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European Journal of Medical and Health Sciences

Journal Papers (16) Details Call for Paper Manuscript submission Publication Ethics Contact Authors' Guide Line
1 Effect of Antibiotic Susceptibility and Inhibitory Activity for the Control of Growth and Survival of Microorganisms of Extracts of Calendula officinalis   , Md. Zulfiqer Shahen1, Shahriar Mahmud1*, Shaharuq Nahid Sohana1, Mehadi Hasan Rony1, Md. Abu Sayeed Imran1, Md. Abdullah Al Maruf2, Md. Afzal Ahmed Azim2, Md Monirul Islam3, Md. Rokibul Islam1, Md. Ekhlas Uddin1, and Mohammad Shah Alam4   1Dept. of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Islamic University, Bangladesh; 2Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Jahangirnagar University, Bangladesh; 3BioIcon Group, Uttara, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 4Dept. of Microbiology, Gono Bishwabidyalay, Dhaka, Bangladesh *Correspondence: shahriar.btge@gmail.com  
Extracts from many types of plants show several evidences of beneficial health effects in the living system. Calendula officinalis is a well known medicinal plant in our country. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of C. officinalis for control of the growth and survival of microorganisms. The inhibition of growth was tested by the paper disc agar diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by the tube dilution method. C. officinalis leaf extract showed inhibition (MIC, inhibitory) to Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Bacillus subtilis and to the other bacteria tested. Antimicrobial effects of leaf extract of C. officinalis on some microorganisms including pathogens were investigated. The extract of C. officinalis leaf which is prepared in was tested on bacterial cultures such as B. subtilis, S. lutea, E. coli, K. pneumoniae and also investigated that minimum inhibitory concentration 4µg/ml of leaf extract of C. officinalis in petroleum ether against K. pneumoniae and largest inhibitory zone are created by 512mg/ml chloroform extract against E. coli leaf extract of C. officinalis in petroleum ether has proved better for antibacterial activity. This study demonstrates that the potentiality of C. officinalis as a source of antimicrobials that could be harness for use in the health care delivery process.  
2 Nutritional Status of the Adolescent Boys of a Recognized Charitable Orphanage in Dhaka City, Bangladesh   , Ropak Chandra Roy1*, Md. Sahabuddin2, Sumon Chandra Debnath3, Md. Jakir Hosaain4, Md. Azmol Hossain5, Sentu Chandra Barman6, Anamul Hasan7, Mahbub Jubayer8, Jamal Uddin8, Md. Habibur Rahman8 , Md. Sherajul Haque1, and Banosree Saha8    1Dept. of Physiotherapy, Gono Bishwabidalay, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2Dept. of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, BSMRSTU, Gopalganj, Bangladesh; 3Civil Surgeon Office, Chattogram, Bangladesh; 4Dept. of Biochemistry and Microbiology, North South University, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 5Eastern care hospital Ltd, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 6New Medi Fair diagnosis centre, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 7MAYFAIR Wellness Clinic Ltd, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2Dept. of Microbiology, Jahangirnagar University, Dhaka, Bangladesh; and 8Gonoshasthya Samaj Vittik Medical & College Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh *Correspondence: ropak.mph111@gmail.com  
This cross-sectional research was managed for the deduction of nutritional condition among adolescent boys of a perceived charitable orphanage in Dhaka city, Bangladesh. The sample size of the study was 100. This research set up the mean age of the study sample as 9.93 ± 2.392 years and modes Body Mass Index (BMI) was 14.48 ± 2.385. Among them of 60% of the participants were illiterate and 40% had a primary level of education. Of the participants, 100% were laid hold of vegetables and rice. Among them, 92%, 89%, 64%, 47%, and 4% of the participants were taken chicken, fast food, beef, bread, and mutton respectively. Among them, 96% were laid hold of sufficient food and 4% lay hold of insufficient food daily. The present study shows that 96% were taken education from Madrasha, 4% were taken general education. The current research also focused that 92% of the participants had information about own hygiene and 8% had not, and among them, 84%, 80%, 76% and 70% of the participants were regulated personal hygiene by nail and hair trimming, hand washes practicing by soap after toileting, utilize toothbrush and paste daily and hand washes performing by soap after taking food respectively. Of them, 57%, 53%, 49%, 16% and 2% of the participants had information about own hygiene by doctors, friends, television, radio, and poster respectively. There was a statistically noteworthy association between age with the volume of food, information about own hygiene and BMI was (0.016, 0.022, and 0.000).  
3 Antibiotic Resistance Analysis of Vibrio spp Isolated from Different Types of Water Sources of Bangladesh and Their Characterization   , Milon Kumar Das Sarker1, Tanvir Ahammed2, Md. Sahabuddin3, Pinki Akter1, Azizul Haque4, Md. Rajib Hossain5, Md. Golam Mosaib6, Md. Robiul Islam7, Goutom Chandra Mondol8*, and Md. Firoz Alam9   1Dept. of Microbiology, Stamford University  Bangladesh, Bangladesh; 2Dept. of Microbiology and Hygiene, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Bangladesh; 3Dept. of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, BSMRSTU, Bangladesh; 4Dept. of Microbiology, University of Chittagong, Bangladesh; 5Dept. of Environmental Science & Disaster Management, BSMRSTU, Bangladesh; 6Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Gono Bishwabidyalay, Bangladesh; 7Dept. of Microbiology, Jagannath University, Bangladesh; 8Department of Public Health, ASA University, Bangladesh, and 9Dept. of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Islamic University, Bangladesh *Correspondence: goutommicro@gmail.com  
Cholera is an acute form of the diarrheal disease that plagued human civilization over the centuries. The enormity of human sufferings led clinicians and scientists to carry out extensive research on cholera and Vibrio cholerae leading to major discoveries that opened up novel areas of research or new disciplines in biomedical sciences. An attempt is made here to summarize some of these breakthroughs and outline their significance in broader perspectives. In the present study, a total of 12 samples were collected from four types of water sources for the isolation of Vibrio spp. Water samples are enrichment into alkaline peptone water then inoculate into culture media such as Nutrient agar, MacConkey, and Thiosulfate Citrate Bile Salts Sucrose (TCBS) agar medium. After incubation of TCBS plates for 24h at 37°C yellow and green colonies are screened out for biochemical identification. No-sucrose fermenting Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio mimicus, and Vibrio vulnificus show green colonies and sucrose fermenting Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio alginolyticus show yellow colonies on TCBS. To identify the Vibrio spp isolates biochemical test was carried out and typical Vibrio spp give a positive result. The majority of Vibrio spp are avirulent, but certain strains may be sporadically human pathogenic. The antibiotic resistance studies showed that among the 9 isolates were resistant against Erythromycin, Penicillin, Cephalexin, Vancomycin, and 4 isolates resistant against Tetracycline. To expand current knowledge of the occurrence, ecological niche, and persistence of potential human pathogenic Vibrio spp in aquatic environments, occurrence, and laboratory studies were performed.  
4 Assessment, Monitoring, and Awareness of Garment Workers Regarding the Prevalence of Tuberculosis in Savar, Dhaka   , Syed Abdullah-Al-Nahid1*, Taslima Haque2, Md. Shoykot Jahan3, Ashrafi Akter Jahan4, Mohammad Shah Alam5, K. M. Shakib6, and Ropak Chandra Roy6    1Dept. of Physiology, Gonoshastaya Samaj Vittik Medical & College Hospital, Bangladesh; 2CMH Dhaka, AMC, Bangladesh Army; 3Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Gono Bishwabidyalay, Bangladesh; 4Dept. of Anatomy, Gonoshastaya Samaj Vittik Medical & College Hospital, Bangladesh; 5Dept. of Microbiology, Gono Bishwabidyalay, Bangladesh; and 6Dept. of Physiotherapy, Gono Bishwabidyalay, Bangladesh  *Correspondence: dralnahid.edu@gmail.com  
The study was conducted to evaluate the awareness regarding Tuberculosis (TB) in the middle of the export-oriented garment workers in Savar, Dhaka. Data were calmed by face to face talk to using a semi-structured questionnaire. A gross of 110 garment workers was talked to, in the middle of them, 51.8% were male and rests of 48.2% were female. Maximum 30.9% participants age was between 20-22 years and 28.2% of respondent’s ages were more than 28 years.  58.2% of respondents had secondary education, 22.7% of respondents had primary education, and 14.5% of respondents had HSC and above education. Out of 110 participants, 60.0% resided in a nuclear family, 39.1% have resided in a joint family, and 34.5 % were at their own house, 3.6 % were at slum and 57.3% were at the colony. The majority had heard about TB (72.7%) by listening to Television, Radio, Newspaper, and 27.3% were family members, offices, doctors or hospitals. only 25.5% perceived it to be an infectious disease, (30.0%) were did not perceive and the highest number 44.5 % were didn’t know. The correct mode of conveyance i.e. airborne (coughing) was familiar to 66.7% research subjects. The majority (62.4%) knew cough as a symptom. Maximum (71.8%) participants thought TB to be a curable disease, in the middle of the majority (52.0 %) were of the viewpoint to avert the TB by a cover on the mouth at coughing, 8.1% were said BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin) vaccination and 35.8 % was no smoking. Most of the respondents (96.4%) said TB is a treatable disease, in the middle of them, 75.5% said by Anti TB antibiotics. 62.7% of participants perceive TB is a totally curable disease. This work shows (74.5%) garments workers have deficient awareness and (25.5%) have adequate awareness.  
5 Evaluation of Neuropharmacological Activities of Methanolic Extract of Bacopa monnieri L. in Mice Model   , Md. Ahasun Habib1, 2*, Sonia Akter3, Arrafy Rahman4, Jyoti Sikder2, Fahmida Khatun2, Md. Furkanur Rahaman Mizan5, Md. Ashrafudoulla5 and Muhammad Abdul Hannan2   1Dept. of Food Science and Technology, International Institute of Applied Science and Technology, Rangpur, Bangladesh; 2Dept. of Biotechnology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh; 3Pharmacy Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna, Bangladesh; 4Dept. of Microbiology, International Institute of Applied Science and Technology, Rangpur, Bangladesh; and 5Dept. of Food Science and Technology, Chung-Ang University, Gyunggido, South Korea. *Correspondence: habibku1107@gmail.com  
Now-a-days, the use of natural products has increased its popularity day by day all over the world. One of the most effective therapeutic medicinal plants is Bacopa monnieri. In the current study, the methanolic distillate of B. monnieri was designed for an antidepressant in mice models. B. monnieri was evaluated for anti-depressant venture in the forced swimming test (FST), tail suspension test (TST) and elevated plus maze test. In force swimming test, imipramine (30 mg/kg) used as a standard drug and in TST as well as elevated plus maze test, diazepam (10 mg/kg) used as a standard and the plant extract (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg) was administered as test group and the control group was given deionized water. In this test, the test extracts (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg) compare to both control and standard group. The higher dose (200 mg/kg) represented a more significant effect than a dose of 100 mg/kg. In comparison to the standard and control, at dose 200 mg/kg represented a more significant effect at p<0.05 among three of the test.   
6 The Impact of Ageing on Population Structure and Development Process of Different Levels of Bangladesh   , Imtiaz Ahmed1*   1Department of Population Sciences, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh  *Correspondence: imtiazdmc@gmail.com  
Bangladesh is a small South-Asian country at the threshold of an amazing opportunity. Due to the relatively young age of the population, there is a tremendous possibility of economic development. However, this euphoria of demographic dividend often masks the fact that there is a time limit on this opportunity, and as this population gets older, we will have a completely different age structure by 2050 with more people on the other side of 65. That will create a substantial burden on our support structure and additional budget will be needed to cater to the demands of the elderly. But if we can play our cards right, then it is possible to manage that while sustaining the development curve. But we have to act now; otherwise, it will be too late.  
7 In-Vitro Quality Evaluation of Marketed Naproxen 500 mg Tablets in Bangladesh   , Md. Shahin Sarker1*, Shamsun Nahar1, and Mir Imam Ibne Wahed2   1Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Biological Science and Technology, Jashore University of Science and Technology, Jashore-7408, Bangladesh; and 2Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Science, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi-6205, Bangladesh  *Correspondence: sarkershahin@just.edu.bd  
The quality of pharmaceutical finished dosage forms is one of the major concerns for pharmaceutical industries. The tablet dosage form of any pharmaceutical company goes through many research studies and experiments to maintain the proper quality standards. This study was conducted to investigate the quality of Naproxen 500 mg tablets which are manufactured in Bangladesh. Different physical parameters like weight variation, thickness, friability as well as and dissolution profile studies were conducted to evaluate the quality of the Naproxen tablets. The tendency of a tablet to chip, crumble, or break following compression is called friability. The friability test results were in the range of the standard value. The thickness test of all the brands was compiled with the standard values except brand B. The thicknesses of A, B, C, D, and E brands are 4.1, 7.1, 6.0 5.32, and 6.1 mm respectively. To ensure quality products a pharmaceutical industry follows international standards. The average cumulative % of drug release from A, B, C, D, and E brands were 98%, 102.85%, 92.24%, 101.11%, and  99.96% respectively.   
8 Isolation, Identification and Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Salmonella from Dairy Farms in Adama and Modjo Towns, Central Ethiopia   , Abdurezak Abrar1, Takele Beyene1, and Walkite Furgasa2*   1College of Veterinary Medicine, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 2School of Veterinary Medicine, Wollegga University, Nekemte, Ethiopia *Correspondence: walkiteharamaya@gmail.com  
A cross-sectional study was carried out from February 2019 to May 2019 in Adama and Modjo aiming at isolating Salmonella from dairy cattle farms and determining the antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the isolates. A total of 117 samples from dairy farms: faces, bulk tank milk, personnel hand swab, and contaminated floor samples were collected and screened for the presence of Salmonella. Ten (8.5%) of the samples tested were found to be positive for Salmonella. Of 89 faces, 10 bulk tank milk, 9 personnel hand swab, and 9 contaminated floor samples, no positive were found in the milker’s hand swab samples from both Adama and Modjo areas and the isolation frequencies of Salmonella were 8.98%, 10%, and 11.1% in faces, bulk tank milk, and floor sample, respectively. The antibiogram testing revealed differential multi-drug resistance among Salmonella isolates in lactating cow and cows environment samples. Most of the isolates were resistant to methicillin, streptomycin, and nalidixic acid whereas sensitivity was recorded for gentamicin. In conclusion, the relatively high resistance among the bacteria present in dairy farms could pose public health and therapeutic problems to consumers as potential vehicles of resistant Salmonella foodborne infections.  
9 In-Vitro Comparative Quality Evaluation of Marketed Cefuroxime 250 mg Tablets in Bangladesh   , Md. Shahin Sarker1*, Md. Rafiqul Islam1, Md. Selim Reza1, and Mir Imam Ibne Wahed2   1Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Biological Science and Technology, Jashore University of Science and Technology, Jashore-7408, Bangladesh; 2Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Science, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi-6205, Bangladesh *Correspondence: sarkershahin@just.edu.bd  
The study evaluated different quality control parameters of five brands of Cefuroxime 250mg tablets which are already marketed in Bangladesh. Five brands of the drug sourced from different retail outlets to assess the quality assessment and comparison of the tablets using the in-vitro release study. The brands were subjected to various official tests including uniformity of weight, thickness test, dissolution tests, and cumulative % of drug release and friability test.  This research further focuses on the requirement of manufacturers to construct quality into their products during manufacture and also sustain the built-in quality from batch to batch in line with the principles of cGMP.  
10 Prescribing Pattern of Medical Practitioners in Their Private Chamber Practice According to WHO Prescribing Indicators in a Southern District of Bangladesh   , Sanjoy Saha1*, ASM Rizwan2, Jyoti Vaskar Saha3, Abu Rayhan Siddique4, Abu Hasnat5, Mahbobur Rahman6, Wazed Ahmed7, and Dil Afroz8   1Dept. of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Ad-din Sakina Women’s Medical College, Jashore and PhD fellow, Bangladesh University of Professionals, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2Dept. of Medicine, Ad-din Sakina Women’s Medical College, Jashore, Bangladesh; 3Dept. of Nephrology, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 4Dept. of Surgery, Shaheed Taj Uddin Ahmed Medical College, Gazipur, Bangladesh; 5Dept. of Pediatric Nephrology, Dhaka Shishu Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 6Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh, Bangladesh; 7Neonatal ICU, Lab Aid Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh; and 8Dept. of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Jahurul Islam Medical College, Kishoreganj, Bangladesh.  *Correspondence: dr.sanjoysahammc@gmail.com (Dr. Sanjoy Saha, Associate Professor, and Head, Dept. of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Ad-din Sakina Women’s Medical College, Jashore, Bangladesh)  
Prescription is a written order and direction by a registered physician to the pharmacist for the particular use of a medicine product for a patient. The aim of the research was to observe the prescription pattern of doctors in their chamber practice according to the World Health Organization (WHO) prescribing indicators. A total of 300 prescriptions of outdoor patients from various departments of different private chambers of medical practitioners were collected from 1st August to 31st October 2019 and were evaluated. After evaluation and data analysis we got, patients’ age and gender were not mentioned in 6% prescriptions. Dose and course of treatment were incomplete in 60%, 72%, and 52% of prescriptions respectively. Abbreviations were used in 100% prescriptions. Doctor’s medical registration number was mentioned in 13% prescriptions only. A total of 1042 drugs was prescribed in 300 prescriptions. The average number of drugs prescribed was 3.38±1.79 (Mean±SD). Most of the prescriptions contained a brand name (93.33%) of the drugs whereas only a few (6.7%) used the generic names (P<0.05). Antibiotics and injections were ordained in 64% and 8% cases respectively. Approximately 60% of drugs were prescribed according to the Essential Medicine List (EML) of Bangladesh. Our study has shown that very few physicians are acquainted and follow the WHO standard of prescribing which can lead to seriously negative health consequences. Moreover, the presence of antibiotics in two-third of all prescriptions should ring an alarm to prevent its aberrant use.  
11 Boon and Bane of Transgenic Animal: A Brief Review   , Chandan Sarkar1, Sarmin Jamaddar1, Tasniya Nahiyan Zulfiquar1, and Milon Mondal1*   1Department of Pharmacy, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Science and Technology University, Gopalganj-8100, Bangladesh *Correspondence: milon_mondal@bsmrstu.edu.bd  
The progression of biotechnology and genetic engineering to produce transgenic animals by familiarizing the foreign DNA into the germline of an animal has elevated the potential of biological research to an unprecedented level. This technology not only beneficial in human welfare, society, and the environment but also harmful. At present, many transgenic species (goats, chickens, pigs, cows, mice, rabbits, sheep, etc.) are considered for research applications as well as latent profitable pharmaceutical productively. Transgenic animals are applied as the different models for the experiment of different diseases including HIV/AIDS, Alzheimer’s, Cardiovascular, and Diabetes Mellitus, Angiogenesis, and Cancer disease. The main disadvantages of transgenic animals are mutagenesis and function disorders, ecological problems, antibiotic resistance, and population of clones.   
12 Antibacterial Activity of Cissus quadrangularis Stem Extract on the Pathogenic and Industrial Waste Watered Bacteria   , Md. Golam Mosaib1*, Md. Abdullah Al Maruf2, Rabiul Islam3, Shahriar Mahmud4, Shaharuq Nahid Sohana4, Md. Abu Sayeed Imran4, Mehadi Hasan Rony4, Maidul Islam5, Fatema Tuz Zuhora6, and Shafiqul Islam6   1Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Gono Bishwabidyalay, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Jahangirnagar University, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 3Divisional DNA Screening Laboratory, Faridpur Medical College Hospital, Ministry of Women & Children Affairs, Faridpur, Bangladesh; 4Dept. of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Islamic University, Bangladesh; 5Apex Biotechnology Laboratory, Dhaka, Bangladesh; and 6Dept. of Microbiology, Gono Bishwabidyalay, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh *Correspondence: gmosaib@gmail.com  
Cissus quadrangularis (Vitaceae) is a popular climber conspicuous by its flesh quadrangular stem widespread throughout Bangladesh. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of C. quadrangularis extracts was studied against selected pathogenic bacteria, industrial wasted bacteria, and broth dilution assay. The most commonly used method of microbiological assay is the disc diffusion method. C. quadrangularis stem extracted with four solvents (Petroleum spirit, methanol, ethyl acetate, and dichloromethane) were tested for antimicrobial activities against some pathogenic microorganisms  Sarcina lutea (002-1), Xanthomonas campestris (004-1), Escherichia coli (005-1), Klebsiella pneumonia (006-1) and some industrial (Tannery, Tobacco, and Sugar mill) waste watered bacteria by disc diffusion method. Among the four extracts, ethyl acetate showed moderate antibacterial activity against X. campestris (004-1) and industrial watered bacteria. But, the commercial disc Oxicycline doesn’t show any antibacterial activity against the industrial waste watered bacteria. Petroleum spirit, methanol, and dichloromethane extract were ineffective against all of the tested bacteria.  
13 Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis among Pregnant Women Attending Ante-Natal Care in Kano, Nigeria   , Farouk S. Nas1, Abdullahi Yahaya2, Lurwan Muazu3, Shu’aibu N. Halliru4, and Muhammad Ali5*   1Dept. of Biological Sciences, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria; 2Dept. of Biological Sciences, Kano University of Science and Technology, Wudil, Nigeria; 3Dept. of Biological Sciences, Federal University, Gusau, Nigeria; 4Dept. of Biology, Sa’adatu Rimi College of Education, Kano, Nigeria; and 5Dept. of Microbiology, Federal University, Gusau, Nigeria. *Corresponding author: alimuhd4real@gmail.com (Muhammad Ali, Dept of Microbiology, Federal University, Nigeria)  
Trichomoniasis, caused by the protozoan parasite, Trichomonas vaginalis, is a common but curable sexually transmitted disease affecting millions around the world. The study was aimed to determine the prevalence of T. vaginalis among pregnant women attending ante-natal care at Yan-awaki maternity in Kano, Northern Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was conducted among one hundred and eighty-four (184) pregnant women attending the hospital. A total of 184 High Vaginal Swabs (HVS) were collected the pregnant women with their consent and examined for the presence of T. vaginalis microscopically. From the result, T. vaginalis was detected in 23 out of the 184 samples which accounted for 12.5% of the pregnant women. The pregnant women between the age category 26-30 years had the highest prevalence of 4.34 % while the least prevalence was recorded among pregnant women of age category above 40, though the difference in the prevalence among ages is not significant at p<0.05. On the basis of the gestation period, pregnant women in the first trimester had the highest prevalence than that of second and third trimesters. It is concluded that Trichomoniasis is one of the infections of pregnant women.   
14 Laboratory Based Diagnosis of Bacteraemia among Inpatients and Outpatients with Acute Febrile Illness at Khwaja Yunus Ali Medical College and Hospital in Bangladesh   , Mohammad Zakerin Abedin1*, Abdullah Akhtar Ahmed1, Md. Shakhaowat Hossain1, and Md. Babul Aktar1   1Department of Microbiology, School of Biomedical Science, Khwaja Yunus Ali University, Sirajganj, Bangladesh.  *Corresponding author: zakerin.du2016@gmail.com (Mohammad Zakerin Abedin, Assistant Professor & Head, Dept. of Microbiology, Khwaja Yunus Ali University, Bangladesh)  
Bacteraemia is one of the important causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacterial strains is a major problem in its management. To encourage the prudent use of appropriate antibiotics in a tertiary care study was undertaken. A total of 282 patients with suspected bacteraemia from indoor and outdoor patients were included in this study. Blood samples were processed in the microbiology laboratory and bacteria were recognized by standard laboratory methods and then antibiotic susceptibility test was performed following CLSI guidelines. Out of a total of 282 blood samples, 55(19.50%) were culture positive. Among 55 positive cultures, Gram-positive Cocci and Gram-negative Bacilli were 48(87.3%) and 7(12.7%) respectively. The most predominant organisms were Staphylococcus aureus comprising 42(76.36%), followed by Salmonella typhi 4(7.30%), E. coli 2(3.63%) and Acinetobacter spp 1(1.81%). Among the isolated Staphylococcus spp, only 6(10.9%) isolates were Coagulase-Negative (CoNS). In antibiotic susceptibility test, all of the isolated bacterial pathogens were found susceptible to imipenem and meropenem (100%). For Salmonella typhi, all 4 isolated strains were found resistant to amoxicillin, amoxicillin+clavulanic acid (amoxyclave) and cephradine and 3 out of 4(75%) were susceptible to ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin. Most of the Gram-positive Cocci (GPC) were susceptible to levofloxacin (90%), ciprofloxacin (85%), and amikacin (83%). Both of E. coli and Acinetobacter spp were sensitive to amikacin (100%).  This study stresses the need for continuous screening and surveillance for antibiotic resistance that would influence appropriate empiric treatment and infection control strategies for bacteremic cases.   
15 Assessment on Economic Losses due to Animal Health and Production Constraints in Jimma Town Intensive Dairy Farms, Jimma, Ethiopia   , Israel Gammada*   School of Veterinary Medicine, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Jimma University, Ethiopia. *Correspondence: gamadaisrael@gmail.com (Dr. Israel Gammada, School of Veterinary Medicine, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Jimma University, Ethiopia)  
A single-visit-multiple subject formal survey technique was used to collect data from 75 small-scale dairy farming households which were selected at random and were interviewed using a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire. Seventy-three (97.3%) dairy farming was practiced under an intensive management system. Among the selected dairy farms, only (33.3%) were kept in good hygienic condition. Artificial insemination was common (69.3%) breeding system practiced in most dairy farms of studying area. This study discovered that only a few dairy farms (2.7%) undergo periodic vaccination. It appeared from the study that morbidity loss of animals was primarily caused by mastitis which calculated (42.7%), black leg (32%), lumpy skin disease (21.3%), milk fever (17.3%), heart water (10.7%) and foot rote (5.3%) in order of their decreasing order. The results of this survey revealed that mastitis was ranked as the number one disease of dairy animals while foot rote was list reported disease in the study area. Morbidity loss of production and productivity was estimated to the financial loss of (812,600 birrs) per year. Not only morbidity loss, in some farms, mortality was also common problems of the study area. Mainly common diseases such as heart water (6.7%), milk fever (5.3%), back leg (2.7%), and lumpy skin disease (1.7%) were major causes of mortality in few farms. This in turn estimated the financial loss of (625,000 birrs). Eventually, overall annual financial loss as a result of mortality and morbidity was estimated to be (1,437,600 birrs). The outbreak of lumpy skin disease and blacklegs could be controlled through improving veterinary services with respect to adequate vaccination and heart water (seasonal tick infestation) would be alleviated by spraying. The aim of the study was to assess assessment on economic losses due to animal health and production constraints in Jimma town intensive dairy farms, Jimma, Ethiopia.   
16 An In silico Approach for Structural and Functional Annotation of Uncharacterized Protein Rv0986 present in Mycobacterium tuberculosis   , Abu Saim Mohammad Saikat1*, Md. Lutful Kabir1, and Abul Bashar Ripon Khalipha2   1Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Science and Technology University (BSMRSTU), Gopalganj, Bangladesh; 2Dept. of Pharmacy, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Science and Technology University (BSMRSTU), Gopalganj, Bangladesh.  *Correspondence: asmsaikat.bmb@gmail.com (Abu Saim Mohammad Saikat, Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, BSMRSTU, Gopalganj, Bangladesh  
Tuberculosis (TB) is an ancient infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). MTB is a human pathogen. Surprisingly, TB has become the top disease for its death rate worldwide. The uncharacterized protein Rv0986 is closely related to the transporters of the ATP-binding cassette domain, therefore, take part in the export of macrolide as well as a lipoprotein. Furthermore, it is associated with cell division protein. Hence, the protein has a significant role in mycobacterial infection. But, so far, the uncharacterized protein Rv0986 is not elaborated. As a result, in this study, the structural and functional annotation of the protein is described through in silico approach. The predicted tertiary structures of the protein generated by Swiss Model, Modeller, and Phyre2, and documented by the Ramachandran Plot analysis with PROCHECK, Verify 3D, and Swiss-Model Interactive Workplace. Z-score also applied for the overall structural assessment. This study will unleash the importance of the uncharacterized protein present in MTB, therefore, it provides an opportunity for drug and vaccine targeting against infection by MTB.