1 Nutritional Status of the Adolescent Boys of a Recognized Charitable Orphanage in Dhaka City, Bangladesh   , Ropak Chandra Roy1*, Md. Sahabuddin2, Sumon Chandra Debnath3, Md. Jakir Hosaain4, Md. Azmol Hossain5, Sentu Chandra Barman6, Anamul Hasan7, Mahbub Jubayer8, Jamal Uddin8, Md. Habibur Rahman8 , Md. Sherajul Haque1, and Banosree Saha8    1Dept. of Physiotherapy, Gono Bishwabidalay, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2Dept. of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, BSMRSTU, Gopalganj, Bangladesh; 3Civil Surgeon Office, Chattogram, Bangladesh; 4Dept. of Biochemistry and Microbiology, North South University, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 5Eastern care hospital Ltd, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 6New Medi Fair diagnosis centre, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 7MAYFAIR Wellness Clinic Ltd, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2Dept. of Microbiology, Jahangirnagar University, Dhaka, Bangladesh; and 8Gonoshasthya Samaj Vittik Medical & College Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh *Correspondence: ropak.mph111@gmail.com  
This cross-sectional research was managed for the deduction of nutritional condition among adolescent boys of a perceived charitable orphanage in Dhaka city, Bangladesh. The sample size of the study was 100. This research set up the mean age of the study sample as 9.93 ± 2.392 years and modes Body Mass Index (BMI) was 14.48 ± 2.385. Among them of 60% of the participants were illiterate and 40% had a primary level of education. Of the participants, 100% were laid hold of vegetables and rice. Among them, 92%, 89%, 64%, 47%, and 4% of the participants were taken chicken, fast food, beef, bread, and mutton respectively. Among them, 96% were laid hold of sufficient food and 4% lay hold of insufficient food daily. The present study shows that 96% were taken education from Madrasha, 4% were taken general education. The current research also focused that 92% of the participants had information about own hygiene and 8% had not, and among them, 84%, 80%, 76% and 70% of the participants were regulated personal hygiene by nail and hair trimming, hand washes practicing by soap after toileting, utilize toothbrush and paste daily and hand washes performing by soap after taking food respectively. Of them, 57%, 53%, 49%, 16% and 2% of the participants had information about own hygiene by doctors, friends, television, radio, and poster respectively. There was a statistically noteworthy association between age with the volume of food, information about own hygiene and BMI was (0.016, 0.022, and 0.000).  
2 Antibiotic Resistance Analysis of Vibrio spp Isolated from Different Types of Water Sources of Bangladesh and Their Characterization   , Milon Kumar Das Sarker1, Tanvir Ahammed2, Md. Sahabuddin3, Pinki Akter1, Azizul Haque4, Md. Rajib Hossain5, Md. Golam Mosaib6, Md. Robiul Islam7, Goutom Chandra Mondol8*, and Md. Firoz Alam9   1Dept. of Microbiology, Stamford University  Bangladesh, Bangladesh; 2Dept. of Microbiology and Hygiene, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Bangladesh; 3Dept. of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, BSMRSTU, Bangladesh; 4Dept. of Microbiology, University of Chittagong, Bangladesh; 5Dept. of Environmental Science & Disaster Management, BSMRSTU, Bangladesh; 6Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Gono Bishwabidyalay, Bangladesh; 7Dept. of Microbiology, Jagannath University, Bangladesh; 8Department of Public Health, ASA University, Bangladesh, and 9Dept. of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Islamic University, Bangladesh *Correspondence: goutommicro@gmail.com  
Cholera is an acute form of the diarrheal disease that plagued human civilization over the centuries. The enormity of human sufferings led clinicians and scientists to carry out extensive research on cholera and Vibrio cholerae leading to major discoveries that opened up novel areas of research or new disciplines in biomedical sciences. An attempt is made here to summarize some of these breakthroughs and outline their significance in broader perspectives. In the present study, a total of 12 samples were collected from four types of water sources for the isolation of Vibrio spp. Water samples are enrichment into alkaline peptone water then inoculate into culture media such as Nutrient agar, MacConkey, and Thiosulfate Citrate Bile Salts Sucrose (TCBS) agar medium. After incubation of TCBS plates for 24h at 37°C yellow and green colonies are screened out for biochemical identification. No-sucrose fermenting Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio mimicus, and Vibrio vulnificus show green colonies and sucrose fermenting Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio alginolyticus show yellow colonies on TCBS. To identify the Vibrio spp isolates biochemical test was carried out and typical Vibrio spp give a positive result. The majority of Vibrio spp are avirulent, but certain strains may be sporadically human pathogenic. The antibiotic resistance studies showed that among the 9 isolates were resistant against Erythromycin, Penicillin, Cephalexin, Vancomycin, and 4 isolates resistant against Tetracycline. To expand current knowledge of the occurrence, ecological niche, and persistence of potential human pathogenic Vibrio spp in aquatic environments, occurrence, and laboratory studies were performed.  
3 Assessment, Monitoring, and Awareness of Garment Workers Regarding the Prevalence of Tuberculosis in Savar, Dhaka   , Syed Abdullah-Al-Nahid1*, Taslima Haque2, Md. Shoykot Jahan3, Ashrafi Akter Jahan4, Mohammad Shah Alam5, K. M. Shakib6, and Ropak Chandra Roy6    1Dept. of Physiology, Gonoshastaya Samaj Vittik Medical & College Hospital, Bangladesh; 2CMH Dhaka, AMC, Bangladesh Army; 3Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Gono Bishwabidyalay, Bangladesh; 4Dept. of Anatomy, Gonoshastaya Samaj Vittik Medical & College Hospital, Bangladesh; 5Dept. of Microbiology, Gono Bishwabidyalay, Bangladesh; and 6Dept. of Physiotherapy, Gono Bishwabidyalay, Bangladesh  *Correspondence: dralnahid.edu@gmail.com  
The study was conducted to evaluate the awareness regarding Tuberculosis (TB) in the middle of the export-oriented garment workers in Savar, Dhaka. Data were calmed by face to face talk to using a semi-structured questionnaire. A gross of 110 garment workers was talked to, in the middle of them, 51.8% were male and rests of 48.2% were female. Maximum 30.9% participants age was between 20-22 years and 28.2% of respondent’s ages were more than 28 years.  58.2% of respondents had secondary education, 22.7% of respondents had primary education, and 14.5% of respondents had HSC and above education. Out of 110 participants, 60.0% resided in a nuclear family, 39.1% have resided in a joint family, and 34.5 % were at their own house, 3.6 % were at slum and 57.3% were at the colony. The majority had heard about TB (72.7%) by listening to Television, Radio, Newspaper, and 27.3% were family members, offices, doctors or hospitals. only 25.5% perceived it to be an infectious disease, (30.0%) were did not perceive and the highest number 44.5 % were didn’t know. The correct mode of conveyance i.e. airborne (coughing) was familiar to 66.7% research subjects. The majority (62.4%) knew cough as a symptom. Maximum (71.8%) participants thought TB to be a curable disease, in the middle of the majority (52.0 %) were of the viewpoint to avert the TB by a cover on the mouth at coughing, 8.1% were said BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin) vaccination and 35.8 % was no smoking. Most of the respondents (96.4%) said TB is a treatable disease, in the middle of them, 75.5% said by Anti TB antibiotics. 62.7% of participants perceive TB is a totally curable disease. This work shows (74.5%) garments workers have deficient awareness and (25.5%) have adequate awareness.  
4 Evaluation of Neuropharmacological Activities of Methanolic Extract of Bacopa monnieri L. in Mice Model   , Md. Ahasun Habib1, 2*, Sonia Akter3, Arrafy Rahman4, Jyoti Sikder2, Fahmida Khatun2, Md. Furkanur Rahaman Mizan5, Md. Ashrafudoulla5 and Muhammad Abdul Hannan2   1Dept. of Food Science and Technology, International Institute of Applied Science and Technology, Rangpur, Bangladesh; 2Dept. of Biotechnology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh; 3Pharmacy Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna, Bangladesh; 4Dept. of Microbiology, International Institute of Applied Science and Technology, Rangpur, Bangladesh; and 5Dept. of Food Science and Technology, Chung-Ang University, Gyunggido, South Korea. *Correspondence: habibku1107@gmail.com  
Now-a-days, the use of natural products has increased its popularity day by day all over the world. One of the most effective therapeutic medicinal plants is Bacopa monnieri. In the current study, the methanolic distillate of B. monnieri was designed for an antidepressant in mice models. B. monnieri was evaluated for anti-depressant venture in the forced swimming test (FST), tail suspension test (TST) and elevated plus maze test. In force swimming test, imipramine (30 mg/kg) used as a standard drug and in TST as well as elevated plus maze test, diazepam (10 mg/kg) used as a standard and the plant extract (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg) was administered as test group and the control group was given deionized water. In this test, the test extracts (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg) compare to both control and standard group. The higher dose (200 mg/kg) represented a more significant effect than a dose of 100 mg/kg. In comparison to the standard and control, at dose 200 mg/kg represented a more significant effect at p<0.05 among three of the test.   
5 The Impact of Ageing on Population Structure and Development Process of Different Levels of Bangladesh   , Imtiaz Ahmed1*   1Department of Population Sciences, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh  *Correspondence: imtiazdmc@gmail.com  
Bangladesh is a small South-Asian country at the threshold of an amazing opportunity. Due to the relatively young age of the population, there is a tremendous possibility of economic development. However, this euphoria of demographic dividend often masks the fact that there is a time limit on this opportunity, and as this population gets older, we will have a completely different age structure by 2050 with more people on the other side of 65. That will create a substantial burden on our support structure and additional budget will be needed to cater to the demands of the elderly. But if we can play our cards right, then it is possible to manage that while sustaining the development curve. But we have to act now; otherwise, it will be too late.  
6 In-Vitro Quality Evaluation of Marketed Naproxen 500 mg Tablets in Bangladesh   , Md. Shahin Sarker1*, Shamsun Nahar1, and Mir Imam Ibne Wahed2   1Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Biological Science and Technology, Jashore University of Science and Technology, Jashore-7408, Bangladesh; and 2Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Science, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi-6205, Bangladesh  *Correspondence: sarkershahin@just.edu.bd  
The quality of pharmaceutical finished dosage forms is one of the major concerns for pharmaceutical industries. The tablet dosage form of any pharmaceutical company goes through many research studies and experiments to maintain the proper quality standards. This study was conducted to investigate the quality of Naproxen 500 mg tablets which are manufactured in Bangladesh. Different physical parameters like weight variation, thickness, friability as well as and dissolution profile studies were conducted to evaluate the quality of the Naproxen tablets. The tendency of a tablet to chip, crumble, or break following compression is called friability. The friability test results were in the range of the standard value. The thickness test of all the brands was compiled with the standard values except brand B. The thicknesses of A, B, C, D, and E brands are 4.1, 7.1, 6.0 5.32, and 6.1 mm respectively. To ensure quality products a pharmaceutical industry follows international standards. The average cumulative % of drug release from A, B, C, D, and E brands were 98%, 102.85%, 92.24%, 101.11%, and  99.96% respectively.   
7 Isolation, Identification and Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Salmonella from Dairy Farms in Adama and Modjo Towns, Central Ethiopia   , Abdurezak Abrar1, Takele Beyene1, and Walkite Furgasa2*   1College of Veterinary Medicine, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 2School of Veterinary Medicine, Wollegga University, Nekemte, Ethiopia *Correspondence: walkiteharamaya@gmail.com  
A cross-sectional study was carried out from February 2019 to May 2019 in Adama and Modjo aiming at isolating Salmonella from dairy cattle farms and determining the antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the isolates. A total of 117 samples from dairy farms: faces, bulk tank milk, personnel hand swab, and contaminated floor samples were collected and screened for the presence of Salmonella. Ten (8.5%) of the samples tested were found to be positive for Salmonella. Of 89 faces, 10 bulk tank milk, 9 personnel hand swab, and 9 contaminated floor samples, no positive were found in the milker’s hand swab samples from both Adama and Modjo areas and the isolation frequencies of Salmonella were 8.98%, 10%, and 11.1% in faces, bulk tank milk, and floor sample, respectively. The antibiogram testing revealed differential multi-drug resistance among Salmonella isolates in lactating cow and cows environment samples. Most of the isolates were resistant to methicillin, streptomycin, and nalidixic acid whereas sensitivity was recorded for gentamicin. In conclusion, the relatively high resistance among the bacteria present in dairy farms could pose public health and therapeutic problems to consumers as potential vehicles of resistant Salmonella foodborne infections.  
8 In-Vitro Comparative Quality Evaluation of Marketed Cefuroxime 250 mg Tablets in Bangladesh   , Md. Shahin Sarker1*, Md. Rafiqul Islam1, Md. Selim Reza1, and Mir Imam Ibne Wahed2   1Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Biological Science and Technology, Jashore University of Science and Technology, Jashore-7408, Bangladesh; 2Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Science, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi-6205, Bangladesh *Correspondence: sarkershahin@just.edu.bd  
The study evaluated different quality control parameters of five brands of Cefuroxime 250mg tablets which are already marketed in Bangladesh. Five brands of the drug sourced from different retail outlets to assess the quality assessment and comparison of the tablets using the in-vitro release study. The brands were subjected to various official tests including uniformity of weight, thickness test, dissolution tests, and cumulative % of drug release and friability test.  This research further focuses on the requirement of manufacturers to construct quality into their products during manufacture and also sustain the built-in quality from batch to batch in line with the principles of cGMP.  
9 Prescribing Pattern of Medical Practitioners in Their Private Chamber Practice According to WHO Prescribing Indicators in a Southern District of Bangladesh   , Sanjoy Saha1*, ASM Rizwan2, Jyoti Vaskar Saha3, Abu Rayhan Siddique4, Abu Hasnat5, Mahbobur Rahman6, Wazed Ahmed7, and Dil Afroz8   1Dept. of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Ad-din Sakina Women’s Medical College, Jashore and PhD fellow, Bangladesh University of Professionals, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2Dept. of Medicine, Ad-din Sakina Women’s Medical College, Jashore, Bangladesh; 3Dept. of Nephrology, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 4Dept. of Surgery, Shaheed Taj Uddin Ahmed Medical College, Gazipur, Bangladesh; 5Dept. of Pediatric Nephrology, Dhaka Shishu Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 6Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh, Bangladesh; 7Neonatal ICU, Lab Aid Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh; and 8Dept. of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Jahurul Islam Medical College, Kishoreganj, Bangladesh.  *Correspondence: dr.sanjoysahammc@gmail.com (Dr. Sanjoy Saha, Associate Professor, and Head, Dept. of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Ad-din Sakina Women’s Medical College, Jashore, Bangladesh)  
Prescription is a written order and direction by a registered physician to the pharmacist for the particular use of a medicine product for a patient. The aim of the research was to observe the prescription pattern of doctors in their chamber practice according to the World Health Organization (WHO) prescribing indicators. A total of 300 prescriptions of outdoor patients from various departments of different private chambers of medical practitioners were collected from 1st August to 31st October 2019 and were evaluated. After evaluation and data analysis we got, patients’ age and gender were not mentioned in 6% prescriptions. Dose and course of treatment were incomplete in 60%, 72%, and 52% of prescriptions respectively. Abbreviations were used in 100% prescriptions. Doctor’s medical registration number was mentioned in 13% prescriptions only. A total of 1042 drugs was prescribed in 300 prescriptions. The average number of drugs prescribed was 3.38±1.79 (Mean±SD). Most of the prescriptions contained a brand name (93.33%) of the drugs whereas only a few (6.7%) used the generic names (P<0.05). Antibiotics and injections were ordained in 64% and 8% cases respectively. Approximately 60% of drugs were prescribed according to the Essential Medicine List (EML) of Bangladesh. Our study has shown that very few physicians are acquainted and follow the WHO standard of prescribing which can lead to seriously negative health consequences. Moreover, the presence of antibiotics in two-third of all prescriptions should ring an alarm to prevent its aberrant use.  
10 Boon and Bane of Transgenic Animal: A Brief Review   , Chandan Sarkar1, Sarmin Jamaddar1, Tasniya Nahiyan Zulfiquar1, and Milon Mondal1*   1Department of Pharmacy, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Science and Technology University, Gopalganj-8100, Bangladesh *Correspondence: milon_mondal@bsmrstu.edu.bd  
The progression of biotechnology and genetic engineering to produce transgenic animals by familiarizing the foreign DNA into the germline of an animal has elevated the potential of biological research to an unprecedented level. This technology not only beneficial in human welfare, society, and the environment but also harmful. At present, many transgenic species (goats, chickens, pigs, cows, mice, rabbits, sheep, etc.) are considered for research applications as well as latent profitable pharmaceutical productively. Transgenic animals are applied as the different models for the experiment of different diseases including HIV/AIDS, Alzheimer’s, Cardiovascular, and Diabetes Mellitus, Angiogenesis, and Cancer disease. The main disadvantages of transgenic animals are mutagenesis and function disorders, ecological problems, antibiotic resistance, and population of clones.   
11 Antibacterial Activity of Cissus quadrangularis Stem Extract on the Pathogenic and Industrial Waste Watered Bacteria   , Md. Golam Mosaib1*, Md. Abdullah Al Maruf2, Rabiul Islam3, Shahriar Mahmud4, Shaharuq Nahid Sohana4, Md. Abu Sayeed Imran4, Mehadi Hasan Rony4, Maidul Islam5, Fatema Tuz Zuhora6, and Shafiqul Islam6   1Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Gono Bishwabidyalay, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Jahangirnagar University, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 3Divisional DNA Screening Laboratory, Faridpur Medical College Hospital, Ministry of Women & Children Affairs, Faridpur, Bangladesh; 4Dept. of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Islamic University, Bangladesh; 5Apex Biotechnology Laboratory, Dhaka, Bangladesh; and 6Dept. of Microbiology, Gono Bishwabidyalay, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh *Correspondence: gmosaib@gmail.com  
Cissus quadrangularis (Vitaceae) is a popular climber conspicuous by its flesh quadrangular stem widespread throughout Bangladesh. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of C. quadrangularis extracts was studied against selected pathogenic bacteria, industrial wasted bacteria, and broth dilution assay. The most commonly used method of microbiological assay is the disc diffusion method. C. quadrangularis stem extracted with four solvents (Petroleum spirit, methanol, ethyl acetate, and dichloromethane) were tested for antimicrobial activities against some pathogenic microorganisms  Sarcina lutea (002-1), Xanthomonas campestris (004-1), Escherichia coli (005-1), Klebsiella pneumonia (006-1) and some industrial (Tannery, Tobacco, and Sugar mill) waste watered bacteria by disc diffusion method. Among the four extracts, ethyl acetate showed moderate antibacterial activity against X. campestris (004-1) and industrial watered bacteria. But, the commercial disc Oxicycline doesn’t show any antibacterial activity against the industrial waste watered bacteria. Petroleum spirit, methanol, and dichloromethane extract were ineffective against all of the tested bacteria.  
12 Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis among Pregnant Women Attending Ante-Natal Care in Kano, Nigeria   , Farouk S. Nas1, Abdullahi Yahaya2, Lurwan Muazu3, Shu’aibu N. Halliru4, and Muhammad Ali5*   1Dept. of Biological Sciences, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria; 2Dept. of Biological Sciences, Kano University of Science and Technology, Wudil, Nigeria; 3Dept. of Biological Sciences, Federal University, Gusau, Nigeria; 4Dept. of Biology, Sa’adatu Rimi College of Education, Kano, Nigeria; and 5Dept. of Microbiology, Federal University, Gusau, Nigeria. *Corresponding author: alimuhd4real@gmail.com (Muhammad Ali, Dept of Microbiology, Federal University, Nigeria)  
Trichomoniasis, caused by the protozoan parasite, Trichomonas vaginalis, is a common but curable sexually transmitted disease affecting millions around the world. The study was aimed to determine the prevalence of T. vaginalis among pregnant women attending ante-natal care at Yan-awaki maternity in Kano, Northern Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was conducted among one hundred and eighty-four (184) pregnant women attending the hospital. A total of 184 High Vaginal Swabs (HVS) were collected the pregnant women with their consent and examined for the presence of T. vaginalis microscopically. From the result, T. vaginalis was detected in 23 out of the 184 samples which accounted for 12.5% of the pregnant women. The pregnant women between the age category 26-30 years had the highest prevalence of 4.34 % while the least prevalence was recorded among pregnant women of age category above 40, though the difference in the prevalence among ages is not significant at p<0.05. On the basis of the gestation period, pregnant women in the first trimester had the highest prevalence than that of second and third trimesters. It is concluded that Trichomoniasis is one of the infections of pregnant women.   
13 Laboratory Based Diagnosis of Bacteraemia among Inpatients and Outpatients with Acute Febrile Illness at Khwaja Yunus Ali Medical College and Hospital in Bangladesh   , Mohammad Zakerin Abedin1*, Abdullah Akhtar Ahmed1, Md. Shakhaowat Hossain1, and Md. Babul Aktar1   1Department of Microbiology, School of Biomedical Science, Khwaja Yunus Ali University, Sirajganj, Bangladesh.  *Corresponding author: zakerin.du2016@gmail.com (Mohammad Zakerin Abedin, Assistant Professor & Head, Dept. of Microbiology, Khwaja Yunus Ali University, Bangladesh)  
Bacteraemia is one of the important causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacterial strains is a major problem in its management. To encourage the prudent use of appropriate antibiotics in a tertiary care study was undertaken. A total of 282 patients with suspected bacteraemia from indoor and outdoor patients were included in this study. Blood samples were processed in the microbiology laboratory and bacteria were recognized by standard laboratory methods and then antibiotic susceptibility test was performed following CLSI guidelines. Out of a total of 282 blood samples, 55(19.50%) were culture positive. Among 55 positive cultures, Gram-positive Cocci and Gram-negative Bacilli were 48(87.3%) and 7(12.7%) respectively. The most predominant organisms were Staphylococcus aureus comprising 42(76.36%), followed by Salmonella typhi 4(7.30%), E. coli 2(3.63%) and Acinetobacter spp 1(1.81%). Among the isolated Staphylococcus spp, only 6(10.9%) isolates were Coagulase-Negative (CoNS). In antibiotic susceptibility test, all of the isolated bacterial pathogens were found susceptible to imipenem and meropenem (100%). For Salmonella typhi, all 4 isolated strains were found resistant to amoxicillin, amoxicillin+clavulanic acid (amoxyclave) and cephradine and 3 out of 4(75%) were susceptible to ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin. Most of the Gram-positive Cocci (GPC) were susceptible to levofloxacin (90%), ciprofloxacin (85%), and amikacin (83%). Both of E. coli and Acinetobacter spp were sensitive to amikacin (100%).  This study stresses the need for continuous screening and surveillance for antibiotic resistance that would influence appropriate empiric treatment and infection control strategies for bacteremic cases.   
14 Assessment on Economic Losses due to Animal Health and Production Constraints in Jimma Town Intensive Dairy Farms, Jimma, Ethiopia   , Israel Gammada*   School of Veterinary Medicine, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Jimma University, Ethiopia. *Correspondence: gamadaisrael@gmail.com (Dr. Israel Gammada, School of Veterinary Medicine, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Jimma University, Ethiopia)  
A single-visit-multiple subject formal survey technique was used to collect data from 75 small-scale dairy farming households which were selected at random and were interviewed using a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire. Seventy-three (97.3%) dairy farming was practiced under an intensive management system. Among the selected dairy farms, only (33.3%) were kept in good hygienic condition. Artificial insemination was common (69.3%) breeding system practiced in most dairy farms of studying area. This study discovered that only a few dairy farms (2.7%) undergo periodic vaccination. It appeared from the study that morbidity loss of animals was primarily caused by mastitis which calculated (42.7%), black leg (32%), lumpy skin disease (21.3%), milk fever (17.3%), heart water (10.7%) and foot rote (5.3%) in order of their decreasing order. The results of this survey revealed that mastitis was ranked as the number one disease of dairy animals while foot rote was list reported disease in the study area. Morbidity loss of production and productivity was estimated to the financial loss of (812,600 birrs) per year. Not only morbidity loss, in some farms, mortality was also common problems of the study area. Mainly common diseases such as heart water (6.7%), milk fever (5.3%), back leg (2.7%), and lumpy skin disease (1.7%) were major causes of mortality in few farms. This in turn estimated the financial loss of (625,000 birrs). Eventually, overall annual financial loss as a result of mortality and morbidity was estimated to be (1,437,600 birrs). The outbreak of lumpy skin disease and blacklegs could be controlled through improving veterinary services with respect to adequate vaccination and heart water (seasonal tick infestation) would be alleviated by spraying. The aim of the study was to assess assessment on economic losses due to animal health and production constraints in Jimma town intensive dairy farms, Jimma, Ethiopia.   
15 An In silico Approach for Structural and Functional Annotation of Uncharacterized Protein Rv0986 present in Mycobacterium tuberculosis   , Abu Saim Mohammad Saikat1*, Md. Lutful Kabir1, and Abul Bashar Ripon Khalipha2   1Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Science and Technology University (BSMRSTU), Gopalganj, Bangladesh; 2Dept. of Pharmacy, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Science and Technology University (BSMRSTU), Gopalganj, Bangladesh.  *Correspondence: asmsaikat.bmb@gmail.com (Abu Saim Mohammad Saikat, Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, BSMRSTU, Gopalganj, Bangladesh  
Tuberculosis (TB) is an ancient infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). MTB is a human pathogen. Surprisingly, TB has become the top disease for its death rate worldwide. The uncharacterized protein Rv0986 is closely related to the transporters of the ATP-binding cassette domain, therefore, take part in the export of macrolide as well as a lipoprotein. Furthermore, it is associated with cell division protein. Hence, the protein has a significant role in mycobacterial infection. But, so far, the uncharacterized protein Rv0986 is not elaborated. As a result, in this study, the structural and functional annotation of the protein is described through in silico approach. The predicted tertiary structures of the protein generated by Swiss Model, Modeller, and Phyre2, and documented by the Ramachandran Plot analysis with PROCHECK, Verify 3D, and Swiss-Model Interactive Workplace. Z-score also applied for the overall structural assessment. This study will unleash the importance of the uncharacterized protein present in MTB, therefore, it provides an opportunity for drug and vaccine targeting against infection by MTB.  
16 Enumeration of the Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Different Bacterial Isolates from ENT Patients with Ear Infections   ,   Mohammad Zakerin Abedin1*, Farida Yeasmin2, Mohammad Omar Faruque3, Laila Jarin4, Rehnuma Nasim5, Md Babul Aktar1, Rubait Hasan6, Md. Sifat Uz Zaman7, Md. Abdus Sabur Miah1, Md. Khairujjaman8, and Abdullah Akhtar Ahmed1   1Dept. of Microbiology, Khwaja Yunus Ali University, Bangladesh; 2Faculty of Basic Medical and Pharmaceutical Science, University of Science and Technology Chittagong; 3Dept. of Endocrinology, Mugda Medical College, Bangladesh; 4Dept. of Microbiology, LabAid Medical Centre Ltd, Bangladesh; 5Dept. of Hematology, National Institute of Cancer Research & Hospital, Bangladesh; 6Dept. of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Khwaja Yunus Ali University, Bangladesh;  7Dept. of Microbiology, Popular Diagnostic Centre Ltd, Bangladesh; 8Dept. of Geography and Environment, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: zakerin.du2016@gmail.com (Mohammad Zakerin Abedin, Assistant Professor and Head, Dept. of Microbiology, Khwaja Yunus Ali University, Bangladesh).  
  Children are more susceptible to ear infection than adults worldwide, especially in developing countries. In Bangladesh like other developing countries antibiotics is a common choice of treatment in an ear infection. This study was sought to determine causative agents both in right and left ear infection and their antibacterial susceptibility pattern from patients with an ear infection. Specimens of ear discharge were collected aseptically using a sterile swab and cultured on MacConkey’s agar, blood agar, and chocolate agar. After inoculating on appropriate culture media bacterial isolates were identified by their colony morphology, culture characteristics, Gram reaction, and biochemical tests. In this study, a total of 70 positive cases of patients were included. Among these 27 (38.6%) were male, and 43(61.4%) were female. The prevalence of ear infection was significantly high in females (61.4%) than males (38.6%). The predominant bacterial isolates from positive culture were Staphylococcus aureus 43(61.4%), followed by Pseudomonas spp., 13 (18.6%), Streptococcus spp., 8(11.4%), Proteus spp., 5(7.2%), and Klebsiella spp., 1(1.4%). The antibacterial agent like Amikacin and Gentamicin showed a high level of antibacterial effect on all identified bacterial isolates. On the other hand, 98.6% of isolates were found highly resistant to Co-Trimoxazole and Flucloxacillin. Moreover, Streptococcus spp., Proteus spp., Klebsiella spp., and Pseudomonas spp., were highly resistant to multiple drugs (more than 4). A high degree of antibiotic resistance was observed among most of the drugs used in this study. However, Amikacin and Gentamicin were highly effective against the isolated bacterial species. Therefore, culture and susceptibility tests are vital for the appropriate treatment of ear infection.  
17 Child Marriage in Rural Bangladesh and Its Consequences on Reproductive and Maternal Health: An Empirical Study   ,   Samira Salam1* and Bipasha Aktar2   1Department of Basic Science, Primeasia University, Banani, Dhaka, Bangladesh; and 2Department of Statistics, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: samirasalam93@gmail.com (Samira Salam, Lecturer, Department of Basic Science, Primeasia University, Banani, Dhaka, Bangladesh).  
  Despite the high prevalence of child marriage in Bangladesh and the potential adverse effects of child marriage on reproductive and maternal health outcomes, there is relatively little empirical evidence available on this issue, which has impeded efforts to stop child marriage and to initiate improved and effective adolescent health programs. The purpose of this study is to determine the causes of child marriage and its consequences on the reproductive and maternal health of child brides in Bangladesh. Data for the study came from a cross-sectional sample survey and the ultimate sampling units were selected by using a three-stage cluster sampling technique. The results of the study suggest that the dominant driving factors for child marriage are: poverty, lack of education, social and cultural norms, ensuring daughters’ financial security, protection of daughters from sexual harassment and unwelcome sexual advances. There are serious consequences of child marriage on adolescents’ health. It truncates a girl’s childhood, gives rise to severe physical and psychological risks on health, and takes her from internationally accepted human rights. The difference between mean years of marriage and first birth interval indicates that Bangladeshi adolescents hurry to initiate childbearing. They are at high risk of reproductive health. Most of them suffered from various maternal health problems such as gynecological problems before pregnancy, complications during pregnancy, at the time of delivery, and after delivery due to the absence of proper maturity. Child marriage enlarges boundary of vulnerability to adolescents that leads to poor fertility control and fertility-related outcomes, and poor maternal health care issues.   
18 Exploration of the Antimicrobial Resistance and Their Remedy in Living World: A Brief Study   ,   Md. Ashiqur Rahamn1*, Bushra Rahman2, Tanvir Ahammed3, and Imdadul Haque Sharif4   1Dept. of Pharmacy, ASA University Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences North South University, Bangladesh; 3Dept. of Microbiology and Hygiene, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Bangladesh; and 4Dept. of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Science & Technology University, Gopalganj, Bangladesh.  *Correspondence: 7upmilon@gmail.com  
  Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) alarms the effective control and treatment of growing infections of bacterial, parasitic, viral, and fungal infections. This report, for the initial stage, examines the current state of monitoring and information regarding AMR at the global country level, particularly antibacterial resistance (ABR). The main research and public health effects of ABR; high rates of resistance to bacteria causing common health-care-related and community-acquired infections (e.g., urinary tract infections, pneumonia) have been perceived in all WHO areas. There are significant gaps in monitoring and a lack of criteria for methods, data splitting, and coordination. The key findings from AMR scrutiny in disease-specific programs are as; while multidrug-resistant TB is an enlarging concern, it has been reported in most cases blank, compromising control efforts. Artemisinin resistance foci in malaria have been picked out in several countries. Further spread or emergence of artemisinin-resistant strains in other regions could jeopardize recent attains in malaria prevention.   
19 Microbiological Screening and Antimicrobial Sensitivity Profiling of Wound Infections in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Bangladesh   ,   Abdullah Akhtar Ahmed1&2, Nusrat  Akhtar Juyee3,  S.M. Ali. Hasan4, and Mohammad Zakerin Abedin1*   1Dept. of Microbiology, Khwaja Yunus Ali University, Sirajganj, Bangladesh; 2Dept. of Microbiology, Khwaja Yunus Ali Medical College, Sirajganj, Bangladesh; 3Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib  Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh; and 4Dept. of Gastroenterology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib  Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh.  *Correspondence: zakerin.du2016@gmail.com (Mohammad Zakerin Abedin, Assistant Professor and Head, Dept. of Microbiology, Khwaja Yunus Ali University, Sirajganj, Bangladesh).  
  Wound infection is a major problem in hospitals in developing countries. Wound infection causes morbidity and prolonged hospital stay thus this prospective study was conducted for a period of seven months (January 2019 to July 2019). A total of 217 specimens (wound swabs and pus exudates) from wound infected patients in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Bangladesh. A retrospective study of the microbiological evaluation was done by cultural growth as well as Gram staining and biochemical examination to identify the bacterial isolates. Finally, the antimicrobial vulnerability testing was performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion conventional method. A total of 295 samples were tested. Out of which 217 (73.5%) were found culture positive. E. coli was the most predominant gram-negative isolates whereas Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus were the most commonly isolated gram-positive organisms. Antimicrobial sensitivity profile of bacterial isolates revealed imipenem, meropenem, amikacin, and nitrofurantoin to be the most effective antimicrobials against gram-negative isolates, whereas imipenem, meropenem, amikacin, nitrofurantoin, amoxiclav, and gentamicin were the most effective drugs against gram-positive isolates. The result of this examination contributes to the identification of basic causative microbes involved in wound infection and findings of antibiotic susceptibility patterns can be helpful for primary care physicians to optimize the treatment modalities, articulate policies for empiric antimicrobial therapy, and to minimize the rate of infection among wound infected patients.  
20 Prevalence of Subclinical Mastitis among Small Ruminants and Isolation of Some Etiological Bacterial Pathogens in Jimma Town, Ethiopia   ,   Wakgari Abirham Hayle1*, Rokeya Ahmed2, and Md. Ekhlas Uddin3   1College Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, University of Gondar, Ethiopia; 2Dept. of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Gono Bishwabidyalay, Dhaka, Bangladesh; and 3Dept. of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Gono Bishwabidyalay, Dhaka, Bangladesh.  *Correspondence: bashirabirham@gmail.com  
  Subclinical mastitis in small ruminants is of concern due to the animal welfare, economic, public health, productivity, and livelihood impacts that it may pose. A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2017 to April 2018 in and around Jimma town, Southwest, Ethiopia; to estimate the prevalence of subclinical mastitis, to isolate bacterial pathogens responsible for the occurrence of subclinical mastitis, and to identify risk factors associated with the development of subclinical mastitis in small ruminants. Milk samples were collected from 186 apparently healthy lactating small ruminants, tested on the field with the California Mastitis Test, and samples tested positive were subjected to bacteriological examinations. Out of 372 milk samples collected, 92(24.8%) samples from 70 animals were positive by the California Mastitis Test and these were cultured on different media. Through bacteriological examinations, six isolates of bacteria were identified which include; S. aureus (8.1%), S. epidermidis (10.2%), S. intermidus (2.2%), S. hyicus (1.6%), S. agalactiae (3.2%), and E. coli (12.4%). The highest prevalence of subclinical mastitis recorded was due to Staphylococcus species (22%) followed by E. coli (12.4%) and the least prevalence was due to S. agalactiae (3.2%). The overall prevalence of subclinical mastitis among small ruminants was 37.6%. Age and parity number variations among small ruminants were found important in influencing the prevalence in statistically significant (P = 0.00) extents. The highest prevalence of subclinical mastitis was recorded in old (24.7%) and in small ruminants having >5 parity numbers (24.7%). The high prevalence of small ruminant subclinical mastitis in the study area suggests that intervention strategies their-goal-being prevention and control of subclinical mastitis should be designed; so as to improve the welfare of animals, to save people consuming the milk of small ruminants from zoonotic risks, and to harvest the diverse benefits that may be generated from small ruminant production.  
21 Exploring Socio-Economic Impact of Dengue Fever in Dhaka City: A Statistical Modeling Approach   ,   Mohammad Ahsan Uddin*   Department of Statistics, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh.  *Correspondence: munna_stat@yahoo.com (Mohammad Ahsan Uddin, Associate Professor, Department of Statistics, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh).  
  There was a sudden increase in dengue affected people in Dhaka city during 2018 and 2019, considering the seriousness of the disease, this study attempted to investigate the socio-economic impact of dengue fever instead of its biological significance. The study considered a primary dataset of 235 affected and 235 unaffected participants from Dhaka city. The impact of dengue infection on the monthly expenditure of the patient was determined by the multiple linear regression models. The impact of Dengue on the human productivity of the respondents was assessed by another multiple linear regression model; the dependent variable absence (number of days absent from work) was applied as a proxy for measuring the productivity of the patient. Moreover, an important objective was to find out potential determinants of dengue in Dhaka city. Binary logistic regression applied for detecting the factors which were responsible for occurring dengue disease. The study found no significant association of family cost with dengue incidence but the loss of productivity turned out as statistically significant. People who lived alone were identified to experience the disease more, which might occur due to their insincerity about this disease. So, living alone persons need to increase their consciousness considering the seriousness of this disease. It was highly recommended by respondents to use mosquito repellent and net during sleeping, changing the water regularly from plant container, providing regular mosquito spray, and developing a drainage system in Dhaka city.  
22 Assessment of Depression among Musculoskeletal Fracture Patients in a Tertiary Referral Hospital in Bangladesh   ,   Koushik Roy1, Selim Hossain1, Md. Abdul Awal Lilon1, Nasima Yasmin1, Susmita Sarkar1, Krishna Roy2, Abdul Haque3, Mahbub jobayer4, Banossree Saha4, and Ropak Chandra Roy1*   1Department of Physiotherapy, Gono Bishwabidyalay, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2Department of Psychiatry, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 3Cumilla Medical College Hospital, Cumilla, Bangladesh; 4Gonoshasthya Samaj Vittik Medical College Hospital, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh.  *Correspondence: ropak.mph111@gmail.com (Ropak Chandra Roy, Lecturer, Dept. of Physiotherapy, Gono Bishwabidyalay, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh).  
  Psychological therapy is very important in musculoskeletal fracture patients for mental support. The study was conducted National Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedic Rehabilitation (NITOR), Dhaka. 102 participate in this study. Patients with a musculoskeletal disorder are commonly treated by physical therapists; it influences clinically relevant outcomes such as pain and disability but not influence a treated psychological disorder. Psychological therapy is very important relatively to treat of physical therapy. It found that the severity of injury moderate 20%, serious 2.4%, severe 77.1% depression on musculoskeletal fracture, he/she feel sad 41.0%, sad all the time 44.0%, so sad 14.5%, Indicates minimal depression 1.2%,  mild depression 12%, moderate depression 81.9%, severe depression 4.8%. It is found that the mean depressed mood of the respondent’s sadness 94.0%, frequent weeping 6.0%, in agitation occasional 7.2%, frequent 92.8%, anxiety no difficulty 1.2%, tension irritability 89.2%, fear 9.6% depression on musculoskeletal fracture. So that the Musculoskeletal fracture in our country is more vulnerable and mental health is not so good.   
23 Phytochemical Screening and Bioactivity Determination of Ethyl Acetate and Methanolic Extracts of Leaf and Bark of the Plant Nyctanthes arbortristis L.   , Saduddin Talukder1, Mohammad Sarowar Uddin1, Mahmuda Ferdous1, and Prodip Kumar Baral1* 1Department of Pharmacy, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Noakhali-3814, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: pkb.phar@nstu.edu.bd  
The present study targeted to evaluate the phytoconstituents of Nyctanthes arbortristis Linn., and its biological activity. By solvent extraction procedure, a total of four extracts were designated from the leaf and bark of the plant using two solvents (leaf extract in ethyl acetate and methanol: NALE & NALM; bark extract in ethyl acetate and methanol: NABE & NABM). Phytochemical screening was conducted by qualitative analysis and thin-layer chromatography. Parallelly, antioxidant property (by DPPH free radical scavenging method) and antimicrobial activity (by disk diffusion method) were also investigated to determine bioactivity. The presence of alkaloids and glycosides was detected by qualitative phytochemical assay of the extracts. Furthermore, TLC successfully observed the versatility of the compound's presence, such as phenolic compounds, different alkaloids, and glycosides. In DPPH assay, methanolic extracts are highly capable of scavenging the radicals than the ethyl acetate extracts. Surprisingly, IC50 for NABM (1.69 µg/ml) is less than ascorbic acid (3.58µg/ml), which is an exploration of excellent antioxidant potential of the plant. But any extracts showed no positive result in the antimicrobial test against gram-positive or gram-negative bacteria, even against yeast.  
24 Study on Awareness, Knowledge and Practice of Breast Screening Methods among the Female Students of Bangladesh University of Health Sciences   , Seejal Shah1, Sohel Rana1, Tanzila Parvin2*, SM Muraduzzaman2, and Mushtaque Ahmed Jalali3 1Department of Radiology & Imaging Technology, Bangladesh University of Health Sciences (BUHS), Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2Department of Biomedical Engineering & Medical Physics, Bangladesh University of Health Sciences (BUHS), Dhaka, Bangladesh; and 3National instituted of Cancer Research Hospital (NICRH), Dhaka, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: tanzilla@buhs.ac.bd (Tanzila Parvin, Assistant Professor, Department of Biomedical Engineering & Medical Physics, BUHS, Dhaka, Bangladesh).  
At the present time, Breast cancer (BC) is spreading in an uncontrolled way, both in developed and developing countries. The main reason behind the deaths occurred by BC is that women with BC are mainly diagnosed in late stages due to a lack of awareness of early detection and barriers to health services. The aim of this study was to find out the knowledge, awareness about BC, diagnosis, and screening of BC, mammography, and practice of breast self-examination. After taking verbal consent, 90 female students of age above 18 years from BUHS were interviewed using a pretested self-administered questionnaire. Most of the respondent of this study were unmarried (60%) and 65.6% had experienced menarche at the age of 14 years. Among 90 respondents 93.3% had ever heard of BC and 66.7% of any screening methods of breast screening. BSE procedure was known to 45.1% but only 33.3% actually performed BSE. Regarding mammography, only 52.2% had ever heard of mammography and only 42.2% knew the correct purpose of a mammogram. According to 60.97% of the respondent, a woman should start to examine her breasts after marriage as 85.37% of respondents mentioned feeling discomfort to share such issues for not going for breast screening. Among 90 respondents, 18.9% had ever felt any kind of abnormalities like lymph. From the results of this study, it had been shown that there is a need for educating not only young females of University but also all aged women on large scale about BC to improve their knowledge level and awareness regarding myths about BC and increase their practice of early screening methods. Moreover, their confidentiality should be increased to talk about their issues regarding breasts as well as they should be known about BSE for early detection of BC or any abnormalities by themselves.  
25 Causes and Complications of Cesarean Section Delivery among Women in Cox’s Bazaar, Bangladesh   , Zaziratul Zannat1*, Zamiatul Zannath2, Md. Raisul Islam3, Nazmul Alam1, and Mohammad Manir Hossain Mollah4 1Dept. of Public Health, Asian University for Women, Chittagong, Bangladesh; 2Dept. of Laws, National Law College, Chittagong, Bangladesh & Department of HRM, Cox’s Bazaar International University, Cox’s Bazaar, Bangladesh; 3Dept. of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, Chittagong University of Engineering and Technology (CUET), Chittagong, Bangladesh; 4Dept. of Bioinformatics and Public Health, Asian University for Women, Chittagong, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: zaziratul.zannat@post.auw.edu.bd  
Unnecessary cesarean section (CS) delivery is a major problem in Bangladesh and it is draining resources from both supply and demand sides. Many women do their cesarean delivery because of indicated causes in pregnancy, fear of unbearable labor pain, thinking about the safety of child, etc. which leads to many unwanted complications. The aim of this research was to investigate the causes and preferences of cesarean delivery and to characterize the outcomes after cesarean section delivery. This cross-sectional study was conducted by using a semi-structured questionnaire among women who delivered in selected hospitals in Cox’s Bazaar, Bangladesh. The total sample size number was 273 women with a mean age of 26.72 years. In this study the key reasons found for doing CS delivery were mother’s age, occupation, higher education, previous cesarean, doctor’s recommendation, fear of normal delivery and concern about baby’s health. Results showed that 48.7% women faced complications and 50.3% participants didn’t face any complication after CS delivery. The most frequent complications were pus, 22% and obesity,13.9% among the participants and breakdown of membrane, 28.2%, excess bleeding, 19.4% extreme pain, 19% and prolonged labor, 18.3% were found as the main causes indicated by the doctors for cesarean delivery. The prevalence of CS found much higher than the anticipation of WHO. The Causes of cesarean delivery lead to the complications with various factors which effects women health directly and indirectly. It is necessary to reduce the rate by making the mothers aware of the risks of cesarean delivery and providing training workshops as well to overcome the fear of normal delivery.  
26 Awareness, Attitude and Practice on Sterilization among Healthcare Staffs of a Tertiary Hospital in Bangladesh , Md. Sifat Uz Zaman1*, Mushtaque Ahmed2, Nabeela Mahboob2, Hasina Iqbal2, Sabrina Afrin2, and Suma Mita Biswas3 1Infection Prevention & Control Division, Medlife Healthcare Limited, Dhaka, Bangladesh;  2Department of Microbiology, Popular Medical College, Dhaka, Bangladesh; and 3Microbiology & Immunology Division, Evercare Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh.  *Correspondence: sifat.zaman9@gmail.com (Md. Sifat Uz Zaman, Assistant Manager, Infection Prevention & Control Division, Medlife Healthcare Limited, Dhaka, Bangladesh).
The background and objective of this study are to assess the awareness, attitude, and practice on sterilization among health-care staffs of a tertiary hospital in Bangladesh. This cross-sectional study was done in a renowned hospital in Dhaka city, from July 03, 2020, to August 05, 2020. A stratified random sample survey was done. The total sample size was 73 health care staff, including the OT nursing staff, OT technicians and CSSD (Central Sterile Supply Department) laboratory technicians, who were involved in sterilization and disinfection procedure. A questionnaire with both and open-ended questions was given among the respondents including socio-demographic close-ended variables, such as sex, age, working experience, job nature of the participants, and details regarding ethical approach to attitude, awareness as well as the practice of sterilization and disinfection and its proper management, methods, and the knowledge regarding management of biomedical wastes. 79.5% of health care staff were aware of managing biomedical waste but 20.5% were not aware of it. Only 61.6% of healthcare staff wear PPE properly but 38.4% didn’t agree. Number of health care staffs (20.5%) had not taken any vaccine against the Hepatitis B virus. 86.3% of healthcare staff had a positive attitude on biomedical waste management. 91.8% of staff had a positive attitude to a vaccination before performing disinfection and sterilization procedure. 82.2% positive attitudes were detected in wearing PPE before sterilization & disinfection procedure according to this study. This type of research also should be conducted in all government hospitals, medical college hospitals as well as all private hospitals to assess the current scenario & recommend for rectification where necessary. 
27 Interpretation of the Common MRI Findings in Patients with Painful Knee Joint   , Sohel Rana1*, Mozammel Hossen1, Azharul Islamn1, Seejal Shah1, Tanzila Parvin1, SM Muraduzzaman1, and Mushtaque Ahmed Jalali2 1Department of Biomedical Engineering & Medical Physics, Bangladesh University of Health Sciences, Dhaka, Bangladesh; and 2National Institute of Cancer Research & Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh.  *Correspondence: sksohel57@gmail.com
Nowadays knee joint pain is a major public health issue and for an appropriate treatment option, it is important to have a clear understanding of the cause of pain as well as to identify the exact location of the pain. In the initial evaluation of acute knee pain, radiological findings help physicians in taking decisions regarding appropriate treatment. Besides conventional radiography and computed tomography (CT), Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is often used to diagnose the reason for knee problems. This study it is tried to evaluate the common MRI findings in patients with painful knee joints. The sample population comprised 77 outpatients had an age range between 14 to 66 years, representing male 70.13% and Female 29.87%. The study shows that the maximum numbers of patients were in the 26-30 years age group, which exposed that young people are more affected with knee pain. In this study, it is found that joint effusion is the most common pathology frequently found in 59.74% of patients followed by meniscus injury 53.24%, anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear 36.06%, Lateral meniscus injury 16.88%, Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) tear 7.8%, Bone marrow contusion 22.07%, Osteoarthritis12.98%, Medial collateral ligament (MCL) injury 3.89%, Lateral collateral Ligament (LCL) 0%, Fracture 6.49%, Chondromalacia1.3%, Baker cyst 1.3%. Though knee pain can be diagnosed by other imaging modalities, MRI can often provide strong evidence to support one. 
28 Assessment of Healthcare Practitioners’ Insight into the Handover of Patients and its Implications for the Safety of Patients , Peter Waibode Alabrah1*, Dennis Oju Allagoa1, and Anthony Okeoghene Eguvbe2 1Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Federal Medical Centre, Yenagoa, Nigeria; and 2Dept of Community Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Yenagoa, Nigeria.  *Correspondences: alabrahpee@gmail.com (Peter Waibode Alabrah, Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Federal Medical Centre, Yenagoa, Nigeria).
Inadequate and Indiscernible interpersonal communication between healthcare professionals or groups of professionals is a main causal factor in errors and procedural mistakes in medical practice, and this undermines the safety of patients. The study assessed healthcare providers’ insight into the handover of patients and how this impacts patient safety. A cross-sectional survey was utilized with a sample size of 400, equally divided between nurses and doctors. A well-structured questionnaire was used to elicit the required information. The data collected were analyzed using SPSS 20.0 statistical package. The study revealed that the majority of the respondents had no formal training on patient handover (56.3% vs. 43.7%). Respondents were aware that ineffective communication at handover impacts negatively on patient safety. The traditional method of handover is practiced and the most employed type (77%) and method (54%) of communication is the combined written verbal method. The obstacles to effective communication at handover were time constraints, excess workload, fatigue, and distraction. It was concluded that the insight of healthcare providers about handover and its impact on patient handover is passable and it can be improved upon by including handover in the training curriculum of nursing/medical students, regular refresher courses for practicing nurses/doctors to equip them with the skills that will advance both the content and communication at handover. 
29 Bioinformatics and Multi-omics Approach to Identify Comorbidities with Application in Schizophrenia with Psychiatric Disorders , Md Mainul Islam1&2, Md Rabiul Auwul3, Most Morium Begum4, and Hossain Md Faruquee5* 1Prime Minister’s Office, Tajgaon, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering, Islamic University, Kuhstia, Bangladesh; 3Dept. of Statistics, Begum Rokeya University, Rangpur, Bangladesh; 4Dept. of Agriculture, Rabindra Maitree University, Kushtia, Bangladesh; and 5Dept. of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Islamic University, Kushtia, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: faruqueebt2008@gmail.com (Hossain Md Faruquee, Assistant Professor, Dept. of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Islamic University, Kushtia, Bangladesh).
Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a major psychiatric disorder and often presents with psychiatric comorbidities. But, the interactions or links between the pathogenesis of SCZ and comorbidities are not known. In this study, we aimed to develop an integrated multi-omics approach based on gene expression, gene ontology, pathways, protein-protein interactions data that help clinical researchers to assess the links between SCZ and major psychiatric pathologies. We compared the transcriptomic alterations between diseases and controls and observed significant perturbed gene expression patterns i.e. differentially expressed (DEGs) shared among SCZ and major depressive disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, alcoholism, eating disorder. We observed deregulated expression of three DEGs, namely, HAPLN1, CNDP1, SLC12A2 in SCZ and pathologies, which were common among the selected pathologies suggesting the selected disorders are comorbidities of SCZ. The pathways including FoxO signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway, transcriptional misregulation in cancer, cellular senescence, cell cycle, PI3-Akt signaling pathway, TNF signaling pathway, and TGF-beta signaling pathway altered by the shared SCZ and psychiatric comorbidities also identified. The present study revealed biomolecules (DEGs), ontologies, and cellular pathways of the etiopathogenetic mechanisms of SCZ and psychiatric comorbidities. 
30 Assessment of Radiation Risk on Healthcare Workers and Public in & around Two Largest Hospital Campuses of Bangladesh , Avijit Biswas1, Mohammad Sohelur Rahman2*, Selina Yeasmin2, and Md. Kabir Uddin Sikder1 1Department of Physics, Jahangirnagar University, Dhaka-1342, Bangladesh; 2Health Physics Division, Atomic Energy Centre, Shahbag, Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh.  *Correspondence: msrahman74@hotmail.com (Dr. Mohammad Sohelur Rahman, Chief Scientific Officer, Health Physics Division, Atomic Energy Centre, Shahbag, Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh).
Ionizing radiation gives tremendous benefit to mankind in the hospital through diagnosis and treatment to patients but unnecessary radiation may cause harm to healthcare workers & the public. The purpose of the study is to continuous radiation monitoring in & around the three largest radiological facilities of Bangladesh such as Atomic Energy Centre Dhaka (AECD), Dhaka Medical College Hospital (DMCH) & Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) campuses, and estimation of radiation risk on healthcare workers & public health.  Continuous radiation monitoring was performed in & around the AECD, DMCH, BSMMU campuses from August-October 2020 using the Chemiluminescent Dosimeters. The yearly effective doses to healthcare workers and the public due to radiation released from the facilities were ranged from 0.606 ± 0.031 mSv to 0.801 ± 0.0.042 mSv with a mean of 0.707 ± 0.053 mSv. The excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) on healthcare workers & public health were evaluated based on the yearly effective dose and ranged from 2.486 Χ 10-3 to 3.287 Χ 10-3 with a mean of 2.900 Χ 10-3. The average yearly effective dose and ELCR on healthcare workers & public health were lower than those of the worldwide permissible values. Continuous radiation monitoring in & around the largest radiological facilities is required for detection of the radiation generating equipment’s malfunctions and improper handling of the radioactive materials. The study would help for minimization of radiation risk on healthcare workers & the public and this keeps the hospital’s environment free from radiation hazard. 
31 A Review on Ethnopharmacological Applications and Pharmacological Activities of Leea macrophylla , Abdullah Al Faruq1*, Mohammed Ibrahim1, Irin Sultana1, and M. Mohi Uddin Chowdhury1 1Department of Pharmacy, Southern University Bangladesh, Mehedibag, Chattogram-4000, Bangladesh.  *Correspondence: faruq@southern.edu.bd (Abdullah Al Faruq, Lecturer, Department of Pharmacy, Southern University Bangladesh, Mehedibag, Chattogram-4000, Bangladesh).
Plants are used as a potential source of medicines since the prehistoric period. Medicinal plants are the richest bio-resource of drugs of a number of traditional systems of medicines. Medicinal plants can also be used as nutraceuticals, food supplements, folk medicines, pharmaceutical intermediates, and chemical entities for synthetic drugs. A good number of researches on medicinal plants have enriched the science of modern medicine over the last decades. Leea macrophylla (Leeaceae) locally known as ‘Hastikarna palasa’ is a shrub that has been used in herbal medicine as a cure for a number of disorders. Several studies have proven that the plant possesses potential antimicrobial, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, neuropharmacological and anti-diabetic activities. Tribal communities used the plant parts as a remedy for a number of ailments as well as nutritional products. Established in-vitro and in-vivo studies were conducted to get evidence of pharmacological activities of the plant parts. This review paper focuses on the phytopharmacological activities and traditional uses of the plant which may help further research activities on L. macrophylla by giving up-to-date information about the plant.
32 Assessment of Medical Waste Management Practices: A Case Study in Gopalganj Sadar, Bangladesh , Md. Rajib Hossain1*, Md. Aminul Islam1 and Mehedi Hasan1 1Department of Environmental Science and Disaster Management, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Science and Technology University, Gopalganj, Bangladesh.  *Corresponding author: rajib.esd@bsmrstu.edu.bd (Md. Rajib Hossain, Assistant Professor, Dept. of Environmental Science and Disaster Management, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Science and Technology University, Gopalganj, Bangladesh).
At this time, waste may be a new concern that's generated and the management of waste is very important. The study was attended in one public hospital, seventeen private clinics and diagnostic centers, and two non-governmental organizations at Gopalganj Sadar in Bangladesh from October to December 2019 where no rigorous estimation of medical waste generation is supported by the scientific way. This study reviews the current situation of medical waste management and practices in several clinics and hospitals. Medical solid waste could be a special style of waste that carries a high potential for infection and injury. The main purpose of the study is to understand the current management system of treated waste and therefore the treatment solid waste disposal system. A convenience sampling technique, field visits, and interviews with health personnel and staff were followed to gather data. The information was gathered through questionnaires target various aspects like waste segregation and collection, storage and transport, awareness in addition. No waste management and resource segregation system was found, the absence of relevant healthcare practical training in dealing with this waste properly. The municipalities aggregate the waste and get rid of it finally. 
33 Studies on Behavioral Problem of Children: Effects of Occupational and Socio-demographic Characteristics of Working Mother in Dhaka City, Bangladesh , Nusrat Mustary1,2* and Md. Mahmudul Haque2 1Dept. of Community Medicine, Dhaka National Medical College, 53/1 Johnson Road, Dhaka 1100, Bangladesh; 2Dept. of Community Medicine, National Institute of Preventive and Social Medicine (NIPSOM), Faculty of Preventive and Social Medicine, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh.  *Correspondence: nusrat.dnmc@gmail.com (Nusrat Mustary, Dept. of Community Medicine, Dhaka National Medical College, 53/1 Johnson Road, Dhaka 1100, Bangladesh).
ABSTRACT Problems associated with children are of great concern to the parents and to the nation. Especially, the behavioral problem of children originated from mother’s life-style is crucial to study. In this study, the behavioral problem of children aged from 11 to 16 years in the capital city Dhaka of Bangladesh in terms of mother's occupational and socio-demographic characteristics was reported. An observational cross-sectional study was carried in Dhaka City from January 2014 to December 2014. Sampling was done by purposive method for both sexes willing to participate. Occupations (c.f. service, business, teaching, housemaid, and labor) in respect of the duration of work and length of service and socio-demography (c.f. age, education, family member, and income of mother) were accounted to identify the problems. The model findings would play a vital role to solve the behavioral problem of children which contributes to establishing a sustainable society for advanced nations. 
34 Impact of Host Genetic Players on Covid-19 Disease Severity: A Review of Current Knowledge and Future Prospect , Muhammad Sougatul Islam1*, Shabnoor Binte Dayem1 and Munia Amin1  1BioTED, Darussalam, Mirpur, Dhaka 1216, Bangladesh.  *Correspondence: msis201@gmail.com (Dr. Muhammad Sougatul Islam MRes, Executive Director, BioTED, Darussalam, Mirpur, Dhaka 1216, Bangladesh).    
ABSTRACT The year 2020 has been more life-changing and eventful than ever due to the COVID-19 which has led us into this worldwide crisis. An interesting revelation has been made that the coronavirus is not entirely new to us as we are being infected by three types of seasonal coronavirus every year in winter resulting in the seasonal cold. However, SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus-2) has pioneered this pandemic in Wuhan, China last year, which has been named COVID-19. Since then, many nations were seen to have responded differently from one another against this virus such as European nations facing more devastation than the Middle East region in this pandemic. The reasons behind these phenomena were assumed to be the different safety measures taken by the nations but in reality, it has been known that the host genetics are responsible for the devastating effects of COVID-19. Many research findings have pointed out that ACE2, TMPRSS2, and HLA genes in the host genomes are responsible for the virus entry and subsequent immune response. Several studies conducted by different nations have found different COVID-19 variations within which three genes seem to provide clues explaining the individual population's differential disease susceptibility and severity of these viral strains. This review paper has summarized the recent research findings on ACE2, TMPRSS2, and HLA gene variations in different populations, and their effect on causing severity of COVID-19 among individuals, which would be helpful to persuade the importance of such patterns in genetic variation within the Bangladeshi population; so that personalized treatment may be formulated or repurposed drugs may be used to lower the profound impact of SARS-CoV-2. 
35 Prevalence of Physical Activity with Mobility Disabilities among Senior Citizens in a Selected Old Home , Md. Omar Sharif Ahmmed Chowdhury1*, Rumpa Khatun2, and Sukrana Pervin3  1Department of Physiotherapy, Gono Bishwabidyalay, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2Department of Physiotherapy, Gono Bishwabidyalay, Dhaka, Bangladesh; and 3Department of Drama & Dramatics,  Jahangirnagar University, Dhaka, Bangladesh.  *Correspondence: oschowdhury33@gmail.com (Md. Omar Sharif Ahmmed Chowdhury, Assistant Lecturer, Department of Physiotherapy, Gono Bishwabidyalay, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh).  
ABSTRACT The purpose of the study was to identify the mobility problem of aged people in selected old homes. The ages of the respondents are 60 plus age, which is clustered into 3 age groups 60-69 years, 70-79 years, and 80 plus age. This study established among 100% respondents 89.3% have self-bathing capacity, 89.3% have self-dressing capacity, 89.8% have self-toileting capacity, 93.3% have self-teeth washing capacity, 93.7% have self-eating capacity. For finding other problems of aged people set up among 206 participants of the old home area, 35.0% are disability problem. Besides, in old homes 19.9% have suffered diabetic mellitus for a long time, 51.0% suffered from hypertension, 11.7% suffered from low blood pressure, 14.6% have heart problems, 64.6% have urine catching difficulty, 6.8% have kidney disease. Among 206 respondents of the old home, area was 44.2% abnormal posture and they have 36.9% kyphosis, 4.4% scoliosis 0.5% lordosis, and 2.4% another abnormal posture. For the finding of aged people, we have asked some questions to identify pain severity and several labels found that among 206 participants of the old home area were 52.4% have pain during straight walking, 36.9% have neck pain, 56.3% have hip pain or lower back pain, 28.6% have thoraco-lumber pain and 34.0% have pain during sleeping time. Besides On this area respondents there was pain severity 21.4% have mild pain, 22.3% have moderate pain and 24.8% have severe pain. In this paper among 206 respondents of the old home area was 10.7% having a stroke history. Here 3.4% right side, 4.4 left sides, both sides 2.9% paralyzes. In this study Right shoulder motion 56.8% of participants ROM under 150 degrees and Left shoulder motion 61.2% of participants ROM under 150 degrees. Conversely, Right hip motion was 27.7% of participant's ROM under 60 degrees and Left hip motion 30.6% of participant's ROM under 60 degrees. Besides, Right knee motion 56.8% of participants ROM under 120 degrees and Left knee motion 57.3% participants ROM under 120 degrees. After completing the current study we think that everyone should take responsibility to survive the aged people for a long time.
36 Exploring Socio-Economic Impact of Chikungunya Fever in Dhaka: A Statistical Modeling Approach   , Mohammad Ahsan Uddin* Department of Statistics, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh.  *Correspondence: munna_stat@yahoo.com (Dr. Mohammad Ahsan Uddin, Associate Professor, Department of Statistics, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh).
ABSTRACT The study mainly focused on the socio-economic impact rather than the biological significance of Chikungunya fever in Dhaka city. The socio-economic impact had been measured mainly upon family cost and absence in the working place. It had been investigated whether a percentage of monthly family income spend on monthly expenditure changes due to Chikungunya incidence. Also, another inquiry was made about the productivity of the respondents, which had been measured by the number of absences in working place. The study considered primary data of 272 affected and 272 unaffected respondents from Dhaka city and found no significant association of family cost with Chikungunya incidence but the loss of productivity turned out as statistically significant. Another important objective was to explore potential determinants of Chikungunya. It is found that some patients use no preventive approach, while the majority use mosquito nets as a preventive approach. The respondents suggest themselves mostly to keep the drain free from blockage, regular changing water from plant containers, and use mosquito repellent and net. They seek from the government mostly to provide regular mosquito spray, develop drainage systems, and remove blocked water sources. Chikungunya has no direct economic impact on a family. But, as it affects productivity, it affects the national economy to a great extent. 
37 Necessity of Education and Training of the Healthcare Staffs Performing Sterilization and Disinfection of Surgical Instruments , Sifat Uz Zaman1&2*, Israt Sadia3, Farha Rahman4, Rayhana Sharmin5, Samina Haque6, and Aklima Ferdoush7 1Dept. of Microbiology, Jahangirnagar University, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2Dept. of Infection Prevention and Control, Medlife Healthcare Limited, Bangladesh; 3Dept. of Infection Control, Labaid Cardiac Hospital, Bangladesh; 4Dept.of Microbiology, Bangladesh Medical College, Bangladesh; 5Dept. of Pharmacology, Uttara Adhunik Medical College, Bangladesh; 6Dept. of Psychiatry, Bangladesh Psychiatric Care Ltd, Bangladesh; and 7Dept. of Medicine, Z.H Sikder Women Medical College & Hospital, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: sifat.zaman9@gmail.com (Sifat Uz Zaman, Assistant Manager & Head, Dept. of Infection Prevention and Control, Medlife Healthcare Limited, Dhaka, Bangladesh).
ABSTRACT The objective of this study is to evaluate the requirements of education among the healthcare staff that performs sterilization and disinfection of surgical instruments in the hospitals. The study was done from 3rd July to 5th August 2020 in a super-specialized hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh. In the present study, the total sample was 73 which included the nurses and technicians and these people were involved in infection control procedures of the hospitals. Among them, 39 were nurses who completed their diploma or B.Sc in nursing, and 34 were technicians who do not have any degree in medical science. A close-ended questionnaire survey was administered. All 73 staff were invited individually to participate in this cross-sectional survey. Confidentiality of the responses was assured to the participants. The educated healthcare staff had a more positive attitude than the uneducated staff. All the educated staff had a positive attitude on having a centralized sterilization procedure, but the uneducated staff had only 58.52% positive attitude. 100% of the staff who were educated had the awareness of different sterilization and disinfection methods and their harmful effects, but this result was 73.52% in uneducated staff. Almost half of the population did not have an awareness of post sterilization management of surgical instruments. The percentage of positive responses in using different types of sterilization monitoring tools was not satisfactory as few people were not aware of it and the result was 87.17%. But a very poor result had been detected with the same question from the uneducated staffs which was 55.88%. A similar type of result had also been detected in the attitude level of using different types of disinfectants for cleaning surgical instruments. The positive response was 94.87% in educated staff whereas 64.70% in uneducated staff. The uneducated healthcare staffs need to be focused more as we saw there is a huge gap in the positive awareness and attitude level from the above result.
38 Exacerbation of Cardiovascular Complications in case of Covid-19 Patients and their Treatments , Mst. Mahfuza Rahman1*, Uthpall Kumar Roy1, Md. Kouser1, Shahriar Mohammad Shohan1, Sangita Chakraborty1, and Mir Imam Ibne Wahed2 1Department of Pharmacy, Comilla University, Koatbari, Cumilla-3506, Bangladesh; and 2Department of Pharmacy, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi-6205, Bangladesh.  *Correspondence: mahfuzarahman49@gmail.com (Mst. Mahfuza Rahman, Lecturer, Department of Pharmacy, Comilla University, Koatbari, Cumilla-3506, Bangladesh).    
ABSTRACT The 2019 Corona virus Outbreak (COVID-19) is a scientific, medical and social challenge. The complexity of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona virus 2 (SARSCoV2) focuses on the clinical course of unpredictable illnesses that can develop rapidly and cause serious complications leading to death. Systemic inflammation and lung problems can ensue, causing considerable morbidity and mortality. Acute coronary syndrome (ACS), arrhythmias, myocarditis, acute myocardial damage, heart failure, and other problems affect the cardiovascular system. Existing data about cardiovascular complications had been collected from the case study performed in China, Wuhan, and New York COVID-19 patients. In the case report of China, 16.7% out of 138 patients showed arrhythmias where heart failure was identified as a problem in 23% of patients in a retrospective study from Wuhan and 52% of non-survivors in China. On the other hand case studies on 18 COVID-19 patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) on electrocardiogram (ECG) from  New York were investigated; 6 patients (33%) reported chest pain, 14 patients (78%) reported ST-segment elevation, 6 patients (35%) reported regional wall motion abnormality on TTE, and 8 patients (44%) reported a clinical diagnosis of myocardial infarction and a total of 9 patients individuals (50%) had coronary angiography, with 6 patients (67%) of them showing obstructive disease. The cardiovascular consequences of COVID-19 infection are examined in this brief paper. The virus attaches to ACE2 (Angiotensin converting enzyme 2), allowing it to enter. COVID-19 therapy is currently being studied in conjunction with cardiovascular drugs. Therefore, emergency physicians should keep these cardiovascular complexities in mind while assessing and treating patients with COVID-19. 
39 Rhesus Negative Pregnancy: Prevalence and Foetomaternal Outcomes in a Tertiary Hospital, South-South Nigeria , Dennis Oju Allagoa1, Peter Chibuzor Oriji1*, Datonye Christopher Briggs2, Chima Ikoro1, Chidozie Emmanuel Unachukwu3, Akaninyene Eseme Ubom4, Gordon Atemie1, and Barbara Eneni1 1Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Medical Centre, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria; 2Dept. of Paediatrics, Rivers State University Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria; 3Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital, Okolobiri, Bayelsa State, Nigeria; 4Dept. of Obstetrics, Gynaecology, and Perinatology, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria.  *Correspondence: chibuzor54@gmail.com (Dr. Peter Chibuzor Oriji, Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Medical Centre, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria).
ABSTRACT Rhesus incompatibility can pose a problem in pregnancy and cause obstetric failure in a handful of women. The Rhesus factor is a red blood cell surface antigen; and there are many antigen subtypes that make up the Rhesus blood group systems, of which the most commonly involved and most immunogenically associated with Rhesus isoimmunisation is the D antigen. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of Rhesus negativity and the foetomaternal outcomes at the Federal Medical Centre, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. This was a 5-year retrospective study conducted between 1st January, 2016 and 31st December, 2020 at our Obstetric Unit. Data were retrieved, entered into a pre-designed preformed, and analyzed using SPSS version 25.0. Results were presented as mean and standard deviation for continuous variables and frequencies or percentages for categorical variables. Of the 4,571 pregnant women, 104 were Rhesus negative, giving a rate of 2.27%. The most common blood group among the women (53.8%) and their partners (84.6%) was the O blood group. Only 2 (1.9%) women were sensitised. Out of the 104 Rhesus negative women, 81 were unsensitised (77.9%) and received anti-D immunoglobulin. Majority of the babies had a good outcome, though 19 (18.2%) of them were admitted into the special care baby unit for various conditions. The incidence of Rhesus negative pregnancy in our study was 2.27%, and 1.9% of the women were sensitised. Prompt administration of anti-D immunoglobulin after sensitising events and post-delivery is key in the prevention of Rhesus isoimmunisation.
40 COVID-19 Pandemic Lockdown Resulting in an Unusual Rectal Foreign Body in a Young Male , Allauddin1*, Gulalai Rehman2, Abdul Kareem Zarkoon3, Bibi Nasira4, and Immad Uddin Khan5 1Bolan Medical Complex Hospital, Quetta, Pakistan; 2Balochistan Institute of Nephro-Urology, Quetta, Pakistan; 3Balochistan Institute of Nephro-Urology, Quetta, Pakistan; 4Balochistan Institute of Nephro-urology Quetta, Pakistan; and 5Student of 8th Class City School, Quetta, Pakistan.  *Correspondence: drallauddin5@gmail.com (Dr. Allauddin, Senior Registrar General Surgery, Bolan Medical Complex Hospital, Quetta, Pakistan).
ABSTRACT Foreign body rectum may cause serious consequences, especially in psychologically vulnerable patients, In critical conditions like pandemic COPVID-19, when depression, fear boredom, loneliness such incidence may occur. An 18 years old young male presented in emergency with a foreign body rectum. He was a laborer on daily wages. During the COVID-19 pandemic, loneliness, anxiety, and unemployment have exposed him to bizarre behavior, resulting in inserting potato into his rectum. He denied any history of homosexuality. The diagnosis was made by examination. Per rectal examination found FB just above the anal verge. The foreign body was removed rectally under G/A. He was then referred to a psychiatrist for evaluation.
41 Isolation and Identification of Pathogenic Bacteria from Baime Fish (Mystus armatus) and Evaluation of Antibiotic Susceptibility , Rintu Kumar Sarker1, Md. Khasrul Alam1*, Md. Anwar Hossain2, Md. Badiruzzaman3, Abdul Hamid4, Md. Abdullah Al Rabbni4, and Md. Rezuanul Islam1  1Dept. of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Islamic University, Bangladesh; 2Dept. of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Bangladesh; 3Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh; and 4Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Gono Bishwabidyalay, Bangladesh.  *Correspondence: manik.bge@gmail.com (Dr. Md. Khasrul Alam, Associate Professor, Dept. of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Islamic University, Bangladesh).
ABSTRACT Aquaculture products (fish) can harbor pathogenic bacteria which are part of the natural micro-flora of the environment. The current study was carried out for the extraction and identification of fish pathogenic microbes from Baime fish (Mystus armatus). Diseased fresh-water fishes were collected from different water bodies and fish landing centers of two study areas, namely the City area, Jhenaidah region. Bacteria are one of the important causative agents of fish diseases in both wild and cultured fish and are responsible for serious economic losses. Pathogenic bacteria strain was isolated from the infected area of Baime (M. armatus) fish skin. After isolation, isolates were finally identified by their desired morphological, characteristics, and biochemical test. They were gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that showed positive reaction for catalase, able to ferment glucose and one is citrate negative and another is citrate positive. After being persuaded above-mentioned test isolates were identified as genus Aeromonas and Pseudomonas. The ulcer type disease of M. armatus, the isolate was tested against several antibiotics’ treatment. Pseudomonas strains isolated from M. armatus is susceptible to penicillin G (10 μg), amoxicillin (10 μg), erythromycin (15 μg), Tetracycline (30 μg), Kanamycin (30 μg), moderately susceptible to Co-trimoxazole (25 μg), and Resistance to ceftazidime (10 μg). Aeromonas strains isolated from M. armatus is susceptible to amoxicillin (10 μg), erythromycin (15 μg), Tetracycline (30 μg), moderately susceptible to ceftazidime (10 μg), and Resistance to Co-trimoxazole (25 μg), penicillin G (10 μg), Kanamycin (30 μg). The results of the present study constitute an advance in the available diagnostic and bacterial pathogens in fish farms.
42 Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Population-Level Interest in Skincare: Evidence from a Google Trends , Hasan Symum1*, Md. F. Islam2, Habsa K. Hiya3, and Kh Mohammad Ali4 1Dept. of Industrial and Management System Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA; 2Dept. of Industrial Engineering and Management, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology, Khulna, Bangladesh; 3MUMA College of Business, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida, United States; 4Dhaka Medical College Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh.  *Correspondence: hsymum@usf.edu (Hasan Symum, Dept. of Industrial and Management System Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA).
COVID-19 pandemic created an unprecedented disruption of daily life including the pattern of skincare in healthcare settings by issuing stay-at-home orders around the world. There has been limited information about trends of skincare-related public interest during CVOID-19 and whether any substantial disruption in population-level behavior. The objective of this study is to evaluate the change in skincare-related population interest around the world during the COVID-19 pandemic time. Weekly RSV data were extracted worldwide and in 25 counties between August 1, 2016, and August 31, 2020. Interrupted time-series analysis was conducted as the quasi-experimental approach to evaluate the longitudinal effects of COVID-19 skincare-related search queries. For each country, autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model relative search volume (RSV) time series and then testing multiple periods simultaneously to examine the magnitude of the interruption. Multivariate linear regression was used to estimate the correlation between the relative changes in RSV with COVID-19 confirmed cases/ per million population and lockdown measures. Of 25 included countries in our study, 17 showed significantly increased (p<0.01) RSVs during the lockdown period compared with ARIMA forecasted data. The highest percentage of increments occurs in May and June in most countries. There was also a significant correlation between lockdown measures and the number of COVID-19 cases with relative changes in population interests for skincare. Understanding the trend and changes in skincare public interest during COVID-19 may assist health authorities to promote accessible educational information and preventive initiatives regarding skin problems. 
43 A Review of Blastomycosis in Indian Subcontinent , Harish C Gugnani1*, Anuradha Sharma2, and Neelam Sood3 1Dept. of Microbiology (Retired), Vallabhbhai Patel Chest Institute, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007, India; 2Dept. of Microbiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bilaspur (HP), India; 3Dept. of Lab Medicine Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Hospital, New Delhi-110058, India.  *Correspondence: harish.gugnani@gmail.com (Harish C Gugnani, Professor,  Dept. of Microbiology (Retired), Vallabhbhai Patel Chest Institute, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007, India).
ABSTRACT This study traces the earliest cases of blastomycosis reported from India. Four authentic cases of blastomycosis from India including one each from Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, and one each from Bangladesh and Nepal, and five misdiagnosed cases have been reported in India after 2013. The clinical and diagnostic features of all cases are reviewed. The authentic cases from India originate from widespread locations in the country. The incidence of blastomycosis in dogs is known to be eight to ten times higher than that in humans. There is only one case of canine blastomycosis from India manifesting as a fatal pulmonary infection in a Mongrel dog. It is suggested additional canine cases should be looked for in different parts of India to facilitate the detection of endemic foci of B. dermatitidis for human and animal infections in the country. Mycological investigation of cases of pulmonary tuberculosis negative for culture and AFBs mear, and not responding to anti-tubercular therapy may reveal some cases of blastomycosis. A recently developed real-time PCR for identification of B. dermatitidis in culture and tissue may facilitate correct diagnosis of blastomycosis in suspected cases. Antigen testing in urine or serum is also recommended for diagnosing clinical infection and monitoring antifungal therapy in blastomycosis. 
44 Effect of a Ketogenic Diet on Body Weight and Lipid Profile , Nabeela Kanwal, Seemin Kashif, Muhammad Kashif, Allaudin, and Gulalai Rehman
ABSTRACT This review article aimed to study the effects of a ketogenic diet on obesity-related measures, and lipid profiles. Total 22 articles were included in the review. Anthropometric measures included in the review were total body mass (Wt), fat mass (FM), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC). The lipid profile included in this review was serum cholesterol level, serum HDL, serum LDL, and serum triglycerides (TAG). The shortest intervention in these studies lasted for 4 days, and the longest intervention lasted for 12 months. There was a significant Wt loss in all studies. A significant reduction in BMI, FM, and WC was also observed in many studies. In most studies, variable effects on lipid profile were observed. Serum TC level fell in 10 studies, and serum TAG levels decreased in 13 studies, but this reduction was statistically insignificant in most studies. Serum LDL level fell in 10 studies and increased in 3 studies, and serum HDL levels fell in 7 studies and increased in 6 studies, but these changes were also not statistically significant in most studies. This review article found beneficial effects of ketogenic diet weight loss and lipid profile, but the studies in this review included the dietary intervention of a period≤12 months. Studies for extended periods (at least ≥2 years) should be done to observe the long-term effects of a ketogenic diet. 
45 Mass Closure Comparison with Layered Closure in Midline Laparotomy Incisions , Ghazi Jamal Abdul Nasir, Abdul Nasir Shams, and Fahima Aram
ABSTRACT Incision and suturing abdominal wall is a common surgical practice and different methods of repairing and applying have aroused great interest among surgeons. This study aims to compare mass closure and layered closure in midline laparotomy incisions. This prospective comparative study was conducted in the surgical ward of Nangarhar University Hospital on 40 patients from June 2020 to June 2021. A and B were assigned to all of the patients randomly. Twenty patients received bulk closure and other twenty underwent multilayer closure. The time of surgery, wound infection, abdominal rupture, and other consequences were all compared across all patients. Patients were followed on Day 2, day 4, day 8, day 12, monthly for 3 months and after 6 months. The rate of wound infection in layered (group B) is higher as compared to mass closure (group A). In general, the wound infection rate in the multilayer closure group was 2 cases (10%) and 1 case (5%) in the mass closure group. In layered closure, event ratio was 10%, while in mass closure it was 5%. In multilayer closure, a buttonhole hernia was detected in one case (5%) and none in mass closure. In layered closure, sinus development was seen in two cases (10%), but not in mass closure. The method of closure by mass to close the midline laparotomy incisions is simple, easy to perform, and safer than Layered closure. 
46 A Comprehensive Review on the Diabetic Retinopathy, Glaucoma and Strabismus Detection Techniques Based on Machine Learning and Deep Learning , Md. Muntasir Kamal, Md. Hachibul Islam Shanto, Mirza Mahmud Hossan, Md. Abul Hasnat, Sharmin Sultana, and  Milon Biswas
ABSTRACT Diabetes is a condition in which a person’s body either does not respond to insulin supplied by their pancreas or does not create enough insulin. Diabetics are at a higher chance and risk of acquiring a variety of eye disorders over time. Early identification of eye diseases via an automated method has significant advantages over manual detection thanks to developments in machine learning techniques. Recently, some high research articles on the identification of eye diseases have been published. This paper will present a comprehensive survey of automated eye diseases detection systems which are Strabismus, Glaucoma, and Diabetic Retinopathy from a variety of perspectives, including (1) datasets that are available, (2) techniques of image preprocessing, and (3) deep learning models. The study offers a thorough overview of eye disease detection methods, including cutting-edge field methods, intending to provide vital insight into the research communities, all eye-related healthcare occupational, and diabetic patients.   
47 Estimation of Radiological Risk on Medical Staff and Public Inside & Outside of Three Large Hospital Campuses in Dhaka, Bangladesh , Md. Arman Ali, Mohammad Sohelur Rahman, Selina Yeasmin, and Md. Kabir Uddin Sikder
Ionizing radiation offers great benefit to people in the hospital through diagnostic and therapeutic procedures to patients but undue radiation may create short- and long-term problems for medical staff & public. The goal of the study is to monitor the real-time radiation inside & outside of the three large hospital campuses in Dhaka city of Bangladesh namely the National Institute of Cancer Research & Hospital (NICRH), National Heart Foundation Hospital & Research Institute (NHFH), Kidney Foundation Hospital & Research Institute (KFH) and estimation of radiological risk on medical staff& public. The average real-time radiation dose rate & calculated average twelve-monthly effective doses to medical staff and public arising from the NICRH, NHFH, KFH were found to be1.781 ± 0.310 μSv/h, 1.685 ± 0.307μSv/h, 1.735 ± 0.341μSv/hand 3.111 ± 0.556mSv, 2.952 ± 0.437 mSv, 3.039 ± 0.329 mSv respectively. The excess life-time cancer risk (ELCR) on medical staff & public was estimated based on the twelve-monthly effective dose and varied from 8.972 Χ 10-3 to 18.938 Χ 10-3with average of 12.071 Χ 10-3. The average twelve-monthly effective dose and ELCR on medical staff were lower than those of the permissible limit. Real-time radiation monitoring inside & outside of the large hospital campuses is essential for detecting a malfunction of the radiation generating equipment and incorrect handling of the radioactive substances. The study would assist in minimizing radiological risk to medical staff & public and thereby would ensure the environment in the hospital is free from radioactive contamination. 
48 Ustilaginales (Smut Fungi) and their Role in Causing Human Infections, an Update , Harish C Gugnani
Ustilaginales is also known as smut fungi are a vast and diverse group of fungi that cause disease in crops causing huge losses worldwide. They belong to the class Ustilaginomycetes. Several members of this group serve as valuable models for unraveling the fundamental mechanisms controlling important biological processes. Several plant pathogenic species of ustilaginales are known to cause human infections. A brief description is given of the genera that contain species pathogenic to humans. The life cycle of Mycosarcoma (Ustilago) maydis is briefly described. The phenomenon of dimorphism in Mycosarcoma maydis is discussed in comparison to a plant pathogenic fungus, Taphrina deformans. Mycosarcoma maydis was the first plant pathogenic fungus known to cause human infection in a 31-years old corn farmer. There are over twenty species of ustilaginales implicated in human infections. This paper reviews the infections caused by Mycosarcoma (Ustilago) maydis, Psudozyma species, viz. Psuedozyma aphidis, P. antartica, P. parantarctica, and P. thialandica, and Dirkmeia churashimaensis. 
49 Exploring the Impact of Psychiatric Nursing Placement on Under-graduate Nursing Students' Attitudes toward Mental Illness , Endurance Avah Zacchaeus and Lawrence Ayah Iruo
ABSTRACT This study examined the impact of psychiatric nursing placement on student nurses' attitudes toward mental illness. A within group pre-post test quasi-experimental design was employed using 112 fourth year undergraduate nursing students of a Nigerian University undergoing psychiatric nursing posting at a psychiatric hospital, recruited through convenience sampling. The Attitude to Mental Illness Questionnaire (AMIQ) was administered at the beginning and end of the 8 weeks posting. Paired samples t-test analysis showed a significant reduction in the belief that mental illness could damage one’s career, t(111) = -5.44, p<.001; increased comfort about being in presence of a mentally ill colleague at work, t(111) = 6.55, p<.001; increased ease inviting someone with mental health problems to a dinner party, t(111) = 6.11, p<.001, and decreased belief about someone with mental health problems leaving spouse, t(111) = -2.50, p<.001. The results revealed a significant change in the belief that someone with mental health problems could get into trouble with the law, t(111) = -1.43, p<.001. On the influence of gender, the independent samples t-test results showed that there was no difference in the belief of both gender that mental illness could damage one’s career, t(112) = .43, p>.05; feeling comfortable with a mentally ill colleague, t(112) = 1.53, p>.05; feeling comfortable with someone having mental health problems in a dinner party, t(112) = 1.12, p>.05; belief in the likelihood of someone with mental health problems leaving spouse, t(112) = .86, p>.05, and the likelihood of getting into trouble with the law, t(112) = -.84, p>.05. The implication of these findings on nursing education was discussed. 
50 Risk Factors for Under-Five Child Mortality: Evidence from Bangladesh Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) 2019 , Md. Momin Islam, Farha Musharrat Noor, Mohammad Ahsan Uddin, and Md. Rokibul Hasan
ABSTRACT Every year, millions of children under the age of five deaths for various reasons, and some of these deaths may be avoided if more people were aware of the situation and taken action. Despite the fact that Bangladesh's under-five child mortality rate has decreased significantly over the last decade, and it is still too high to meet the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The major goal of the study was to figure out what risk (socio-economic and demographic) factors influence under-five child mortality in Bangladesh. Nationally representative cross-sectional secondary data from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) 2019, Bangladesh had been used in this study. The outcome variable was the under-five child survival status (alive or dead). Kaplan–Meier log-rank test and Cox Proportional Hazard (PH) model with a 95% confidence interval (CI) were fitted to identify associated risk factors for under-five child mortality. This analysis was performed using STATA version 16. The study showed that among 5112 under-five children, 170 (3.3%) were dead. Cox proportional hazard model revealed that mother's education [secondary (HR: 0.57, 95% CI: (0.32, 1.01), p=0.045), higher (HR: 0.46, 95% CI: (0.23, 0.90), p=0.024)], higher birth order [HR: 1.43, 95% CI: (1.23, 1.80), p=0.008], size of child at birth [HR: 2.30, 95% CI: (1.23, 4.28), p=0.009], taking antenatal care [HR: 0.83, 95% CI: (0.56, 1.24), p= 0.099] had a significant effect on child mortality. Under-five child mortality rate was varied among divisions and highest mortality rate was found in Sylhet [HR: 1.98, 95% CI: (0.91, 4.17), p=0.088]. This study identified potential risk factors for under-five child mortality, which will help policymakers take appropriate steps to reduce child mortality in Bangladesh, such as community-based educational programs for mothers and public health interventions centered on birth. 
51 Investigation of the Efficacy of Computed Tomography in the Evaluation of Intraorbital Tumors, Abir Zahangir Hassan1, Shahrin Sultana2, Tanzila Parvin3*, Md. Abul Fayez1, and S.M. Muraduzzaman3 1Dept. of Radiology & Imaging Technology, Bangladesh University of Health Sciences, Bangladesh; 2Phase-B Resident (Internal Medicine), BIRDEM Academy, Bangladesh; and 3Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, Bangladesh University of Health Sciences, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: tanzilla@buhs.ac.bd (Tanzila Parvin, Assistant Professor, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Bangladesh University of Health Sciences, Bangladesh).
ABSTRACT The objective of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of diagnosis of the intraorbital tumours with the help of CT scan. This cross sectional study took place in the Department of Radiology and Imaging, Dhaka Medical College Hospital and Department of Radiology and Imaging, National Institute of Ophthalmology during the period of January 2017 to December 2018. The sampling technique was purposive and sample size was 67. Patients attending outdoor and indoor patient facilities of the Department of Ophthalmology of the aforementioned Institute and Hospital and referred to their respective Radiology and Imaging Departments with suspicion of intraorbital tumours were included in the study. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of CT scan in the diagnosis of the intraorbital tumours were determined. Out of 67 cases, 31 (46.3%), 14 (20.9%), and 22 (32.8%) patients were diagnosed respectively with malignant tumour, benign tumour, and nontumorous lesions on histopathology. On the other hand, out of 67 cases 37 (55.22%), 16 (23.88%), and 14 (20.9%) patients were diagnosed with malignant tumour, benign tumour, and nontumorous lesions respectively with the help of CT scanning procedures. The accuracy of CT scan was 85.07% with sensitivity of 93.54%, specificity of 77.77%, and predictive value of 78.38% (positive) and 93.33% (negative) for findings of the malignant intraorbital tumours. In the case of radiological findings for benign intraorbital tumours, the accuracy of CT scan was 97.01% with sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 96.23%, where predictive value was 87.50% positive and 100% negative. From the result of this study, it may be concluded that CT scan is a useful modality to correctly identify patients with a disease and without a disease of intraorbital tumours. In case of benign tumours the validity tests showed relatively more accuracy.
52 Evaluation of Serum Hormones and Biochemical Tumor Markers among Breast Cancer Patients in the South-South Region, Nigeria, Ezeiruaku Ferdinand Chukwuma1, Onitsha Enebrayi Nelson1*, and Okutu Jackson Borobuebi1 1Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Basic Sciences, College of Health Science, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. *Correspondence: brayi4life@gmail.com (Onitsha Enebrayi Nelson, Dept. of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Basic Sciences, College of Health Science, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Amassoma, Bayelsa State, Nigeria).
ABSTRACT Breast cancer remains one of the most frequent malignancies in women and the primary cause of cancer-related death in women all over the world. Hormones and tumor biomarkers have been implicated as possible causes and prognostic biomarkers of breast cancer. The present study investigated the use of serum hormonal levels and tumor biomarkers; Carcinoembrvonic antigen (CEA), and cancer antigen (CA 15-3) for the diagnosis of Breast Cancer, and generation of different subtypes using Estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). This study is a cross-sectional study comprising 120 subjects; sixty breast cancer patients, and sixty apparently healthy women who served as control. One hundred and twenty blood samples were collected and analyzed for estrogen, progesterone, Carcinoembrvonic antigen, and cancer antigen. The results showed that the peak age of incidence of breast cancer was 40-49 years. Majority (56.7%) of the cases were menopausal women, while 43.3% were in their premenopausal period. Serum estrogen, cancer antigen, and Carcinoembrvonic antigen concentrations were elevated significantly (p
53 Investigation of the Association of Periodontal Diseases and Diabetes, Fazlullah Habib* Department of Clinic, Stomatology Faculty, Rokhan Institute of Higher Education, Nangarhar, Afghanistan. *Correspondence: mgrhabibullah@gmail.com (Dr. Fazlullah Habib, Dean of Faculty and Lecturer of Clinic Department, Stomatology Faculty, Rokhan Institute of Higher Education, Nangarhar, Afghanistan).
ABSTRACT Periodontitis and diabetes mellitus have been linked as having a bidirectional cyclical association, with periodontitis aggravating hyperglycemia and diabetes causing oral illness. Of the extreme incidence and intensity in diabetic patients, the disease of periodontal tissue is considered the sixth significant consequence of diabetes. It is possible to avoid significant morbidity and mortality from diabetes by diagnosing the condition early in patients with periodontitis. Periodontitis may get better with diabetes treatment, too. In this review, we will discuss the state of our understanding of how these two entities interact and interact with one another as well as the information that is currently available on how to treat the two entities jointly.
54 Incomplete Exclusive Breastfeeding among Women: A Case Study of Darussalam MCH Center in Baidoa, Southwest State of Somalia, Khadija Mohamed Adam1, Ibrahim Aden Ahmed1, Ibado Hassan Abdulle1, Khadija Amin Abdulbari1, Adow Omar Aden1, Munira Abdiladhif M. Jawaani2&3, Saffa Smart3, Mohamud Abukar2&3, and Mohamed A. Eno3,4&5* 1Dept. of Nursing, University of Southern Somalia, Baidoa, SWSS; 2Dept. of Nursing, University of Southern Somalia, Baidoa, SWSS; 3Hakaba Institute for Research and Training, Baidoa, SWSS; 4Dept. of Social Work & Social Administration and Dept. of Social Studies Education, University of Southern Somalia, Baidoa, SWSS; and 5St Clements Private University, Lausanne, Switzerland. *Correspondence: president@uss.edu.so (Dr. Mohamed A. Eno, Professor, Dept. of Social Work & Social Administration; and Dept. of Social Studies Education, University of Southern Somalia, Baidoa, Southwest State, Somalia).
ABSTRACT This study explores the prevalence of incomplete exclusive breastfeeding (IEBF) in the district city of Baidoa in Bay Region, SWSS. The aim of the study is to get insights into the practice and prevalence of incomplete exclusive breastfeeding among mothers, especially a group selected from women who visit the Darussalam MCH center. A mixed methods design was used to collect and analyze questionnaire data. Purposive sampling was employed to obtain data from 25 mothers who had stopped breastfeeding by the time the study was conducted. The study found that the practice is common among internally displaced women living in the IDP camps and their counterpart mothers from the host community in Baidoa. Each of the mothers in the survey has undergone the experience of IEBF with at least one child while one woman admitted that 4 of her babies had experienced termination of breastfeeding before the recommended period of six months. A variety of reasons including illness, divorce, and economic factors were expressed as contributing factors to the occurrences of IEBF among women. A high level of awareness is needed to educate women in particular and society in general about the effect of IEBF on child health in order to avoid the occurrences of preventable diseases caused as a result of the practice.
55 Occurrence of Vibrio Species in Marine Sources Surroundings Bonaire, Dutch Caribbean, Harish C Gugnani1*, Quincy Chopra2, Alicia Currie3, Trevor Ostrander3, Willem Wiegersma4, and Palabh Ray5 1Saint James School of Medicine (SJSM), Anguilla (BWI) and V.P. Chest Institute, University of Delhi, India; 2Resident in Emergency Medicine, Mercy St Elizabeth Boardman Hospital, Boardman, Ohio, USA; 3Saint James School of Medicine, Human Resource Development Services (HRDS) Inc., IL 60068, USA; 4Resident in Family Medicine, Queen’s University Hospital. Kingston, Ontario, Canada; and 5Division of Bacteriology, Department of Microbiology, Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India. *Correspondence: harish.gugnani@gmail.com (Dr. Harish Chander Gugnani, Emeritus Professor, Saint James School of Medicine (SJSM), Anguilla (BWI); and Professor of Microbiology, V.P. Chest Institute, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007, India).
ABSTRACT There is a lack of information on the presence of vibrios in the marine environment in the Caribbean. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of Vibrios in the coastal waters of Bonaire. Fifty samples of marine water collected at different depths from various sources around Bonaire were examined for the presence of vibrios. Species identification was confirmed by KB007 HiVibrioTM, Identification Kit, and TOFEL-MALDI. Forty of the samples contained Vibrio alginolyticus, 33 yielded V. parahaemolyticus and 29 showed the presence of V. vulnificus / V. cholerae. Regarding total colony counts in the sample, 47.4% of the colonies were V. alginolyticus, 35.2% were V. parahaemolyticus, and 17.4% represented V. vulnificus / V. cholerae. Further, of the 25 surface samples from various sites, 14 had a colony count percentage of 50% or greater number of V. alginolyticus. Another 10 sites had a colony count percentage of 50% or greater for V. parahaemolyticus; three of them had a colony count percentage of 50% or greater for V. vulnificus / V. cholerae. The present study constitutes the first study of its kind providing evidence of the prevalence of pathogenic Vibrio species, viz. V. alginolyticus, V. parahaemolyticus, and V. vulnificus / V. cholerae in marine water from the Dutch Caribbean.
56 Biochemical Characterization and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test of the Bacterial Strain Isolated from Sandwich in Rajshahi University, Bangladesh, Rubait Hasan1*, Jamiatul Husna1, Mohammad Shahangir Biswas1, Foyzur Rahman1, Md. Faruk Hossain1, Shahidur Rahman1, Munna Kumar Podder1, and Mohammad Zakerin Abedin2 1Dept. of Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, School of Biomedical Sciences, Khwaja Yunus Ali University, Sirajgonj-6751, Bangladesh; and 2Dept. of Microbiology, School of Biomedical Sciences, Khwaja Yunus Ali University, Sirajgonj-6751, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: hasanru88@gmail.com (Rubait Hasan, Lecturer, Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Khwaja Yunus Ali University, Sirajgonj-6751, Bangladesh).
BSTRACT This study was conducted to isolate and observe the morphological and biochemical characteristics of bacterial strains present in the sandwich. A single bacterial colony was isolated from a sandwich collected from different restaurants located in the area of the University of Rajshahi by plating from the diluted primary bacterial suspension of the liquid medium onto an agar solidified mineral salt medium after purifying through filter paper. The isolated bacterium was found to be Gram-positive, coccus, motile, lactose-non-fermenting, and could utilize different carbohydrates. Bacterial strain A showed a positive result for the Methyl Red test, the Catalase test, the Indole test, and the Simmons citrate agar test. The optimum culture condition of the isolate was pH 8 and the salt concentration was 0.1 gm/100 ml. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) value against Vancomycin was 50mg/ml and the viable cell count indicated 459×107 CFU/ml. The result showed that the isolated bacterial strain A was resistant to Vancomycin and amoxicillin, whereas it was susceptible to gentamycin, ciprofloxacin, and chloramphenicol. This bacterial strain A can grow to a harmful extent after a certain time of incubation, which may cause a health hazard.
57 Pediatric Candidemia in the Indian Subcontinent, and in Parts of the Middle East, Africa, and South America, Harish C Gugnani* Department of Microbiology, Vallabhbhai Patel Chest Institute, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007, India. *Correspondence: harish.gugnani@gmail.com (Dr. Harish C Gugnani, Professor, Department of Microbiology, Vallabhbhai Patel Chest Institute, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007, India).
ABSTRACT Candidemia is defined as the isolation of Candida species from at least one blood culture with the presence of symptoms of sepsis. It is the main cause of fungal nosocomial bloodstream infections with its resultant mortality in children ranging from 5% to 71% and sometimes over 80%. A thorough search of the literature in Google, PubMed, Med Facts, using different sets of keywords, viz. candidemia, bloodstream Candida infections, neonates, children, and developing countries showed that candidemia in neonates and children is caused by a variety of species, viz. Candida albicans, C. auris, C. famata, C. glabrata, C. guilliermondii, C. krusei, C. ortholopsis, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis. The predominant etiological agents vary in different countries. Risk factors in most of the reports included prematurity, mechanical ventilation, prolonged use of antibiotic and steroid urinary catheter, hH 2 blockers, neutropenia, leukemia, and malnourishment. The underlying diseases included sepsis, pyogenic meningitis, encephalitis, pneumonia, acute reparatory distress syndrome, chronic liver disease, and kidney disease, etc. A noteworthy observation in the literature is that several investigators employed MALD-TOFE, PCR, and molecular methods including DNA sequencing in addition to the study of phenotypic features for the characterization of Candida species. Antifungal therapy in most studies used liposomal amphotericin B, caspofungin, azoles, or combination therapies The epidemiology of pediatric candidemia varies in different countries. Surveillance of candidaemia in different regions is necessary, especially in neonates and children. Rapid and precise detection of Candida species isolated from the bloodstream by polymerase chain reaction, restriction fragment length polymorphism technique can help in better management of candidemia. The strategies for the prevention of candidemia include improved hand hygiene, optimal catheter placement and care, and prudent hygiene. Prophylactic antifungal therapy is recommended for patients who have not yet been diagnosed with candidemia but are at a high risk of acquiring Candida infections.
58 Knowledge and Attitude of the Community People on Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) Program at Kala-azar Endemic Area in Bangladesh, Ha-mim Md. Shahriar Azam1&3*, Farjana Sharmin2, and Fatema-Tuz-Zohra2 1Dept. of public Health, ASA University, Bangladesh; 2Dept. of Public Health, North South University, Dhaka, Bangladesh; and 3CSBF Health Center, Bijoy Shoroni, 109 Bir Uttam Ziaur Rahman Road, Dhaka, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: shariarazam@gmail.com (Ha-mim Md. Shahriar Azam, Chief Operating Officer, CSBF Health Center, Bijoy Shoroni, 109 Bir Uttam Ziaur Rahman Road, Dhaka, Bangladesh).
ABSTRACT Visceral leishmaniasis also known as kala-azar is a chronic and potentially fatal parasitic disease in the world, affecting mainly the underprivileged people in the world. The success of the Kala-azar elimination program is mostly dependent on community participation which is an important aspect implemented by the world health organization in five south Asian countries. The participation of the community people mostly depends on the level of knowledge, attitude, and practice around risk factors associated with disease transmission among the population. This study was undertaken to assess the level of knowledge and attitude of the community people towards the indoor residual spraying (IRS) program in the Kala-azar endemic area. The study was carried out in 240 households by systemic random sampling on both hyper and moderate endemic areas in Bangladesh, and information was collected through a semi-structured questionnaire. Data from the study indicated that 44.6% of participants were illiterate, 99% had heard of kala-azar and 100% had heard about IRS. Team of IRS, family members, and neighbors play an important role as a source of information while the role of mass media was found to be limited. Almost all respondents who participate here seem to be that kala-azar is a serious health condition that drains family resources, but their attitude to doing beneficial activities of the IRS is not satisfactory because of their thought that it could be controlled by community effort. From the data, it is seen that people are knowledgeable about kala-azar, but disease transmission, infection origin, and control of the diseases are still not adequate. Their attitude toward indoor residual spraying program practice was not satisfactory. These findings suggest that it is necessary to continue and strengthen behavioral change through the implementation of the IRS program to progress the disease’s condition in the pandemic areas of Bangladesh.
59 Symptomatic Pathogen Frequency and Antibiogram Patterns of Bacterial Isolates in Urinary Tract Infections, Sirajganj Sadar, Bangladesh, Mohammad Zakerin Abedin1*, Md. Easin Arfat2, Samim Mia1, Jayanta Das1, Farjana Akter Koly2, Md. Rezaul Karim2, Noor-E-Kashif Farnaz2, Mst. Nadia Afrin3, Rubait Hasan4, Jamiatul Husna Shathi4, Afroza Sultana5, and Abdullah Akhtar Ahmed1 1Dept. of Microbiology, Khwaja Yunus Ali University, Sirajganj, Bangladesh; 2Dept. of Microbiology, University of Chittagong, Chittagong, Bangladesh; 3Daffodil Hospital, Enayetpur, Sirajganj, Bangladesh; 4Dept. of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Khwaja Yunus Ali University, Sirajganj, Bangladesh; and 5Dept. of Pharmacy, Khwaja Yunus Ali University, Sirajganj, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: zakerin.abedin@kyau.edu.bd (Mohammad Zakerin Abedin, Assistant Professor & Head, Dept. of Microbiology, School of Biomedical Sciences, Khwaja Yunus Ali University, Sirajganj, Bangladesh).
ABSTRACT Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are broadly common in inpatient and outpatient males and females of different ages and comprise 40% of the nosocomial infections that collectively cause 150 million deaths per year. The right care is obligatory if the patients do not want to die, but this is hard to do because the things that make people sick are getting better at resisting antibiotics (AMR). Collected specimens were examined microscopically and cultured on Cystine Lactose Electrolyte Deficient (CLED) agar to isolate the pathogens. Isolated pathogens were identified through colony morphology, microscopic studies, and biochemical indications. Lastly, antimicrobial responsiveness patterns of the pathogens were determined by the disc diffusion method to find possible antibiotics that could treat the disease well. Among 17.67% of positive cultures, 73.58% were females, and 26.42% were males, dominated by the age group ≥37 years (49.06%). E. coli (56.6%), Enterococcus faecalis (26.4%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (7.5%), Staphylococcus aureus (3.8%), Acinetobacter baumannii (3.8%). Moreover, Serratia marcescens (1.9%) were the isolated pathogens, with 69.8% Gram-negative and 30.2% Gram-positive. The most effective antibiotics were amikacin (88.68%), levofloxacin (88.68%), ciprofloxacin (86.79%), gentamicin (84.91%), and imipenem (84.91%). The least effective antibiotics were mecillinam (50.94%), cefuroxime (37.74%), ceftazidime (37.74%), meropenem (35.85%), and cefotaxime (33.96%). To treat and suggest antimicrobials, routine and emphatic research about urogenital pathogens and their antibiotic susceptibilities is required. Patients should be prescribed appropriate antimicrobial therapies after completing a standard test of pathogen identification and antibiotic resistance pattern determination. This study would be of extensive importance to patients and physicians in picking appropriate antimicrobial therapies for empiric treatment.
60 Assessment of Biochemical Markers in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Patients in the Niger Delta Region, Nigeria, Ezeiruaku Ferdinand Chukwuma1 and Onitsha Enebrayi Nelson2* 1&2Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Basic Sciences, College of Health Science, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. *Correspondence: brayi4life@gmail.com (Onitsha Enebrayi Nelson, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Basic Sciences, College of Health Science, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Amassoma, Bayelsa State, Nigeria).
ABSTRACT Polycystic Ovary Syndrome is a chronic endocrine disorder with clinical manifestations of oligomenorrhoea, amenorrhea, hirsuitism, ovarian dysfunction, and multiple ovarian cysts, affecting many women of reproductive age. PCOS is the primary cause of ovulatory infertility worldwide. This study assessed the concentration of reproductive hormones in polycystic ovarian syndrome patients attending tertiary hospitals in the Niger Delta Region, Nigeria. Three hundred and fifty infertile premenopausal women aged 20 to 40 years were recruited; comprising 250 women presenting complete Rotterdam patients of polycystic ovarian syndrome diagnostic criteria, and 100 apparently healthy women who serve as the control. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for reproductive hormone levels using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent Assay. The result showed significantly increased concentration of estradiol, luteinizing hormone, LH/FSH ratio, testosterone, and prolactin levels in the PCOS patients when compared with the control subjects. Progesterone and Follicle-stimulating hormone levels were significantly lower in the patients with PCOS than in normal subjects. However, there was no significant difference was observed in the serum dehydroepiandrosterone levels. Furthermore, the study revealed that insulin resistance level was significantly (p=0.000) higher in the PCOS patients than in the control subjects. The BMI was significantly higher in PCOS patients than in the control group. The study result showed a positive correlation between BMI and insulin resistance, and a negative correlation with FSH. The result showed a significant positive correlation between estrogen and insulin resistance, Luteinizing hormone, and a negative correlation with LH/FSH ratio. The study affirms that there is an interrelationship between hormones thus, promoting hormonal disorders in polycystic ovarian syndrome patients.
61 Feasibility of Introducing an E-Learning Project Program at the Faculties of Medicine and Nursing, Zeinab Swar Eldahab1*, Shahinaz Abdelrahman Osman2, Ahmed Abduelaz3, and Elhadi Miskeen4&5 1Dept. of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan; 2Chair of Global Collaboration PLN at the International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE); 3Federal Ministry of Health, Directorate General of PHC, EPI (Extended Program of Immunization); 4Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, College of Medicine, University of Bisha, Bisha, Saudi Arabia; and 5Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Gezira, Sudan. *Correspondence: zeinabswar@hotmail.com (Zeinab Swar Eldahab, Consultant and Teacher, Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan).
ABSTRACT E-Learning helps in situations of quarantine and lockdown. It helps us continue our learning process despite the interruption of travel, public transport, and restriction of personal movement. E-learning has become quite popular among students worldwide, particularly during the lockdown period due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The project aims to assess the current situation of establishing an eLearning Program in the Faculties of Medicine and nursery sciences at Khartoum. A cross-sectional, mixed quantitative and qualitative, campus-based study. A total of 95 participants who were accessible to us during lockdown were assessed to estimate the availability of essential resources needed to apply the online delivery teaching system. The teachers and students of the two faculties of medicine and nursing sciences at the University of Khartoum were selected purposefully and trained on basic generic eLearning activities. Their skills and competencies were assessed via Pre and Post Test. In this study, 95 participants completed the project process. Of them, 75 (78.9%) were students, and 25 (21.1%) were faculty and administrators from medicine and nursing. The evaluation of the implementation of an e-learning program in our setting through faculty and student input was assessed and satisfied, in addition to the availability of technological resources and commitment. Both students and faculties positively support e-learning for a successful transition to e-learning partly in times of emergencies with the support of the World Health Organization. We have investigated the feasibility of implementing an e-learning project and recommend the adoption of the guide. We advocate improving internet connectivity, power supply, and costs.