organizations have realized that it is essential to give customers a complete experience for them to become loyal customers in the future. Organizations also understand that consumer buying behaviour is influenced by pre-purchase, purchase and post–purchase experiences. All these experiences are mediated by employee – customer interactions. This makes it important for organizations to tune in their employee behaviour to customer needs. Every job has different requirements from the job incumbent. This also means that different set of professionals would want different things from the company. Sales/marketing is a peculiar yet an important function for the organization since their individual performances put together directly affect the company’s profits Thus, making it all the more important for organizations and managers to understand the impact that different drivers have on engaging their sales/marketing employees. Secondary data sources were used to arrive at a review of the literature. The present study surveyed 500 sales/marketing professionals using the questionnaire developed by the researcher to measure employee engagement. Statistical analysis using SPSS 15 was conducted. Multiple regression analysis revealed the progressive importance of the drivers of employee engagement to sales professionals. A model is proposed which can be used by managers to streamline their initiatives towards creating a more engaged sales force.
466 A Study on Cutting Analysis upon Oblique Groove Processing by using an End Mill , Key-Sun Kim, Ok-Hwan Kim , Bum-Seok Oh and Chung-Sik Shin  
Background/Objectives: A representative tool end mill, and predictive studies on tool wear and tool life are in urgent need since the number of products requiring high-precision processing has being increasing recently. Method/Statistical Analysis: The workpiece had a size of 20mm in length, 20mm in width, and 5mm in thickness. For the tool with the outside diameter of 8mm, the radial rake angle of 5°, and the helix angle of 20°. Processing involved oblique processing at an angle of 5° so that the depth was increased as the transfer progressed. Revolution of the tool was 600RPM with the feed-rate being set at 100mm/min. Findings: Upon initial processing, plastic deformation can be seen to occur in a center part of the end mill also, as the depth was increased while almost no initial plasticity occurred in the center part. The maximum temperature occurs at the blade tip of tool edge part that was cut the deepest, and a high temperature of about 1334.5° C was produced. Therefore, work hardening is expected to occur upon processing due to such high temperature. After the formation of chips by processing flow, rapid cooling may be observed. While similar cutting forces for all of x, y, and z axes are acting initially, those for the x-axis and y-axis can be seen to be drastically increased in a vertical direction up to about 18kN after rotation by about 900°, despite the fact that almost no cutting force is applied. The reason is considered to be application of severe vertical loads so as to act as a compressive stress for the tool as the depth of the end mill is increased in oblique plane processing. Application/Improvements: Severe concentrated loads occurred at the blade tip of tool edge so that a shivering phenomenon was considered to occur. This result will be used as the basic data upon product processing.
467 Effect of CSR on Employee Engagement , Maryam Hanzala Tariq 
Smart business leaders believe that an active corporate social responsibility program is an asset when it comes to attracting top talent14 . Many leaders fail to understand that simply instituting a CSR program is not enough to retain the top talent. Today’s conscious employees demand corporate social responsibility programs that give them the opportunity to become personally engaged in making a difference at work. Research conducted by Cone Millennial Cause group, detailed in “The 2020 Workplace” found that 80% of a sample of 1,800 18-25 year olds wanted to work for a company that cares about how it impacts and contributes to society. Employee engagement is a well understood concept. There is agreement that employee engagement entails more than just motivation or performance. Common themes found in most definitions include a commitment to and belief in the organization and its values and a willingness and ability to contribute ‘discretionary effort’ to help the organization succeed. Various drivers of employee engagement have also been identified time and again by the researchers’ fraternity. Nowadays businesses have become more conscious towards their contribution to the society and the environment in which they operate. This paper takes into account Corporate Social Responsibility as a driver of employee engagement in an organization. The researcher attempts to review existing literature on the topic; and with the help of a structured questionnaire assess the relationship between CSR and employee engagement. Statistical tools have been used for analysing the data collected from respondents.
468 Vehicle Detection using Images taken by Low-Altitude Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) , Chang-Jin Seo  
Background/Objectives: This paper discusses the detection of vehicles in a dense area using low-altitude aerial images produced by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Vehicles in a dense area are difficult to detect accurately in images because of the narrow distance between parked vehicles. Methods/Statistical Analysis: This paper proposes a method that detects vehicles by applying a Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG) feature-extraction method to obtain information about vehicles found in images. Images used in the experiment were shot using a Phantom 3 Professional UAV developed by DJI Corp. Findings: Aerial images can be collected to measure traffic via a variety of methods. In recent years, studies on traffic volume using UAVs have been actively conducted. Until now, satellites, aircrafts, and helicopters have been used to obtain aerial images; however, the cost of such images is high, and these methods cannot respond to changes over time and weather in real time. As UAV technology has advanced in recent years, the methods of obtaining cost-effective and ultrahigh definition (UHD) aerial images have become available. The experimental results show the proposed approach can be used to detect vehicles that are densely packed in an area more effectively than the method using the conventional histogram of oriented gradients (HOG), which employs information about the brightness of images. Application/Improvements: In this paper, the detection of vehicles found in a densely packed area is performed using the HOG, which exhibits good adaptability to environmental changes.
469 Analysis of the Degree to which ICT use by College Students in Departments of Radiology has on their Learning , JungHoon Kim
Background/Objectives: As ICT has become more popular in the information society, radiology students have been increasing their use of IT devices in their studies. The purpose of this study was to analyze how much ICT use has been helping radiology students in Korea. Methods/Statistical Analysis: To accomplish the purpose of this study, a total of 650 college sophomores, juniors and seniors majoring in radiology were recruited through stratified sampling. The difference in awareness of the helpfulness of ICT use to their studies was then analyzed using one-way ANOVA (F-test) and χ2 , etc. Findings: The results showed that those students who are using ICT well received more benefit in class preparation, class activities and evaluation. In particular, ICT use proved to be helpful in improving their overall academic abilities. Among the range of class materials available, it was found that students preferred videos the most, followed by materials comprised of images and descriptions. Application/Improvements: There was also found a statistically significant difference in their preference depending on ICT use. It is necessary to help ensure that students can take advantage of a lot of ICT for their study
470 Transforming Banking through Telecom - An Approach.  , V. Ravi Kumar , Madhvi Sethi  and Dipali Krishnakumar 
India presently faces the challenge of achieving financial inclusion, with the banking system estimated to be covering only 400 million of India’s population of 1.2 billion. As per Reserve Bank of India (RBI) data, current users of the banking system are largely in urban areas. An important aspect of achieving financial inclusion is also to provide a means for cash management in a safe, effective and low-cost manner. The well-documented telecom boom in India with an estimated 900 million individual users provides a potential framework that could transform the banking system in India. This paper proposes a framework for mobile phone companies to offer payment services to start with, called “payment banks”. New technologies can reform the banking sector apart from giving a much needed impetus for the cause of financial inclusion and will be a large step forward in spreading banking services to millions of new clients in the under-banked regions of India. The need for a “Payment Bank” has been discussed in the NachiketMor Committee Report of the RBI. Our paper formulates a theoretical model for achieving financial Inclusion by leveraging advantages in technology in India and enabling select Telecom operators to offer rudimentary cash management services to start with before offering a bouquet of financial services products to the vast majority of India’s population who do not avail of the existing network of Banks. The paper suggests possible basic changes to enable this process apart from using existing infrastructure to enable wider dissemination of financial products. An impact analysis of these suggested changes are also discussed along with remedial measures.
471 The Changes of Middle School Students’ Perception and Achievement based on the Teaching Method in Physical Computing Education , Yun Jae Jang, Won Gyu Lee and Ja Mee Kim  
Background/Objectives: This study aims to identify effective teaching method in physical computing education for middle school students. Methods/Statistical Analysis: This study conducted a comparative analysis of middle school students’ perception and achievement between different teaching methods in physical computing education. Physical computing classes were provided for 30 hours, 49 students randomly participated in two classes. Findings: The results showed no statistically significant difference in perception and achievement between teaching methods. However, the results regarding the process of perception change suggest that there is a possibility that the problem-based inquiry method helps with gradual increase of class difficulty and improving class satisfaction. However, regarding learning basic concepts, the analysis results suggest that the direct teaching method is likely to be more helpful. Application/Improvements: In terms of future direction, ongoing efforts to find the teaching method that best fits the characteristics of physical computing education are needed.
472 Cyber Security Issues in Connected Vehicle of Intelligent Transport System , Jinkeun Hong  
Background/Objectives: Requirement for security and safety with interest and growth to C-ITS application is increased. It is needed to security threat issue and risk consideration in the connected vehicle environment. Methods/Statistical Analysis: For efficient communication assistance of connected vehicle, the understanding and access of WAVE mode such as CCH, SCH for multi channel and WSMP specification are preferred in control, communication and signal processing for cooperative intelligence transport system. In security risk assessment and debugging, it is applied to reviewing of source code, analysis and evaluating of compliance, fuzzing and conducting of vulnerability. Findings: Main objectives of this article are to see risk issue and cyber threats in connected vehicle of ITS. Understanding for issues of risk assessment such as debugging, fuzzing, real time application, evaluating of compliance, connectivity and computational performance are required. Also for build up security of ITS it should be established guideline of ITS security factors such as PKI, security architecture, cost and interoperable solution. Application/Improvements: The risk assessment and cyber threats are
473 Necessity and Expectation for an Identification Scheme in IoT Service: Cases in South Korea , Min-Seong Kang , Hyuk Im, Hyo-Jung Jun and Tae-Sung Kim  2016. Necessity and Expectation for an Identification Scheme in IoT Service: Cases in South Korea. Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Vol 9(24), DOI: 10.17485/ijst/2016/v9i24/96108  
Background/Objectives: Individual things should uniquely be identified internationally, so that IoT services can be realized. Thus, a ‘standardized, universal identification information system,’ which can uniquely identify individual things and entities, is needed. Methods/Statistical Analysis: This study investigated the status of the use of identification schemes by industrial sector and by service through a keyword search in order to understand the global status of the use of the identification schemes. In addition, for an empirical analysis of the use of identification schemes in South Korea, a survey on the present condition of use and management of identification schemes was conducted with the entire industry sectors. Findings: As a result of a survey on the status of the use and management of identification schemes by industrial area and service investigated, it was found that identification number systems used uniquely for each industry varied. There is no standardized identification scheme used dominantly, but entry of each identification scheme into the IoT environment will play an essential role in implementing IoT service in various fields, such as smart farm, smart city, smart manufacturing, smart building, smart transportation, smart medical care, etc. Services and products in the initial stage of IoT currently implemented are themselves serving as a unique identifier or use a smart sticker or local area communication technology. In terms of technology, they are based on technologies centered on sensing and network rather than technologies about identification scheme. Application/Improvements: Not all IoT services must use an identification scheme in the future, an analysis of demands for identification schemes should precede, and based on this, a cost-benefit analysis is needed.
474 A High Temperature Measuring Device Development for Die Casting Molten Metal Deposition , Yong-Ho Kim and Hong-Sang Yoon  
Background/Objectives: International market competitive power but also to expect importing substitution effect. Methods/Statistical Analysis: A temperature measuring device connected to a R-type thermocouple (temperature range 0℃ to 1,700℃) displays detected temperature using Flexible Number Display (FND). The device not only can use an external power employing an external adapter (9Vdc constant voltage, 400mA) but also can be operated by a built-in battery (four AA size, 1.2Vdc). Findings: A high temperature measuring device for die casting molten metal deposition is designed a firm-ware in this study by adapting Marvel Cinematic Universe (MCU) that is the core part of operation control using Cortex-40. For the purpose of targeted corporate clients domestic or abroad, the device using Cortex-M0 as a MCU is designed with the capability of measuring temperature having an accuracy range ±1℃ between 400℃ and 1700℃ within 6 minutes. This makes it possible for customers to purchase at lower cost. A measuring error must be necessary to reduce within ±1℃ when measured high temperature (400℃ ~ 1700℃). Also the additional function of measuring temperature ranging from a communication functional circuit, a detecting function for the short circuit and remov
475 Efficient Search for Data with Numerical and Categorical Attributes Based on Dual Locality-Sensitive Hashing , Kyung Mi Lee and Keon Myung Lee  
Background/Objectives: Similarity search is a fundamental task in many domains. For large volumes of data, it is sometimes preferable to obtain approximate results instead of pursuing exact results that require long computation times. Methods/Statistical Analysis: The proposed method expresses a query using a fuzzy ball for the numerical data space and a conjunction of ground or general terms for categorical domains. It exploits a dual locality-sensitive hashing technique that constructs separate locality-sensitive hashing tables for the numerical and categorical data spaces. It determines buckets for a query by considering the relative distances of the numerical part of the query to the subspace boundaries and using concept hierarchies for the categorical attributes. It may also use a Bloom filter to select the candidate data set to be examined from among the determined buckets. Findings: The proposed approximate search technique was applied to two data sets. The portions of data to be examined were 0.02712% and 0.00084% for the first and the second data set. The average numbers of numerical buckets examined were 1.42 and 2.53 for the data sets, respectively. The figures mean that the proposed method significantly reduces the number of candidates to be considered and hence saves greatly computation cost. In addition, the proposed method is unique that it can be applied to data set with both numerical and categorical attributes. Improvements/Applications: The proposed locality-sensitive hashing method can be applied to approximate search tasks for large volume of data containing both numerical and categorical attributes.
476 Impact of Age and Income over Green Consumer Behavior , Surya Rashmi Rawat 
Past 12 years rank among the warmest years in surface temperature since 1850. The Carbon dioxide concentration is increasing, snow cover is decreasing, glaciers are melting, sea level is increasing and average Arctic temperature is also increasing.Scientists attribute this environmental debacle to humans. Some researchers believe that going green could be an answer to handle this environmental holocaust to some extent. But the question is, ‘are we prepared for it?’ Through this paper an attempt has been made to answer these questions. The author has attempted to study the impact if any, of the age and income over the green buyer behavior.The research is based on both primary as well as secondary data. The Primary data was collected from the city of Pune, India, through a questionnaire survey conducted over a sample of 378 people belonging to different Age and Income groups. Towards the end, the researcher discovered that Age and Income have an impact over the green buyer behavior. The author also arrived at specific formulae exhibiting this relationship.
477 An Evaluation Model for Private Information Security Education Programs in South Korea , Taek-Young Kim , Sung-Kyu Park , Hyo-Jung Jun and Tae-Sung Kim  
Background/Objectives: In order to strengthen security from intelligent attacks and new security issues, for this is reason, it is necessary to systemize educational courses to raise professional information security workforce. Methods/Statistical Analysis: To develop evaluation criteria for educational courses on information security, this study formed an advising council with 7 experts. After constructing evaluation criteria, in order to calculate weights for each evaluation criterion, we conducted a questionnaire survey on professionals of information security education using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). Findings: This study constructed AHP model based on (items of) evaluation criteria drawn out through literature review and experts' verification. The 1st level of the AHP hierarchy is composed of goal of the model, the 2nd level is composed of 4 higher standards and the 3rd level is composed of 14 lower standards. Finally, we draw out 4 evaluation criteria and 14 sub criteria and score for evaluate information security educational courses in private sector. Application/ Improvements: This study intends to verify, modify and comp
478  Transforming Telecom Business: Scaling the Shift using Predictive Analytics , Joshi Sujata , G.S.Jayendran and Dalal Rohit 
The telecom industry is phasing towards a business model which is more data centric, as the industry sees a decline in its legacy services. As a result of this shift, the legacy metrics and KPIs which were once used to scale and understand respectively the performance ofthe industry need to evolve as per needs ofthe new environmentto provide a more accurate picture of the industry as it undergoes a business transformation. As a result of shift from voice to data there is a change in the business trends in the telecom industry which in turn necessitates the need for new Key Perfomance Indicators to measure the performance of the telecom industry. So the objective of the paper is to study the changes happening in the telecom industry due to the shift of voice from data and the effect of this shift on the telecom business trends. The paper attempts to come up with new key performance indicators which will help the telecom managers’ scale the usage and revenue generated by data services more accurately.
479 The Effect of Robot Programming Education on Attitudes towards Robots , Seong-won Kim and Youngjun Lee  
Abstract Background/Objectives: How robot programming education affects the attitude of pre-service teachers toward robots was analyzed, along with how pre-service teachers appreciate robot programming classes. Methods/Statistical Analysis: In this research, the Negative Attitude toward Robots Scale of Nomura et al. was used as a test tool. Research subjects were divided into an experimental group taking robot programming education and a control group taking ordinary classes. Both groups took a test to indicate their attitudes toward robots before and after the experiment; the experimental group also took a test asking their appreciation of robot programming education. Each group’s test results were analyzed using paired t-tests and independent t-tests. The attitude toward robot programming education was analyzed through frequency analysis. Findings: Before the experiment, the groups’ results did not show statistically significant differences; however, after the experiment, they did. Comparing pre- and post-testing of each group, the control group showed no significant difference; however, the experimental group showed significant difference. This implied that robot programming education affected pre-service teachers’ attitudes toward robots, especially in a positive way. When asked their attitude toward robots, pre-service teachers answered that programming education promoted more interest in robots because they could make and realized with their own hand; however, the design and the assembly of robot would be negative. Pre-existing research had only studied attitudes toward robots and compared them by countries or investigated effect elements. This research focused on not only the attitude of pre-service teachers toward robots but also elements that could improve those attitudes. In follow-up studies, researchers could attempt to solve the imbalance of research subjects and add the group taking programming classes. Application/Improvements: The result of this study could be used for the development of robot education programs and basic material for the training of teachers
480 Financial Structure, Household Preference, and Enterprise Risk The Micro-Foundation Study of Monetary Policy Effect in China. , Haoyuan Li 
The household’s preference about investment and consumption influences the effect of monetary policy. Using the research methodology of DSGE (Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium) model, this article focuses on the analysis about how the change of household preference and enterprise risk does impact on the effect of monetary policy, in the background of Chinese current financial structure. In conclusion, firstly, the household preferences of consumption and leisure impacts economics in different directions, while the consumption preference does have more direct and powerful influence than the latter. Secondly, the amount of informal financing has more capacity to influence Chinese economy aggregate, with a multiplier effect of approximately 3.3. Lastly, in the time of economic crisis, the effect of monetary policy on financial market is limited and might be in vain.
481 City-Logging System Design for Conversion City Information Service , Yong-Ho Kim , Gul-Won Bang, Bong-Seok Kim , Hyeong-Gyun Kim  
Background/Objectives: The currently operating system of city information is not working smoothly due to not only the utilizing problem of existing infra but also the irrationality of separated operation for each service, but also the lack of providing service that is integrated with various information. To address these problems, this paper proposes a City-logging system. Findings: This study suggests the system of City-logging that is providing a convergence service of city information for the purpose of solving the above mentioned problem. The suggested system is to provide the information such as a traffic census, a police control of illegal parking and stopping, and the monitoring of air pollution. Improvements/Applications: After analysis of collected data from the mobile monitoring equipment, as the service is provided, the security network for the purpose of improving accuracy and safety of information is built and data is encrypted to deal with privacy. The proposed system will be realized and the efficient operating method of city information service will be suggested after this.
482 Data Analytics for Rural Development , Anu Peisker  and Soumya Dalai 
The impact of big data is enormous virtually in every business sector. The usage so far has been more focused on the e-commerce and marketing sectors. But the wide reach of big data can provide much more innovative, profitable and yet beneficial solutions for many perennial problems faced by different sectors.RuralIndia plays a vital role in economic growth of the country through agriculture, self-employment, construction, services, etc. The developments in telecommunication sector provide suitable platform for applying data analytics in rural India. The focus of the Government to build digital India through broadband highways connecting every household, village, panchayat, Government department will generate huge amount of data which can be analysed to provide solution to the never ending problems of rural India and to create smarter villages. This paper provides conceptual framework for the application of data analytics in enhancing rural development by supporting different sectors such as agriculture, banking, governance and healthcare.
483 A Privacy-Preserving System based on FormatPreserving Encryption in Mobile Healthcare Environments , Kim Hyung-Uk, Kim Mansik, Chung Hyunsoo and Moon-Seog Jun 
Background/Objectives: The healthcare industry has been greatly grown based on the system such as EMR and HER. The objective is to prevent the privacy invasion in mobile EMR and HER healthcare environments. Methods: Token system is suggested to prevent the information used in healthcare mobile devices and it communicates with each mobile phone which operates as gateway as well as EHR and EMR. Findings: In this paper, healthcare device information token system is suggested based on the Format-Preserving Encryption (FPE) in the mobile healthcare environment for preventing personal information from being infringed while preserving availability in order to solve an aforementioned issue. Application/ Improvements: Format-Preserving Encryption techniques have applications in Fintech, EMR, HER, bank, and credit card company
484 A Study on Patent Valuation Important Factors: Focus on China Industry , Kim Young-Ki, Lee Seung-Jun and Park Seong-Taek  
Background/Objectives: This study drew six important elements from the valuation models presented in the preceding research and technology value valuation institutions through an expert survey. In addition, an analysis was conducted on the differences in the important elements of patent valuation by each product group using the AHP method. Methods/ Statistical Analysis: As general methods widely used to evaluate patents, there are various methods, such as scoring method, expert screening, Delphi method and AHP; and this study will use AHP. In this study, analysis was conducted using Expert Choice 2000 and consistency percentage of respondents were also verified. It was found that all are suitable for the reference. Additionally, importance was derived using the arithmetic average of 10 comments of the surveyed population. Findings: The present study deducted important elements from the patent value assessment elements proposed in preceding studies by conducting a Delphi survey targeting experts. Therefore, patent valuation key factors were derived from 10 practitioners of Chinese companies and the significance of the derived factors was analysed. It appears that the technology aspect is more important than business value. The relative importance between lower standards compared to upper standards shows that technological application and expandability is no.1 with 39.5%, followed by technological uniqueness at no.2 with 29.5% and technological independence at no.3 with 29.5%. Application/Improvements: The present study includes the fact that the conclusively selected important factors of the patent value assessment help corporate
485 Automated Control System for Circulating Bathtub of Floating Salt Water , Gul-Won Bang and Young-Ho Kim 
Background/Objectives: The purpose of this study is to control the constant salinity of floating salt water due to the problem of that the increased salinity as time passed causes strong skin stimulation because a medical bathtub system for float spa is required to sustain constant temperature. Methods/Statistical Analysis: The measuring method of salinity is to detect gravity. A basic gravity of floating salt water is 1.2 with 31% (brix) of a salinity and applied detecting method to find that the gravity becomes 1.4 with 33% (brix) of salinity. A buoy is submerged when the gravity becomes 1.2. Meanwhile, when the gravity becomes 1.4, a buoy attached magnetic is floated to upper part of tube where is attached a reed switch using the principle of floating of buoy, the reed switch makes short circuit to control the salinity. Findings: This salinity sensor to control its concentration is attached in the bathtub of floating salt water. It is possible to provide a low salinity of floating salt water for an operating supply pump of floating salt water after detecting signal from the salinity sensor. Improvements/Applications: An average user who has a delicate skin condition appealed severe skin stimulation after using the existing bathtub of floating salt water as time passed. But people who used the bathtub adapted the control device has no skin problems as time passed.
486 Improving Efficiency of Data Centres in India: A Review.  , Avinash Aslekar and Pramod Damle 
In the past decade, India has witnessed an exponential increase in the demand for digital storage, from 1 petabyte in 2001 to more than 34 petabytes by 2007. They also continue to grow at a compounded rate of 25-30%. Datacenter growth is driven by increasing requirements from the sectors such as financial institutions, telecom operators, manufacturing and services. While large financial institutions and telecom companies are likely to build captive Datacenters for hosting their growing data storage needs, Datacenter service providers are expected to invest significantly to multiply their capacities, so as to fulfill the demand arising from small and midsize users. Datacenter is highly energy intensive. With the increasing energy cost, the increase in operational cost is inevitable. Therefore it becomes necessary to reduce the energy consumption to offset the increasing operational cost and to maintain competitiveness. Hence the Datacenters in India need to incorporate innovative designs for energy efficiency and embrace the concept of “Green IT” for sustained growth. Existing Datacenters need to adopt the best practices in design, operation and maintenance to achieve operational excellence. New datacenters have to adopt the energy efficiency measures by design. The objective of this paper l is to identify the best practices followed in Indian Datacenters as well as provide guidelines on incorporating energy efficiency aspects at design stage for new datacenter. Design/methodology/approach – Conducting research exploring secondary data and web based resources including white papers, consolidating research articles, industrial and technological hypothecation.
487 Designing of Efficient Technique Blocking Abnormal Packets through Correlation Analysis in the Healthcare Environment , Seung-Han Lee , Minjin Kim , Hyunsoo Chung , Seungmin Yang  
Background/Objectives: The development of IT medical technology has formed the environment where the effective management and analysis of medical information. Methods/Statistical Analysis: We must explore the ways to secure the security measures because the leak of personal medical information will cause a great risk of leading to the exposure of personal information. In this paper, as a way to defend against malicious attacks in the smart medical environment where the electronic medical devices and wired and wireless networks are combine. Findings: It is aimed to design an abnormal packet screening techniques through correlation analysis of abnormal conducts in the medical security gateway so that it can be safe from server attacks, medical information interception, any counterfeit and falsification thereof. Application/ Improvements: It is expected to be utilized in a wide variety of platforms and infrastructure as an essential function enable to respond to threats in future medical security gateway
488 Digital Marketing and Wordpress , Semila Fernandes and A. Vidyasagar 
DigitalMarketing–definedMichaelPorterhas said:Thekeyquestionisnotwhether todeployDigitalTechnology–companies have no choice if they want to stay competitive – but how to deploy it. Digital marketing describes the management and execution of marketing using electronic media such as the web, e-mail, interactive TV and wireless media in conjunction with digital data about customers’ characteristics and behavior. Mass customization is a necessity today and hence digital marketing is yet another channel that provides touch points for improved customer relations. Digital marketing is one effective way to address this necessity with various touchpoints/sub-channels like FaceBook, LinkedIn, Blogs, Twitter, and the website itself. In modern parlance, it has now been accepted that customers are exposed to 3 screens: 1st Screen: Television, 2nd Screen: Computer Monitor, 3rd Screen: The Mobile Handset. Does that mean that we have to create content for each of them separately? Fortunately, with the advent of strong CMS like WordPress, this duplication of work is now a thing of the past. Atleast, the last two screens are clearly addressed by the responsive themes of WordPress. Today there are a few smart TVs in the market that can connect to the web and there are no issues with WordPress delivered content. Methodology: The first study of the paper would analyze the role of WordPress and its advantages. The second study would highlight on the study of SEO plugins and its importance while using WordPress. The third study would focus on whether WordPress as a standalone system can address the CMS and how “plugins” can enhance its application and usability. The above studies would be dealt using secondary research data like research papers, journals and websites. Conclusions: Currently, DD India covers over 92% of the population. But the penetration of TVs has not kept in tune with this. On the flipside, TVs are viewed in groups. Given that DD India was established in 1959, it has been over 65 years before this could be achieved. The internet launched in mid 90s has 243 million internet users in the country to people who use computers and laptops.(8) What is astounding is that smart phones which came in several years later today has already achieved a penetration near to 50% both in rural and urban areas of India. Given this trend, it is only a matter of time that Mobile penetration exceeds that of Doordarshan – The 1st Screen. What is more relevant is that each Mobile is a personal product of an individual unlike the other two screens.
489 A Study on Birth Prediction and BCG Vaccine Demand Prediction using ARIMA Analysis , Keun-Won Kim , Guozhong  , Seong-Taek Park and Mi-Hyun Ko  
Background/Objectives: This study was conducted to solve the problem by predicting vaccine demand in advance through analysis of progress of birth of newborn babies in our country. Methods/Statistical Analysis: The deducted problem was defined and information, data, and use analysis method and planning procedures for creating alternatives for this issue were conducted. Afterwards, R which is an open source analysis tool was used to analysis and for visualization. In this analysis, a time series model (ARIMA model, Box-Jenkins methodology) was used to predict demand and perform the research to predict the number of births in Republic of Korea. Findings: The tuberculosis vaccines in Korea are currently being entirely of imported ones. However, the import volume often lacks meeting the demand. In this paper, research was performed to predict the demand of tuberculosis vaccines to secure vaccine stock. As result of analysis, the number of births next year was predicted to be 445,558 (in 2016). Also, analyzed results showed that approximately 388,251 to 502,864 babies will be born in reliability level of 85% and that approximately 357,915 to 533,200 babies will be born in reliability level of 95%. Vaccine should be prepared standard to the minimum value within error range because vaccines have expiration dates. Also, if more births occur than the predicted result, the issue can be coped in prior plans of preparing BCG seal-type vaccines by comparing with monthly predicted number of births. Application/Improvements: The results of this study will be applied to the ways to politically solve problems such as supply and demand of BCG vaccine for the expected newborns.
490  Where Indian Pharma Corporates Stand – Study With Reference To Corporate Governance Practices and CSR , Mita Mehta and Arti Chandani 
Good governance entails responsibility and due regard to the expectations of all stakeholders (Kendall, 1999); not a single corporate can evaluated on the basis of economic parameters only which is profit, but they are also to be judged by their social and economic contributions. CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility) has become buzz not in India but also in all over the world. After announcement of New Companies Act 2013, in most of the corporate and business debate it has become topic of discussion. No doubt that importance of CSR emerged ominously in last few years; Indian corporate sector has also witnessed the shift from philanthropic CSR to dedicated CSR activities5. CSR and Corporate Governance issues are now not limited to Board room but it is a tool to evaluate the strategic significance of corporate contribution towards inclusive growth. Companies have become more translucent and attentive towards their CSR goals and reporting of the same. This paper seeks to explore the trends in CSR practices among top five Indian pharma and healthcare listed companies. Here attempt has been made to draw the findings of whether companies engaging themselves in good CSR practices as per regulators guidelines are better at the performance and growth or there is no correlation between these two variables. Authors have theoretically understood the concept and trends at international and National level with the help of literature review and then researchers have made the empirical study of top Indian corporate houses by studying their CSR data of last five years. Research topic is bit exhaustive, that is why Researchers have used tables to conclude the research.
491  Strategic HR for Sustainable Business in Technology Driven 21st C.  , Pradnya V. Chitrao 
The 21st C is characterized by radical technological, economic, and social changes. Full development and diffusion of the earlier century innovations has been reflected in mass production techniques, consumption patterns, and the style of functioning of the government. Improved information has enabled the affordability of technology for the common man. Information technology has broughtin automated knowledge work tools, advanced robotics, and 3Dprinting.It has enabled people to work from home thereby ensuring freedom of choice as to where and how they live and work. Various changes including economic ones are pushing organizations to re-evaluate the way they do business and to evolve alternative approaches to work. Flexible work timings and advanced telecommunication that includes conference calling, video conferencing and on line data transfer are some of the 21st C work practices that obviate the need for physical travel and inter alia, counter factors like steep increase in fuel prices. It is also forecast that the Gen Y generation emphasis on work life balance will strategically impact the workplace in the near future. It is also foreseen that increasingly sophisticated Information Technology tools and IT enabled progressive business processes will lead to production processes that are less wasteful, error free in a much higher degree and in turn deliver products that are more sustainable environmentally. On the other hand, on a more ominous note, the shape of the new things has the potential to seriously impact the already fragile demographic equilibrium of the world, if effective countermeasures are not put in place by the business leaders and policy makers. The demographics of the new workforce, the changes in how people will conduct business along with what that “business” will look like, and the impact technology will have on both will have a major impact on the role of business, the nature of work, the way work is accomplished and the human resources (HR) organization itself. Culturally diverse work forces also will need to be trained to be sensitive to each other’s needs and to work as a team towards fulfilment of organization’s goals.
492 A Study for the Reproducibility of Detachable Coil used in Cerebral Aneurysm Coil Embolization , Lim Sang-Wook and Lim Cheong-Hwan
Background/Objectives: In this study, the outer diameter of the detachable coil used for cerebral aneurysm coil embolization was evaluated objectively through quantitative analysis. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Out of the helical shape coils from three companies that had failed coil embolization from January 2012 to May 2015, the outer diameter of 120 coils (20 from each company) with the diameter of 1.5 mm, and 2.0 mm were measured with an optical microscope and compared with the outer diameter of the coil before insertion. Findings: For the coils from all three companies, there were not any significant changes for the outer diameter after keeping the coils in a water bath at 37℃ for 10 and 20 minutes, respectively. For the 1.5 mm sized coils, the average outer diameters before insertion were 1,860μm for coils from company S, 1,530μm for C and 1,554μm for M. Similarly, for the 2.0 mm sized coils, the averages were 2,372μm for company S, 2,038μm for C, and 2,056μm for M, which were larger than the sizes proposed by the companies. After failure, the average changes in outer diameter were 2,074μm for company S, 1,535μm for C and 1,558μm for M measured for the 1.5 mm sized coils, and 2,581μm for company S, 2,043μm for C, and 2,062μm for M among the 2.0 mm sized size coils. The change in the average was the largest for coils from company S, which showed a statistical significance (p<0.05). Also, the shorter the length of a given coil, the smaller the changes seen in the diameter. Application/ Improvements: The coils from companies C and M maintained reproducibility; that is, they maintained the original shape after the insertion failure, and did not show significant changes in the outer diameter.
493 A Study for the Reproducibility of Detachable Coil used in Cerebral Aneurysm Coil Embolization , Lim Sang-Wook and Lim Cheong-Hwan   
Background/Objectives: In this study, the outer diameter of the detachable coil used for cerebral aneurysm coil embolization was evaluated objectively through quantitative analysis. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Out of the helical shape coils from three companies that had failed coil embolization from January 2012 to May 2015, the outer diameter of 120 coils (20 from each company) with the diameter of 1.5 mm, and 2.0 mm were measured with an optical microscope and compared with the outer diameter of the coil before insertion. Findings: For the coils from all three companies, there were not any significant changes for the outer diameter after keeping the coils in a water bath at 37℃ for 10 and 20 minutes, respectively. For the 1.5 mm sized coils, the average outer diameters before insertion were 1,860μm for coils from company S, 1,530μm for C and 1,554μm for M. Similarly, for the 2.0 mm sized coils, the averages were 2,372μm for company S, 2,038μm for C, and 2,056μm for M, which were larger than the sizes proposed by the companies. After failure, the average changes in outer diameter were 2,074μm for company S, 1,535μm for C and 1,558μm for M measured for the 1.5 mm sized coils, and 2,581μm for company S, 2,043μm for C, and 2,062μm for M among the 2.0 mm sized size coils. The change in the average was the largest for coils from company S, which showed a statistical significance (p<0.05). Also, the shorter the length of a given coil, the smaller the changes seen in the diameter. Application/ Improvements: The coils from companies C and M maintained reproducibility; that is, they maintained the original shape after the insertion failure, and did not show significant changes in the outer diameter.
494 Conceptual Paper on Factors Affecting the Attitude of Senior Citizens towards Purchase of Smartphones , Joshi Sujata, Arindom Roy, Dikshit Thakkar, Anish Banik, Gagan Deep Arora and Pallav Parashar 
Smartphones have gained huge popularity globally among the youth and its distinct advantages and improved features ensure that smartphones are here to stay in the market for a considerable amount of time. However there is still an opportunity lying for the smartphone industry to capitalize on the senior citizens segment. This research paper endeavors to understand the expectations of the senior citizens from phones and how these expectations influence their intention towards smartphone purchase. This paper proposes a conceptual framework mapping the various factors that affect senior citizens to the extent to which these factors influence people while making a purchase decision.
495 Conceptual Paper on Factors Affecting the Attitude of Senior Citizens towards Purchase of Smartphones , Joshi Sujata, Arindom Roy, Dikshit Thakkar, Anish Banik, Gagan Deep Arora and Pallav Parashar 
Smartphones have gained huge popularity globally among the youth and its distinct advantages and improved features ensure that smartphones are here to stay in the market for a considerable amount of time. However there is still an opportunity lying for the smartphone industry to capitalize on the senior citizens segment. This research paper endeavors to understand the expectations of the senior citizens from phones and how these expectations influence their intention towards smartphone purchase. This paper proposes a conceptual framework mapping the various factors that affect senior citizens to the extent to which these factors influence people while making a purchase decision.
496 Conceptual Paper on Factors Affecting the Attitude of Senior Citizens towards Purchase of Smartphones , Joshi Sujata, Arindom Roy, Dikshit Thakkar, Anish Banik, Gagan Deep Arora and Pallav Parashar 
Smartphones have gained huge popularity globally among the youth and its distinct advantages and improved features ensure that smartphones are here to stay in the market for a considerable amount of time. However there is still an opportunity lying for the smartphone industry to capitalize on the senior citizens segment. This research paper endeavors to understand the expectations of the senior citizens from phones and how these expectations influence their intention towards smartphone purchase. This paper proposes a conceptual framework mapping the various factors that affect senior citizens to the extent to which these factors influence people while making a purchase decision.
497 A Study on Patient Gown in Digital Radiography Examination , Ji-Hoon Choi, Lim Cheong-Hwan and Huang Yuxin   
Background/Objectives:The image quality was degraded due to the image noise in accordance with the performance improvement of diagnostic DR system. This study aims to present and recommend the effect on an image when hospitalized patients undergo the examination without wearing an examination gown in the chest PA test using radiography. Methods/Statistical Analysis: The experiment in this study was conducted by using the DR system of DK Company. In regard to the comparison experiment between the patient gown and the examination gown, Thorax Phantom was utilized. The Phantom specification is RS-111. The image was obtained by utilizing AEC by varying the dose (mAs) and tube voltage (kVp) while putting both the patient gown and the examination gown on the phantom. Then, the gray value of the obtained image was measured based on the 7 points that were to measure the density at the Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association through the Image J program. Findings: In the case of descriptive statistics, it was found that there was only a small number of the factors that inhibited the quality of an image because the examination gown was closer to the mean value of phantom than the patient gown on the basis of the phantom. As for the analysis in relation to the measurement area, there was a significant difference at the 2 point spot and the 7 point spot in relation to the patient gown and examination gown of phantom in accordance with the tube voltage. As for the correlation analysis, there was a significant difference between the phantom, the patient gown and the examination gown. Hence, there was a relationship between these three groups. The most influencing factor of the DR development is the patient gown or the examination gown. Application/Improvements: It is believed that it would be possible to enhance the quality of an image by conducting an examination with the examination gown and comparing it with the patient gown in the radiography lab.
498 How Social Media Gives You Competitive Advantage. , M. L. Singla and Apoorv Durga 
The world over, it is being recognized that the Gen-Y of the workforce is different from the earlier generation of workers. The younger employees are more technology savvy and carry over their expectations of the social media world to their work places. However, the best way to organize and benefit from this trend is still evolving and we are learning as we go along. On the one hand, there are a lot of expectations and on the other hand, there are many examples of failed social media initiatives. There is a lack of structured frameworks and vast majority of executives have no idea of how to analyze social media. In this article, we will explore how to systematically analyze social media in the context of Competitive Advantage as proposed by Porter in his 1985 work6. This will provide a basis to develop a framework with which to analyze and implement social media.
499 Decision Making Process for B2C Model Using Behavior Analysis with Big Data Technologies , K. Kannan and K. Raja  
Objectives: Business to Consumer (B2C) E-Commerce activities are developed with a large number through agent-based systems. Case Based Reasoning (CBR) has been applied in these systems by analyzing the consumer buying behavior to provide consumers, a support to the decision making process. Analysis: Current applications of CBR to E-Commerce are limited to fixed, unchangeable products. To make the environment support for configurable products, an interactive operator based customization approach from CBR can be applied. Findings: In this work, to make the process more reliable and efficient, real time data from provisional stores has been taken and the system is trained to predict the consumer buying behavior along with CBR to pave way for a consumer to make a better decision making process. Applications/ Improvements: This work also applies big data concepts in predicting the behavior of the consumers. It thereby also led the customers to mine about their preferences in purchasing necessary products.
500 Analysing Software Metrics for Accurate Dynamic Defect Prediction Models , Shilpee Chamoli  , Gil Tenne and Sanjay Bhatia 
Defect Prediction Models are widely used in many software products. These estimates help assessing the risks of defect leakage objectively. However, Most of the published Defect prediction models do not necessarily fit in providing estimates for large complex telecom billing solutions. We have tried to analyze the accuracy of the Prediction model based on various software metrics. It is important to understand the relation between different software metrics for accurate software defect prediction. The Telecom Billing solutions have complex applications, configurations, size and parameters. We have tried to correctly identify the Software Metrics that affect the accuracy of the software Defect prediction models. This paper presents an evaluation; software metrics are investigated in order to identify the ones which significantly impact the accuracy of defects prediction models. We found that Historical Defect Density, Removal rates can help in accurate Defect prediction. Data from various projects is collected and analyzed. The prediction of the models, with and without metrics is compared. To access whether the improvements are significant or not, analysis on the accuracy of the Defect prediction is done. It was found that metrics such as Defect Density, Removal rates, trend of absolute number of defects along with Effort for a particular application, significantly affects the accuracy of a Defect prediction tool. Also behavior of one application may or may not be similar to another application. Thus, to have an accurate prediction, we should attempt at avoiding generalization.
501 The Internet Finance in China: The Living Space and the Regulations , An J., Zhao B., Li J. and Wang W. 
This paper focus on the internet finance in China. A recent new trend in financial area shows that a high-interest Web banking on the rise in China. When everyone is pleased, Chinese regulators say they are considering new rules to govern the sector. This paper discusses that if it needs the supervision for the Web banking and the internet company who has a foot into financial field? If needed, How and what rules it needed? Paper pay attention to the characters of Public Finance and Shortage make-up by the internet companies using the historical data and comparative analytical method. This paper bring forward the rules from the space for survival and development of internet companies according to their targeting segment that national banks don’t look at.
502 Contribution of Telecom Sector to Growth of Indian Service Sector: An Empirical Study.  , Rekha Acharya and Ranjana Patel  
Service sector plays a vital role in boosting an economy thus it is important to understand the role and contribution of service sector to the growth of economy. For more than a decade the sector has been pulling up the growth of Indian economy with great stability. The share of services in India’s GDP at factor cost (at current prices) increased from 33.3% (1950-1951) to 56.5% in 2012-13. The services performance of the top 15 countries for the 11 year period from 2001 to 2011 shows that the increase in share of services in GDP is the highest for India with 8.1 percentage points. Thus, the present paper is an attempt to examine the trend of growth of exports, imports of telecomm sector and its impact on the growth of telecom sector with the help of regression model.
503 Form-Finding of Tensegrity Structures based on Force Density Method , Aparna Harichandran  and I. Yamini Sreevalli  
Background/Objectives: Determining equilibrium configuration of a tensegrity structure is known as form-finding. This paper critically reviews various form-finding techniques based on force density method. Methods/ Statistical Analysis: The most appropriate method out of all the form-finding methods, to ascertain new formation of tensegrity structures is Force density method. The techniques based on Force density method such as Advanced form-finding method, Adaptive force density method, Form-finding via Genetic algorithm and Algebraic tensegrity form-finding are reviewed in detail along with scope, limitation and suitability of each method. Findings: This paper lists out the input and output parameters of each technique and comparing the effectiveness of each. Most of these methods require only type of the member (tension or compression) and topology of the tensegrity structure provided by connectivity matrix as initial parameters. Formfinding of regular shaped structures such as cable domes is best performed by Advanced form-finding method. Adaptive form-finding method is found to be efficient for irregular shaped structures and also to search novel configurations. Formfinding by means of genetic algorithm provides solutions for regular shaped tensegrity structures. Algebraic method is found to be highly efficient and automated general method among all the form-finding methods discussed in this paper. A structure’s evolving geometry can be better regulated by this method. Applications/ Improvements: This paper presents the techniques which require minimum initial parameters for form-finding of tensegrity structures which also helps in choice of methods based on known parameters of the structure.
504 The Human Resource Issues and their Impact on Firm Growth in Small e-businesses in China.  , Tingting Lang and Bhumika Gupta 
This paper studies the human resource issues in small e-businesses in China through questionnaire survey about online shoppers and current employees in e-commerce companies, interviews with human resource managers who are now working in successful e-commerce firms and thosewho haveworked before in the broken e-businesswebsites.E-businesses inevitably confront with the human resource dilemma, especially when they rely on high-quality service for differentiation. In order to deliver infinite scalability,these firms need to reduce their dependence on human resource.However insufficient human resource investment impedes the firm growth. Analyzing how these issues impede the firm growth, by developing the case study of comparing two Chinese B2C websites, Jindong, one of the leading B2C websites, and Vipshop, one of the small e-businesses struggling to “tip” in the market, recommendations are given to small e-businesses to improve their human resource and promote the firm growth.
505 Crowd Funding as a Tool of Business Transformation to Micro Enterprises in India - A Conceptual Framework.  , A. V. Chirputkar, Saurabh Saxena and Juhi Tarkas 
India has seen the development of the capital market since its globalisation and liberalisation policies which took place in 1992. The Government introduced various reforms in the capital market to give boost to economy. It has recently introduced a few changes which helped MSMEs to raise funds from the capital market. These reforms specially include dedicated stock exchange for SMEs and another step is towards Crowd Funding. Crowd funding provides a channel for SMEs to raise funds through capital market. The crowd funding is still at a consultation stage for SMEs. This paper proposed to study the framework and its applicability for micro-enterprises. Crowd funding is used with the help of extending small amounts by large number of investors on online platform/social media. There are various models of crowd funding. We propose a model of crowd funding along with its financial evaluation for Micro Enterprises.
506 FDI and Export: The Monetary and Financial Dilemma in China , AN Jia , LI Jing and WANG Wanru 
This paper focuses on the Monetary and Financial Dilemma in China recently. As is known to all, the FDI (Foreign Direct Investment) has a significant effect on the economic development of this country in China. The increase of FDI and the export by foreign funded enterprises not only lead to a double surplus of balance of payments, but also speed up the growth of china’s foreign exchange reserves which leads a change on the monetary base in this country, and eventually impact on monetary and financial condition. Paper based on the monthly data from 2001 to 2014 including China’s FDI and export by foreign funded enterprises and money supply. Firstly, test the causality among FDI and FDI export and the money supply used the Granger Causality Tests. Secondly, build two functions of pulling rate and contribution rate. The results of Granger Causality Tests have proved that FDI and FDI export is the granger cause of money supply. FDI and FDI export make a significant contribution to China’s money supply and it is one of the factors that lead to monetary and financial condition changed with a dilemma.
507 A Study on Progressive Collapse Behavior of Steel Structures Subjected to Fire Loads , C. R. Chidambaram , Jainam Shah, A. Sai Kumar and K. Karthikeyan   
Progressive collapse is one of the main reasons for the failure of structure. It occurs due to removal/ damage of a column or a shear wall by fire, blast or vehicle impact. In this study, aG+7 moment resisting steel frame residential building was analysed using ETABS to predict the sensitivity of the structure to progressive collapse due to fire loads. Columns at different levels were given a temperature of 550̊ C with reduced material properties and yield strength as per code IS 800. Progressive collapse load combination was adoptedas per GSA guidelines. Corner, edge, intermediate and re-entrant columns were removed separately at alternate storeys. The lower storeys were found to be more susceptible than the upper storeys. The structure may be redesigned to avoid progressive collapse, with a significant increase in steel consumption. This study can be useful for important structures..
508 Impact of Over the Top (OTT) Services on Telecom Service Providers , Joshi Sujata , Sarkar Sohag , Dewan Tanu , Dharmani Chintan , Purohit Shubham and Gandhi Sumit 
The telecom industry has been one that has had to deal with a continuously changing business and technology environment more than most other industries over the past half century. Traditionally the principal revenue streams for telecom operators have been voice and messaging (SMS) with data coming in at a far third till recently. But while telcos had been quick to react to previous game changing developments such as the internet explosion and the emergence of cellular mobile communications in the 1990s, they seem to have been caught napping in the face of the newest challenge to their revenues, Over The Top (OTT) service providers. The growing impact of OTT services on telcos’ voice and messaging revenue is a widely accepted phenomenon. Their impact on mobile data traffic and telco data revenue is also areas that have been acknowledged as critical points for consideration. This study attempts to link these issues to shift in consumer preferences, identify the underlying factors there of and to understand the factors driving users towards OTT services.
509 GCMT- 249 Investigation and Performance Analysis of Direct Torque Control of 3φ Induction Motor using 7 Level Neutral Point Clamped Multilevel Inverter , S. Priya, A. Suresh and M. R. Rashm
Objective: This work discusses with Direct Torque Control (DTC) of Induction motor using 7 Level NPC Multilevel inverter for reducing the complexity in conventional DTC method. Methods: The limitation of traditional DTC scheme is more distortion in torque profile and the mean torque output never meets the torque demand. To get better performance of the traditional DTC a Space Vector Modulation (SVM) technique is projected to meet the torque and flux demands at low speeds. Findings: By designing 7 level NPC for DTC of induction motor and thereby simplifying the classical DTC method and in very particular this paper is minimizing the complications in Torque and Flux control at minimal speeds by decoupling the torque and flux controls and also reduces the ripples in current and torque profile. 7 level NPC is introduced in this paper which helps in eliminating the torque disturbances into minimum. The proposed 7 level inverter uses less number of switches and neutral-point fluctuations are absent in this model. Detached DC supplies are employed for the DC links which carries the ripple current. The proposed inverter topology provided the required magnitudes and phases of voltage and current vectors to meet the desired load values with fewer harmonic content due to superior level inverter and less distortion in torque profile obtained in the closed loop DTC technique.1 The DTC of Induction Motor simulated by implementing the SVM technique using 7 level NPC and the simulation results are experimentally validated.Improvements: The steady state torque and speed output have less ripple content which reduces the oscillation with a quick response at steady state was investigated.
510 Proficiency level and Gender Difference in Computer and Information Literacy , JiHyun Park , Soojin Kim, Eunkyoung Lee   JiHyun Park , Soojin Kim, Eunkyoung Lee   
Background/Objectives: As the digital era, the importance of computer and information literacy is increasingly emphasized. The study aims to analyze the achievement characteristics of Korean students based on proficiency level and gender. Methods/Statistical Analysis: We calculated the percent correct of each student groups and the difference between groups to each assessment aspects of ICILS 2013 using Republic of Korea data. Findings: The result showed that there was big differences both in ‘Creating information’ and ‘Sharing information’ compared with other aspects between proficiency levels and between genders in Korea. In particular, the highest level (Level 4) showed the big difference in percent correct between gender in ‘Creating information’ and the lowest level (Below level 1) showed the great difference in ‘Sharing information’. Application/Improvements: The results suggest conducting remedial education for Korean students based on proficiency level and gender.
511  Cloud Computing: An Exploratory Study on Adoption among SME Clusters in Bangalore and Mysore , Jayalaxmi P. Shetty and H. Kiran Kumar 
The constant evolution of computing has helped businesses to automate and innovate, providing them a competitive advantage in the global marketplace. Nevertheless, with the coming of the Cloud, organizations are once again at the crossroad of technology. Early adoption of the Cloud can provide organizations with an opportunity to transform their business models and gain a competitive edge. While cost reduction is one of the benefits, several other benefits accrue to organizations. This paper is aimed at exploring the need for adoption of Cloud computing in the electronic and print clusters in Bangalore and Mysore. To this end, we explore the factors that drive SME clusters to employ cloud computing while gaining additional insights by examining barriers to cloud computing. This study employs regression methodology to determine the significance of each identified factor with respect to adaptability of cloud computing among the SME clusters, thereby determining which of the factors can make an impact on the adaptability. The study conducted among two SME clusters in Bangalore and Mysore revealed that none of the factors had a significant impact on the adaptability, rendering the result not in line with potential suppositions.
512 A Study on Utilization Plan for Affordance Theorybased Virtual Reality Contents , Kim Ji Hye , Kim Jin Gon and Lee Kyoung Hak  
Background/Objectives: Virtual reality content is changing into a form of pursuing experience and convenience as it gradually emphasizes user interaction, and user-centric designs and interfaces like UI/UX are performing important roles in creating a new communication and interaction. Thus, when designing content for a virtual environment, a design environment that allows users to focus within the virtual space, toward the cognitive factor, must be created by means of user comprehension and experience. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Current virtual reality content requires adaptive learning in terms of new device control, with various devices and interaction functions. Hence, studies, in accordance with the cognitive process from virtual reality, are necessary in order to achieve an effective experience based on virtual reality content, because user needs in regards to comprehension and convenience toward new environments are being generated. The present study analyzes virtual reality contents based on cognitive affordance theory through information and behavior detected by visual perception in order to achieve efficiency for convenient environments, utility, and user participation expansion, which is achieved by restricting contents to those only of the CAVE system type. Findings: The sub-elements of cognitive affordance theory are divided into perception, function, and behavior, and the data analyzing the correlation in accordance with each type of virtual reality content establishes a theory for an efficient virtual reality content usage plan, presenting a utilization model. Research on contents based on cognitive affordance has been positively affected by content understanding and focus, affected from the perception factor out of each cognitive affordance element. Application/ Improvements: Such results show that more convenient environments for users will be built and content satisfaction will be increased, and may be presented as an efficient utilization plan for virtual reality content development.
513 The Impact of RFID on Pharmaceutical Supply Chains: India, China and Europe Compared.  , Kalyan Bollampally and Sam Dzever 
This paper analyzes the impact of Radio Frequency Identification (RIFD) on pharmaceutical supply chains in Asia and Europe, focusing particularly on India, China, France and the UK. As the global pharmaceutical industry is rapidly expanding due to the entry of generic drugs coupled with the prevalence of business process outsourcing activities among companies there is a heightened risk of counterfeit drugs becoming more easily available in the market place. The application of RFID, both as a security measure and as a device for optimizing supply chain efficiency, will bring about a significant change in the functioning of the industry’s distribution network. The present paper discusses several applications of RFID in regard to both the Asian and European pharmaceutical supply chains and points to its potential use as a Business Intelligence (BI) tool. RFID, used as a modern BI tool, provides several advantages to the enterprise, among the most prominent of which is the transformation of raw RFID data into vital business information. Through this mechanism a company can be better positioned to efficiently analyze customer needs and buyer behavior, as well as forecast sales and improve potential profit margins.
514 A Method for Ensuring Stable IoT Services based on SDN , Joonseok Park , Mikyeong Moon and Keunhyuk Yeom  
Background/Objectives: When an IoT service failure occurs, it is difficult to identify the source of the problem. In order to ensure stale IoT services, error causes need to be identified and the flow of interconnection services controlled. Methods/ Statistical Analysis: Two types of requirements, namely, platform-device direct connections, and platform-device network connections, are specified for stable IoT services. A SDN based architecture using REST APIs that combines the analysis results in accordance with the requirements of both connection types is represented. Findings: In this paper, a method for providing stable IoT services was presented. The efficacy of the proposed method was verified via simulation using a floodlight SDN controller to the SDN adaptor of proposed architecture in a case study. Network errors and the causes of IOT service faults can be easily identified using our proposed architecture and API. Application/Improvements: The proposed architecture can be applied to manage errors in IoT services. Further, it can be used with a reference architecture to instantiate systems that provide stable IoT services.
515 Big Data and Intrusiveness: Marketing Issues.  , Lamia Mamlouk and Olivier Segard 
Nowadays, more and more companies have huge masses of data from multiple sources (online transactions, traces from website navigation, social networks, sensors, etc.). These data are moreover heterogeneous and volatile. This large amount of data offers tremendous opportunities in terms of knowledge and customer relationships. However, their transformation into actionable knowledge poses important challenges both technically and ethically. Through a state of the art, this paper aims to highlight the issues and challenges of Big Data for marketing. We are particularly interested in those related to customizing and boosting the real time experience of the internet customer. To what extent these practices (real-time interactions, website and customized offer based on the user profile and the navigation behavior are impacted by the Big Data?
516 An Implementation of a Lighting System based on Context-Awareness and using Ontology , Seo Won-Il , Kwon Sook-Youn and Lim Jae-Hyun  
Background/Objectives: Recently, researches on system lightings that sense occupants’ motions and environmental characteristics within a building by means of smart sensors and that adjust luminous environment accordingly are in progress. Methods/Statistical Analysis: To adjust the lighting environment dynamically according to the occupant’s surrounding environment, context awareness technology for appropriate expression and analysis of context information is necessary. Ontology-based models are appropriate to represent concepts and interactions readily and to clarify various and uncertain context data sets. This study suggests a lighting system based on context-awareness using ontology that infers the current situation of the user and creates appropriate lighting environments accordingly. Findings: As a result of designing a lighting control scenario and applying the proposed system to “smart homes,” it turned out that the created lighting environments were appropriate for 16 different situations defined in consideration of the user locations and activities. In addition, the system infers the situations 100% accurately by automatically renewing the ontology structure and inference rules. The developed system is applicable to various types of spaces including residential space, office space, school, and hospital. Application/Improvements: Because it is easy to expand or reuse the system, the convenience of management and maintenance is one major advantage.
517 Impact of Technological Changes in Telecom Sector in India , Kapil Yadav, Shashank Tiwari and Rajiv Divekar 
The rapid change in technology in Indian telecom sector has significantly impacted the operational aspect of telecom business. Coupled with increased competition and emergence of rural market, the telecom sector is faltering in its evolution. In this work we discuss, how addressing the challenges and opportunities of Indian telecom sector can lead to its holistic improvement.
518 Analyzing Sentiments for Generating Opinions (ASGO)-A New Approach. , Sapna Zol and Preeti Mulay 
The boom of social media over the web has great impact on individual's and organization's decision making process about certain content. In today's world of business and marketing opinion mining plays a vital role in success of launching a new product and determining which versions of product is popular within customers. To extract the purposeful content from the social web, opinion mining performs an important role. Sentiment analysis is a current topic of research in this present era. This paper depicts a small effort explaining the process, applications and some challenges of opinion mining. In addition to the three basic opinions of sentiment detection i.e. positive neutral and negative this review paper suggests more precise sentiments like exciting, irrelevant and objectionable. Overall the study interprets the initial results of the undergoing master's thesis work of integrating the sentiment and spam detection in one system.
519 Effectiveness of Digital Marketing in Education: An Insight into Consumer Perceptions.  , Tripti Dhote, Yatin Jog, Nutan Gavade and Gesu Shrivastava 
The media consumption in India has gone through several unruly variations. Statistics reveal that we currently have over 350 million internet users in the country and about 80 % of the population is active through their smartphone devices. On the basis of user base and revenues for most global internet companies India is one of the largest markets. Internet is where the population spends maximum time especially young students and working executives, with the digital advertising spends accounting for a growth of over 2200 crore in December 2013 thus making it one of the most powerful brand communication platforms in the current scenario. Urban15 suggests that “Digital marketing uses the internet and information technology to extend and improve traditional marketing functions”. It has a wide spread application across sectors, however in the current context with proliferation digital and social media have gained enormous popularity and are integral parts of the decision making of young students seeking higher education. Digitalization has changed the way information is conveyed and perceived by viewers/information seekers. At times the information conveyed through digital media may not be authentic and legitimate creating a scope for misleading the target audience. The paper aims to study how digitalization can mislead thus influencing decision making among a certain Target group taking Education Industry as a sample. It seeks to supplement the claim by relevant data of an institute to evaluate whether the information provided for marketing purpose is legitimate enough to take crucial decisions.
520 Emotional Intelligence – A Model for Effective Leadership, Competency and Career Growth , M. Suvarchala Rani 
An emotionally intelligent person has the ability of not only understanding his emotions but also comprehending the emotions of others considerably well. An individual with high emotional intelligence would have dynamic leadership skills, good relationship with his superiors, subordinates and peers and most importantly he would have high degree of personal satisfaction and success at workplace. This paper covers the need for managers and employees to have high levels of emotional intelligence at workplace. It aims at analysing how emotional intelligence as a competency contributes to effective leadership using the ability model of EI where four major aspects are covered like perception, facilitation, understanding and management of emotions. Data was collected using structured questionnaire from 80 respondents representing middle level managers in 6 public and private sectors organizations. The paper also analyzes emotional intelligence as a competency factor and explores the relationship between emotional intelligence and effective leadership. The study on emotional intelligence has suggested that the training in these skills is essential for preparing people for career as well as personal success and fulfilment. It is suggested that emotional intelligence training has to be instituted by educators so that students with effective leadership skills can be made ready for a successful career growth.
521 A Review of Popular Applications on Google Play – Do They Cater to Visually Impaired Users?.  , Gayatri Venugopal 
The number of applications on online mobile application stores is increasing at a rapid rate. Smart-phones are used by a wide range of people varying in age, and also in the ability to use a smart phone. With the increasing dependency on smart-phones, the paper aims to determine whether the popular applications on Google Play, the official store for Android applications, can be used by people with vision impairment. The accessibility of the applications was tested using an external keyboard, and TalkBack, an accessibility tool developed by Google. It was found that several popular applications on the store were not designed keeping accessibility in mind. It was observed that there exists a weak positive relationship between the popularity of the application and its accessibility. A framework is proposed that can be used by developers to improve the accessibility of an application. The paper also discusses the programming aspects to be considered while developing an Android application, so that the application can be used by sighted as well as visually impaired users.
522  Exploring the Go Green Mantra in India. , Upasana Dhanda and Shivangi Gupta 
Ecological concerns are evolving and diffusing throughout society.People are becoming highly aware aboutthe environment and are changing their behavior patterns. Consumers are sending out strong environmental signals through their purchase patterns. As a result, Green Consumerism is on the rise all over the globe.New Green marketing techniques are being undertaken by the “Eco-Marketers” in smoothening the transition towards a more 'Green' mindset. GOING GREEN has become the mantra of marketing.Green Marketing is being adopted on a continuum - On one hand it is being adopted by companies as a holistic concept in each and every aspect of their business; on the other hand Green Washing is being practiced by many companies who are only using it to portray a more environmentally conscious image.This paper presents an overview of green marketing concepts, explores various drivers of green brand equity, motivations behind green product innovation and scrutinize the sustainability of various key green marketing initiatives undertaken all over the country. We find out the various opportunities and threats for Green Marketing by comparing the Indian example with the rest of the world. We also link the concept of green marketing with Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR).
523 Fuzzy Dynamic Equations on Time Scales under Generalized Delta Derivative via Contractive-like Mapping Principles   , Ch. Vasavi , G. Suresh Kumar and M. S. N. Murty  
Background/Objectives: The first order nonlinear Fuzzy Dynamic Equations (FDEs) play an important role in recent years to model the dynamic systems with uncertainties and vagueness. The present work deals with obtaining the existence and uniqueness criteria for nonlinear FDEs on time scales which provides a foundation for the nonlinear studies in the field of FDEs. Methods/Statistical Analysis: In place of Banach contraction principle, contractive-like mapping principles on partial ordered sets is used as a tool to study the FDEs on time scales under generalized delta derivative. Findings: The nonlinear FDEs on time scales using generalized delta derivative are not studied so far. The generalized delta derivative is based on four forms which allow us to obtain new solutions for FDEs with decreasing length of their support. Moreover, the differentiability in third and fourth forms is linked with the concept of switching points. These results include both continuous and discrete FDEs under one framework. Application/Improvements: These results are useful to study qualitative and quantitative properties for nonlinear FDEs on time scales which arise in biological, economical and control engineering problems.  
524 Affiliate Marketing’s Future in India , Sandeep Prabhu and Tanmay Satpathy 
What exactly is affiliated marketing? It is a type of online marketing technique where an affiliate/publisher promotes a business through an advertisement on their web site and in return that business rewards the affiliate with commission each time a visitor, customer generates sales. Affiliate marketing is also referred as performance marketing and associate marketing. Affiliate marketing core consists of 3 parties:-Advertiser, Publisher, and Consumer. Advertiser can be any company selling products like electronics, books, clothing, and air tickets online or could be insurance company selling policies etc. Publisher is the one who promotes advertiser’s products or services through its website or blog. Consumer is the final and very important part of this cycle who see the advertisement and then makes an action (click) which takes him from publisher’s website to advertiser’s website and after making a purchase it is called conversion. In context to Indian online market, according to IAMAI, the digital commerce market has seen a growth by 33% to Rs 62,967 crore last year as against Rs 47,349 crore. And it is predicted that this online market will touch $50-$70 billion by 2020 for the increasing popularity of online shopping and increase in internet penetration. Online retailers like Flipkart, Amazon, and Yatra.com have already started affiliate marketing in India and the technique is gaining popularity in digital market. The objective of this research paper is to analyze adoptability of affiliate marketing in Indian businesses and the future potential of it.
525 EOQ Models with Optimal Replenishment Policy for Perishable Items taking Account of Time Value of Money   , Sharma Vikas, Chauhan Anand and Kumar Mukesh  
The main purpose of this research is to establish replenishment models and develop optimal replenishment policies for perishable items taking account of time value of money. This paper follows the Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) approach to investigate inventory replenishment problem over a fixed planning horizon. We develop model, to establish optimal solutions with and without backlogging and Show thatthe total variable costis minimize and convex by the help of software. Numerical examples are to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed models and sensitivity analysis with respect to the parameters of the system is carried out  
526 Leadership Values and its Business Impact.  , Disha Awasthi 
We have been practicing leadership values from the time when human being came into existence. The rise of professional approach in business has later on brought newapproaches in leadershipwhich has changed theway ofworking entirely.The new approach focused on stakeholders, customers, innovations, human approach and brand building. With the changing business scenario and changing generations, leadership style has also changed which has influenced leadership values also. This article focuses on the leadership values and its business impact. A research was conducted through administrating ‘The Leadership Q-sort Test’ amongst senior management people. This test was concerned with the leadership dimension of values - personal integrity, consideration for others, mental health, information, decision making and communication. The tool has assessed an individual’s values with respect to the leadership role in it. Based on the analysis, business impact of leadership values was seen and suggestions were made. Individual values are dissimilar and leaders need to understand how to use their own values to drive the creation of goals and strategies, optimize value for shareholders and stakeholders by determining sustainable vision for their organization and translate them into the operative values of employees to create tomorrow’s organization. Leaders also need to transform their leadership style to revolutionize the organization’s culture by implementing value creation strategies for the organization which will bring everyone on the same platform. By understanding and unleashing the invisible forces of leadership values, the motivational driving force can be implemented in the organization’s culture.
527 An Analysis of Radiation Fusion Technology-Related Patents Using Statistical Methods and Data Mining Techniques   , Seung-Joo Lee , Tae-Jong Han and Kyoungho Choi  
Background/Objectives: This study was conducted to identify the trends related to the patents for ‘radiation anti-oxidation technology’, and to perform technological forecasting for that technology using statistical methods and data mining techniques. Methods/Statistical Analysis: The extraction of patents for analysis was carried out using a website KIPRIS. Documents including the words ‘irradiation’ and ‘anti-oxidation’ were searched for to target patents registered between January 1999 and January 2015. Finally, a total of 512 patent documents were selected as analysis objects through an editing process. Findings: Key finds are as follows. First, most of the top 10 patents are related to cosmetic development, drug development and food processing. Second, in terms of the degree of support, the degree is high when a technology of A61Q 19/08 is first developed and then a technology of A61K 8/97 is developed. Third, in the top association rules identified using 491 IPC codes included in 512 RFT-related patent documents, the technologies of “proliferation of flowering plants using tissue culture technology” are developed. Application/Improvements: The findings of this study are significant as they have derived basic data for technological forecasting by identifying specific information about core technology factors included in each patent for radiation anti-oxidation technology.  
528 Prioritizing Decision Alternatives for Social Media Planning.  , Sudeepa Banerjee 
Purpose: Social media is paving the way to a new way of looking at markets. Consumers have now become a source of insight. The Indian Internet market is growing very fast and so is the use of social media. Therefore there is need to examine methods for social media selection problems. Methodology: The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) has been used to model a complex problem based on multiple non-parametric criteria in a hierarchical structure showing the relationships between goals, criteria, uncertainties and alternatives, where experience, insight and intuition can all be used in a logical manner to derive standardized ratio scale priorities or weights. Findings: Based on the criteria Facebook had the highest composite weight followed by Twitter and finally Youtube. This result agrees with the findings of research based on survey of organisations. Implications: The paper recommends use of AHP as a useful supplement to intuitive decision-making that is normally reserved for media selection problem solving. Originality: Most of the original work in this area is qualitative. This quantitative paper will help in designing innovative and effective social media platform selection strategies for greater social mobilization. AHP can be assessed in terms of the clarity gained, the ability to judge more thoroughly, the scope for adaptation and change, and legitimisation of decision-making.
529 The Long-Term Effect of Tai Chi Exercise on Exercise Self Efficacy and Self-Perceived Health Status in the Elderly   , Han-Cheol Kim , Il-Myeong Kim and Sung-Woon Kim  
Background/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the long-term effect of Tai Chi exercise on exercise self-efficacy and self-perceived health status in the elderly. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Sixty older adults were participated in this study. Their ages ranged from 70 to 75, with a mean age of 72.4 years. The participants were randomly assigned to one of two experimental conditions: (1) tai chi exercises group (n=30), (2) control group (n=30). Data was analyzed using two-way Analysis Of Variances (ANOVAs) with repeated measures of groups (tai chi exercise group and control group) and time (pre-test and post-test). Dependent variables were exercise self-efficacy and self-perceived health status. Findings: The result of this study indicated tai chi exercise group had a significantly higher score than control group in exercise self-efficacy and perceived health status. Applications/ Improvement: It was found that tai chi exercise helped to improve the exercise self-efficacy and the perceived health status in the elderly
530 The Effects of Squat Exercises on the Space between the Knees of Persons with Genu-varum   , Su-Jin Lee1 , Da-Yeon Jin , Hyun-Jung No , Su-Ju Kwon , Myeong-Hyeon Yoon, Young-Joo Jung, Won-Sik Bae1 , Keon-Cheol Lee and Dong-Yeop Lee  
Background/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to find out the effect of squat exercise on the space between the knees and a distance of global postural system of deformity. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Twenty-two volunteers took part in this study and we divided into two groups(experimental group 10, control group 12). Experimental group performed toe in squat exercise and control group performed general squat exercise. All volunteers received a total of 18 exercise session over a 6-week period (three times per week). Repeated ANOVA was used to examine the effects of the intervention on each outcome measure. Findings: The space between the knees and a distance of GPS wasgreatly reduced in the experimental group. Therefore, we have confirmed through experiments reducing a space between the knees toe-in squat, whereby we would also be helpful to ensure the treatment of genu-varum. Application/Improvements: Furthermore, based on the results of this study, the supplementation and addition of diverse exercises to correct genu-varum are considered necessary.
531 Smoking Cessation and Relapse among Smoking Cessation Scholarship Beneficiaries   , Hee Jeong Kim  
Background/Objectives: In this study, a survey was conducted to examine the factors associated with success and failure in smoking cessation among smoking cessation scholarship beneficiaries at N university. Methods/Statistical Analysis: The data were collected via structural questionnaires completed by 139 university students located in Cheonan who agreed to participate in this study from September to December 2015 and was analyzed using the SPSS 18.0 program. Findings: There were statistically significant differences among the scholarship beneficiaries who succeeded in quitting smoking in following areas: CO2 ppm, cigarettes smoked during the period, nicotine dependency, participation in regular smoking cessation education (including attendance at smoking cessation clinics and recognition of the need for followup programs), motivation, factors which allowed one to remain a non-smoker, symptoms, stress, and amount of regular exercise. Logistic regression analysis related to general characteristics shows that CO2 ppm (p<.001), participation in regular smoking cessation education (p = .002), attendance at smoking cessation clinics (p = .021), were shown to exert a significant influenced smoking cessation success. Logistic regression analysis related to smoking factors shows that need a follow up program (p = .035), direct health benefits (p = .034, weight gain (p<.001), improve self-confidence (p = .001), willpower (p<.001) and in-house smoking (p<.001) exert a significant influenced smoking cessation. Additional factors related to health such as alcohol consumption (p = .002), stress-relieving exercise (p = .028), and health screening check (p = .040) exert a significant influenced smoking cessation. Applicants/Improvement: The present findings suggest that conducting enhanced smoking cessation education programs is a good way to guide more students to smoking cessation success in the future.
532 The Development of Bismuth Shielding to Protect the Thyroid Gland in Radiations Environment   , Chang-Gyu Kim  
Background/Objectives: In order to protect thyroid gland and provide medical support in national catastrophe of radiation leakage, this study aimed to develop bismuth eco-friendly radiation shielding that does not contain lead. Methods/ Statistical Analysis: It manufactured bismuth shielding and evaluated the characteristics of shielding medical radiation to protect thyroid gland and the quality of images. Findings: In medical radiation area, shielding characteristics of bismuth shielding was, 84% with 0.12 mm thickness, 92% with 0.25 mm thickness, and 96% with 0.5 mm thickness, showing rising efficiency as the thickness increased. In the images that used bismuth shielding of 0.12 mm thickness, image contrast was 4.9±0.4, clarity of boundaries 4.8±0.3, and lesion detection rate 4.8±0.3, showing similar image quality to the images obtained without shielding. In the images with bismuth shielding of 0.25mm thickness, image contrast was 3.0±0.1, clarity of boundaries 3.3±0.2, and lesion detection rate 3.1±0.1, and in the images with bismuth shielding of 0.5 mm thickness, image contrast was 2.9±0.1, clarity of boundaries 3.1±0.2, and lesion detection rate was 3.0±0.1. Improvements/Applications: Based on these results, in order to obtain the optimal medical images and reduce exposure dose of medical radiation, it is recommended to develop environment-friendly and light bismuth shielding with proper shielding capability.  
533 The Development of Bismuth Shielding to Protect the Thyroid Gland in Radiations Environment   , Chang-Gyu Kim  
Background/Objectives: In order to protect thyroid gland and provide medical support in national catastrophe of radiation leakage, this study aimed to develop bismuth eco-friendly radiation shielding that does not contain lead. Methods/ Statistical Analysis: It manufactured bismuth shielding and evaluated the characteristics of shielding medical radiation to protect thyroid gland and the quality of images. Findings: In medical radiation area, shielding characteristics of bismuth shielding was, 84% with 0.12 mm thickness, 92% with 0.25 mm thickness, and 96% with 0.5 mm thickness, showing rising efficiency as the thickness increased. In the images that used bismuth shielding of 0.12 mm thickness, image contrast was 4.9±0.4, clarity of boundaries 4.8±0.3, and lesion detection rate 4.8±0.3, showing similar image quality to the images obtained without shielding. In the images with bismuth shielding of 0.25mm thickness, image contrast was 3.0±0.1, clarity of boundaries 3.3±0.2, and lesion detection rate 3.1±0.1, and in the images with bismuth shielding of 0.5 mm thickness, image contrast was 2.9±0.1, clarity of boundaries 3.1±0.2, and lesion detection rate was 3.0±0.1. Improvements/Applications: Based on these results, in order to obtain the optimal medical images and reduce exposure dose of medical radiation, it is recommended to develop environment-friendly and light bismuth shielding with proper shielding capability.  
534 The Factors Affecting Nursing Students’ Career Preparation Behavior: Focusing on Participation in a Self-Leadership Program   , Yu Mi and Kang Kyungja      
Background/Objectives: This study aimed to determine the factors affecting career preparation behavior among selfleadership, self-efficacy, and college life adjustment in nursing students. Methods/Statistical Analysis: We conducted a survey of 254 students in nursing college from September, 2014 to October, 2015. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, t-tests, χ2-tests of independence, and hierarchical linear regression analyses using SPSS/Win 21.0 software. Findings: The study found a positive correlation and significant direct effects between self-leadership, self-efficacy, career preparation behavior and college life adjustment. Participation inself-leadership program variable explained 5.2%, self-leadership variable explained 14% and college life adjustment and self-efficacy variables explained 22.3% of career preparation behavior. Therefore, self-leadership of students can improve self-efficacy, furthermore, improve ultimately college life adjustment. Improvements/Applications: According to this study, to improve college life adjustmentof nursing students, education program related to self-leadership training should be considered and reflected in nursing curriculum.
535 Analyses of Cloud Characteristic during Malaysian 2014 Flood Event   , Atikah Balqis Basri , Ahmad Fadzil Ismail, Muhamad Haziq Khairolanuar, Nuurul Hudaa Mohd Sobli, Khairayu Badron, and Mohammad Kamrul Hasan  
Floods refers to the condition of great overflow of water over a dry land. In malaysia, monsoon flood which cause by the heavy rain in monsoon seasons regularly hits the country. A criteria of the cloud based on horizontal and vertical profile of radar reflectivity have been analyzed in this paper to estimate flood event. The values of the thickness and the size of the cloud are estimated from the analysis. In this paper, we analyze the river basin data and radar data in the duration of flooding time, T for the specific area covered by meteorological radar and rain gauge data. The procedure was applied to 14 days precipitation phenomenon observed in Kota Bharu, Kelantan (Malaysia) from 13 December 2014 until 26 December 2014. The objective of this paper is to analyse the distinctiveness of the cloud during flood events. The result shows that during the critical time of flood disaster, the cloud shows largest size of 13070.6 km2 and the thickness appeared to be the largest at almost 10.2 km during the beginning of the rain fall. The analysis helps us to understand the cloud characteristics hence in future flood estimation model can be constructed and modelled.
536 Advance Signaling Cost for Multicast Fast Reroute Proxy Mobility Management   , Azana Hafizah Mohd Aman , Aisha-Hassan A. Hashim , Azween Abdullah , Huda Adibah Mohd Ramli and Shayla Islam  
Background/Objectives: Mobile data traffic over IP has grown very rapidly in size. This huge increase in size creates high demand performance on network that supports mobile multicast services. This motivates the development of a better performance procedure with better signaling cost. Methods/Statistical analysis: A mathematical evaluation of signaling cost for multicast network mobility management namely Proxy Mobile IPv6 (PMIPv6). The signaling cost is derived from a novel combination of Multicast only Fast Reroute (MFR) and predictive Context Transfer (CT) with network mobility management. The signaling cost is designated base on the improved signaling call flow of the advanced method combination. It is calculated as the location updates and the packet delivery cost of the call flow. Findings: This combined procedure helps to mitigate unnecessary multicast network mobility traffic as usage increases. From the results it is clearly shows that the location update for the advanced signaling cost remain consistent regardless of the traffic usage. Where else for the standard method the signaling cost increases significantly, in parallel with the traffic increase. This is hardly because of the reduced location updates and the packet delivery cost of the novel combination procedure. Therefore through this implementation better signaling cost formula is brought forward. Application/Improvements: The advanced signaling cost helps to overcome performance degradation in multicast mobility management application such as live Internet video, Internet-video-to-TV, online video, webcam viewing, video conference and web-based video monitoring.
537 Monocular Vision-based Signer-Independent Pakistani Sign Language Recognition System using Supervised Learning   , Habib Ahmed, Syed Omer Gilani, Mohsin Jamil, Yasar Ayaz and Syed Irtiza Ali Shah  
Background/Objectives: To construct a Pakistani sign language learning-based gesture recognition system with a reasonable rate of accuracy. Methods/Statistical Analysis: It should be <70 words. Include the method adapted to study the objectives/sampling details or simulation or statistical analysis of data; technique employed; mention unique/ important points of modification of methodology in the current study. Mention about test samples the control employed or approach used for comparing the test sample. Findings: The proposed system uses static images to extract local and global, region and boundary-based descriptors for acquiring gesture information, which is provided as input for supervised learning method known as Support Vector Machine (SVM). The purpose of this research is to formally introduce a practical learning-based PSL recognition system, which can lay the groundwork for future research pertaining to PSL. The proposed system was developed and the ten class supervised learning based system was able to achieve an accuracy of 83%. Application/Improvements: It is a preliminary work, which will be further improved to construct a real-time static and dynamic gesture based PSL system that is able to recognize words and sentences information.
538 Refining Ku-Band Rain Attenuation Prediction using Local Parameters in Tropics   , Refining Ku-Band Rain Attenuation Prediction using Local Parameters in Tropics    
Background/Objectives: Researches disclosed rain attenuation prediction models offered by ITU-R severely underestimate the signal attenuation in tropical region. Improvement can be accomplished by incorporating three in-situ parameters of prediction models. Methods/Statistical Analysis: The locally derived components are rainfall rate, rain height and specific attenuation coefficients. Beacon signal data for MEASAT-I satellite were sampled for one year. Sampling time of 1 minute was chosen for rainfall rate. Both attenuation and rainfall rate were represented in terms of annual cumulative distribution. Rain height data were gathered from related researches and visually compared with radar data of 10 convective and 30 stratiform rain events. Findings: In previous works, these components were treated separately. By combining all three components, rain attenuation prediction model with distinctive accuracy can be acquired compared to the previous results. All previous and current works exhibited significant improvement from the latest ITU-R P.618 revision 12 model. The new result closely fitted in with measured attenuation which was not present in any previous work. This was shown by RMS error of 2.02 dB at availability of 99.9% to 99.999% (0.1% to 0.001% exceedance). Application/ Improvements: Accurate representation of fade margin can be included in link budget analysis by designers for satellite deployment in tropical region.
539 Exploitation of Radio Direction Finder in the design of a UHF Transmitter Locator System   , Muhamad Jamil Jakpar, Nor Farahidah Za’bah, Ahmad Fadzil Ismail, and Mohammad Kamrul Hasan  
This paper outlines how the direction finder technology was exploited in the design of a device; capable of locating the where about of a UHF transmitter. The value of amplitude and frequency of the signal were employed in the determination of the signal source direction. The study emphasized on the utilization of low cost components. The assembled prototype offers 22.5˚ bearing coverage. The determination of the direction was achieved by differentiating the received frequency signal involving multiple antenna arrays. Direction of transmitter was determined by making the receiver antenna arrays emulating condition of motion with the use of antenna switcher. Received signals were converted into tones where larger signal amplitude translates to louder tone. Antenna arrays were arranged in specific manner where the tone volumes were compared and the direction within 360˚ position was determined. The result suggests that the system can provide the detection coverages up to 22.5 degree which is better than the existing solutions in terms of equipment selection, cost, and coverage
540 A Study on Transmission System for Realistic Media Effect Representation   , Seokmo Gu and Yei-Chang Kim    
The emergence of next-generation broadcasting technology affected the rapid growth of a variety of broadcasting convergence industries, the distribution of diverse contents in the realistic media market and the development of transmission technology. IPTV service has also been universalized, becoming a service available to everyone. Although 4K UHD (Ultra High Definition) based realistic media makes it possible to provide better resolution quality than conventional contents, the media faces the limits of transmission technology and encoding technique. To solve the problem, much research is being conducted. Also to increase contents users’ presence and immersion, research on transmission of realistic media effects and contents is in progress. MPEG-V standardizes and specifies the metadata structure for realistic media effect representations and realistic media representation effects, and proposes a description method of writing the metadata for realistic media. In this paper, we present transmission system for realistic media effect representations and studied system modeling for increasing user’s sense of reality through realistic media devices.  
541 A Study on the use of Secure Data in Cloud Storage for Collaboration   , Jae-Young Lee  
Cloud storage for collaboration is a cloud storage that all the users for collaboration share. Integrity and consistency of data stored in cloud storage are more important than in personal storage. In this study, we suggest guaranteeing integrity of data used hash function and digital signature in cloud storage for collaboration, ensuring logical and temporal consistency on shared data by solving the problems occurs when several users access to shared data at the same time.  
542 Design and Development of Optimal Control System for Quad Copter UAV   , Zaid Tahir, Mohsin Jamil, Saad Ali Liaqat, Lubva Mubarak, Waleed Tahir and Syed Omer Gilani  
Background/Objectives: Design and development of an optimal control system for a quadcopter unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Methods/Statistical Analysis: The 6DOF quad copter state-space models was used for Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) and Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) simulations in MATLAB/Simulink. The simulations produced satisfactory results, which have been presented. Findings: A comparison between Low Pass Filter (LPF) and Kalman filter is also shown which shows that LQR is useless in presence of noise hence LQG was employed in such a situation. Application/Improvements: The optimal control system for quadcopter was successfully developed, which can be practically implemented on an actual quadcopter for stable unmanned flight of the aerial vehicle.
543 Influence of Self-management on Dance Confidence and Dance Achievement of University Student Majoring in Dance , Zaid Tahir, Mohsin Jamil, Saad Ali Liaqat, Lubva Mubarak, Waleed Tahir and Syed Omer Gilani  
Background/Objectives: The aim of this study was identifying the influence of self-management on dance confidence and dance achievement of university student majoring in dance. Methods/Statistical Analysis: The survey was conducted of 320 university student majoring in dance based in Seoul and Gyeonggi region. Questionnaires were used as the investigation tool as a purposive sampling method in which a total of 303 copies excluding 17 insincere responses were used for final analysis. Materials were analyzed using frequency analysis, factor analysis, t-test, one-way ANOVA, correlation analysis, and multiple regression analysis. Findings: It was revealed that participants of 2nd and 4th grade higher than 1st and 3rd grade in self-management and participants of 4th grade higher than other grade in confidence. And participants of modern dance were higher than that of traditional dance and ballet. Dance achievement was higher as dance career was higher. The training management and mental management had a positive influence on performance confidence and activity confidence. The training and mental management had a positive influence on practical ability achievement. And training, mental and performance management had a positive influence on understanding ability achievement. The confidence of university dancer is higher as dance achievement is higher. Application/Improvements: The self-management of dancers have an overall positive effect not only on dance confidence, but also on dance achievement, with a particularly significant influence on practical skill and comprehension ability achievement.
544 A Real time Service for Mobile Wallpaper   , Jong-Chan Lee  
This paper introduces a launcher system which can decorate a unique smart phone by linking the music and interesting sites in its wallpaper. This is similar to other applications, but is different in nature from others in the way that it can replace a user interface. This paper’s goal is to establish a service system to change the wallpaper. These studies have been conducted, many results have been announced. But the primary differences between the wallpaper of a proposed system and one of existing systems are the wallpaper changing in real time and the system automatically connecting to information (image, music, app sites etc.) associated with the wallpaper. The system uploads the wallpaper and music sources to a server and implements a real time service which can be connected to any other relevant information on the wallpaper according to a user’s preference. For doing this, the implementation of a proposed system is composed of 3 parts, CDN (Contents Delivery Network) servers with DB, a mobile app for user clients, and a web page for the administrator. This paper shows the implemented results and analyzes them. The proposed system can be utilized as a new operating system on the existing androids User Interface (UI) because it can be added a distinct user environment.  
545 A Robust Model Predictive Control for Balancing of an Inverted Pendulum , Arbab Aimal Khan , Mohsin Jamil, Syed Omer Gilani and Qasim Awais  
This paper presents a methodology to design robust predictive controller for the balancing of an inverted pendulum. The inverted pendulum is one of the most difficult control problem in which the pendulum needs to be balanced against the cart, which moves only in two directions to the left or to the right. A new robust controller is designed to balance the pendulum and produces results which are more effective and fast. A Model Predictive Control (MPC) and PID control strategies are applied for controlling the system equations of the inverted pendulum model and are analyzed and compared. The results of controllers implemented in MATLAB shows that both the strategies are able to control the system but robust model predictive control strategy gives better response as compared to conventional PID controller.
546 A Model based Resource Recommender System on Social Tagging Data , V. Vijeya Kaveri and V. Maheswari  
Web (2.0) is the place where people can upload, share and access various sources of information. Web (2.0) has given rise to information overloading problem and knowledge starvation. Recommender Systems (RS) helps in alleviating this overloading problem and gaining the exact information what we need. RS suggest user items or products based on their browsing or purchasing history. RS suggest list of items by identifying similar users with explicit user-item rating. But, in real time applications most users do not rate items. In current web (2.0) social tagging applications help us to find useritem ratings implicitly based on the user’s interest and preferences they give for the list of items. In this paper we have proposed a model based resource recommendation on social tagging information which has improved the performance of the RS. In the proposed system the topic is identified from the tagged data, based on the topic user profile is constructed by semantic approach and the recommendation is done for the user.
547 The Prosodic Conditions in Robot’s TTS for Children as Beginners in English Learning   , Jiyoung In and Jeonghye Han  
A robot’s recognition and diagnosis of pronunciation and its speech are the most important interactions in RALL. This paper analyzes para verbal characteristics, F0 range and speaking rate, in English TTS engine speech which falls in the category of robot speech for Korean learners as beginners. In the actual result of this research, beginners did not change before and after repeating robot TTS, however it was confirmed that the speaking rate as the other prosodic variable increased close to the robot TTS’s speaking speed. Therefore robot TTS can be a suitable educational means to correct errors and train for speaking rate of English learners. However, it is still inadequate for the average F0 range of native speakers.
548 A Study on Some Tasks, Corpus and Resources of Medical Information Retrieval , P. Gayathri and N. Jaisankar  
Background/Objectives: This paper gives an overview of some tasks involved in the retrieval process, corpus and resources of medical information retrieval. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Inverted file representation method is used in the retrieval process for associating documents in the corpus with various search terms. Conventional statistical ranking functions such as Jaccard, Okapi and Euclidean have been widely used for ranking retrieved medical documents. An extractive informative generic mono-lingual single-document summarizer is used to produce medical domain-specific summary. Sentence ranking method is used to include most appropriate sentences in the final summary. Findings: Studies reveal that people are searching the web and read medical related information in order to be informed about their health. In the medical domain, richest and most used source of information is MEDLINE. Because of frequent use of acronyms in the medical literature, using the term that appears in documents as keywords for document indexing would not be effective. Also, using Bag of Words representation could not capture the semantic meaning of terms. Some domain-specific thesauri like UMLS, MeSH and Gene ontology are available for biomedical retrieval. These domain-specific thesauri can provide synonyms, hypernyms and hyponyms of a specific term but it does not look into the context. Therefore, the retrieval results of using domain-specific thesauri are somewhat conflicting. It is possible to identify which lexical variant of specific term should be used under specific context by using Wikipedia as resource for biomedical retrieval. Conventional ranking functions fail to capture the inherent features of natural language text. Evolutionary algorithm based ranking can enhance the retrieval performance. Any domain-specific summarizer must consider similarity between sentences as essential feature for summarization. Applications/Improvements: Improvements in retrieval results is achieved by using context-aware keywords as indexing keywords and highly robust hybrid evolutionary algorithm based ranking function for ordering the retrieved documents
549 A Study on Some Tasks, Corpus and Resources of Medical Information Retrieval , P. Gayathri and N. Jaisankar  
Background/Objectives: This paper gives an overview of some tasks involved in the retrieval process, corpus and resources of medical information retrieval. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Inverted file representation method is used in the retrieval process for associating documents in the corpus with various search terms. Conventional statistical ranking functions such as Jaccard, Okapi and Euclidean have been widely used for ranking retrieved medical documents. An extractive informative generic mono-lingual single-document summarizer is used to produce medical domain-specific summary. Sentence ranking method is used to include most appropriate sentences in the final summary. Findings: Studies reveal that people are searching the web and read medical related information in order to be informed about their health. In the medical domain, richest and most used source of information is MEDLINE. Because of frequent use of acronyms in the medical literature, using the term that appears in documents as keywords for document indexing would not be effective. Also, using Bag of Words representation could not capture the semantic meaning of terms. Some domain-specific thesauri like UMLS, MeSH and Gene ontology are available for biomedical retrieval. These domain-specific thesauri can provide synonyms, hypernyms and hyponyms of a specific term but it does not look into the context. Therefore, the retrieval results of using domain-specific thesauri are somewhat conflicting. It is possible to identify which lexical variant of specific term should be used under specific context by using Wikipedia as resource for biomedical retrieval. Conventional ranking functions fail to capture the inherent features of natural language text. Evolutionary algorithm based ranking can enhance the retrieval performance. Any domain-specific summarizer must consider similarity between sentences as essential feature for summarization. Applications/Improvements: Improvements in retrieval results is achieved by using context-aware keywords as indexing keywords and highly robust hybrid evolutionary algorithm based ranking function for ordering the retrieved documents.
550 Innovative Activities and KPI Impact on the KOSDAQ IT Firm Value - Accounting Perspective   , Aeyoung Park , Jiyoung Kwak and Kinam Choi  
Through the changes in firm management activities, value creation of firm drives due to the movement in from tangible assets to intangible assets. Thus, research and interest about an invisible power is very important as the reason of firm growth or value, in a knowledge-based society. Although innovative activities in firms are dynamic power of firm’s value growth, there is a positive analytical issue whether the market expects wrong expectations for the short term or innovative activities are not linked to firm’s value growth. The purpose of this research is based on analysis of obtaining a patent, including an influence of innovative activities on firm’s value and on long-term performance in long-term basis.
551 Enhanced Power Control Algorithm in Cognitive Radio for Multimedia Communication , C. T. Manimegalai, K. Kalimuthu, Sabitha Gauni and R. Kumar  
Background/Objectives: In underlay cognitive radio network, the power control systems play a major role where the secondary users should not affect the primary users transmission. The interference constraints are not attained by all users as the Signal to Interference Noise Ratio (SINR) of the target requirement is not satisfied in the distributed algorithm for power control. Hence, an algorithm is proposed to reduce the power and to regulate the interference constraints of the primary and secondary users. The SINR also has to be maintained. In the proposed method, the distributed statistical algorithm is used when the interference constraints is not available when all transmitters are in active mode to obtain an efficient solution. Methods: In order to minimize the level of SINR for each link between primary and secondary user, a distributed algorithm for power control is proposed. The traditional power control algorithms are used to maintain the secondary users transmission within specific power levels. The main drawback of the traditional algorithms is that the constraints are not met when all the transmitters are active. Result: A Power minimizing algorithm along with the distributed statistical elimination algorithm, to suppress the transmission of selected number of links when all the nodes are active is proposed. This satisfies the SINR requirement of the secondary links. Application: The proposed elimination algorithm enables the optimized power distribution, hence it is a more practical solution in networks with increased number of secondary users. Keywords: Cognitive Radio N
552 Design and Analysis of an Optimal Inventory Model for Perishable Goods with Fixed Life Time , C. T. Manimegalai, K. Kalimuthu, Sabitha Gauni and R. Kumar  
Background/Objectives: The main purpose of this paper is to plan and implement an optimum inventory model for the deteriorating things that minimizes the entire expected cost over a finite horizon. Methods/Statistical Analysis: The model presents a projected price operates for the inventory system with fixed life time. This paper accords with the hassle of ciphering optimum ordering policies for one item for successive intervals. Hyper geometric probability distribution is taken into consideration to examine the expected outdated cost. Findings: The optimum inventory model is solved analytically to review the impact of modification within the worth of the parameters. The solution methodology provided within the model helps the choice maker to enforce the first in first out policy by exposing customers to merchandise of a similar age. The results have been explained with numerical examples and graphical illustration. Applications/Improvements: First in First out issuing policy is designed to reveal the fact that it minimizes the expected outdates.
553 Study on the Impact of Big Data Traffic Caused by the Unstable Routing Protocol     , Hyoung woo Park, Il Yeon Yeo, Haengjin Jang and NamGyu Kim  
Thousands of CPUs and storages are required for the analysis of scientific peta-byte scale data. The network interfaces of these systems are connected on a data center network for cluster computing and Grid computing for high throughput. Therefore, routing configuration of these network interfaces is usually set by internal routing protocols and set by having the only single gateway as a last resort or a default routing path. This style of routing configuration is the most typical configuration of routing protocols for the network of the legacy data center. And, as the volume of data is getting dramatically increasing due to the popularization of big data services, data center rapidly grow to have hundreds of thousands servers. Therefore, real routing path frequently changes by the fault of network devices or systems in large-scale data center environment even though data center networks works well apparently. The inefficiency of this kind of routing scheme caused by the instability of the internal routing protocol begins to appear as a considerable problem in big data center network management lately. In this paper, we showed the serious decrease of the throughput due to very short flapping time of the internal routing protocol by NS2 simulation.
554 An Innovative Node Encounter Rate Metric for Source Routing in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks , Deepa Dasarathan   and Nirmal Kumar  
Objective: The primary motive of this research is to improve the quality of service in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks by reducing the packet loss and average delay in the network. Methods: In this manuscript, an innovative metric called Node Encounter Rate (NER) is introduced based on the concept of nodes encountered during network operation. Findings: Network simulation results show that the dynamic estimation of the metric improves throughput by 47%, by this means reducing the loss and delay by 53% and 52% respectively. As per the comparison results, the proposed approach works better compared to the existing schemes also providing increased quality of service. The control packets are reduced because of routing through stable paths. In addition, the packets are forwarded over the paths that avoid high mobility scenarios. Novelty: The simulation outcome reveals that the Node Encounter Rate (NER) has high quality of service compared to the existing scheme under mobile scenarios.
555 N. Vivekananthamoorthy, E. R. Naganathan and R. Rajkumar   , Determinant Factors on Student Empowerment and Role of Social Media and eWOM Communication: Multivariate Analysis on LinkedIn usage
Background/Objectives: In recent times, there is phenomenal increase in usage of Social Networking Sites like Facebook, LinkedIn etc. by college students and young professionals. This study focuses on identifying key factors that influence LinkedIn usage and the role of eWOM communication in enhancing social connectivity and engagement of students in meaningful activities to improve their social and academic standings. A theoretical model on social networking by students is proposed and the results and recommendations of this study will be brought to practical use towards student empowerment. Methods/Statistical Analysis: A preliminary survey was conducted to understand how young university students use the Social Networking Site LinkedIn and the responses were used to frame a questionnaire. A second level survey was conducted among the same set of participants by collecting their responses in five point Likert Scale. Exploratory Factor Analysis was conducted using the LinkedIn Survey responses to identify the hidden factors associated with the indicator items in the data set. Subsequently, a theoretical model was constructed using Structural Equation Modeling principles, depicting the interrelationships between the latent constructs and indicator items constituting a measurement model and a structural model. Four Hypotheses were framed such that Social Media Usage and eWOM communication have significant positive effect on Student Empowerment. Finally, Confirmatory factor analysis was done to prove the hypotheses and to analyze how well the model fits into the theory. The software IBM SPSS, and AMOS 23 were used to perform multivariate statistical analysis on the LinkedIn Survey response items. Findings: The exploratory study on LinkedIn Usage Survey responses revealed three latent factors that accounted for 69.462 percent of the total variance. The three key factors explaining the eWOM behavior of students in LinkedIn usage were Expert Opinion Seeking, Networking with Professionals and Notification of Profile Changes. The latent factors and associated relationships were used to frame a theoretical model based on SEM techniques. Based on Confirmatory factor analysis done on this model using the data set revealed that the model supported the hypotheses H1, H2, H3 and H4 and all indicators in the model significantly loaded to their respective factors and the predicting variables had a significant positive effect on the predicted variable. The factor loadings were fair to excellent ranging from .634 to .853 and the test for model fitness showed good fitness result based on value of various fitness indices which were within accepted limits. Based on CFA, the important fitness indices and their values arrived at were: CMIN/df = 2.022, NFI = 0.824, TLI = 0.887, RMSEA = 0.098 and CFI = 0.901. Improvements/Applications: The accuracy of the predicting ability of the proposed theoretical model can be improved by augmenting this research study and statistical analysis to be extended to a larger target group belonging to different institutions to achieve good model fit as well as for testing the scalability of the model. As a future work, this model can be integrated with online learning systems also with the aim of improving student engagement in the current online learning scenarios.
556 A Study on Factors Affecting the Youth Employment Rate: Focusing on Data from 31 Cities and Counties in Gyeonggi-Do, South Korea   , Jae Hoon Han, Yen Yoo You and Kwan-Sik Na  
In order to explore the recent youth unemployment crisis faced by many countries, this study conducted an empirical analysis on the factors affecting regional youth employment in South Korea. Using variables suggested by both foreign and domestic studies, a hierarchical regression analysis showed that indicators such as the budget for job creation, the rate of increase in the number of businesses, and the road pavement rate do not have a significant effect on youth employment. Conversely, economic and social indicators such as the natural population growth rate, increases in the number of workers, the number of businesses with more than five employees, per-capita labor cost in the wholesale and retail trade industry, residential life satisfaction, and the share of business funding from the issuance of debt have a significant effect. Accordingly, to increase youth employment, policymakers should strive to increase immigration as well as the share of business investment funds in debt utilization rather than investing in road pavement or job creation.
557 The Role of Green Manufacturing in Development of Ecologically Conscious Consumer Behavior (ECCB) towards Green Products , Neetu Choudhary, Shahid Ul Islam , P. J. Phili and Rajinder Kumar  
Background/Objectives: To explore the relationship between green manufacturing dimensions and ecologically conscious consumer behavior in electronics sector moreover to study the difference of demographic variables while exhibiting Ecologically Conscious Consumer Behavior (ECCB) towards purchase. Methods/Analysis: A sample comprised of 342 consumers from north India. Correlation and multiple regression are performed to find the significant relationship between green manufacturing dimensions and ECCB dimensions. Besides, to explore the association between demographic and carrier variables and ECCB while taking decision towards purchasing green electronics products. Findings: Results showed that there is significant relationship between green manufacturing and ECCB. Besides, age, education, income of the respondents are significant factors found across the sample which influence consumers’ ECCB towards purchasing green electronics products. Applications/Improvements: The theoretical and operational implications of the results are discussed in the paper. The study is limited to the perception of electronics product consumers from north India.
558 Cultural Distance of Nations and Localization Strategy of MNEs in China   , Jaewook Yoo  
This study explores the relationship between cultural distance of nations and the localization of MNEs in China. The empirical setting for this study was drawn from a multiyear sample of MNEs in the Chinese market. The data for the degree of localization of MNEs was drawn from an annual index provided by the China Entrepreneur magazine from 2010 to 2012. Hofstede’s six cultural dimensions were employed to measure the cultural distance between the home and the host countries. The research question presented in this study was tested using a multiple regression model that used the localization of the MNEs as the dependent variable. The results indicate that the difference in the power distance between the home country and the host country has a positive relationship with the localization of the MNEs in the Chinese market. On the other hand, the other five dimensions of national culture do not present any significant relationships with the localization of the MNEs. The results are in agreement with arguments made in previous studies by indicating that the effects of national culture on the localization of MNEs are not the same under all circumstances but rather vary according to the different countries and to different chronological changes. Therefore, the MNEs should consider the cultural distance between the home country and the host country whenever deciding their strategy for internationalization, particularly in terms of the degree of localization for each target country
559 The Role of Archeology on Earth Buildings and Earth Architecture in the World , Hamed Niroumand, Juan Antonio Barcelo and Maryam Saaly  
Many archeologists have carried out many excavations to investigate many archeological sites in various parts of the world. The current paper is aimed at investigating the role of archeology on earth buildings and earth architecture in the world. The current study provides a review of many archaeological studies in collaboration with analyses of the construction techniques applied in various archaeological sites. In fact, in order to draw a conclusion regarding to the role of archeology on earth architecture, diverse investigations which have studied into archeological and structural aspects of vernacular buildings have been presented. Many of these researches put emphasis on archeological aspects of various sites, but none concentrated on the role of archeological sites on earth buildings. According to different investigations, results signify that utilization of the past construction methods applied in construction of ancient vernacular buildings can be developed, and utilized in modern structures. Also, archeologists deemed that further devastating effects such as humid and rain should be considered in order to hamper the deconstruction of vernacular buildings. Prospects for further developments of earth architecture are so bright if engineers augment the quality of earthen materials, and earth construction techniques using the methods which are founded on ancient methods.
560 Effectuation of Secure Authorized Deduplication in Hybrid Cloud , B. Mahalakshmi and G. Suseendran  
Objectives: Different user can access the same data repeatedly and trying to store it in the memory of the cloud server. Due to this there is a problem of maintaining the storage space and bandwidth. The main purpose of this study is how the data is secured, whether the authorized person is accessing the data or not and finally to check whether same data is repeatedly stored in the memory to avoid duplication of the data. Methods: In deduplication, to guard the confidentiality of sensitive information, it's encrypted/decrypted by the planned convergent coding technique before outsourcing for higher protection of knowledge security. Findings: The convergent encryption method and open authorization protocol and deduplication are combined together and check the data for deduplication in a secured way. The possibilities of using other algorithms are also considered for further implementation.
561 Map-Puzzle Application for the Evaluation of Children’s Spatial Knowledge   , Pyoung-Woo Yang , Hyun Gu Cho , Jeong Hye Han and Kwang Woo Nam  
This paper proposes a model for geographic jigsaw-puzzle for identifying and supporting spatial knowledge in young children. We implemented this application on the android platform for convenient with an easy usage in educational purposes. This geographic puzzle application which is runnable in android smart phones and tablets is usable for educating and evaluating children’s location and spatial knowledge.
562 A Study on the Branded Content as Marketing Communication Media in the Viewpoint of Relational Perspective   , Min-Wook Choi  
This article examines the growth of branded content as marketing communication media in the viewpoint of relational perspective - the recent major trend of marketing communication. It first examines the concept and scope of branded content, and the effect and potential growth of it as marketing communication media, and examines the background of growing interest about relational perspective and the importance of relational perspective in today marketing communication environment. Then, it investigates the mechanisms such as what kind of connection is there between branded content and relational perspective, and how can the relationship with consumer be formed and enhanced through branded content.
563 Some Numerical Results on Finite Groups and Semigroups , Mansour Hashemi  and Mikhak Polkouei  
The concepts of th n -roots, n -abelianity and n -centrality have been defined on groups. In this paper, we examine these concepts on finitely presented groups 2 m m -1 1+m Hm =< a,b | a = b = 1,b ab = a > where m > 2 and finite semigroup 3 3 22 S =< a,b |a = a,b = b,ab = ba > . AMS subject Classification 2010: 20P05, 20M99.
564 A Validation Study on the Translated Korea Version of Emotional Labor Scale (ELS) in Hospitality Organizations   , Eun Hee Jang, Dahye Park , Dong Hoon Lee , DukHee Lee and Yoon Hee Choi  
Background/Objectives: To validate the Korea version of the emotional labor scale, an instrument widely used to understand how professionals working with people face emotional labor in hospitality organizations. Methods/Statistical analysis: The objective of this research was to translate and to test the reliability and validity of the 3 types ELS in Korea. An observational, cross-sectional and multicenter survey was used. Health care providers (n=205) completed the selfreported ELS. Data was gathered at 3 hospitals during Oct. 2013 after obtaining an informed consent. Results: Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) & Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) were estimated in order to test the factors structure of the scale. The internal consistency coefficients from the three studies, ranging from .69 to .94, evidence the reliability of the 3 types ELS. Among them, ELS by Brotheridge and Lee4 revised 2011, the most appropriate in the results of EFA. The results of the CFA confirm a factor structure of the scale with two subscales. Conclusion/Application: Evidence was also provided for convergent and discriminant validity. The paper concludes with a discussion of potential applications of the scale.
565 A Validation Study on the Translated Korea Version of Emotional Labor Scale (ELS) in Hospitality Organizations   , Eun Hee Jang, Dahye Park , Dong Hoon Lee , DukHee Lee and Yoon Hee Choi  
Background/Objectives: To validate the Korea version of the emotional labor scale, an instrument widely used to understand how professionals working with people face emotional labor in hospitality organizations. Methods/Statistical analysis: The objective of this research was to translate and to test the reliability and validity of the 3 types ELS in Korea. An observational, cross-sectional and multicenter survey was used. Health care providers (n=205) completed the selfreported ELS. Data was gathered at 3 hospitals during Oct. 2013 after obtaining an informed consent. Results: Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) & Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) were estimated in order to test the factors structure of the scale. The internal consistency coefficients from the three studies, ranging from .69 to .94, evidence the reliability of the 3 types ELS. Among them, ELS by Brotheridge and Lee4 revised 2011, the most appropriate in the results of EFA. The results of the CFA confirm a factor structure of the scale with two subscales. Conclusion/Application: Evidence was also provided for convergent and discriminant validity. The paper concludes with a discussion of potential applications of the scale.
566 A Validation Study on the Translated Korea Version of Emotional Labor Scale (ELS) in Hospitality Organizations   , Eun Hee Jang, Dahye Park , Dong Hoon Lee , DukHee Lee and Yoon Hee Choi  
Background/Objectives: To validate the Korea version of the emotional labor scale, an instrument widely used to understand how professionals working with people face emotional labor in hospitality organizations. Methods/Statistical analysis: The objective of this research was to translate and to test the reliability and validity of the 3 types ELS in Korea. An observational, cross-sectional and multicenter survey was used. Health care providers (n=205) completed the selfreported ELS. Data was gathered at 3 hospitals during Oct. 2013 after obtaining an informed consent. Results: Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) & Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) were estimated in order to test the factors structure of the scale. The internal consistency coefficients from the three studies, ranging from .69 to .94, evidence the reliability of the 3 types ELS. Among them, ELS by Brotheridge and Lee4 revised 2011, the most appropriate in the results of EFA. The results of the CFA confirm a factor structure of the scale with two subscales. Conclusion/Application: Evidence was also provided for convergent and discriminant validity. The paper concludes with a discussion of potential applications of the scale.
567 A Validation Study on the Translated Korea Version of Emotional Labor Scale (ELS) in Hospitality Organizations   , Eun Hee Jang, Dahye Park , Dong Hoon Lee , DukHee Lee and Yoon Hee Choi  
Background/Objectives: To validate the Korea version of the emotional labor scale, an instrument widely used to understand how professionals working with people face emotional labor in hospitality organizations. Methods/Statistical analysis: The objective of this research was to translate and to test the reliability and validity of the 3 types ELS in Korea. An observational, cross-sectional and multicenter survey was used. Health care providers (n=205) completed the selfreported ELS. Data was gathered at 3 hospitals during Oct. 2013 after obtaining an informed consent. Results: Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) & Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) were estimated in order to test the factors structure of the scale. The internal consistency coefficients from the three studies, ranging from .69 to .94, evidence the reliability of the 3 types ELS. Among them, ELS by Brotheridge and Lee4 revised 2011, the most appropriate in the results of EFA. The results of the CFA confirm a factor structure of the scale with two subscales. Conclusion/Application: Evidence was also provided for convergent and discriminant validity. The paper concludes with a discussion of potential applications of the scale.
568 A FPGA Software based GPS Receiver Implementation with Signal blocker through Simulink , Rachna Kumari  and Mainak Mukhopadhyay  
Background/Objectives: Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) software based Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver has been designed and developed using the C language interface environment. GPS Receivers are used for tracking a signal and calculates the current position of the signal in real time. GPS Receiver is a real time application used for tracking purpose. Methods/Analysis: A GPS Receiver works on specially coded GPS satellite signals. The signal is processed in a GPS receiver for computing position, velocity and time. A GPS uses minimum four satellite signals for computing positions in three dimensions using the real time receiver clock. Findings: In this paper, it is planned to build a FPGA-based software GPS receiver using a high level Matlab design Simulink tool. This GPS Receiver is used to design such components that require huge computation like baseband signal processing correlator, C/A code generator, Discriminator Code Loop (DCL) are designed by the Xilinx FPGA block and implemented in Matlab/Simulink. Novelty: The “GPS Receiver Processing Captured Satellite data” model of GPS system without jammer, the signal level display shows the value 0.1779; but in case of a jammer, the signal level is reduced to 0.1447 which is 81% of the initial signal level. So, jammer reduces the signal strength and makes the signal weaker.
569 Plan for Vitalisation of Application of Big Data for e-Learning in South Korea   , Kyoo-Sung Noh  
Recently, as big data have emerged, analysis-based decision-making, problem-solving and business opportunity creation come to the fore as important issues in business. As the effects of using big data have been proven, the range of the application is rapidly expanding to the industrial, public and social sectors. Keeping pace with this trend, the educational world is facing a new turning point: e.g. Building up a big data-based education environment is attempted. However, in South Korea, there are few studies related to big data-based education and almost no applications to the field of education, yet. As a result of the study, it was analysed that the e-Learning industry recognises the importance of big data, and yet, it has not yet considered the introduction due to a lack of human resources, the absence of technologies and a lack of successful cases. Thus, it is necessary for the government to actively develop policies such as fostering big data specialists in the field of e-Learning, supporting related technological developments and constructing technological infrastructure for the application of big data
570 A Comprehensive Analysis of Optimal Performance Parameters of Stand-Alone Generator , Sunil Kumar Goyal and D. K. Palwalia   
Background/Objectives: This paper aims to evaluate performance characteristics of standalone Self-Excited Induction Generator (SEIG) under varying load condition. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Prime mover speed, excitation capacitance and load significantly influence the performance of SEIG. Due to nonlinear magnetization, estimation of nonlinear magnetic characteristics involves clumsy mathematical computation. It gives an opportunity to model nonlinear magnetization characteristics suitable to obtain minimum impedance and optimal capacitance for improved performance. Findings: The effect of regression on nonlinear magnetization curve has been discussed while estimation of magnetization reactance by employing regression functions. It provides optimal value of magnetization reactance to compute performance variables of SEIG. Solution techniques are applied to calculate frequency and excitation capacitance and compared their results. Regression functions with solution techniques have been applied on comprehensive data of induction machines to exhibit validity and accuracy of proposed scheme. Applications/Improvements: The proposed techniques reveal lower capacitance requirement as compared to existing piece- wise linearization model.
571 Defense IT Convergence in South Korea   , Kim Songi , Sim Seungbae, Jung Hosang and Jeong Bongju  
In recent decades, the role of Information Technology (IT) has grown across the globe in the area of national defense, yet the value of emerging technologies may sometimes be over- or underestimated. IT technologies are grafted onto national defense systems in order to improve the accuracy of weapon system or support decision making process, which is defined as defense IT convergence. This study analyses the status of defense IT applications and identifies the tendency toward defense IT convergence in emerging technologies. To do this, we investigated 89 systems in South Korea and other countries, classifying systems by military domain category, and identifying their underlying technologies. These underlying technologies were placed on Gartner’s hype cycle, indicating the position of the identified defense IT applications on this long-term cycle. Most countries, including South Korea, have a high level of practical use in most proven-technology: complex-event processing, machine-to-machine communication services, and predictive analytics. Interestingly, the results show that South Korea has a risk-avoiding tendency in defense IT policy, which means that the country has fewer technologies in the trigger level of the hype cycle compared to the international average. Also we found that the average number of technologies used in defense IT systems in South Korea is smaller than the international average, which means that South Korea is comparatively weak in integrating multiple technologies into systems.
572 Communication in Creative Process of Art Communities , Alexander M. Pivovarov and Olga A. Nikiforova   
Purpose: This research is aimed at an enquiry into whether it is possible in an analysis of an artistic creative process to use a model, major components (sub-processes) of which include a problem statement, emotional arousal, generating, objectification and evaluating. Methods/Analysis: The research methodological framework includes a communicative approach. It involves comprehension of creative sub-processes using a communication analysis that takes place in a team, members of which are engaged in solving an intellectually demanding task. The evidence-based framework for the paper included the data gathered with a method of a semi-structured interview in time of field research. Their object included four art communities that in an urban environment (e.g. Moscow, Saint Petersburg) had brought together more than thirty artists, working in various genres of the contemporary art. Results: The findings presented in the paper describe the sub-processes of objectification and emotional arousal in an individual and team creative work of artists, as well as understanding a role performed by communication in each process performance. Novelty/Improvements: Firstly, the research novelty lies in the model of the creative process used for the artwork analysis; the model was elaborated in the field of invention. Second, it lies in a description of the relationship between communication and creativity in the artwork of the artists clustered into art communities. Third, it lies in the identified “material” form of objectification in the artistic creative process.
573 Sequential Layered Approach for Optimized Context Integration   , Yoosoo Oh  
In this paper, we propose a sequential layered approach for optimized context integration. The proposed approach applies multiple fusion layers according to divided time intervals to accurately integrate contexts. Particularly, it is necessary to develop a generalized architecture for context integration that enables a decision to be made based on contextual data from large numbers of heterogeneous sensors. Thus, our approach is managed at an architectural level for dynamic changes in heterogeneous sensor environments. Also our approach is specified by the characteristics of contexts to decide high-level semantic information from different contextinputs. Furthermore, our approach can serve as a fundamental study of context awareness in large-scale applications and the convergence among heterogeneous domains.
574 Sustainable Units for Structural Masonry , K. Venugopal and Radhakrishna  
Background/Objectives: To determine the basic properties of masonry units, modulus of elasticity and to evaluate the masonry efficiency for the different h/t ratios of the masonry prisms and wallets. Methods/Statistical analysis: The geopolymer blocks were cured in open air temperature. These blocks were tested for water absorption & initial rate of water absorption, dry density, dimensionality, compression strength, flexural strength, and bond-strength with & without lateral confinement and modulus of elasticity. Rendered and unrendered geopolymer solid block and hollow prisms were cast and tested using cement mortar for the different h/t ratios and wallets were tested for compression. Findings: It was found that the basic properties of geopolymer masonry units were well within the limits prescribed the relevant codes of practice. Flexural strength and bond strength of geopolymer blocks prisms was more due to the good bonding between the blocks and the mortar joints. The masonry efficiency is increases with decrease in h/t ratios. There will be no much difference between rendered and unrendered masonry efficiency block prisms. The performance of the axial and eccentrically loaded wallette was found to be superior compared to the conventional cement block masonry. They satisfy the requirements of IS 2185:2008 (part 4). Application/Improvements: These geopolymer masonry units were used as structural masonry units due to the good compressive strength and performance.
575 Repair Mortar for Structural Sustainability , H. Deepak, Shan Joy and V. Vasugi  
Objectives: Study on the engineering properties of fiber reinforced polymer cement mortar with incremental replacement of cement by silica fume, Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS) and Metakaoline (MK). Methods/Statistical Analysis: Cement is replaced by the additives as 5, 10 and 15 percent by weight. Polymer content (SBR) was varied as 5, 10, 15 and 20 percent by weight of water to be added. The FRP fiber addition is optimized to one percent by weight of cement in all the specimens. The intention was to study the variation in engineering properties of fiber reinforced polymer with additive replacement of binder with the additives and water with polymer. Findings: It is concluded from the test results that the compressive and flexural strength of modified mortar were improved markedly with increasing polymer binder ratio and also additive replacement of binder weight by silica fume, GGBS and Metakaoline. The results obtained has given much higher values when compared to individual addition of additives or polymer. The consistency in values of both compressive and flexural strength marks the much higher efficiency of the mortar even in lower percentage of addition of additive or polymer when added individually. Supplementary Cementing Materials (SCM) have growing importance in the construction industry, as it upgrades the economic and engineering efficiency of cement compositions. The replacement of water with polymer reduces the water binder ratio, driving to high strength and durable repair mortars. The polyester fibers addition resulted in the improvement of the mechanical properties of the composition. Applications/Improvements: Thus the fiber reinforced mortar combination is a mark in structural sustainability of not only modern but also for structural rehabilitation of historic monuments, where it can replace the ancient lime mortars with high strength and durability hand in hand.
576 Smart Daily Log Developed for Institutions for the Disabled   , Kang Jung Bae , Kim Chang Geol  , Park Hee Joon and Song Byeong Seop  
Child care institutions in Korea are required to do paper works for administrative purposes as the institutions have to draw, execute and evaluate plans to provide child caring services. Such documents include a service plan, a daily log and an evaluation sheet. Most institutions spend lots of time to write out the papers manually. This study is to help the institutions prepare the documents digitally, and analyze them to automatically recommend customized service for each individual child. The daily log service developed as a result of this study allows its users to keep the records online, and analyzes the daily log to come up with measures to improve daily log system. The daily log service has been used since 2009 in institutions for the disabled. A daily behavioral log as a result of analyzing daily log is written mostly at 8:00; while a daily child caring log is written mostly between 16:00 to 17:00. It takes 24 minutes and 32 seconds to prepare a daily child caring log; and 15 minutes and 3 seconds, for a daily behavioral log. Given that working hours are eight hours per day, 6% out of the working hours is spent on preparing the behavioral daily log. The share of time spent on paper works drops significantly
577 A Proposed Solution to the Problem of Construction Industry Overruns: Lean Construction Techniques and Linear Programming , Rohit Jindas Gade
Background: This paper will suggest that combined strategy of Lean Construction techniques with Linear Programming as a possible solution to the problem of overruns in construction work. It will seek to examine how a combination of Lean Construction techniques and a base software model of Linear Programming can apply to a construction project at the initial and intermediate planning stage to overcome challenges related to project overruns. Based on a literature review and data collection it will investigate if the combination of Lean Construction techniques and Linear Programming could result in time and cost assurances in a construction project. Objective: To investigate to what extent a combination strategy of Lean Construction principles and Linear Programming could help solve the problem of overruns in time and costs in construction. Analysis: The research work deals with the application of lean construction principles such as Last planner system Just in time etc. at the first part of the project and then the second part introduces formation of linear programming model base on the output of first part. The collective result of the combination is then measured. Expected Findings: Time and Cost overrun can be easily overcome through applying the combination of Lean construction techniques, and linear programming was implemented. Project planning and scheduling can be improved in the early phase of the project, which helps to avoid delays and failure of project occurring at a later stage.Improvement: The combination of both is never used in the construction industry so far, so this project gives initial strategy to do so for small scale construction project first, and after successful implementation, it can be applied to the large scale construction project.
578 The Effects of Emotion and Communication on Job Involvement   , Do Hyun Kim, Yen Yoo You and Jin Teak Jung  
Although certain topics such as scientific management, human-centered research, communication, and job involvement have been actively studied for the purpose of enhancing organizational performance, there have been relatively few academic studies of emotion, despite its importance to this subject. Accordingly, the purpose of the present study was to verify the effects of emotions on job involvement. Results of the study showed that communication and consideration influence job involvement, while emotions play a partially mediating role on communication and job involvement. Researchers argue that communication should be improved in order to achieve better organizational performance, and that performance is related to verbal communication. All people have emotions, and they may express them through words. In addition, emotions and words can significantly influence individuals, and, as a result, they may influence individual and organizational success. Thus, the communication of positive emotions is an important element of successful organizational development, and organizations should create environments that foster such communications.
579 A Smart Automated Embedded Based PCB–Bare Board Testing Machine Design and Development using Flexible Flying Probe , S. Kanimozhi and K. Gopalakrishnan  
Background/Objectives: To design an automated embedded based flexible flying probe for testing PCB bare board more accurately which is one of the toughest challenge in manual testing. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Embedded based flexible flying probe can precisely position a probe on test points with high accurateness achieved by means of microstepping motors and linear laser encoders. The probe is moved horizontally and vertically based on the command passed by stepper motor which in-turn get the information from the prototype in format of Gerber file. First the flying probe checks the connectivity between two points then if the connectivity is good it will check the next track. Findings: This novel invention of flying probes are developed from new-fangled and novel thought intended to produce fasten testing speed, improved access, and enhanced error coverage. During the testing process if the machine determines some problem in the connectivity, it read the problem and send the error report on the PC display. From the error report, we can identify the fault placed in the PCB. A log file with test results is generated & stored on the PC. Fault details are sent to display unit of PC. The PC displays the matching accuracy and fault detection. The experimental result was conducted on 3 different PCB Bare board and the testing result shows the 92% accuracy and 18% false detection rate. It is compared with the jig board tester which produces less result compared to the proposed technique. The chief confront of this proposal is low down equipment and dispensation cost, absolute testing accurateness and capability to position close to faults and faults that may source irregular breakdowns. Applications/Improvements: This machine can be used for testing any type of PCB board. This proposed work develops a smart flying probe to test PCB which will significantly decrease test times therefore increasing productivity
580 Role of Relationship Marketing in Raising the Loyalty of Teachers of Private English Institutes in Korea   , Jaewook Yoo and Keun Huh  
The purpose of this paper is to report on the components of relationship marketing that have been perceived by teachers as being related to the capacity for innovation of their private English institutes. The teachers’ perception of the innovative capacity of their institutes is very important because it is an eventful precondition that increases the loyalty that teachers have towards their institute. The results from a multiple regression analysis showed that five components of relationship marketing, including trust, bonding, communication, shared values, and reciprocity, are closely related to a teacher’s perception for the capacity for innovation of their institutes. However, one other component, empathy is not. The findings indicate that particular components are more important than others to improve teachers’ perceptions for the capacity for innovation of their institutes, which in turn improves their loyalty to the institutes. Therefore, English institutes should selectively increase their investments on specific components of relationship marketing in order to increase the loyalty of internal stakeholders, as well as of external stakeholders.
581 Optimization of Query Processing Time using Taguchi Method for RFID Data Management , V. Maria Anu , R. Aroul Canessane and L. Mary Gladence  
Background: RFID technology is being adopted by a number of applications including supply chain management. Due to the adoption of RFID technology challenging problems have appeared. The RFID database system handles huge amounts of path oriented, time dependent data. Methods: This paper focuses on minimizing the query processing time by using Taguchi optimization method. Simulations show how the factors considered impact RFID data processing efficiency. Findings: So the effectiveness of the system depends on the factors such as the number of tags accessed at a time, the data preprocessing techniques adopted, and selection of suitable indexing techniques and so on. However, few of the techniques adopted by existing methods focus on the efficiency of RFID data processing. Applications/Improvements: Taguchi method is applied to predict the best design combinations that achieve minimum query processing time.
582 Fundus Image Screening for Diabetic Retinopathy , M. Saranya and A. Grace Selvarani  
The proposed system aims in diagnosing Diabetic Retinopathy (DR), a snag in patients with Diabetes for prolonged periods. MinIMaS algorithm is primarily used for background Extraction and Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) is used for grouping of lesions. The amount of false positives are minimized by the selection of feature vectors used for classification. The proposed system achieves sensitivity of 89% for grouping of bright lesion and sensitivity of 82% for classifying bright lesion which when compared to existing system (KNN classifier) gives a higher sensitivity value. Similarly MinIMaS algorithm provides 91% accurate results when compared to the existing Haar based wavelet transform (70%) and Highest Average Variation (65%). System aids in detecting severity of Diabetic Retinopthy with improved accuracy for timely treatment of patients.
583 A Study on the Management Plan for Promoting Key Competence of Dental Hygiene Students   , Sook-Jeong Lee and Yong-Ju Kang  
Purpose: This study has a purpose of proposing the management methods and promotional directions of key competence for students of dental hygienic major and designing of improvement program for key competence by grade and level and to strengthen the employment ability education by considering the characteristics of students and excellent organizations in order to improve the employment competitiveness of graduating students and to contribute to the employment of excellent organizations and improvement of adaptability after the employment. Method: A survey was conducted on the status of key competence of J University students targeting 187 HR personnel and training personnel of dental medical institutions and mean, standard deviation, correlation analysis and one-way ANOVA was conducted. Result: In key competence, it was generally shown to have average level with interpersonal skills being the highest and the problem solving skills to be the lowest. In the sub-region of problem solving skills, specific problem solving skills were relatively shown to be insufficient but technology information application abilities were shown to be higher than average. In the sub-region of interpersonal skills, having consideration for others, forming relationships and cooperation was excellent but ability to lead others in order to achieve the task or proposing opinions or directions to others were relatively low. In the sub-region of communication skills, having appropriate presentation ability was shown to be the lowest. In the work ethics it has generally shown to have proper attitude and occupational view needed for professional life and in self-development, it was shown to have relatively lower career development ability or self-esteem compared to self management ability. The subregion of key competence has shown statistically significant positive correlation. Especially, as the communication skills were higher, self development skills were shown higher as well.
584 The Relationship between the Stress from Learning English and Defense Mechanism of Elementary Students   , Keun Huh and Myeong Hee Shin  
This study aims to examine the relationship between the level of stress included in elementary school children as a result of learning English and their resulting defense mechanisms. This study also investigates the relation between the types of defense mechanisms and the English achievement of those same children. The subjects were 106 fifth grade students in a metropolitan area in Korea, and a survey was employed to collect data. A Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was conducted in order to test the differences across the four types of defense mechanisms that were observed between low and high levels of stress of the students. In addition, a t-test was conducted in order to compare the English achievement of the two groups of students. The results indicate a strong relationship between the level of stress from learning English and the particular type of defense mechanism. The findings imply that there is a need to consider elementary students’ stress from learning English and helping them to control stress in appropriate ways.
585 The Relationship between the Stress from Learning English and Defense Mechanism of Elementary Students   , Keun Huh and Myeong Hee Shin  
This study aims to examine the relationship between the level of stress included in elementary school children as a result of learning English and their resulting defense mechanisms. This study also investigates the relation between the types of defense mechanisms and the English achievement of those same children. The subjects were 106 fifth grade students in a metropolitan area in Korea, and a survey was employed to collect data. A Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was conducted in order to test the differences across the four types of defense mechanisms that were observed between low and high levels of stress of the students. In addition, a t-test was conducted in order to compare the English achievement of the two groups of students. The results indicate a strong relationship between the level of stress from learning English and the particular type of defense mechanism. The findings imply that there is a need to consider elementary students’ stress from learning English and helping them to control stress in appropriate ways.
586 Autonomous Accident Detection and Information System , K. R. Tharani and A. Jeyapriya  
Now-a-days accident happens frequently, due to poor emergency facilities there are loss of human lives. The proposed system provides a solution to this drawback. An accelerometer sensor monitors the acceleration of the vehicle. A threshold value is fixed. If there is any change in vehicle’s tilt position, orientation and if it is acceleration value is above the threshold value. Immediately it sends signal to the microcontroller. A GSM module is activated and it sends the pre-stored message to the emergency contacts such as relatives, hospitals, police station.
587 Dynkin Diagrams and Root Systems of Indefinite Quasi-Hyperbolic Kac-Moody Algebra QHA4 (2) , A.Uma Maheswari and S. Krishnaveni  
Objectives: To obtain the complete classification of a particular class of indefinite type of quasi hyperbolic Kac-Moody algebra QHA4 (2) and to study the properties of imaginary roots. Methods: Pure theoretical approach for the classification of Dynkin diagrams and an analytical approach for the root system are applied. Findings: The complete classification of Dynkin diagrams associated to the Generalized Cartan Matrix of quasi hyperbolic indefinite type of Kac-Moody algebra QHA4 (2) is obtained. Here, the number of connected, non isomorphic Dynkin diagrams associated with QHA4 (2) is 858. The properties of strictly imaginary and purely imaginary roots are also studied for QHA4 (2). Applications: Kac-Moody algebra has applications in various fields of mathematics and mathematical physics such as combinatorics, number theory, partial differential equations, quantum physics etc.
588 A Study of Heart and Thoracic Size and Cardiothoracic Ratio on Chest Radiography in Digital-Radiography System   , Young-Cheol Joo, Cheong-Hwan Lim, In-Gyu You Hong-Ryang Jung and Mi-Hwa Lee
Due to changes to Digital-Radiography system (DR system), its distance of film and object is longer than that in Film-Screen system (F/S system). However, current chest radiography exam has been the same as in F/S system. The objective of this study was to present real Heart Size (HS), Thoracic Size (TS), and Cardiothoracic Ratio (CTR) on chest Posterior-Anterior (chest PA) and chest Anterior-Posterior (chest AP) in the DR system and to determine the statistical correlation between Focal-Film Distance (FFD) and HS, TS, or CTR during chest AP. Our results revealed that HS, TS, and CTR in chest PA and chest AP of the DR system were larger than their real sizes. HS was especially magnified 8% and 22% in chest PA and chest AP, respectively. HS, TS, and CTR all had significant (p<0.05) negative correlation with FFD. In addition, HS and TS as well as HS and CTR had significant (p<0.05) positive correlation.
589 A Study of Heart and Thoracic Size and Cardiothoracic Ratio on Chest Radiography in Digital-Radiography System   , Young-Cheol Joo, Cheong-Hwan Lim, In-Gyu You Hong-Ryang Jung and Mi-Hwa Lee
Due to changes to Digital-Radiography system (DR system), its distance of film and object is longer than that in Film-Screen system (F/S system). However, current chest radiography exam has been the same as in F/S system. The objective of this study was to present real Heart Size (HS), Thoracic Size (TS), and Cardiothoracic Ratio (CTR) on chest Posterior-Anterior (chest PA) and chest Anterior-Posterior (chest AP) in the DR system and to determine the statistical correlation between Focal-Film Distance (FFD) and HS, TS, or CTR during chest AP. Our results revealed that HS, TS, and CTR in chest PA and chest AP of the DR system were larger than their real sizes. HS was especially magnified 8% and 22% in chest PA and chest AP, respectively. HS, TS, and CTR all had significant (p<0.05) negative correlation with FFD. In addition, HS and TS as well as HS and CTR had significant (p<0.05) positive correlation.
590 Analysis of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Activity Types of Korean Professional Sports Team: Application of Coorientation Model , Il-Gwang Kim , Susan Kim , Yong-Kuk Lee and Joo-Young Kim  
Background/Objectives: The objective of this study is to analyze the difference between professional sports clubs and sports fans in the recognition of the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) activity types performed by individual clubs of four professional sports (baseball, football, basketball, and volleyball) by applying the co-orientation model of McLeod and Chaffee (1973). Methods/Statistical Analysis: questionnaire survey was performed with 240 sports club staffs and 232 sports fans by biased sampling. In the analysis of the data, statistical software programs, SPSS 20.0 and AMOS 20.0 were employed to perform Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), Cronbach’s ɑ examination, frequency analysis, mean and standard deviation analysis, an independent sample t-test, and a matching sample t-test. The results of the survey are as follows. Findings: First, the objective agreement, representing the agreement in the recognition of the CSR types between the clubs and the fans, was high in the order of public interest connected marketing and protection of fans’ rights and interests. Second, the subjective congruence: 1. representing the consistency between the clubs’ recognition and the clubs’ prediction about the fans’ recognition, and the subjective congruence, 2. representing the consistency between the fans’ recognition and the fans’ prediction about the clubs’ recognition were analyzed. The subjective congruence 1 was high in the order of social philanthropy, home culture project, public interest connected marketing, and protection of fans’ rights and interests. The subjective congruence 2 was high in the order of protection of fans’ rights and interests, social philanthropy, home culture project, public interest connected marketing. Third, the accuracy: 1. representing the consistency between the clubs’ recognition and the fans’ prediction about the clubs’ recognition, and the accuracy, 2. representing the consistency between the fans’ recognition and the clubs’ prediction about the fans’ recognition were analyzed. Application/Improvements: The accuracy 1 was high in the order of protection of fans’ rights and interests, home culture project, and social philanthropy. The accuracy 2 was the highest in public interest connected marketing followed by social philanthropy and home culture project. Fourth, the co-orientation state of the professional sports clubs’ CSR activity types was in the combination of ‘Consensus-Dissensus-Dissensus-Dissensus-Dissensus.
591 The Effects of Supervisor Support, Emotional Exhaustion, and Sense of Personal Accomplishment on Hospital Nurse Turnover Intentions   ,  Eunja Yeun and Heejeong Kim  
The management of nursing staffs, who account for the largest number of medical professionals, is very important. However, now a days every medical institution is suffering from significantly higher turnover of nurses and is having trouble retaining nursing staffs. This study is an attempt to investigate the effects of supervisor support, sense of personal accomplishment, and emotional exhaustion on the turnover intentions of nurses. To determine the influences of supervisor support, sense of personal accomplishment, and emotional exhaustion on turnover intentions, a regression model was used in Hierarchical Step 1 to analyze the sociology of population characteristics which showed statistically significant differences: age, years worked, working unit, and position. In Hierarchical Step 2, supervisor support, sense of personal accomplishment, and emotional exhaustion were added, and the explanatory power increased by a statistically significant 19.4%. Among these factors, emotional exhaustion was shown to exert a significant influence on turnover intention, and as emotional exhaustion increased (B = .515), it was shown to have the greatest influence on turnover intention. The total explanatory power of these factors on turnover intention was shown to be 32.3%. Emotional exhaustion turned out to be the factor with the most influence on turnover intention in this research. Nursing managers wishing to reduce turnover intention should focus their analyses on the issue of emotional exhaustion and look for ways to decrease emotional exhaustion among the nurses they supervise..
592 Oil Spill Detectionand Removing Technique - A Review , M. Deepa and T. Saravanan  
Oil spills are one of the most visible signs of pollutionsin our environment. The main objective of the paper is to detect the oil spill using discrete wavelet transform. Discrete wavelet transform helps to decompose the image into four components those are LL, HL, LH, and HH. Here LL component images are used and GLCM applied to extract the texture feature of the image. This method effectively finds the oil spill compared to conventional methods.
593 A Comparative Study on Learning Stress and Academic Self-Concept: A Small Town vs. a Metropolitan City   ,  Keun Huh  
The purpose of this study was to identify the difference both English learning stress and academic self-concept of students from two schools, one located in a small town and the other in a metropolitan city, and the subjects of this study were a total of 313 elementary school students from both schools. The research was conducted through five-point Likert score surveys, and the data were analyzed via Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA). The students from the small town were found to exhibit higher levels of stress from learning English and a lower academic self-concept than the students in the metropolitan city. The results imply that elementary school teachers need to reduce stress that students experience when learning English as well as strengthen the level of academic self-concept by providing a context-appropriate learning environment.
594 Multilevel Statcom Based on PID and Fuzzy Control , M. V. Deepthi and K. P. Prasad Rao  
To investigate the performance of Multilevel STATCOM based on PID with fuzzy controller under fault conditions. Static Synchronous Compensator is used to inject voltages by regulating DC link voltages in the system which consists of two standard inverters associated in cascaded to obtain five level output. Generally DC link voltages are controlled by PI controller. When there is a fault occurrence in the system, then time response of PI controller will be slow and overshoot problems raised. To rectify this problem, PID with fuzzy controller is proposed. By using PID with fuzzy controller, DC link voltages are synchronized; a dq reference frame theory is used in this system for STATCOM to recompense the harmonics. The proposed controller gives less Total Harmonic Distortion, Response Time, Settling Time and Rise Time.
595 The Effect of Eight-Shuffling AES Implementations Techniques against Side Channel Analysis   , Sang-Su Baek , Yoo-Seung Won , Dong-Guk Han and Jae-Cheol Ryou  
Even though cryptographic algorithms embedded on physical devices guarantee theoretical security, they are vulnerable to side channel attacks that analyze correlations related to physical information such as power consumption and electromagnetic waves. Physical devices without any countermeasures are vulnerable to side channel analysis. The masking and shuffling techniques the most used countermeasures against side channel analysis. Masking techniques rely on the masking order, however, these techniques have a high computational cost. Shuffling techniques, on the other hand, are able to provide security without high computational cost. Recently, instead of using one countermeasure alone, a combination of them has been employed while still affording provable security at a relatively computational cost. Computational security is related to the complexity of shuffling when a shuffling technique has been employed. In this paper, we apply shuffling techniques of the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) in a new way. Our technique involves to eight different implementations of AES. If our technique is proven safety, then we will combine masking techniques and our technique. So, we examine the theoretical versus experimentally analyzed number of power traces for the recovery key. Theoretically, our results show 64 times more shuffling complexity than a non-shuffling AES implementation. Experimentally, however, it has seven times greater shuffling complexity.
596 Special Education Discourses on Freedom of Speech and Discriminatory Speech   ,  Hong-Joong Cho , Jung-Ran Kim and Sang-Gu Kim  
As the name of people with disabilities reflects common people’s social consciousness about people with disabilities, it has varied with times. In particular, the name became clear by cultural and social factors or social or economic situations influenced their status. This study, therefore, discusses (1) the restriction of discriminatory speech guaranteed under the constitution, and provided in speech freedom and laws from the view of the limitation of freedom of speech and (2) suggestions about special education that dispute cases of “freedom of speech” and “discriminatory speech” give in literary works.
597 Factors Affecting Anxiety after Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation   , Dahye Park and Heejeong Kim  
The aim of this study was to examine the factors affecting anxiety after cardiopulmonary resuscitation among medical persons and medical students. To determine the influences of state anxiety and trait anxiety on stress and resilience, a multiple regression was used. The explanatory power of stress and resilience on state anxiety was shown to be 34.0%, and the explanatory power of stress and resilience trait anxiety was shown to be 51.6%. Among these factors, stress (B = .244) and resilience (B = -.316) were shown to exert a significant influence on state anxiety, and stress (B = .280) and resilience (B = -.340) were shown to exert a significant influence on trait anxiety. Resilience turned out to be the factor with the most influence on anxiety after cardiopulmonary resuscitation in this research. Nursing and medical managers wishing to reduce anxiety should focus their analysis on the issue of resilience and look for ways to decrease anxiety after cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
598 What Ails the Fishermen Community in Ennore Creek: A Socio - Demographic Analysis , Gomathy Parasuraman Krithiga Sivakumar, B. P. Shilpa , Arun T. Mithrason  
Background/Objectives: Fishing communities are socially, economically and educationally disadvantaged. Their settlements are characterized by overcrowding with extremely poor sanitation. Information about the socio – demographic profile of these communities is essential to address the felt needs of this community. The aim of this study is to explore the socio – demographic profile of the fishermen community residing at Ennore Creek in East Coast of India. Methods/ Statistical Analysis: A cross sectional study was done among the fishing community in Ennore Creek of North Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. The cluster sampling method was adopted and 30 clusters were randomly selected by the probability Proportionate to Size (PPS) method. The structured questionnaire was used to collect information regarding the socio – demographic details about the selected study participants and other family members. The study population included individuals who are living in the nine fishing wards of Ennore Creek for the minimum of six months period. Data entry and analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 15. Descriptive statistics were calculated for the variables. Findings: In the 780 families with 3542 individuals it was found that about 60.6% lived in semi pucca houses, 100% of the households had electricity, 88.3% of the households had improved drinking water supply, 64.4% of the households had improved sanitation facility, 35.6% of the households practiced open air defeaction, 64.2% of the households had clean fuel for cooking and 12.2% of the households had health insurance. Population below the age of 15 years was 1110 (31.3%), adult population (15–49 years) was 1919 (54.2%) and 254 (7.2%) were above 60 years of age. Number of males to females was 1815 (51.2%): 1727 (48.8%) were females Male literacy was found to be 52.1% while the female literacy was found to be 47.9%. With regard to occupation, 30.5% were fishermen, 27.9% were fish vendors and 22% were involved in non fishing jobs. A sizeable segment (80.1%) of the adults aged between 15–49 years was married. Men (15–49 years) who got married before the age of 21 years were 27.8% and women (15–49 years) who got married before the age of 18 years were 36.4%. It was found that 54.1% of the participants hailed from nuclear families, 60.1% of them had the family size more than four and 65.1% of them belonged to the category of low standard of living. In this community it was found that the current users of any form of tobacco (smoked/chewed/snuffed) were 58.5% while the current consumers of alcohol consumption were found to be 65%. Application/Improvements: The settlements and environment of fishermen community is bereft of basic infrastructure, water supply, sanitation, public services and access to healthcare. Low literacy rates, practice of early marriages, declining income from fishing activity and hence inclination to seek non-fishing jobs, prevailing lower socio – economic status, rampant and indiscriminate use of tobacco and alcohol are the salient features that prevail among the fishermen community of Ennore Creek. Health education and health promotional activities to increase the awareness on the hazards of tobacco use, alcohol consumption, importance of environmental hygiene, hazards of open air defecation, importance and benefits of education especially female literacy should be provided to bring about a change in this community.
599 Forensic Investigation and Analysis of User Input Information in Business Application , Funminiyi Olajide and Sanjay Misra  
Objectives: This paper investigates the amount of user input that can be recovered from the volatile memory of Windows computer systems while an application is still running. Additionally, an investigation into temporal, functional analysis and event reconstruction of user input activities in business application is discussed and reported upon. Methods/Analysis: Forensically, relevant user information is suitable for an evidentiary purpose. Therefore, the qualitative assessment of user input on commonly used windows-based applications is presented. Findings: In this research, detailed emphasis has been laid on the quality of evidence recovered from the allocated line numbers of the application memory. This approach describes the process of securing digital evidence for investigators. The research uncovers the process of analysing the forensically relevant data recovered from Windows applications. The investigation comprises of the following; dumping of memory, data extraction, strings evidence strings conversion, result finding of the evidence and also, reconstructing the extracted evidence of user information. Applications/Improvement: This research focuses on digital forensic investigation of digital images captured and the memory analysis of user information on using some very popular windowsbased applications. It is aimed that this may become part of forensic analysis in digital investigations.
600 The Effects of Myofascial Release Massage on Arteriosclerosis Level Index in Elderly Women , Kim Do-Jin1 and Kim Jong-Hyuck
Background/Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the changes in arteriosclerosis level index of elderly women after 8 weeks of myofascial release massage. Hence, experimental group and control group were set to compare the effects of treatment. Methods/Statistical Analysis: The massage sessions were 3 times a week for 8 weeks counting total of 24 sessions. Myofascial release massage was pushing, rubbing, massaging, shaking, traction. Analysis was performed using SPSS for Windows 18.0 Version. Findings: Among the factors related with arteriosclerosis level index Cardio Ankle Vascular Index (CAVI), R-cavi showed significant interaction effect between EG and CG with p<.05. L-cavi showed significant interaction effect between EG and CG with p<.05. Among the factors related with arteriosclerosis level index ABI, R-abi showed significant interaction effect between EG and CG with p<.05. L-abi showed significant interaction effect between EG and CG with p<.05. Application/Improvements: Through this process, arteriosclerosis such as CAVI and ABI showed interaction effects. Myofascial release massage showed positive effect on the arteriosclerosis level index of elderly women
601 Effect Analysis for LPGA Korean Company Sponsorship: Moderating Effect of Title Sponsor and Player Endorsement   ,  Ill-Gwang and Kim  
The purpose of the study was to examine Korean companies’ LPGA sponsorship activities and structural relationship of negative sentiments, social identification, and purchasing intention, and investigate moderating effect between company title sponsor and player endorsement. The data was derived from loose cross validation analysis using analysis of frequency, reliability analysis, correlation analysis, CFA, and multiple group analysis. The results were as follows. First, out of Korean company LPGA sponsorship activities, communication, image promotion, and event contribution affected negative sentiments. Second, event contribution and image promotion affected social identification. Third, social identification affected purchasing intention. Tournament title sponsor exerted greater effect compared to player endorsement when it comes to the effect that the event contribution exerts on social identification depending on the type of participation as a sponsor (i.e. tournament title sponsor and player endorsement).
602 A study of Postural Sway according to the Wedge Direction during one Leg Standing , Han-Bi Lee, Eun-Byeol Jang, Jin-Seop Kim, Ji-Heon Hong, Jae-Ho Yu, Dong-Yeop Lee
Background/Objectives: Equilibrium is the ability to maintain the Center Of Gravity (COG) in their Base Of Support (BOS) and the human body to maintain balance. The purpose of this study is to healthy adults when wearing medial/lateral wedge, ankle posture was to evaluate the effect of the dynamic balance. Methods/Statistical Analysis: This study elected a healthy adult male 14, female 26 people that have no physical balance due to musculoskeletal and neurologic abnormalities, ankle instability. Tetrax interactive balance system was maintained for 30 seconds on each surface (plane surface, lateral wedge, medial wedge) on the one leg standing position. Tetrax interactive balance system results through the General Stability Index (GST), Weight Distribution Index (WDI), weight distribution was collected. Data was analyzed the within surface in comparison paired t-test and the between surface in comparison one-way ANalysis Of VAriance (ANOVA). Findings: In the comparison between each floor, there were significant differences in weight distribution index (p<.05), in visual conditions change between the stability index was a significant difference (p<.05). Weight distribution difference of left and right were significant differences between the medial wedge and flat from the eyes open (p<.05), The eyes-closed state was a significant difference in medial wedge, flat and medial wedge, lateral wedge(p<.05). Therefore, closing one’s eye is considered during dynamic balance training to get the effect of improving result. Application/Improvements: Therefore, closing one’s eye is considered during dynamic balance training to get the effect of improving result.
603 A Study on Industrial Accident for Broken Prosthesis : with Focus on July 10. 2014 ruling 2012 du 20991 in Supreme Court of Korea , Sehyun Nam and Mi-jung Kim  
Background/Objectives: This study is to consider decision of Supreme Court of Korea to acknowledge broken prosthesis is the same with physical injury and to pay worker’s compensation reimbursement following industrial accidents. Methods/ Statistical Analysis: We analyzed the judgment of the Korean Supreme Court in 2014 of the ‘Case No. 2012 du 20991’, the case of cancel for disapproval dispose for care of the damaged artificial limb by the Industrial Accident Compensation in 2010. For this, we reviewed legal definition of disability and assistive device based on concerned laws and ICF model, compared prior precedents, and interpreted the final sentence of the Korean Supreme Court. Findings: We suggested the incident happened during job performance had to be counted as an industrial accident. Prostheses are in direct contact and connect with damaged body, and it may alternate deficient parts of body and restore one’s body function and appearance. Artificial limbs have considerably different properties compared to assistive technology devices. So, broken prosthesis was not different from any physical injury. Intervention by professional are required to properly use prosthesis for the disabled. Prosthesis is essential products for daily life and job retention of them despite hassle of use. In work performance of the Plaintiff, Prosthesis must be judged as part of body that is responsible for core functions necessary to perform essential duties as a security guard. Korea Workers’ Compensation & Welfare Service has duty to support him to continue work life and to return to work. The refusing to reimbursement for the damaged prosthesis may hinder to return to worksite of injured workers. Finally our society will make mistake of lowering the efficiency of public spending. Application/ Improvements: We support the ruling for case No. 2012 du 20991 of the Korean Supreme Court. It acknowledged the importance of assistive technology devices for participation and activities for the disabled
604 Optimal Pillow Conditions for High-Quality Sleep: A Theoretical Review   , Jong Eun Yim  
It is widely believed that using a pillow that allows appropriate neck support to maintain cervical lordosis during sleep can lead to better quality sleep.Conversely, use of the wrong type of pillow can compromise pain-sensitive structures and produce waking symptoms, such as cervical pain and stiffness, headaches, and arm pain; and this in turn results in reduced sleep quality. Therefore, the optimal pillow should have neutral cervical lordosis, prevent waking cervical symptoms, and increase sleep quality by optimizing the sleeping position. A factor critical to a suitable pillow is proper support for cervical lordosis. The main role of a pillow during sleep is to support the cervical spine in a neutral position, which prevents loss of cervical spine curvature and waking cervical symptoms by minimizing end-range positioning of the spinal segments. Another critical characteristic of a suitable pillow is reduction of the temperature of the head and core during nighttime sleep. Because, sympathetic nervous system innervation was less excited with a cool pillow, which is important for deep sleep. In addition to neck support and temperature control, the pillow comfort is another critical characteristic of a suitable pillow. However, no association between pillow comfort and waking symptoms has been reported, suggesting that the participants’ perceptions of pillow comfort and their reports of waking symptoms are independent of one another. In conclusion, a neck pillow with a firm support and low temperature may reduce neck pain and improve sleep quality. Therefore, a cool and not too hard pillow with enough support for cervical lordosis is considered optimal and is recommended for high quality sleep and cervical pain relief.
605 An Acute Effects of Applied Stretching in Soccer Game Break Time , Wan-Young Yoon and Si-Hwa Park   
Background/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the static and dynamic stretching on agility and balance during break time of soccer game. Methods/Statistical Analysis: This study was performed for 25 among healthy university soccer team students. All data were analyzed using the statistical software SPSS ver. 23.0. The data were expressed as the mean ± standard deviation of the mean (SDM). For the comparison among the groups, twoway ANOVA and paired t-test was performed for the difference within a group. Significance was set as α < .05. Findings: The agility results within a group depending on whether stretching was applied or not were - .41sec (p > .05) in the group to which the static type of stretching was applied and it was - .442sec (p < .05) in the group to which the dynamic type of stretching was applied. Therefore, both the two groups showed a result of the shortened time. There was a meaningful difference in the group to which the dynamic type of stretching was applied (p < .05) in comparison to the group to which the static type of stretching was applied (p > .05).
606 RFID Adaptor for Detecting and Handling Data/ Events in Internet of Things   , Ina Kim, Moon-Ki Back, Hyung-Jun Yim and Kyu-Chul Lee  
The Internet of Things (IoT) remains that things will be able to detect information from the environment, and communicate with the physical world. We previously proposed middleware to integrate and interoperate information based on the DDS standard. The proposed middleware consists of REST, Zigbee, and RFID adaptors. It allows the adaptors to share information by data/events/services topic matching. In this paper, we propose an RFID adaptor for RFID tags’ data/events in the IoT as a part of the middleware. The adaptor publishes data/events topic among data/events/services considering the characteristics of RFID technology. Employing the publish-subscribe model of the DDS, the RFID adaptor can detect data from RFID tags and publish the data/events to the DDS. Other adaptors in the middleware can then subscribe the data/events. As a simulation of the RFID adaptor, we can identify the interoperation of RFID and DDS. Through applying the RFID adaptor in IoT environment, it can interoperate data/events of other applications in IoT.
607 Application of Psychomotricity to the 2015 Revised Compulsory Basic Curriculum for Special School   , Youn Tae Suh and Ju Byung Park  
Background/Objestives: The purpose of this research is to analyze the relationship of the basic curriculum and to find the positive psychomotor applications in the education system. Methods/Statistical Analysis: The purpose of this report was to identify the possibility of psychomotor application to the curriculum by analyzing the content based on basic curriculum and the concept of psychomotricity. In order to achieve this goal, the author limited to and analyzed documents related to physical education curriculum and psychomotricity among the basic curricula published by the Ministry of Education and Science Technology. Findings: Health, Similar to the contents of body schema’s body boundary and body image in the somatic process of psychomotricity. Challenge, Material in children’s developmental process utilizes creativity and tools, and through such play activities the property and principle of matter are grasped. This becomes an important factor in enhancement of sociality and spirit of challenge in cooperative play with children. Competition, Social experience from competition, cooperation, and alliance with friends through play, understanding of each other, feeling the emotions of victory and defeat in competition, and building of conflicting interests becomes an important factor in development of sociality. Expression, Expression becomes an important factor in development of self-identity in activities where one’s physical and emotions from physical, material, and social experiences in psychomotricity are expressed. Safety, Safety becomes an important factor in development of respect for life by understanding one’s body and others through physical and mental development, and recognizing environmental changes. Application/Improvement: By analyzing psychomotricity in basic curriculum “physical education” has found out following results includes 5 different areas which suggest a correlation with psychomotricity.
608 Q-Methodological Analysis on the Image Types of ‘Good Female Life Sports Leaders   ,  Young-Mee Kim and Soo-Jin, Seo  
This study aims to identify the image types of ‘good female life sports leaders’ felt by the life sports participants and to analyze the characteristics of its types. For study method, Q-methodology that explores a variety of human subjectivity was applied. In order to achieve the study objectives, a total of 39 subjects consisting of male and female groups of 10 each who participated in life sports for more than 5 years, male and female groups of 5 each who are life sports instructors, male and female groups of 3 each who are acting officials at the Life Sports Association and 3 professors majoring in life sports were selected as the Q-population through open questionnaire having 4 questions where 32 statements were selected as the final Q samples. For P samples of study, a total of 51 P samples consisting of life sports participants who have participated for more than 5 years were selected. For processing the data collected through Q classification, QUANL 1.2 program for PC type was used to analyze the major factors and Varimax was used for rotation method. The analysis results are as follows. First, based on the investigation of subjectivity of participants on the image types of ‘good female life sports leaders’, it was classified into 5 types. These 5 factors had the explanatory power of 51.90% of total variance and the Eigen value of each type was 15.4375, 3.7600, 2.7857, 2.2584 and 2.2298. Second, according to the characteristics of the type, it was named as ‘leaders that provide enjoyment and happiness’ as type 1, ‘leaders combined with good looks’ as type 2, ‘leaders having progressive leadership’ as type 3, ‘leaders with expertise’ as type 4 and ‘leaders with strong self-responsibility’ as type 5. For the type 1 ‘leaders that provide enjoyment and happiness’ brings vitalization and recharge of life by providing vitality and energy to the life sports participants. For the type 2 ‘leaders combined with good looks’ are persons who teaches sports but cannot be fat and must consider for their appearance in order to be seen as an exemplary leader, where unless these criteria are met, it is thought that sports activity will not be effective and shown that life sports participants tend to pay attention to their appearance and shape by looking at the appearance and shape of their leaders. For the type 3 ‘leaders having progressive leadership’ are always positive and active leaders where in order to teach adults, it was shown that a leader having progressive leadership was needed. For the type 4 ‘leaders with expertise’ teaches the techniques on forms and movements of sports thus it was shown that they require expertise and ability. For the type 5 ‘leaders with strong self-responsibility’ should always have good self-management, responsibility towards their work and careful consideration towards the members.
609 The Relationship between Stress and Dance Accomplishment of High School Students Majoring in Dance by Maternal Parenting Behavior   , Jin-Hee Jo and Mi-Ra Jeon  
Background/Objectives: This study aimed to analyze the impact of maternal parenting behavior on the stress and accomplishment of dance of arts high school students majoring in dance. Methods/Statistical Analysis: A total of 300 students were sampled from 7 arts high schools in Seoul, Kyunggi, Kwangwon, Chungnam regions, using purposive sampling methods. The questionnaire was composed with 4 questions on personal characteristics, 26 on maternal parenting behavior, 31 on stress, and 9 on accomplishment of dance. The collected data was processed with SPSS 18.0 statistical program for correlation analysis, factor analysis, reliability analysis and multiple regression analysis. Findings: First, of the sub-factors of maternal parenting behavior perceived by the high school students majoring in dance, excessive interference has significantly negative impact upon teach-student relationship, learning, physique, health, and individual psychology stress of the dance-majoring students. Second, of the sub-factors of maternal parenting behavior perceived by the high school students majoring in dance, negligence has significantly negative impact upon comprehension ability achievement while excessive interference has a negative impact on the achievement of practical ability of the high school students majoring in dance. Application/Improvements: It is known that excessive interference of maternal parenting behavior, increases the stress that dance-majoring students have and also decrease their accomplishment of dance. Therefore, it is important for a parent to allow autonomy to children
610 Correlations between Quality of Life and Job Stress among Occupational Therapists Working at Rehabilitation Hospitals   , Yeon-Ju Kim, So-Yeon Park and Jin-Kyung Kim  
Background/Objectives: This study aimed to determine the relationships between quality of life and job stress among occupational therapists who worked at rehabilitation hospitals in South Korea. Methods/Statistical Analysis: This study conducted a survey of 295 occupational therapists working at 21 rehabilitation hospitals located in Seoul and Gyeonggi Province in South Korea. Findings:The results showed that the correlations between quality of life and job stress had statistically significant differences in all studied sub-domains. Furthermore, the higher the job stress domain scores, the lower the quality of life, which indicated a negative correlation. Application/Improvements: In the future, it is necessary to study interventions from individual and organizational dimensions to reduce job stress among occupational therapists and improve their quality of life.
611 Development of Finite Element Model Technology for Composite Pipe with Sewage Pipe Renewal Method   , San Juan Jerome C , Park Jong Sup and Lee Kwan Ho  
The aim of this study is to evaluate the behaviour of buried pipes utilizing the Sewage Pipe Renewal (SPR) method through a finite element analysis. A finite element program, ABAQUS, will be used for the static analysis of the pipes. Maximum stresses and displacements are tabulated and plotted into graphs for the analysis. Varying lengths, materials, bedding angles, boundary conditions are considered. Lengths of 1m, 3m, 5m, and 10m meters are used, but only the 3 and 5 meter pipes are used for the modelling of pipes with various bedding angles and boundary conditions. Two sets of boundary conditions are used in this study to represent the bedding support on the pipe. A fixed boundary condition and a series of soil springs are used to model the bedding support of the pipes. Based on the FEM results, length of the pipes is not a factor for the magnitude of maximum stresses and deflections of buried pipes. However, increasing bedding angles of the buried pipes decreases the value of stresses and displacements. Additionally, pipes with soil springs applied as bedding support increases the stress and displacement remarkably. Analyses and concluding remarks are provided at the end of this study
612 Study on the Head Mounted Display (HMD)-Based VR Contents and Producing Method   , Jung-Yeob Han  
Background/Objectives: Year 2016 has been presented as the starting year of Virtual Reality (VR). However, there has been little study on VR content production techniques. Methods /Statistical analysis: The purpose of this study was to examine various VR content production techniques and present the direction for development of VR contents. For methodology, the study classified production techniques for 15 contents in 3 areas, i.e., 5 contents of 360° life-size shooting, 5 contents based on 3D low polygon, and 5 contents of 360° animation which were differentiated in terms of production techniques and contents among 109 VR contents registered on March 3, 2016 which were on VR platforms provided by Oculus Rift. Furthermore, the study presented production methods applying concerned techniques and their characteristics. Findings: The results of this study showed that VR contents could be defined as real-size image, 2 and 3D low-polygon VR contents, and 360° animation, depending on production characteristics. First, 360° life-size shooting technique was suitable for special locations and situations such as performance, movies, etc., but did not enable presentation such as lighting, etc. Furthermore, 360° life-size is shooting required special technology and much time for the latter part works such as stitching, special effects, etc., in connection with production technique. Second, 3D low polygon-based VR contents enabled simulation with excellent sense of presence and immersion based on 0.02 second latency by reducing the number of 3D polygons from 30,000 to 50,000. However, it had the disadvantage of degraded reality of images. Third, 360° animation production technique enabled various presentations and enhanced image quality, but had limitation that it enabled only fragmentary interaction and simulation. Improvements/Applications: Future VR content would need to be developed in such a way that efficiency and synergic effects can be maximized by combining the advantages of various production techniques, depending on the purpose and needs of VR contents, rather than applying single production technique.
613 Design of Fuzzy Logic Controller for Inverted Pendulum-type Mobile Robot Using Smart In-Wheel Motor   , Kwak Sangfeel  , Song Eunji  , Kim KyungSik and Song ByungSeop  
Some researches for inverted pendulum-type mobile robots have been presented in many articles. In this paper we present the design of a Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) for an inverted pendulum-type mobile robot. Its mathematical model is firstly analyzed, and then we get its parameters through some manipulations. The FLC is good for some nonlinear plants. We design a conventional FLC for inverted pendulum-type mobile robot and show some simulation results.
614 Advancement in Engineering Technology: A Novel Perspective , Kartik Kalia, Md. Atiqur Rahman , Dil M. Akbar Hussain , Abhay Saxena and Mandeep Singh Walia   
Background/Objectives: In this paper we will be discussing about the impact of technology on our daily lives. How everybody is dependent upon technology in one or other way. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Technology has played a significant role in the evolution of the society. Science has produced many new ideas but to harvest those ideas, technology is a must. With the huge requirement of engineering equipment’s, the industry needs specialists who can manage and operate these technologies. Detailed information about the merits and demerits of technology is also mentioned in this paper. Findings: Technology has affected the environment on a great scale; in some cases, technology is even replacing human being or use of manpower. So proper counter measures have been mentioned, which can be used to control and limit harmful effect.
615 Structural Behavior of Geopolymer Masonry , K. Venugopal and Radhakrishna  
Background/Objectives: To determine the basic properties of masonry units, masonry efficiency for the different h/t ratios of the masonry prisms and wallets. Methods/Statistical Analysis: The geopolymer bricks were cured at ambient temperature. These bricks were tested for compression, Initial Rate of Absorption [IRA], density, water absorption, dimensionality and modulus of elasticity. They were also tested for alternative drying and wetting. The microstructure of the bricks was also analyzed. Geopolymer prisms were cast and tested using geopolymer mortar / cement mortar for the different thickness of joints. The Masonry wallets were constructed using geopolymer brick and conventional cement mortar. They were tested for axial and eccentric loading. Findings: The compressive strength of geopolymer brick attains more than 5MPa within 24 hours which influences the user to handle without any issues. It was found that the basic properties of geopolymer masonry brick well within the limits prescribed in the relevant codes. Geopolymer mortar can be used as mortar in building masonry structures as it exhibits better compressive strength and other properties than cement mortar. The performance of the axial and eccentrically loaded wallette was found to be superior compared to the conventional cement brick masonry. Application/Improvements: The geopolymer masonry bricks were used as structural masonry units due to better performance
616 The Internal Logic of Leadership   ,  Malini Pande  
What drives real leadership? Our research is based on a story-completion tool called “Understanding My Leadership Logic”. A sample of 500 leaders in senior leadership positions in corporate, were asked to undertake this story completion survey. The research question was: “What are the Internal Action Logics of leaders in corporate?” An effort has been made to understand how leaders interpret their own actions and what action logics are followed by them. This research showed six internal leadership logics or leader’s dominant way of thinking. We found that the three types of leaders associated with below average corporate performance (The Controller, The Pacifier, and The Specialist) accounted for 57% of our sample. They were less effective at implementing organizational strategies than the 32% of the sample measured as Team Builders. Independent Thinkers form the next class with 8% of the sample following this action logic. Finally only the final 3% of managers in the sample are Strategic Thinkers who are transformational leaders with the consistent capacity to innovate and to successfully transform their organizations.
617 Detection of REM in Sleep EOG Signals   , Ahmet Coskun , Seral Ozsen , Sule Yucelbas , Cuneyt Yucelbas, Gulay Tezel , Serkan Kuccukturk and Sebnem Yosunkaya  
Background/Objectives: Sleep staging is very important phase for diagnosing respiration and sleep diseases. Nowadays, Electroencephalogram (EEG), Electromyogram (EMG), Electrooculogram (EOG) signals are particularly used together in studies on sleep staging. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Associating only EOG signals to sleep staging was distinctly purposed. So, this paper deals with extraction features and classifying for determining REM-NREM states from the EOG signals. In this study, left eye (LEOG) and the right eye (REOG) signals were used. After EOG signals were obtained, 21 different features were extracted from LEOG and REOG in time and frequency domain according to rules of American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM). Findings: Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) was adopted on features as method of classification with 3-fold cross validation technique and reached conclusion with the maximum test classification accuracy as 88.05%. To obtain higher classification accuracies, Sequential Backward Selection (SBS) method was used. According to results of SBS, number of the best features combination was determined as 13 and the maximum classification accuracy was obtained as 89.62%. The optimum value of hidden layer node number of ANN was determined as 15 for the best features. Application/Improvements: When looking from the viewpoint of percentage of classification accuracy of this study, a result can be seen that is non-negligible value for literature.
618 Effect of EEG Time Domain Features on the Classification of Sleep Stages , Sule Yucelbas , Seral Ozsen , Cuneyt Yucelbas , Gulay Tezel, Serkan Kuccukturk and Sebnem Yosunkaya  
Background/Objectives: Studies on the field of automatic sleep stage classification have been taking more attention of researchers day by day. Noise in the recordings, nonlinear dynamic feature of EEG signals and some other reasons affect the performance of proposed systems in negative manner. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Sleep can be divided five main stages as Wake, Non-REM1, Non-REM2, Non-REM3 and REM. Almost every proposed method can successfully classify some evident stages like Non-REM2 and REM. But when it comes to the transitions between stages, the systems are not very good in their performances. Thus a different classification strategy was proposed in this study. Five different classifiers were designed especially for transitions between stages using time domain features of EEG, EOG and EMG signals and evaluated these features for each classifier. Sequential backward feature selection process was applied in each classifier to find out which features are dominant in each classification procedure. Artificial Neural Networks was used in designed classifiers. Findings: The highest classification accuracy was obtained as 91.03% for Classifier-3 which predicts stages coming after Non-REM II. The lowest accuracy was recorded as 75.42% for Classifier-2 in which stages are determined after the Non-REM I epochs. Comparatively good results were reached especially if it is taken into account that only used time-domain features of signals. Application/Improvements: The obtain results show that the designed classifiers can be used in automatic sleep staging system, confidently.
619 Impact of Structured Induction on Mutually Beneficial Deployment and Talent Retention   , Lt. Col Milind Gogate and Suruchi Pandey  
For any company the employee engagement begins from the day an employee joins the company. Thus a structured Induction Process plays a crucial role in ensuring that the employees are embedded in their respective appointments and assignments properly. It is also known as On-boarding Process or Orientation Process etc. Whichever term one may use, this process is very crucial for both the stakeholders. Therefore a structured Induction Process may be rather termed as “Integration Programme”. The quality of this Integration Programme may certainly have a direct bearing on the new employee’s decision to continue with the employment or leave, if the situation permits. The duration of this Integration Programme may vary between three months to six months, depending on the nature of industry and quality of talent. The Integration Programme must adopt a practical approach to understand the performance and aspirations of the new employees. Adequate measures may be initiated to fulfil these aspirations partially/fully. An effective and interactive feedback mechanism must be instituted to provide timely guidance and correction to the new employees. If the above mentioned and other such practices are in place in an organisation, the employees would certainly develop a sense of belonging making their bond with the organisation stronger. This paper presents a study of Induction programme of heavy manufacturing industry unit. The study aims at finding out impact of structured Induction on mutually beneficially deployment and Talent Management. This study presents feedback of employees on the way induction is done in the unit of study and suggests improvement in the Induction process
620 Detection of Sleep Spindles in Sleep EEG by using the PSD Methods , Cuneyt Yucelbas, Sule Yucelbas , Seral Ozsen, Gulay Tezel , Serkan Kuccukturk  and Sebnem Yosunkaya     
Background/Objectives: In this study, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), Welch, Autoregressive (AR) and MUSIC methods were implemented to detect sleep spindles (SSs) in Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals by extracting features in frequency space. Methods/Statistical Analysis: A database from these signals of five subjects which were recorded at sleep laboratory of Necmettin Erbakan University in Turkey was ready for use. The database consisted of 600 EEG epochs in total. The number of epochs was 300 for both with and without SSs in this database. Comparison of the performances of these methods on SS determination process was performed by using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) classifier. Findings: According to the test classification results, notable difference was obtained between the applied PSD methods. By using the extracted all features, maximum test classification accuracies were achieved as 84.83%, 80.67%, 80.83% and 80.33% with use of FFT, Welch, AR and MUSIC, respectively. To determine the SSs, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) also was utilized in this study. When PCA was applied, the results were 89.50%, 82.00%, 93.00% and 94.83% by use of the same PSD methods, respectively. Application/Improvements: As a result, the performance of PCA and MUSIC is better than the others. Hence, these methods can be used safely for automatic detection of SSs.
621 Leadership Communication Strategies for Establishing Social Harmony and Sustainable Development – Mr. Narendra Modi as a Case Study   , Pradnya Chitrao  
Leadership has been defined in different ways by different persons. Effective leadership today is seen as essential for running successfully a business as also ensuring the progress of a nation. The 21st C is witnessing a sea change in businesses and societies on account of rapid progress in information and technology. Business leaders need to restructure businesses to suit the changed scenario and tight budgets, learn to adapt to different cultures and work practices, and use technology constructively to ensure sustainable businesses. They have to communicate strategically the vision and motivate employees. National leaders or heads of nations have to do away with the 20th C practice of speaking from their political party’s point of view, and speak from the nation’s point of view. They must think in terms of how to solve their nation’s problems and how to change, if necessary, the nation’s mind set for implementation of the solutions. They must communicate persuasively and unite the nation as one team for achieving objectives and dreams. The paper reflects on Mr Narendra Modi’s communication strategies as the new leader of India in his capacity as its Prime Minister and their suitability for leading India towards sustainable development.
622 An Appraisal of the Advancement of Emerging Technologies in Hearing Aids , Muhammad Zia ur Rehman, Syed Irtiza Ali Shah, Syed Omer Gilani, Mohsin Jamil and Faisal Amin    
Background/Objectives: To shed light on the history of development of hearing aid, along with the various pros and cons of each developed technological solution. Methods/Statistical Analysis: A historical survey has been conducted, which highlights some of the more renowned and widely deployed hearing aids within the market. The different types of hearing losses and the varying degree of assistance provided by the different technological solutions have been discussed. Over the years, the overall accuracy as well as practicality of the hearing aids have improved, ranging from cumbersome and heavy hearing aids in the early 1960-1970s to the portable and wearable ones available in the market at present. Findings: Technological innovation is spearheading massive improvement within the hearing aids. Some of the key features causing these changes include wireless technology, frequency lowering, directional microphones and digital noise reduction algorithms. Although DSP has provided significant changes in the hearing technology, limitations still exist, which require re-search contributions from different fields like clinical audiology, psychoacoustics and signal processing. Application/ Improvements: Most of the portable and reliable hearing aid devices are very expensive. Therefore, there is a need to develop affordable pieces of equipment that is able to cater to basic hearing functionalities
623 Impact of Transformational Leadership over Employee Morale and Motivation   ,  Surya Rashmi Rawat  
Leading a group is not a big deal. What it needs is just the desire to lead. From time immemorial when man was a forest dweller or a nomad to this day when he considers himself to be more civilized, more mature and more sophisticated, someone or the other had always been leading him. Some followers simply follow without questioning where as others don’t follow you till such time all their questions are answered. Depending upon the kind of followers we can exercise different styles of leadership ranging from autocratic, democratic, leissez faire to Transformational Leadership. The Transformational Leaders motivate their followers to exceed performance expectations by transforming their attitude, beliefs and behavior. Through this paper an attempt has been made to study the impact of transformational leadership over employee morale and motivation if any. The study in hand is based on Primary data collected from Pune city (India), through a survey of 378 people. The secondary sources like books, journals, newspapers and articles published in the websites were also referred. Towards the end, the researcher found that there is a significant relationship between transformational leadership and employee’s morale & motivation.
624 An Analysis of Soccer-Related Patents , Kyung-Hoon Park  
Background/Objectives: This research was conducted to analyze domestic soccer-related patents and to identify trends in patents for domestic soccer and make predictions about domestic soccer technology using statistical methods and data mining methods. Methods/Statistical Analysis: The analysis object data used by this study targeted domestic patents and utilities as ‘soccer’-related patents. The period for the search was not subjected to any specific restriction. All patents registered, disclosed and expired were targeted in the process of collection and 185 patents ranging from year 1973 to 2015 based on the year of patent application were selected as analysis objects. Cluster analysis, association technology extraction and technology network analysis were used for statistical analysis. Findings: As a result, in soccer-related technologies, the technologies related to soccer footwear or robots are predicted as becoming significant technologies in the realm of off-line services and soccer game-related technologies are predicted as becoming significant technologies in the realm of on-line services. Application/Improvements: This study identified the relationships among the technologies of soccer-related industries and central technology clusters and patents. It is thought that the findings of this study can be used as basic data to make predictions about the technologies of soccer-related industries.
625 A Study of the Second Digit to Forth Digit Ratio targeting Taekwondo Athletes , Bong-Seok Kim  
Background/Objectives: The Second Digit (2D) to Forth Digit (4D) ratio is widely used as an indirect biological indicator that represents the prenatal sex hormone environment. This study was conducted to identify the relationships between the 2D:4D ratio and sexual dimorphism, BMI, exercise capacity and handedness targeting taekwondo athletes. Methods/ Statistical Analysis: Data was collected using a self-report questionnaire and the scanning of both hands from July to October 2015, targeting a total of 224 taekwondo athletes including 84 national team athletes (51 males and 33 females) and 140 collegiate athletes (100 males and 40 females). The self-report questionnaire was composed of items necessary for measurement of BMI and exercise capacity such as gender, age, height, weight, type of handedness, award-winning experience, etc. Findings: As a result, the 2D:4D ratio of left-handedness showed a statistically significant difference in sexual dimorphism and the 2D:4D ratio between left-handedness and right-handedness showed a statistically significant correlation for both males and females. However, there was not a statistically significant correlation between the 2D:4D ratio and BMI index in left-handedness and right-handedness for both males and females. Application/Improvements: The findings of this study are meaningful in that they can be used as basic data necessary to find and nurture talented students with excellent qualities for becoming a taekwondo athlete.
626 The Characteristics of Skinfold Thiackness and Muscle Mass of Judo and Taekwondo Athletes , Bong-Seok Kim  
Background/Objectives: This study was conducted to identify the skinfold thickness and the characteristics of muscle mass of judo and taekwondo athletes by comparing the data on those athletes with the data on non-martial art athletes engaged in sporting activities. Methods/Statistical Analysis: For the purpose, 20 collegiate athletes were selected from collegiate judo and taekwondo athletes and handball, rugby, table tennis and badminton players of the same ages. So, a total of 120 collegiate athletes were selected as participants in this study. And we evaluated skinfold thickness and muscle mass components based on the anthropometry manual presented by International society for accreditation kinanthropometry. Findings: We showed that judo athletes had larger skinfold thickness and muscle mass than the mean compared with non-martial arts players; taekwondo athletes, who are martial arts athletes similar to judo athletes, had very small skinfold thickness compared with non-martial arts players and a little larger muscle mass than racket sports players such as badminton and table tennis players. Application/Improvements: It is confirmed that the formula used by this study was appropriate for determining the ranking of muscle masses of athletes by sport types and available for their comparison with the muscle masse of a corpse.
627 Impacts of Support for Marine Sports Athletes on their Growth Potential , Wang-Sung Myung and Chun-HoYang  
Background/Objectives: This research tries to investigate how emotional, instrumental and social support for the marine sports athletes affects their growth potential. It also aims to provide empirical data for the reasonable management of the athletes in the sports field. Methods/Statistical Analysis: This research was conducted to investigate the effects of support of marine sports athletes on their growth potential. The targets of this research were 244 marine sports athletes in 2015 and a survey was conducted on them. For the data processing, exploratory factor analysis, reliability test, frequency analysis, correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis were conducted and the results are as follows. Findings: First, of the correlation between the support for marine sports athletes and growth potential, emotional support had a positive correlation with growth flexibility and instrumental and social support had positive correlations with possibility and growth flexibility. Second, also regarding the effect of support for on marine sports athletes, social support had a positive effect. Third, of the effect of support for the marine sports athletes on growth flexibility, instrumental support had a positive effect. On the growth potential of the marine sports athletes, instrumental support and social support showed positive effects. Application/Improvement: From these results, we can say that support for the marine sports athletes has a positive effect on the growth potential. That is, we need to strengthen the instrumental and social support for the growth potential of marine sports athletes. For further research, considering the support for marine sports athletes as the result variable, more diverse variables can be added to make a big improvement in research on marine sports athletes.
628 Subjectivity Research on Biomedical Ethics of Nursing Students , Kyoungho Choi  
Background/Objectives: This research investigated subjective value types of the nursing students about Biomedical Ethics, applying Q-method. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Data collecting process using Q-method is as follows: First, 38 male and female students who understand objective and importance of this study and filled separate 'research participation consent form' out were chosen as subjects, from 1st graders to 4th graders of Nursing department of J university. Data collecting period was from 27 Oct, 2014 to 21 Nov, 2014, through sorting Q-samples and individual interview. Findings: As a result, totally 4 types were deducted. Four types were named respectively as follows; rational conservatives, moderate progressives, reality accepters and unconditional life protectors. Necessity of further development of educational planning adequate for each type’s characteristics and curriculum which helps efficient Biomedical Ethics education was brought up. Application/Improvements: This research will be of help in developing course of study that students can learn Biomedical Ethics more efficiently.
629 Ranking the Critical Buying Factors of Private Health Insurance using Analytic Hierarchy Process   , Muazzam Khan , S. Vijayakumar Bharathi  and B. R. Londhe  
It is usually a significantly complex decision to buy private health insurance. There are multiple factors which influence a buyer’s decision before s/he decides to buy a health insurance policy. In an Indian context it becomes even more imperative to know the exact influencing factors which can lead towards a purchase of private health insurance especially by consumers from low earning groups. This paper presents an identification of factors which influence the decision of buying health insurance product by specific consumer groups namely Auto Rickshaw Drivers, Cab Drivers, Panwalla, Women home maids in an Indian perspective as seen by expert sales professionals who have sold specific products to these consumer groups. Ten expert sales professionals were presented with a collection of nine important factors which influence buying of private health insurance and through Analytic Hierarchy Process were requested to identify and rank the factors which they considered most influential from the point of view of specific consumer groups. The Analytic Hierarchy Process approach identifies and ranks Premium, Customer Service and Claims settlement history as the top three criterions in private health insurance buying. This analysis offers insights into the expectations of specific consumer groups from private health insurance providers.
630 Influence of Brand Oriented Factors on Customer Loyalty of Prepaid Mobile Services   , Sujata Joshi , Abhijit Chirputkar and Yatin Jog  
The Indian telecom industry is a very dynamic industry with very stiff competition amongst existing service providers in the telecom market. One of the major drivers of this industry has been mobile telephony. But due to increasing competition, maintaining a loyal consumer base seems to be a challenge for the Indian cellular service providers. Customer loyalty and retention towards a specific brand have become important goals for them. In this context the present paper focuses on the influence of brand oriented factors to ensure customer retention and enhancing loyalty. Literature review was carried out covering the theoretical and empirical work. Exploratory interviews were conducted on 500 customers and factor analysis was conducted to determine the factors which influence customer loyalty towards a specific brand of prepaid cellular service provider. Regression analysis was further done to understand the relation of the identified branding factors to customer loyalty.
631 An Empirical Study on the Factors Contributing to Work Family Conflict among Young Employees in the IT Companies   , Shaji Joseph, Bhavna Gautam and S. Vijayakumar Bharathi  
This paper empirically tests the factors generally understood as contributing to the work family conflict of employees in the IT companies through a comparative study of men and women. Since majority of the IT workforce in India are young it is important to understand whether earlier parameters for work life balance are relevant in the present context. The analysis revealed that the work family conflict has a definitive impact in both men and women in the IT companies. However it was found that women suffer more from work family conflict as they have the dual responsibility though the difference is not significant. To analyze the data collected from the IT employees in India we used linear regression model using Excel and SPSS. The analysis revealed that the gender difference do not impact greatly on the work family conflict. This point out to the fact that we need to rethink on the way we understand the concept of work family conflict among the young IT employees. Contribution to Body of Knowledge The outcome of this study emphasizes the need for managing work family conflict in the information technology companies. The factors that contribute to work family conflict from gender perspective are clearly brought out methodically.
632 Study of Self-management and Stress-coping of Participants in Marine Sports , Myung-Hyo Kang, Young-Hoon Kwon and Chun-HoYang  
Background/Objectives: This research aims to provide data helping self-management and stress-coping through marine sports by empirically investigating the relationship between self-management and stress-coping of participants in marine sports. Methods/Statistical Analysis: This research was conducted on 277 club members participating in marine sports in Seoul, Ansan, Seosan, and Gunsan. The collected data reached the following final conclusions, by drawing upon correlation and multiple regression analysis with factor extraction and verified validity and reliability. Findings: First, of the self-management of participants in marine sports, mind-management has a significant relationship with problemfocused coping, social support seeking, and aesthetic thinking. This indicates that higher levels of mind-management among participants in marine sports lead to higher problem-focused coping, social support seeking, and aesthetic thinking. Second, of self-management of participants in marine sports, mind-management, interpersonal-management, and physical-management have significant relationships with emotional coping. This indicates that higher levels of mind-management, interpersonal-management, and physical-management of participants in marine sports lead to higher emotional coping. Several problems revealed by this research and suggestions for future research are presented here. Novelty / Improvement: This study is limited to participants in marine sports, the conclusions should be verified by extending this effort to diverse subjects. Second, this research is focused on the relationships between factors, which makes it difficult to compare basic characteristics. For further research, a prerequisite would be to analyze the characteristics of participants as well as the relationships between factors.
633 Managing Multiple Career Transitions Sustained Over a Long Period   , Pramod Damle  
On the backdrop of the spiraling scale of career transition during past few decades this paper presents an outcome of the phenomenological study of multiple career transitions handled successfully by six individuals over a sustained period of more than a decade. These persons were interviewed across several sessions and from the transcription of interviews, a set of forty-two relevant statements are extracted. These statements in turn were perused to yield seven emergent themes of self-awareness, determination, investment of time, sensing the opportunity, planning, preparation and reaping the rewards. Some textural descriptions from the narratives are provided to understand “what” these interviewees experienced, while the structural descriptions are derived providing a context of “how” they kept on managing the consecutive career transitions over a long period. In the end, these textural and structural descriptions are converged offering a composite description that illuminates the phenomenon of sustained career transitions. Contribution to Body of Knowledge By tracing multiple career transitions using phenomenological approach, the paper throws light on how such transitions are managed over a long period. It provides an insight to both qualitative researchers and practitioners to help them in informed decisions/actions.
634 The Effects of Sporting Goods Brand Experience on Consumer-Brand Relationship and Relationship Retention , Kye-Sok Lee and Seung-Yong Kim  
Background/Objectives: The purpose of this study is to identify the correlation among the sporting goods brand experiences, consumer brand relationship and the relationship retention. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Participants were 479 undergraduate students at five universities in South Korea. PASW Ver. 18.0 was used to conduct a frequency analysis, reliability analysis and correlation analysis. Also, a confirmatory factor analysis and a structural equation modeling analysis were performed through AMOS 18.0. Findings: First, in terms of the relationship between the ‘brand experience and consumer-brand relationship’, the experience had significant effects on the consumer-brand relationship. Second, in terms of the correlation between ‘consumer-brand relationship and the relationship retention’, the relationship had significant effects on the relationship retention. Findings concluded that when a consumer-brand relationship is formed, the brand experience has significant effects on the relationship. Also, the consumer-brand relationship has significant effects on the relationship retention. Applications/Improvements: Based on the findings, the scope of consumer-brand relationship studies and their applicability could be expanded. Also, the findings could help brand production and sales companies to establish marketing strategies for managing their consumer experience in a comprehensive manner.
635 Study on Effect of Emotional Intelligence on Conflict Resolution Style   , Suruchi Pandey, Spoorthi Sajjanapu and Garima Sangwan  
Objective: To study the role of Emotional Intelligence (EI) of people and corresponding conflict resolution style and to understand if age, gender, occupation etc. have a bearing on these attributes. Methods/Analysis: Both primary and secondary data was collected. Primary data was collected through questionnaire which consisted of 46 items. Questionnaire source are well-established tools. Questionnaire was shared through the online mode only. Respondents, who are employed professional, were picked by random convenience sampling. Sample consisted of 110 respondents. For analysis data of 99 respondents was used because respondents who showed multiple conflict resolution styles were not considered. Analysis tools - SPSS and Excel. Findings: Avoiding style of conflict resolution was observed to be widely adopted by respondents with high emotional intelligence score. Accommodating and avoiding styles were adopted by people with lesser amount of industry experience and people having more than 10 years of experience used competing as a conflict resolution style. The research shows that women have higher emotional intelligence and thus are able to use varied conflict resolution styles. On the other hand men seemed to adopt avoiding as their conflict resolution style. EI of women being higher than men is in consensus with other studies conducted in this area. Emotional intelligence score increases with age but it was observed that after 35 years of age the emotional intelligence score reduces. Few studies conducted in this area state that EI increases with age. Conclusion/Application: Better understanding of EI of teams and how they resolve conflicts can enable effective and refined recruitment/selection, team formations etc. and further lead to individual wellbeing at workplace and higher team performance.
636 The Peer Relationship and Academic of Soccer Players , Wang-Sung Myung  and Chun-HoYang  
Background/Objectives: This research aims to examine the correlation between peer relationships and academic attitude of the soccer players. Methods/Statistical Analysis: The research hypotheses regarding the direction to take to achieve the right academic attitude through peer relationships with average students other than soccer players are as follows: First, there will be a correlation between peer relationships and the academic attitude of the soccer players. Second, the peer relationships of the soccer players will affect their academic attitude. The target of the research was 181 middle school male soccer players in the Honam area. For data processing we used exploratory factor analysis, a reliability test, correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis and the results are as follows. Findings: First, for the relationship between peer relationships and academic attitudes, interest in class had positive correlations with position among peers, degree of interest and socialization with peers. Class concentration and learning in class had positive correlations with position among peers, degree of interest and emotion with peers. Also, class accomplishments had positive correlations with position among peers and degree of interest. Second, in the peer relationship, position among peers and degree of interest had a positive effect on the interest in class, class concentration and class accomplishments. But for learning in class, only degree of interest had a positive effect. Novelty/Improvement: We can conclude that for the middle school soccer players, peer relationships with average students have a positive effect on their academic attitudes. Therefore, to make soccer players have the right academic attitude, we need to encourage them to have good peer relationships with average students. Also, for the further improvement of the research, instead of limiting the target to middle school students the sampling should be expanded to high school and college.
637 Assessing CRM Practices in Hotel Industry: a Look at the Progress and Prospects   ,  N. Fukey Leena, V. Jaykumar and Surya Sarah Issac  
Purpose: Customer Relationship Management (CRM) is a unique key element considered in the hotel diligence which is extremely thriving plus competitive market at present. The study purpose is to identify how CRM can be strategy tactics for solution as business attitudes towards the hotels. It generates nine different items with regards to CRM. Design/methodology/approach: The study progressed in four phases. The empirical data were collected. A sample of 100, four, five and five star luxury hotels was considered for the study. To explore CRM process in hotel industry, an analysis was carried out to identify different CRM levels (performance and importance). The study was tested and analyzed by adopting a scale developed by Reinartz, Krafft and Hoyer. Findings: The result largely supports the CRM process developed in hotels theoretically but does not seem to have the balance between the CRM levels evenly. Crucial discoveries of the learning are firstly, CRM remains characterized via nine different items in the hotel diligence connecting to Measure, Acquisition, Regain, Maintain, Retain, Cross up, Referrals, Termination Measure and Exit. The best predictor of CRM is the items on performance level referred as Measure followed by Regain and Acquisition and on the importance level, Referrals followed by Cross-up and Regain. Practical Implications: The result suggests that the hotels must understand today’s customer’s wants and needs. The hotels need to be more proactive in developing a balance between CRM levels for effective CRM in hotel diligence. Novelty/assessment: The learning highlights the importance of CRM and its relationship in service industries in the literature. The study focuses in particular on CRM in hotel industry and the linkage between the CRM levels (Performance and Importance).
638 A Study on Mediating Effects of Outcome Expectancy on Relationships among Perceived Caring Climate, Task Engagement and Task Persistence in Physical Education , Ki-Hyun Song and Seung-Yong Kim  
Background/Objectives: The purpose is to identify the mediating effects of outcome expectancy on the relationships among the caring climate perceived by students, their task engagement and task persistence in physical education. Methods/ Statistical Analysis: Participants were 343 students at four middle schools in metropolitan areas. The goodness of fit of the entire model was verified through SPSS 18.0 and AMOS 18.0 and the hypotheses were tested. Findings: First, the caring climate involved a positive prediction of the outcome expectancy. The caring climate had positive effects on the task engagement and task persistence of students. Second, outcome expectancy in physical education class has positive effects on task engagement and task persistence; those are active class participation behaviors. Third, the outcome expectancy in a physical education class had mediating effects on the relationship among the caring climate perceived by students, their task engagement and task persistence. Findings concluded that a caring climate should be established for the students and their positive expectancy can lead to active participation. Applications/Improvements: Physical education teachers should establish a student-centered class climate to provide high quality education. Also, they should select proper tasks and adjust the level of difficulty to live up to the student expectancy
639 Pulling the Strings   ,  Mansi Kapoor  
We are all in the labyrinth of our own making, crying for help, to be rescued, to be set free. The distressed SOS calls can’t be heard any longer because they are now becoming deafening……………. Three Vices have taken a tenacious grip over most of us- Greed, Selfishness and Instant gratification. Greed fuels corruption, selfishness gives rise to stress and wanting instant gratification causes us to ignore the long term consequences of our actions. The angst has no voice or expression and hence has seeped into our lives to make it banal, purposeless and ironically anxious. Leaders, sometimes unwittingly, in order to give some sense of direction and purpose, resort to such interventions which further perpetuate the trivialization of the human spirit and ultimately wrecks havoc in the work place. Every morning brings a new battle and every night, a fervent prayer. Those, who have reached the centre of this gigantic labyrinth, have become like the mythical Minotaur. Not realizing, that it is actually he, who is in captivity due to his own half beastly nature. “The Crisis in business is spiritual, all management ideas till now have been external directed paradigms, developing behavior and skills, not character and values. But meaning and richness must flow from the mind to work and not the other way. We need a fundamental shift from the current reductionist, fragmentist, and materialistic paradigm to one which recognizes relationships, consciousness and the spirit as the right approach.” S. K. Chakraborty, Centre for Human Values, IIM Calcutta.
640 Leakage Power Reduction with Various IO Standards and Dynamic Voltage Scaling in Vedic Multiplier on Virtex-6 FPGA , Bishwajeet Pandey , Md. Atiqur Rahman , Dil M. Akbar Hussain , Abhay Saxena and Bhagwan Das  
The 8-bit design is able to process 256 times input combination in compare to 4-bit vedic multiplier, using approximates 6 times basic elements, 2 times IO buffers, approximate 1.5 times total power dissipation. HSTL_I_12, SSTL18_I and LVCMOS12 are the most energy efficient IO standards in HSTL, SSTL and LVCMOS family respectively. Device static power and design static power are two types of static power dissipation. Device static power is also known as Leakage power when the device is on but not configured. Design static power is power dissipation when bit file of design is downloaded on FPGA but there is no switching activity. Design static power dissipation of 8-bit Vedic multiplier is almost double of design static power dissipation of 4-bit Vedic multiplier. Device static (leakage) power dissipation of 8-bit Vedic multiplier is almost equal to device static power dissipation of 4-bit Vedic multiplier on 40nm FPGA.
641 Relationship between Types of Marine Sports Instructor’s Leadership and Sports Confidence , Yeong-Gwon Jo , Lim Jong-Sik and Yang Chun-Ho  
Background/Objectives: This research was conducted to investigate the relationship between leadership types of marine sports instructors and sports confidence. The target of the research is 239 club members who were participating in marine sports in 2015. Methods/Statistical Analysis: For the data processing, exploratory factor analysis, reliability analysis, correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis were used and the results of the research are as follows. Findings: First, the result of examining the relationship between leadership types of marine sports instructors and sports confidence shows that the training instruction type and social support type showed positive correlations with the coach leadership. The democratic type and the positive reward type had positive correlations with coach leadership. Authoritative leadership showed a negative correlation with coach leadership and a positive correlation with body mental preparation. Second, in the relationship between the leadership types and coach leadership, the training instruction type and the democratic type showed significantly positive effects. Also, in the relationship between the leadership types and body mental preparation, the authoritative type showed a significantly positive effect. Third, the relationship between the leadership types and social support and proven ability did not show statistical significance. Application/Improvement: Therefore, the leadership types of marine sports instructors have a positive significant relationship only with coach leadership and body mental preparation of sports confidence. Marine sports instructors need to demonstrate the training instruction type leadership to exert coach preparation when instructing members of the marine sports clubs leadership while demonstrating the authoritative type of leadership for body mental.
642 Influence of Social Reference Group on Buying Behavior, A Comparative Study of Working and Non Working Women in Bangalore - A Pilot Study Analysis   ,  Semila Fernandes and B. R. Londhe  
Reference Group Construct: The various types of reference group include primary groups, secondary groups, formal groups, informal groups, membership, aspirational groups and the different types of influences which affect consumer decisions include Normative influence, Value-expressive influence and Informational influence2 . Identification of Problem: Due to the new developments and