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American Journal of Pure and Applied Biosciences

Journal Papers (18) Details Call for Paper Manuscript submission Publication Ethics Contact Authors' Guide Line
1 Assessment and Biomonitoring of the Effect of Rapeseeds Oil on Wister Rat Organs   , Imdadul Haque Sharif1*, Saheda Tamanna2, Md. Golam Mosaib3, Nasrin Tamanna1, Md. Anwarul Haque1, Md. Abu Hena Mostofa Jamal1, and Md Ekhlas Uddin3    1Dept. of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Islamic University, Bangladesh; 2Dept. of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Bangladesh; and 3Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Gono Bishwabidyalay, Bangladesh  *Correspondence: sharifbtge07@gmail.com  
Rapeseed oil is one of the important and cheapest vegetable oil in Bangladesh and many other countries. It is commonly used as cooking oil in Bangladesh particularly in rural areas and also used as other food items. This study evaluated the physiological effects of four type’s rapeseeds namely Mustard (Wild), Mustard (hybrid), Rai (Wild), Rai (hybrid) oil on six strains of bacteria in addition to studying the effects of two varieties of rapeseeds oil Mustard (Wild) and Rai (hybrid) oil on Wistar rat’s organs including liver, kidney, heart and skeletal muscles. Firstly, we examined the effects of these Rapeseeds oil on bacteria and found that these Rapeseeds oils possess antibacterial activities.  Six bacterial strains such as B. subtilis, S. lutea, X. campestris, E. coli, K. Pneumonia, P. denitrificans was used to test the effect of these rapeseeds oil and observed that rapeseed oil showed inhibition against tested microorganisms in a concentration-dependent manner. Finally, the effects of oil obtained from these two varieties were investigated after feeding rats for 8 weeks. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups, each group contains 4 rats. Group A was considered as a control diet group, while Group B was a mustard (Wild) oil group and Group C was the Rai (hybrid) oil group. Group A was containing 0.6gram oil plus 14.4gm diet. We found that rats of both experimental groups exhibit weight loss, reduction of food efficiency ratio, and increase cardiac and hepatic enzymes including CK-MB, ALP, SGPT, and SGOT compared to the rats fed a controlled diet. Furthermore, we also found that the body weight loss, food efficiency ratio markedly decreased, and tested enzymes increased in rats fed Mustard (Wild) oil compared to rat fed Rai (hybrid) oil.   
2 Study on Ambient Particulate Matter (PM2.5) with Different Mode of Transportation in Dhaka City, Bangladesh , Md. Maruf Hossain1, Ahmad Kamruzzaman Majumder2*, Mahmuda Islam3, and Abdullah Al Nayeem4   1Program Manager, Work for a Better Bangladesh Trust (WBBT); 2Founder and President, Center for Atmospheric Pollution Studies (CAPS), Department of Environmental Science, Stamford University Bangladesh; 3Senior Lecturer, Department of Environmental Science, Stamford University Bangladesh; and 4Research Assistant, Department of Environmental Science, Stamford University Bangladesh *Corresponding: kamrul_sub@hotmail.com
Air pollution is considered a threat to the environment in developing countries. This study aims to quantify the concentration of PM2.5 in relation to the mode of transportation in the different areas of Dhaka city. For this, the concentration of PM2.5 was measured in ambient air with Ecotech Mini 2.5 Sampler and a traffic volume survey was conducted in 12 sites across the city in August 2017. The study found that PM2.5 concentrations in mixed and motorized areas were on average higher than non-motorized and vehicle-free areas. The maximum concentration of PM2.5 was found in Mirpur-10 (172.2 µg/m3) while minimum concentration was in B.C. das street (40 µg/m3). This study concluded that increasing the number of vehicles is one of the major sources of pollution of air in Dhaka city. Hence, a well-developed public transportation service instead of a private car may contribute to reducing air pollution in Dhaka city.
3 Isolation, Identification and Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern of Salmonella spp from Locally Isolated Egg Samples , Md. Atikur Rahman, Azizul Haque, Tasnim Ahmad, Shahriar Mahmud, Shaharuq Nahid Sohana, Md. Rajib Hossain, Nirmal Chandra Barman, Md Badiruzzaman, Tofajjal Hossain, Md. Sherajul Haque, Md. Ekhlas Uddin, and Rokeya Ahmed
Salmonella has been found to be the major foodborne disease in the world with a serious public health problem. The presence of any serotype of Salmonella in food under that food unfit for human consumption. Poultry eggs are considered as major sources for these pathogenic microorganisms. The current study was carried out to isolate and identify the Salmonella spp from egg samples collected from different retailer markets and farms of the Savar area, Bangladesh. Antibiotic susceptibility test was also done to determine the resistance pattern. A total of 50 poultry eggs were examined. Salmonella spp were isolated by culturing on the selective plate and characterized by biochemical tests. In the present study, the average prevalence of Salmonella was found to be 100% from the outer surface of eggs and 20% from eggs yolk. All identified isolates were tested for antibiotic susceptibility to six commonly used antimicrobials by the disk diffusion technique. The highest percentage of resistance (60%) was found in Chloramphenicol, Ampicillin, Gentamicin, and Tetracycline. Salmonella isolated from egg surface were found more antibiotic-resistant than that of egg yolk. The present study suggests that poultry eggs are a potential reservoir of antibiotic-resistant Salmonella.
4 Effect of Plant Growth Regulator on the Growth and High Yield of Heat Tolerant Tomato Variety (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) , Syed Moazzem Hossain1*, Chinmoy Sarker 2, and Sarif Mahmud3   1National Food Safety Consultant-Horticulture, FAO of the UN, Bangladesh; 2Department of Food Technology & Rural Industries, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh; and 3National Consultant Food Safety Analyst, FAO Bangladesh. *Correspondence: moazzem144@gmail.com  
An investigation was undertaken with a view to observing the performance of two heat-tolerant varieties of tomato under polytunnel with and without plant growth regulator application during the summer rainy season. The present study was laid out in a Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Two heat-tolerant tomato varieties Bangladesh Agriculture Research Institute (BARI) Tomato-4, and BARI Hybrid Tomato-4 with and without plant growth regulator applications were included in this experiment. The larger fruit set percentage (42.52%) was observed from BARI Hybrid Tomato-4 which was also larger in case of pollen viability (42.75%), the figure of fruits every cluster (3.01), the figure of fruits every plant (12.70), and yield every plant (460 g). The better yield was showed in spraying of 4-CPA at 40 ppm concentration in respect of percent fruit set (45.38%), the figure of fruits every plant (16.45), and yield (39.39 t/ha) under high-temperature condition. In integrate treatment, BARI Hybrid Tomato-4 with 40 ppm 4-CPA performed a significant role in the figure of fruits every cluster (3.41), the figure of fruits every plant (22.48), the figure of fruits every plot (144.00), yield every plant (621.68 g), yield every plot (15.23 kg) and above all fruit yield (50.57 t/ha). This indicates that there is a bright scope of tomato production during summer through with and without plant yield regulator application, though the application of plant growth regulator had a positive impact on tomato yield.   
5 Dengue and Recent Mosquito-borne Viral Fever Outbreak in Bangladesh: Concern, Causes and Control   , Shazeed-Ul-Karim1, 2*   1Dept. of Microbiology, Jahangirnagar University, Dhaka-1342, Bangladesh; and 2Center for Higher Studies and Research, Bangladesh University of Professionals, Dhaka-1216, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: shazeed0412@gmail.com  
Bangladesh is struggling with dreadful outbreaks of mosquito-borne diseases for the past few years. Disease Control Division of Directorate General (DG) of Health Service considered the capital of Bangladesh as the breeding ground for mosquitos. The recent incidence of Dengue and Chikungunya outbreaks have surpassed all past records of the outbreak. Thus, the country is witnessing an elevated rate of viral fever incidence alarmingly. Though symptoms of mosquito-borne viral infection are very typical, the recent incidence of fatalities is growing great public health concern. World Health Organization (WHO) recommends practical control measures to minimize the breeding within the community of Bangladesh. The actions of Kolkata City Corporation to control Dengue are also suggestive for Bangladesh. There is no medication to treat Dengue, and Chikungunya infection, but initial recognition and apposite medical care can reduce the death threat. 
6 Physico-chemical Characterization of Kaptai Lake and Foy’s Lake Water Quality Parameters in Chittagong, Bangladesh   , Md. Rubel1*, Didarul Alam Chowdhury1, Mohammad Jamal Uddin Ahmed1, and Mohammad Helal Uddin2   1Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Chittagong, Chittagong, Bangladesh; and 2Department of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Chittagong, Chittagong, Bangladesh.  *Correspondence: rubelcu90@gmail.com  
In order to protect the quality of the environment and human health, freshwater assets are tremendously important in various ways. To ensure the freshwater resources in the Chittagong region of Bangladesh, we have studied the water quality parameters of Kaptai and Foy’s Lake. This research has done based on the essential surface water standard parameters such as pH, temperature, DO, BOD, COD, TDS, TSS, TS, EC, hardness, turbidity, salinity, total alkalinity, total acidity, SO42-, PO43-, NO3--N, NO2-, CO2, and most of the heavy and toxic metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Pb, Mn, Ni, and Zn) of two lakes namely Foy’s (Chittagong) and Kaptai (Rangamati) Lakes in Chittagong, Bangladesh. The statistical approaches to sampling were utilized for collecting samples. The samples were assembled from ten different locations of each lake. Samples were conserved using a satisfactory preservation procedure. Water samples from the surface-water assets were collected from various locations, and tide conditions and at various seasons for continual monitoring during the hydrological years 2014-2015. The results showed that Kaptai Lake and Foy’s Lake all physicochemical parameters are within the permissible limit of WHO guidelines. The results also supplied data to view, and quantify the enemy of the impact of climate alter on freshwater resources of this region. The outcomes further showed data for water quality of surface-water resources of greater Chittagong zone to match national and international quality for drinking, agricultural, manufacture, and livestock requirements. A strategic water quality management plan has been proposed.   
7 Determination of Antimicrobial Activity of Medicinal Plant Cassia obtusifolia L. (Chakunda) Leaf Extract on Selected Pathogenic Microbes   , Mehadi Hasan Rony1*, Md. Abu Sayeed Imran1, Rabiul Islam1, Faisal Ahmed2, Bushra Binte Zaker3, Pinki Akter4, Md. Golam Mosaib5, Rintu Kumar Sarker1, and Md. Ramjan Sheikh5   1Dept. of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Islamic University, Bangladesh; 2Dept. of Pharmacy, University of Asia Pacific, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 3Dept. of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Biotechnology Program, BRAC University, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 4Dept. of Microbiology, Stamford University Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh; and 5Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Gono Bishwabidyalay, Dhaka, Bangladesh *Correspondence: ronymehadi@gmail.com  
Pathogenic microorganisms are major health concerns of infectious diseases. In the present study ethanolic and methanolic extracts of Cassia obtusifolia leaves from Kushtia region (Bangladesh) were subjected to evaluate the in vitro microbial activity against six important human pathogenic bacteria viz., Bacillus subtilis (001-1), Sarcina lutea (002-1), Xanthomonas campestris (004-1), Escherichia coli (005-1), Klebsiella pneumonia (006-1) and Pseudomonas sp. (010-1) employing disc diffusion method. The crude methanolic extract of C. obtusifolia produced a maximum area of inhibition (14 mm) against S. lutea (002-1) and crude ethanolic extract of C. obtusifolia produced the largest area of inhibition (11 mm) against K. pneumonia (006-1). The MIC values (256 μg/ml, 512 μg/ml) were obtained from the methanolic isolate and ethanolic extract that produced 4 mm and 3 mm area of inhibition against S. lutea (002-1) and K. pneumonia (006-1). The methanol extract showed greater activity than ethanol extract. The most susceptible bacterial strains to ethanol and methanol extracts were S. lutea (002-1) and K. pneumonia (006-1). So, it may be possible that the production of a new antibiotic from C. obtusifolia L. leaf may be recommended for meningitis and pneumonia. The findings of this research suggest that the extracts of C. obtusifolia L. can be a source of natural antibacterial agents with pivotal applications in pharmaceutical companies to control pathogenic bacteria causing severe illness in humans.  
8 Prevalence of Anaemia among Pregnant Women in a Rural Area of Bangladesh: Impact of Socio-economic Factors, Food Intake and Micronutrient Supplementation   , Mohammad Abul Bashar1*, AKM Rezaul Haque1, and Rahnuma Rahman1   1Department of Community Medicine, Gonoshasthaya Samaj Vittik Medical College, Savar, Dhaka-1344, Bangladesh *Correspondence: drabashar@gmail.com  
Anaemia during pregnancy is a major health problem throughout the world. The prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy is 41.8% globally and 46% in Bangladesh. It affects both the mother and the baby simultaneously. Women often become anaemic during pregnancy because the demand for iron is increased due to the physiological need for pregnancy. This cross-sectional study was carried out in Savar Gonoshasthaya Kendra project area in Dhaka district. Ninety-Five pregnant women of different gestational ages were selected purposively. Haemoglobin level was estimated by cyanomeath haemoglobin method in the laboratory of Gonoshasthaya Samaj Vittik Medical College Hospital, Savar. Among 95 pregnant women, 41.1% was in 20-24 years age group. The mean age of the respondents was 23.74 years. In terms of socio-economic status, 54.7% of the respondents came from a lower-middle-class family. 7.4% of the respondents had no formal education, 54.7% had primary level education and only 6.3% had higher education. Maximum of the respondents (88.4%) were housewife. This study revealed that the prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women was 51.6%. Among 51.6 % of the anaemic respondents, 23.2% were mildly anaemic, 26.3% were moderately anaemic and 2.1% were severely anaemic.   
9 Determination of Optimum Survivability Factors of Highly Pathogenic Vibrio cholerae 01 Serogroup-Specific Bacteriophage JSF4ϕ   , Mohammod Johirul Islam1*, Titash Chandra Sarker1, Ruksana Akter Jebin1, Farjana Yasmin1, Mousumi Khatun1, Md. Ashraful Islam1, Sadia Binte Ramzan1, Fahim Alam Nobel1, Sharmin Akter1, Monira Islam1, Mohammad Mehedi Hasan1, Mst. Mahmuda Khatun1, Shahnaz Yesmin1, Saima Sabrina1, Marina Khatun1, Abdullah Al Mamun1, Md. Khairul Islam1, Mohammad Asaduzzaman2, Keshob Chandra Das3, Mohammed Badrul Amin4, and Mohammad Khaja Mafij Uddin5   1Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Mawlana Bhashani Science and Technology University, Santosh, Tangail, Bangladesh; 2Dept. of Biochemistry, Primeasia University, Banani, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 3Dept. of Molecular Biotechnology, National Institute of Biotechnology, Savar, Bangladesh; 4Food Microbiology Laboratory, Laboratory Sciences, and Services Division, ICDDR,B, Mohakhali, Dhaka, Bangladesh; and 5Mycobacteriology Laboratory,  Infectious Disease  Division, ICDDR,B, Mohakhali, Dhaka, Bangladesh *Correspondence: johir75@yahoo.com  
Cholera is severe watery diarrhea caused by pathogenic V. cholerae 01 or 0139 serogroups. In each year, 2.9 million people are affected by cholera worldwide and 95000 deaths occur from the disease annually. In Bangladesh, around 100000 people are affected by this disease and approximately 4500 deaths occur each year. In this study, a novel V. cholerae 01 serogroup-specific bacteriophage JSF4ϕ was used. This phage was able to lyse both the clinical and environmental pathogenic V. cholerae 01 serogroup strains and one of our previous studies demonstrated that the seasonal outbreaks of cholera caused by V. cholerae 01 serogroup strains in Bangladesh are mostly regulated by this bacteriophage. In this current study, we determined the optimum survivability factors of JSF4ϕ bacteriophages. This study showed that the temperature 2500C, pH 7, and normal saline are the optimal survivability factors for JSF4ϕ bacteriophages because, at these conditions, we have got the maximum number of plaque-forming units (PFU/mL) of these bacteriophages. This study also showed that the JSF4ϕ bacteriophages can survive at a wide range of temperature, pH, and salinity. So, the study presented here may have an impact on the controlling of cholera epidemics caused by environmental and clinical pathogenic V. cholerae 01 serogroup strains if we can use JSF4ϕ bacteriophages as a biocontrol agent. This study may also have profound implications for future studies of JSF4ϕ bacteriophages as a good food additive or in phage therapy for its efficient lysing capacity against the pathogenic V. cholerae 01 serogroup strains.  
10 Meteorological Influences on Seasonal Variations of Air Pollutants (SO2, NO2, O3, CO, PM2.5, and PM10) in the Dhaka Megacity   , Mir Md. Mozammal Hoque1*, Zisan Ashraf1, Md. Humayun Kabir1, Md. Eusuf Sarker1, and Sumaya Nasrin1   1Department of Environmental Science and Resource Management, Mawlana Bhashani Science and Technology University, Tangail-1902, Bangladesh *Corresponding author: huqmbstu@gmail.com  
The study was conducted to evaluate the meteorological influences on seasonal variations of air pollutants load in Dhaka city. In this study, we collect air quality data from Darus-salam Continuous Air Monitoring Station (CAMS) and were analyzed to find out their seasonal trends and relation with meteorological parameters. The highest concentration of the major air pollutants showed high values in the dry season (October-April) (SO2=23.45 ppb, NO2=55.33 ppb, O3=11.17 ppb, CO=3.66ppb, PM2.5=125.66 µg/m3, PM10=219 µg/m3) than those of the wet season (May-September) (SO2=10.26 ppb, NO2=16.36 ppb, O3=2.40 ppb, CO=1.23 ppb, PM2.5=39.65 µg/m3, PM10=76.5 µg/m3). These results indicate that higher pollutants load in winter are associated with large scale polluted air transported from the brick kilns situated in the northern surrounds of the observing station which are also related to lower boundary atmospheric heights during winter. However, a reverse relation between rainfall and atmospheric pollution load throughout the wet season was observed. This finding revealed that the lowest concentration levels of pollutants during the wet season are associated with their atmospheric wash out by precipitation. A strong correlation (R2=0.742) was observed between CO and O3 during the study, which indicates the huge production of an oxidant with increasing CO concentration. Interestingly, O3 showed a positive correlation with NO2 (R2=0.391). This result may indicate that NO2 is the important precursors of O3 in this study. Similarly, CO and NO2 showed good correlation (R2=0.68), indicating that both NO2 and CO are produced from similar pathways of photochemical oxidation of VOC. However, PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations showed decreasing trends with the onset of monsoon, indicating washout of atmospheric dust load through rainfall during the wet season.  
11 Enhancement of Characteristics and Potential Applications of Amylases: A Brief Review   , Saptadip Samanta*   Department of Physiology, Midnapore College, Midnapore, Paschim Medinipur, West Bengal, India. *Correspondence: saptadip174@gmail.com  
Starch is the major storage carbohydrate of plant products. Amylases are the group of enzymes hydrolyzes starch and related polymers to smaller oligosaccharides and less amount of monosaccharide. Microbes are the major sources of amylases, exploited for large scale production in different industries. Recently, protein engineering has been applied to improve the structural and physicochemical properties of the enzyme for its potential applications. Amylases are mostly used for liquefaction of starch in the purpose of glucose, maltose, and high fructose containing syrup preparation, malto-oligosaccharides production, desizing, production of bio-fuel, detergent preparation, waste management, and preparation of digestive aids.  
12 Case Study on the Impact of Pandemic COVID-19 in Aquaculture with its Recommendations   , S. M. Rafiquzzaman*   Dept. of Fisheries Biology & Aquatic Environment, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University (BSMRAU), Gazipur, Bangladesh *Correspondence: rafiquzzaman@bsmrau.edu.bd (Professor, Dept. of Fisheries Biology & Aquatic Environment, BSMRAU, Gazipur, Bangladesh)  
In Bangladesh, the lockdown has been started officially from 26th March 2020 which is actually the most important time for harvesting and summer stocking in the pond. The whole aquaculture production system is now hampering due to pandemic COVID-19 and the value chain in this sector is quite vulnerable. I conducted a wireless survey through cell phone collected information from different stakeholders of different agro-ecological zones of Bangladesh to assess the impact of the pandemic situations in the aquaculture sector. Survey results revealed that pandemic COVID-19 has been affected in different areas of the aquaculture sector including reduction of consumption, export order cancellation, reduction in price, delay in summer stocking, lack of technical support, and transport crisis.   
13 Isolation, Identification, and Antimicrobial Profiling of Bacteria from Aquaculture Fishes in Pond Water of Bangladesh   , Mohammad Zakerin Abedin1*, Md. Sadiqur Rahman2, Rubait Hasan3, Jamiatul Husna Shathi4, Laila Jarin5, and Md. Sifat Uz Zaman6   1Dept. of Microbiology, Khwaja Yunus Ali University, Sirajgonj, Bangladesh; 2Dept. of Microbiology, Aqua Laboratory Quality Feeds Limited, Mymensingh, Bangladesh; 3&4Dept. of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Khwaja Yunus Ali University, Sirajgonj, Bangladesh; 5Dept. of Microbiology, LabAid Medical Centre Gulshan Ltd, Dhaka, Bangladesh; and 6Dept. of Microbiology, Popular Diagnostic Centre Ltd, Dhaka, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: zakerin.du2016@gmail.com (Mohammad Zakerin Abedin, Assistant Professor, Dept. of Microbiology, Khwaja Yunus Ali University, Bangladesh)  
Bacterial diseases are widespread and can be of particular importance in the fish farming of Bangladesh. This investigation was done to assess and compare the bacteria diversities and population in local fresh water pond fishes. Out of 95 samples, 54(56.9%) were Shing (Heteropneustes fossils), 14(14.7%) were Pangas (Pangasius pangasius), 9(9.5%) were Pabda (Ompok spp), 7(7.3%) were Thai Koi, (Anabas testudineus), and 11(11.6%) were others infected fishes such as Shol (Channa striata), Magur (Clarias spp), Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), and Tengara (Mystus cavasius) fishes. Among 95 infected fishes 84(88.4%) were infected with pathogenic bacteria and 11(11.6%) were normal flora. There were eight types of different isolated spp with the frequency of occurrence were 36 (42.9%) Aeromonas spp, 15 (17.9%) Pseudomonas spp, 7(8.3%) Vibrio spp, 9 (10.7%) Staphylococcus spp, 7(8.3%) Flavobacterium spp, 7(8.3%) Edwardsiella spp, others were 3(3.6%) Citobacter spp, and Enterobacter spp respectively. All of the isolated pathogenic bacteria showed 84/84(100%) resistant to Amoxicillin and 18/84(64.3%) resistant to Erythromycin. All the strains showed sensitive to Ciprofloxacin, Cotrimoxazole, Enorfloxacin, Doxyciline, Clotetracycline, and Colistin with the frequency of occurrence were 78/84(92.8%), 76/84 (90.5%), 73/84(86.9%), 67/84(67.9%), 53/84(63.1%) and 52/84(61.9%) respectively. The physiochemical characteristics of 95 pond water samples were analyzed; the average water temperature, pH, and ammonia were 27.3oC, 7.6, and 0.87mg/L respectively. The significant variation in the physiochemical parameters like water temperature, pH, ammonia was observed within these five types of ponds water. Hence, it is important to detect fish diseases, responsible pathogens, and other agents for the protection of our water resources.   
14 The Impact of Employee Turnover on Organizational Performance: A Case Study of Mada Walabu University, Bale Robe, Ethiopia   , Dejene Taye1* and Bamlaku Getnet2   1&2Department of Environmental Science, School of Natural Science, Madawalabu University, Bale Robe, Ethiopia. *Correspondence: dejene.taye@mwu.edu.et  
This research focuses on the impact of staff turnover on organizational effectiveness and performance in Mada Walabu University. High staff turnover rates may jeopardize efforts to attain organizational objectives. In addition, when an organization loses a critical employee, there is a negative impact on innovation, consistency in providing service to primary users may be jeopardized and major delays in the delivery of services to customers may occur. The research design used in this study was the descriptive approach, which allowed the researcher to use semi-structured questionnaires when collecting data. The survey method used in this study because the target population only composed of 425 employees. The study employed Purposive, Simple Random sampling, and Convenience sampling techniques. A high response rate of 100% obtained using the personal method of data collection; questionnaire structured in a 5-point Likert scale format. Furthermore, the study interviewed human resource heads and ten voluntary employees with convenient sampling techniques. The study finding suggests that high labor demand and job opportunities in the market, lack of opportunity for career advancement in the organization, Unsatisfied with the working conditions, and no involvement in decision-making, are the foremost causes of employee turnover on organizational performance. The study finding also showed that staff turnover causes loss of some of the very experienced and skilled employees, reduction in work productivity and quality of services rendered as well as it causes too much wastage of resources when new staff settles and loses public confidence in the operation of the organization. In order to return the reduced university’s capacity in terms of national attrition rates, higher education access targets, quality education assurance, significant community, and technology transfer, and standardized research-based problem-solving culture due to staff turnover.  
15 Impact of Climate Change on Animal Production and Expansion of Animal Disease: A Review on Ethiopia Perspective   , Wakgari Abirham Haile*    College of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Production, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.  *Correspondence: bashirabirham@gmail.com  
Climate change is a result of the global increase in average air and ocean temperatures, and rising average sea levels. Livestock production and health are significantly vulnerable to the impact of climate change. Climate change has direct and indirect impacts on emerging and re-emerging animal diseases and zoonoses since it disrupts natural ecosystems and allows disease-causing pathogens to move into new areas where they may harm wildlife and domestic species, as well as humans.  Climate change affects diseases and pest distributions, range prevalence, incidence, and seasonality but the degree of change remains highly uncertain. The occurrence and distribution of vector-borne diseases such as bluetongue, west Nile fever, rift valley fever, African horse sickness, etc. are closely associated with weather patterns and long-term climatic factors strongly influence the incidence of outbreaks. The interaction between animal production and climate change is complex and multi-directional since animal production contributes to climate change; but to the reverse and worse condition, climate change highly affects animal production. Climate change, animal production systems, and animal diseases are strongly linked to each other. But what is worse is that both change in climate and the production systems of animals highly affect the occurrence, distribution, emergence, and re-emergence of animal diseases. The close linkage among climate change, animal production, and disease; the increased threat of climate on the animal production and health sectors needs: the hands of stakeholders in the environment, animal production and health to work in an integrated and systematic manner; researches with emphasis given to the state of climate change and the direct and indirect effects it poses on animal production and health; and ensuring development of sustainable animal farming and land use, and climate adaptation and mitigation strategies.  
16 Socioeconomic Factors of Forest Dependency in Developing Countries: Lessons Learned from the Bandarban Hill District of Bangladesh   , Morgubatul Jannat1*, Mohammed Kamal Hossain1, and Mohammad Main Uddin1&2   1Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences, University of Chittagong, Chittagong - 4331, Bangladesh; 2School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, QLD-4072, Australia. *Correspondence: mjruhin@cu.ac.bd  
Forests provide direct and indirect economic benefits to forest-dependent communities in the world, especially in the developing countries contributing to the national economy. The present study aims with the socioeconomic status and factors favoring forest conservation and influencing people’s dependency on forest resources in the Bandarban hill district of Bangladesh. The study was based on Focus Group Discussion (FGD) and socioeconomic survey through a semi-structured questionnaire. The study revealed that peoples’ income from the forest and forest-related occupations were positively related to their forest dependency. However, respondent’s education level significantly reduced their dependency on forest resources. Thus, educating the forest-dependent people and supporting alternative livelihoods may be an option for effective forest management and conservation. This study represents an important pioneer step in taking a holistic view of the peoples’ dependency on forest resources which might be helpful for policymakers in the future to ensure sustainable forest management and conservation in developing countries like Bangladesh.  
17 Molecular Computation and Antibacterial Activity of Cu (II) Complex of Naphthaldehyde Thiosemicarbazone   , Md. Ali Asraf1*, Dipta Sarker1, Md. Faruk Hossen1, Md. Masuqul Haque1, and Md. Kudrat-E-Zahan1   1Department of Chemistry, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6205, Bangladesh.  *Correspondence: asraf.chem@ru.ac.bd (Md. Ali Asraf, Associate Professor, Dept. of Chemistry, Rajshahi University, Bangladesh)  
Copper (II) complex of naphthaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (L) has been synthesized and characterized by melting points, conductance, magnetic, infrared, and ESI-MS spectral measurements in addition to elemental analysis. A tetrahedral structure is suggested for the complex. The antibacterial activities of the complex and ligand were evaluated by the disc diffusion technique. Pure bacteria cultures of Bacillus subtilis (Gram-positive) and Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) were used to check the antibacterial activities of the synthesized compounds. Antibacterial activities were compared by measuring the inhibition zone diameter and chloramphenicol was used as a reference. Both the compounds showed significant antibacterial activity in different range against gram-positive & gram-negative bacteria. The antibacterial activity data also show that the Cu(II) complex to be more effective than the parent ligand. Molecular geometry of the complex has been optimized by ChemDraw Ultra 12.0 and then MM2 calculation has been done.   
18 Molecular Identification and Characterization of Smartphone Screen Associated Pathogenic Bacteria   , Shirmin Islam1, Md. Moniruzzaman1, Md. Joy Pramanik1, Tabassum Jabin1, Mst. Merina Mostari1, Jui Biswas1, Al-Imran1, Md. Salah Uddin1, Md. Abu Saleh1*, Shahriar Zaman1   1Microbiology Laboratory, Department of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi-6205, Bangladesh.  *Correspondence Email: saleh@ru.ac.bd   
Mobile phone is a device that keeps in contact with our sensitive body parts including faces, hands, nose, ears, and lips, etc. most of the time. Although we know many bad aspects of mobile phones; we are indifferent to its bacterial contamination. Smartphone screen is an endless reservoir of pathogenic bacteria and works as an object in spreading those bacteria. The purpose of the study was to identify pathogenic bacteria from smartphone screen and finding some common causes of bacterial contamination. So, a public survey was conducted among 100 students from the Dept. of Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology, University of Rajshahi to know the uses pattern of their particular smartphone. Then, for the lab-based work samples were collected from the smartphone screen of the students by sterile swabs moistened with normal saline water. Among the samples, four strains were selected based on bacterial concentration for further analysis. Out of four, two strains were gram-positive and two were gram-negative. Biochemical tests indicated that all of them were pathogenic and the selected gram-positive bacteria were coagulase-positive Staphylococcus species and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species.16S-rRNA gene sequencing identified the selected two-gram negative strains as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The antibiotic sensitivity test referred that all the bacteria were multidrug-resistant and may be dangerous for compromised immune patients.