Effect of Antibiotic Susceptibility and Inhibitory Activity for the Control of Growth and Survival of Microorganisms of Extracts of Calendula officinalis
Md. Zulfiqer Shahen1, Shahriar Mahmud1*, Shaharuq Nahid Sohana1, Mehadi Hasan Rony1, Md. Abu Sayeed Imran1, Md. Abdullah Al Maruf2, Md. Afzal Ahmed Azim2, Md Monirul Islam3, Md. Rokibul Islam1, Md. Ekhlas Uddin1, and Mohammad Shah Alam4
1Dept. of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Islamic University, Bangladesh; 2Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Jahangirnagar University, Bangladesh; 3BioIcon Group, Uttara, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 4Dept. of Microbiology, Gono Bishwabidyalay, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Extracts from many types of plants show several evidences of beneficial health effects in the living system. Calendula officinalis is a well known medicinal plant in our country. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of C. officinalis for control of the growth and survival of microorganisms. The inhibition of growth was tested by the paper disc agar diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by the tube dilution method. C. officinalis leaf extract showed inhibition (MIC, inhibitory) to Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Bacillus subtilis and to the other bacteria tested. Antimicrobial effects of leaf extract of C. officinalis on some microorganisms including pathogens were investigated. The extract of C. officinalis leaf which is prepared in was tested on bacterial cultures such as B. subtilis, S. lutea, E. coli, K. pneumoniae and also investigated that minimum inhibitory concentration 4µg/ml of leaf extract of C. officinalis in petroleum ether against K. pneumoniae and largest inhibitory zone are created by 512mg/ml chloroform extract against E. coli leaf extract of C. officinalis in petroleum ether has proved better for antibacterial activity. This study demonstrates that the potentiality of C. officinalis as a source of antimicrobials that could be harness for use in the health care delivery process.
Nutritional Status of the Adolescent Boys of a Recognized Charitable Orphanage in Dhaka City, Bangladesh
Ropak Chandra Roy1*, Md. Sahabuddin2, Sumon Chandra Debnath3, Md. Jakir Hosaain4, Md. Azmol Hossain5, Sentu Chandra Barman6, Anamul Hasan7, Mahbub Jubayer8, Jamal Uddin8, Md. Habibur Rahman8 , Md. Sherajul Haque1, and Banosree Saha8
1Dept. of Physiotherapy, Gono Bishwabidalay, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2Dept. of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, BSMRSTU, Gopalganj, Bangladesh; 3Civil Surgeon Office, Chattogram, Bangladesh; 4Dept. of Biochemistry and Microbiology, North South University, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 5Eastern care hospital Ltd, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 6New Medi Fair diagnosis centre, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 7MAYFAIR Wellness Clinic Ltd, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2Dept. of Microbiology, Jahangirnagar University, Dhaka, Bangladesh; and 8Gonoshasthya Samaj Vittik Medical & College Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh
This cross-sectional research was managed for the deduction of nutritional condition among adolescent boys of a perceived charitable orphanage in Dhaka city, Bangladesh. The sample size of the study was 100. This research set up the mean age of the study sample as 9.93 ± 2.392 years and modes Body Mass Index (BMI) was 14.48 ± 2.385. Among them of 60% of the participants were illiterate and 40% had a primary level of education. Of the participants, 100% were laid hold of vegetables and rice. Among them, 92%, 89%, 64%, 47%, and 4% of the participants were taken chicken, fast food, beef, bread, and mutton respectively. Among them, 96% were laid hold of sufficient food and 4% lay hold of insufficient food daily. The present study shows that 96% were taken education from Madrasha, 4% were taken general education. The current research also focused that 92% of the participants had information about own hygiene and 8% had not, and among them, 84%, 80%, 76% and 70% of the participants were regulated personal hygiene by nail and hair trimming, hand washes practicing by soap after toileting, utilize toothbrush and paste daily and hand washes performing by soap after taking food respectively. Of them, 57%, 53%, 49%, 16% and 2% of the participants had information about own hygiene by doctors, friends, television, radio, and poster respectively. There was a statistically noteworthy association between age with the volume of food, information about own hygiene and BMI was (0.016, 0.022, and 0.000).
Antibiotic Resistance Analysis of Vibrio spp Isolated from Different Types of Water Sources of Bangladesh and Their Characterization
Milon Kumar Das Sarker1, Tanvir Ahammed2, Md. Sahabuddin3, Pinki Akter1, Azizul Haque4, Md. Rajib Hossain5, Md. Golam Mosaib6, Md. Robiul Islam7, Goutom Chandra Mondol8*, and Md. Firoz Alam9
1Dept. of Microbiology, Stamford University Bangladesh, Bangladesh; 2Dept. of Microbiology and Hygiene, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Bangladesh; 3Dept. of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, BSMRSTU, Bangladesh; 4Dept. of Microbiology, University of Chittagong, Bangladesh; 5Dept. of Environmental Science & Disaster Management, BSMRSTU, Bangladesh; 6Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Gono Bishwabidyalay, Bangladesh; 7Dept. of Microbiology, Jagannath University, Bangladesh; 8Department of Public Health, ASA University, Bangladesh, and 9Dept. of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Islamic University, Bangladesh
Cholera is an acute form of the diarrheal disease that plagued human civilization over the centuries. The enormity of human sufferings led clinicians and scientists to carry out extensive research on cholera and Vibrio cholerae leading to major discoveries that opened up novel areas of research or new disciplines in biomedical sciences. An attempt is made here to summarize some of these breakthroughs and outline their significance in broader perspectives. In the present study, a total of 12 samples were collected from four types of water sources for the isolation of Vibrio spp. Water samples are enrichment into alkaline peptone water then inoculate into culture media such as Nutrient agar, MacConkey, and Thiosulfate Citrate Bile Salts Sucrose (TCBS) agar medium. After incubation of TCBS plates for 24h at 37°C yellow and green colonies are screened out for biochemical identification. No-sucrose fermenting Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio mimicus, and Vibrio vulnificus show green colonies and sucrose fermenting Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio alginolyticus show yellow colonies on TCBS. To identify the Vibrio spp isolates biochemical test was carried out and typical Vibrio spp give a positive result. The majority of Vibrio spp are avirulent, but certain strains may be sporadically human pathogenic. The antibiotic resistance studies showed that among the 9 isolates were resistant against Erythromycin, Penicillin, Cephalexin, Vancomycin, and 4 isolates resistant against Tetracycline. To expand current knowledge of the occurrence, ecological niche, and persistence of potential human pathogenic Vibrio spp in aquatic environments, occurrence, and laboratory studies were performed.
Assessment, Monitoring, and Awareness of Garment Workers Regarding the Prevalence of Tuberculosis in Savar, Dhaka
Syed Abdullah-Al-Nahid1*, Taslima Haque2, Md. Shoykot Jahan3, Ashrafi Akter Jahan4, Mohammad Shah Alam5, K. M. Shakib6, and Ropak Chandra Roy6
1Dept. of Physiology, Gonoshastaya Samaj Vittik Medical & College Hospital, Bangladesh; 2CMH Dhaka, AMC, Bangladesh Army; 3Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Gono Bishwabidyalay, Bangladesh; 4Dept. of Anatomy, Gonoshastaya Samaj Vittik Medical & College Hospital, Bangladesh; 5Dept. of Microbiology, Gono Bishwabidyalay, Bangladesh; and 6Dept. of Physiotherapy, Gono Bishwabidyalay, Bangladesh
The study was conducted to evaluate the awareness regarding Tuberculosis (TB) in the middle of the export-oriented garment workers in Savar, Dhaka. Data were calmed by face to face talk to using a semi-structured questionnaire. A gross of 110 garment workers was talked to, in the middle of them, 51.8% were male and rests of 48.2% were female. Maximum 30.9% participants age was between 20-22 years and 28.2% of respondent’s ages were more than 28 years. 58.2% of respondents had secondary education, 22.7% of respondents had primary education, and 14.5% of respondents had HSC and above education. Out of 110 participants, 60.0% resided in a nuclear family, 39.1% have resided in a joint family, and 34.5 % were at their own house, 3.6 % were at slum and 57.3% were at the colony. The majority had heard about TB (72.7%) by listening to Television, Radio, Newspaper, and 27.3% were family members, offices, doctors or hospitals. only 25.5% perceived it to be an infectious disease, (30.0%) were did not perceive and the highest number 44.5 % were didn’t know. The correct mode of conveyance i.e. airborne (coughing) was familiar to 66.7% research subjects. The majority (62.4%) knew cough as a symptom. Maximum (71.8%) participants thought TB to be a curable disease, in the middle of the majority (52.0 %) were of the viewpoint to avert the TB by a cover on the mouth at coughing, 8.1% were said BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin) vaccination and 35.8 % was no smoking. Most of the respondents (96.4%) said TB is a treatable disease, in the middle of them, 75.5% said by Anti TB antibiotics. 62.7% of participants perceive TB is a totally curable disease. This work shows (74.5%) garments workers have deficient awareness and (25.5%) have adequate awareness.
Evaluation of Neuropharmacological Activities of Methanolic Extract of Bacopa monnieri L. in Mice Model
Md. Ahasun Habib1, 2*, Sonia Akter3, Arrafy Rahman4, Jyoti Sikder2, Fahmida Khatun2, Md. Furkanur Rahaman Mizan5, Md. Ashrafudoulla5 and Muhammad Abdul Hannan2
1Dept. of Food Science and Technology, International Institute of Applied Science and Technology, Rangpur, Bangladesh; 2Dept. of Biotechnology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh; 3Pharmacy Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna, Bangladesh; 4Dept. of Microbiology, International Institute of Applied Science and Technology, Rangpur, Bangladesh; and 5Dept. of Food Science and Technology, Chung-Ang University, Gyunggido, South Korea.
Now-a-days, the use of natural products has increased its popularity day by day all over the world. One of the most effective therapeutic medicinal plants is Bacopa monnieri. In the current study, the methanolic distillate of B. monnieri was designed for an antidepressant in mice models. B. monnieri was evaluated for anti-depressant venture in the forced swimming test (FST), tail suspension test (TST) and elevated plus maze test. In force swimming test, imipramine (30 mg/kg) used as a standard drug and in TST as well as elevated plus maze test, diazepam (10 mg/kg) used as a standard and the plant extract (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg) was administered as test group and the control group was given deionized water. In this test, the test extracts (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg) compare to both control and standard group. The higher dose (200 mg/kg) represented a more significant effect than a dose of 100 mg/kg. In comparison to the standard and control, at dose 200 mg/kg represented a more significant effect at p<0.05 among three of the test.
The Impact of Ageing on Population Structure and Development Process of Different Levels of Bangladesh
1Department of Population Sciences, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh
Bangladesh is a small South-Asian country at the threshold of an amazing opportunity. Due to the relatively young age of the population, there is a tremendous possibility of economic development. However, this euphoria of demographic dividend often masks the fact that there is a time limit on this opportunity, and as this population gets older, we will have a completely different age structure by 2050 with more people on the other side of 65. That will create a substantial burden on our support structure and additional budget will be needed to cater to the demands of the elderly. But if we can play our cards right, then it is possible to manage that while sustaining the development curve. But we have to act now; otherwise, it will be too late.
In-Vitro Quality Evaluation of Marketed Naproxen 500 mg Tablets in Bangladesh
Md. Shahin Sarker1*, Shamsun Nahar1, and Mir Imam Ibne Wahed2
1Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Biological Science and Technology, Jashore University of Science and Technology, Jashore-7408, Bangladesh; and 2Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Science, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi-6205, Bangladesh
The quality of pharmaceutical finished dosage forms is one of the major concerns for pharmaceutical industries. The tablet dosage form of any pharmaceutical company goes through many research studies and experiments to maintain the proper quality standards. This study was conducted to investigate the quality of Naproxen 500 mg tablets which are manufactured in Bangladesh. Different physical parameters like weight variation, thickness, friability as well as and dissolution profile studies were conducted to evaluate the quality of the Naproxen tablets. The tendency of a tablet to chip, crumble, or break following compression is called friability. The friability test results were in the range of the standard value. The thickness test of all the brands was compiled with the standard values except brand B. The thicknesses of A, B, C, D, and E brands are 4.1, 7.1, 6.0 5.32, and 6.1 mm respectively. To ensure quality products a pharmaceutical industry follows international standards. The average cumulative % of drug release from A, B, C, D, and E brands were 98%, 102.85%, 92.24%, 101.11%, and 99.96% respectively.
Isolation, Identification and Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Salmonella from Dairy Farms in Adama and Modjo Towns, Central Ethiopia
Abdurezak Abrar1, Takele Beyene1, and Walkite Furgasa2*
1College of Veterinary Medicine, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 2School of Veterinary Medicine, Wollegga University, Nekemte, Ethiopia
A cross-sectional study was carried out from February 2019 to May 2019 in Adama and Modjo aiming at isolating Salmonella from dairy cattle farms and determining the antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the isolates. A total of 117 samples from dairy farms: faces, bulk tank milk, personnel hand swab, and contaminated floor samples were collected and screened for the presence of Salmonella. Ten (8.5%) of the samples tested were found to be positive for Salmonella. Of 89 faces, 10 bulk tank milk, 9 personnel hand swab, and 9 contaminated floor samples, no positive were found in the milker’s hand swab samples from both Adama and Modjo areas and the isolation frequencies of Salmonella were 8.98%, 10%, and 11.1% in faces, bulk tank milk, and floor sample, respectively. The antibiogram testing revealed differential multi-drug resistance among Salmonella isolates in lactating cow and cows environment samples. Most of the isolates were resistant to methicillin, streptomycin, and nalidixic acid whereas sensitivity was recorded for gentamicin. In conclusion, the relatively high resistance among the bacteria present in dairy farms could pose public health and therapeutic problems to consumers as potential vehicles of resistant Salmonella foodborne infections.
In-Vitro Comparative Quality Evaluation of Marketed Cefuroxime 250 mg Tablets in Bangladesh
Md. Shahin Sarker1*, Md. Rafiqul Islam1, Md. Selim Reza1, and Mir Imam Ibne Wahed2
1Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Biological Science and Technology, Jashore University of Science and Technology, Jashore-7408, Bangladesh; 2Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Science, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi-6205, Bangladesh
The study evaluated different quality control parameters of five brands of Cefuroxime 250mg tablets which are already marketed in Bangladesh. Five brands of the drug sourced from different retail outlets to assess the quality assessment and comparison of the tablets using the in-vitro release study. The brands were subjected to various official tests including uniformity of weight, thickness test, dissolution tests, and cumulative % of drug release and friability test. This research further focuses on the requirement of manufacturers to construct quality into their products during manufacture and also sustain the built-in quality from batch to batch in line with the principles of cGMP.
Prescribing Pattern of Medical Practitioners in Their Private Chamber Practice According to WHO Prescribing Indicators in a Southern District of Bangladesh
Sanjoy Saha1*, ASM Rizwan2, Jyoti Vaskar Saha3, Abu Rayhan Siddique4, Abu Hasnat5, Mahbobur Rahman6, Wazed Ahmed7, and Dil Afroz8
1Dept. of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Ad-din Sakina Women’s Medical College, Jashore and PhD fellow, Bangladesh University of Professionals, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2Dept. of Medicine, Ad-din Sakina Women’s Medical College, Jashore, Bangladesh; 3Dept. of Nephrology, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 4Dept. of Surgery, Shaheed Taj Uddin Ahmed Medical College, Gazipur, Bangladesh; 5Dept. of Pediatric Nephrology, Dhaka Shishu Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 6Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh, Bangladesh; 7Neonatal ICU, Lab Aid Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh; and 8Dept. of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Jahurul Islam Medical College, Kishoreganj, Bangladesh.
*Correspondence: email@example.com (Dr. Sanjoy Saha, Associate Professor, and Head, Dept. of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Ad-din Sakina Women’s Medical College, Jashore, Bangladesh)
Prescription is a written order and direction by a registered physician to the pharmacist for the particular use of a medicine product for a patient. The aim of the research was to observe the prescription pattern of doctors in their chamber practice according to the World Health Organization (WHO) prescribing indicators. A total of 300 prescriptions of outdoor patients from various departments of different private chambers of medical practitioners were collected from 1st August to 31st October 2019 and were evaluated. After evaluation and data analysis we got, patients’ age and gender were not mentioned in 6% prescriptions. Dose and course of treatment were incomplete in 60%, 72%, and 52% of prescriptions respectively. Abbreviations were used in 100% prescriptions. Doctor’s medical registration number was mentioned in 13% prescriptions only. A total of 1042 drugs was prescribed in 300 prescriptions. The average number of drugs prescribed was 3.38±1.79 (Mean±SD). Most of the prescriptions contained a brand name (93.33%) of the drugs whereas only a few (6.7%) used the generic names (P<0.05). Antibiotics and injections were ordained in 64% and 8% cases respectively. Approximately 60% of drugs were prescribed according to the Essential Medicine List (EML) of Bangladesh. Our study has shown that very few physicians are acquainted and follow the WHO standard of prescribing which can lead to seriously negative health consequences. Moreover, the presence of antibiotics in two-third of all prescriptions should ring an alarm to prevent its aberrant use.
Boon and Bane of Transgenic Animal: A Brief Review
Chandan Sarkar1, Sarmin Jamaddar1, Tasniya Nahiyan Zulfiquar1, and Milon Mondal1*
1Department of Pharmacy, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Science and Technology University, Gopalganj-8100, Bangladesh
The progression of biotechnology and genetic engineering to produce transgenic animals by familiarizing the foreign DNA into the germline of an animal has elevated the potential of biological research to an unprecedented level. This technology not only beneficial in human welfare, society, and the environment but also harmful. At present, many transgenic species (goats, chickens, pigs, cows, mice, rabbits, sheep, etc.) are considered for research applications as well as latent profitable pharmaceutical productively. Transgenic animals are applied as the different models for the experiment of different diseases including HIV/AIDS, Alzheimer’s, Cardiovascular, and Diabetes Mellitus, Angiogenesis, and Cancer disease. The main disadvantages of transgenic animals are mutagenesis and function disorders, ecological problems, antibiotic resistance, and population of clones.
Antibacterial Activity of Cissus quadrangularis Stem Extract on the Pathogenic and Industrial Waste Watered Bacteria
Md. Golam Mosaib1*, Md. Abdullah Al Maruf2, Rabiul Islam3, Shahriar Mahmud4, Shaharuq Nahid Sohana4, Md. Abu Sayeed Imran4, Mehadi Hasan Rony4, Maidul Islam5, Fatema Tuz Zuhora6, and Shafiqul Islam6
1Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Gono Bishwabidyalay, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Jahangirnagar University, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 3Divisional DNA Screening Laboratory, Faridpur Medical College Hospital, Ministry of Women & Children Affairs, Faridpur, Bangladesh; 4Dept. of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Islamic University, Bangladesh; 5Apex Biotechnology Laboratory, Dhaka, Bangladesh; and 6Dept. of Microbiology, Gono Bishwabidyalay, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Cissus quadrangularis (Vitaceae) is a popular climber conspicuous by its flesh quadrangular stem widespread throughout Bangladesh. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of C. quadrangularis extracts was studied against selected pathogenic bacteria, industrial wasted bacteria, and broth dilution assay. The most commonly used method of microbiological assay is the disc diffusion method. C. quadrangularis stem extracted with four solvents (Petroleum spirit, methanol, ethyl acetate, and dichloromethane) were tested for antimicrobial activities against some pathogenic microorganisms Sarcina lutea (002-1), Xanthomonas campestris (004-1), Escherichia coli (005-1), Klebsiella pneumonia (006-1) and some industrial (Tannery, Tobacco, and Sugar mill) waste watered bacteria by disc diffusion method. Among the four extracts, ethyl acetate showed moderate antibacterial activity against X. campestris (004-1) and industrial watered bacteria. But, the commercial disc Oxicycline doesn’t show any antibacterial activity against the industrial waste watered bacteria. Petroleum spirit, methanol, and dichloromethane extract were ineffective against all of the tested bacteria.
Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis among Pregnant Women Attending Ante-Natal Care in Kano, Nigeria
Farouk S. Nas1, Abdullahi Yahaya2, Lurwan Muazu3, Shu’aibu N. Halliru4, and Muhammad Ali5*
1Dept. of Biological Sciences, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria; 2Dept. of Biological Sciences, Kano University of Science and Technology, Wudil, Nigeria; 3Dept. of Biological Sciences, Federal University, Gusau, Nigeria; 4Dept. of Biology, Sa’adatu Rimi College of Education, Kano, Nigeria; and 5Dept. of Microbiology, Federal University, Gusau, Nigeria.
*Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org (Muhammad Ali, Dept of Microbiology, Federal University, Nigeria)
Trichomoniasis, caused by the protozoan parasite, Trichomonas vaginalis, is a common but curable sexually transmitted disease affecting millions around the world. The study was aimed to determine the prevalence of T. vaginalis among pregnant women attending ante-natal care at Yan-awaki maternity in Kano, Northern Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was conducted among one hundred and eighty-four (184) pregnant women attending the hospital. A total of 184 High Vaginal Swabs (HVS) were collected the pregnant women with their consent and examined for the presence of T. vaginalis microscopically. From the result, T. vaginalis was detected in 23 out of the 184 samples which accounted for 12.5% of the pregnant women. The pregnant women between the age category 26-30 years had the highest prevalence of 4.34 % while the least prevalence was recorded among pregnant women of age category above 40, though the difference in the prevalence among ages is not significant at p<0.05. On the basis of the gestation period, pregnant women in the first trimester had the highest prevalence than that of second and third trimesters. It is concluded that Trichomoniasis is one of the infections of pregnant women.
Laboratory Based Diagnosis of Bacteraemia among Inpatients and Outpatients with Acute Febrile Illness at Khwaja Yunus Ali Medical College and Hospital in Bangladesh
Mohammad Zakerin Abedin1*, Abdullah Akhtar Ahmed1, Md. Shakhaowat Hossain1, and Md. Babul Aktar1
1Department of Microbiology, School of Biomedical Science, Khwaja Yunus Ali University, Sirajganj, Bangladesh.
*Corresponding author: email@example.com (Mohammad Zakerin Abedin, Assistant Professor & Head, Dept. of Microbiology, Khwaja Yunus Ali University, Bangladesh)
Bacteraemia is one of the important causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacterial strains is a major problem in its management. To encourage the prudent use of appropriate antibiotics in a tertiary care study was undertaken. A total of 282 patients with suspected bacteraemia from indoor and outdoor patients were included in this study. Blood samples were processed in the microbiology laboratory and bacteria were recognized by standard laboratory methods and then antibiotic susceptibility test was performed following CLSI guidelines. Out of a total of 282 blood samples, 55(19.50%) were culture positive. Among 55 positive cultures, Gram-positive Cocci and Gram-negative Bacilli were 48(87.3%) and 7(12.7%) respectively. The most predominant organisms were Staphylococcus aureus comprising 42(76.36%), followed by Salmonella typhi 4(7.30%), E. coli 2(3.63%) and Acinetobacter spp 1(1.81%). Among the isolated Staphylococcus spp, only 6(10.9%) isolates were Coagulase-Negative (CoNS). In antibiotic susceptibility test, all of the isolated bacterial pathogens were found susceptible to imipenem and meropenem (100%). For Salmonella typhi, all 4 isolated strains were found resistant to amoxicillin, amoxicillin+clavulanic acid (amoxyclave) and cephradine and 3 out of 4(75%) were susceptible to ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin. Most of the Gram-positive Cocci (GPC) were susceptible to levofloxacin (90%), ciprofloxacin (85%), and amikacin (83%). Both of E. coli and Acinetobacter spp were sensitive to amikacin (100%). This study stresses the need for continuous screening and surveillance for antibiotic resistance that would influence appropriate empiric treatment and infection control strategies for bacteremic cases.
Assessment on Economic Losses due to Animal Health and Production Constraints in Jimma Town Intensive Dairy Farms, Jimma, Ethiopia
School of Veterinary Medicine, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Jimma University, Ethiopia.
*Correspondence: firstname.lastname@example.org (Dr. Israel Gammada, School of Veterinary Medicine, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Jimma University, Ethiopia)
A single-visit-multiple subject formal survey technique was used to collect data from 75 small-scale dairy farming households which were selected at random and were interviewed using a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire. Seventy-three (97.3%) dairy farming was practiced under an intensive management system. Among the selected dairy farms, only (33.3%) were kept in good hygienic condition. Artificial insemination was common (69.3%) breeding system practiced in most dairy farms of studying area. This study discovered that only a few dairy farms (2.7%) undergo periodic vaccination. It appeared from the study that morbidity loss of animals was primarily caused by mastitis which calculated (42.7%), black leg (32%), lumpy skin disease (21.3%), milk fever (17.3%), heart water (10.7%) and foot rote (5.3%) in order of their decreasing order. The results of this survey revealed that mastitis was ranked as the number one disease of dairy animals while foot rote was list reported disease in the study area. Morbidity loss of production and productivity was estimated to the financial loss of (812,600 birrs) per year. Not only morbidity loss, in some farms, mortality was also common problems of the study area. Mainly common diseases such as heart water (6.7%), milk fever (5.3%), back leg (2.7%), and lumpy skin disease (1.7%) were major causes of mortality in few farms. This in turn estimated the financial loss of (625,000 birrs). Eventually, overall annual financial loss as a result of mortality and morbidity was estimated to be (1,437,600 birrs). The outbreak of lumpy skin disease and blacklegs could be controlled through improving veterinary services with respect to adequate vaccination and heart water (seasonal tick infestation) would be alleviated by spraying. The aim of the study was to assess assessment on economic losses due to animal health and production constraints in Jimma town intensive dairy farms, Jimma, Ethiopia.
An In silico Approach for Structural and Functional Annotation of Uncharacterized Protein Rv0986 present in Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Abu Saim Mohammad Saikat1*, Md. Lutful Kabir1, and Abul Bashar Ripon Khalipha2
1Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Science and Technology University (BSMRSTU), Gopalganj, Bangladesh; 2Dept. of Pharmacy, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Science and Technology University (BSMRSTU), Gopalganj, Bangladesh.
*Correspondence: email@example.com (Abu Saim Mohammad Saikat, Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, BSMRSTU, Gopalganj, Bangladesh
Tuberculosis (TB) is an ancient infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). MTB is a human pathogen. Surprisingly, TB has become the top disease for its death rate worldwide. The uncharacterized protein Rv0986 is closely related to the transporters of the ATP-binding cassette domain, therefore, take part in the export of macrolide as well as a lipoprotein. Furthermore, it is associated with cell division protein. Hence, the protein has a significant role in mycobacterial infection. But, so far, the uncharacterized protein Rv0986 is not elaborated. As a result, in this study, the structural and functional annotation of the protein is described through in silico approach. The predicted tertiary structures of the protein generated by Swiss Model, Modeller, and Phyre2, and documented by the Ramachandran Plot analysis with PROCHECK, Verify 3D, and Swiss-Model Interactive Workplace. Z-score also applied for the overall structural assessment. This study will unleash the importance of the uncharacterized protein present in MTB, therefore, it provides an opportunity for drug and vaccine targeting against infection by MTB.
Enumeration of the Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Different Bacterial Isolates from ENT Patients with Ear Infections
Mohammad Zakerin Abedin1*, Farida Yeasmin2, Mohammad Omar Faruque3, Laila Jarin4, Rehnuma Nasim5, Md Babul Aktar1, Rubait Hasan6, Md. Sifat Uz Zaman7, Md. Abdus Sabur Miah1, Md. Khairujjaman8, and Abdullah Akhtar Ahmed1
1Dept. of Microbiology, Khwaja Yunus Ali University, Bangladesh; 2Faculty of Basic Medical and Pharmaceutical Science, University of Science and Technology Chittagong; 3Dept. of Endocrinology, Mugda Medical College, Bangladesh; 4Dept. of Microbiology, LabAid Medical Centre Ltd, Bangladesh; 5Dept. of Hematology, National Institute of Cancer Research & Hospital, Bangladesh; 6Dept. of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Khwaja Yunus Ali University, Bangladesh; 7Dept. of Microbiology, Popular Diagnostic Centre Ltd, Bangladesh; 8Dept. of Geography and Environment, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
*Correspondence: firstname.lastname@example.org (Mohammad Zakerin Abedin, Assistant Professor and Head, Dept. of Microbiology, Khwaja Yunus Ali University, Bangladesh).
Children are more susceptible to ear infection than adults worldwide, especially in developing countries. In Bangladesh like other developing countries antibiotics is a common choice of treatment in an ear infection. This study was sought to determine causative agents both in right and left ear infection and their antibacterial susceptibility pattern from patients with an ear infection. Specimens of ear discharge were collected aseptically using a sterile swab and cultured on MacConkey’s agar, blood agar, and chocolate agar. After inoculating on appropriate culture media bacterial isolates were identified by their colony morphology, culture characteristics, Gram reaction, and biochemical tests. In this study, a total of 70 positive cases of patients were included. Among these 27 (38.6%) were male, and 43(61.4%) were female. The prevalence of ear infection was significantly high in females (61.4%) than males (38.6%). The predominant bacterial isolates from positive culture were Staphylococcus aureus 43(61.4%), followed by Pseudomonas spp., 13 (18.6%), Streptococcus spp., 8(11.4%), Proteus spp., 5(7.2%), and Klebsiella spp., 1(1.4%). The antibacterial agent like Amikacin and Gentamicin showed a high level of antibacterial effect on all identified bacterial isolates. On the other hand, 98.6% of isolates were found highly resistant to Co-Trimoxazole and Flucloxacillin. Moreover, Streptococcus spp., Proteus spp., Klebsiella spp., and Pseudomonas spp., were highly resistant to multiple drugs (more than 4). A high degree of antibiotic resistance was observed among most of the drugs used in this study. However, Amikacin and Gentamicin were highly effective against the isolated bacterial species. Therefore, culture and susceptibility tests are vital for the appropriate treatment of ear infection.
Child Marriage in Rural Bangladesh and Its Consequences on Reproductive and Maternal Health: An Empirical Study
Samira Salam1* and Bipasha Aktar2
1Department of Basic Science, Primeasia University, Banani, Dhaka, Bangladesh; and 2Department of Statistics, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
*Correspondence: email@example.com (Samira Salam, Lecturer, Department of Basic Science, Primeasia University, Banani, Dhaka, Bangladesh).
Despite the high prevalence of child marriage in Bangladesh and the potential adverse effects of child marriage on reproductive and maternal health outcomes, there is relatively little empirical evidence available on this issue, which has impeded efforts to stop child marriage and to initiate improved and effective adolescent health programs. The purpose of this study is to determine the causes of child marriage and its consequences on the reproductive and maternal health of child brides in Bangladesh. Data for the study came from a cross-sectional sample survey and the ultimate sampling units were selected by using a three-stage cluster sampling technique. The results of the study suggest that the dominant driving factors for child marriage are: poverty, lack of education, social and cultural norms, ensuring daughters’ financial security, protection of daughters from sexual harassment and unwelcome sexual advances. There are serious consequences of child marriage on adolescents’ health. It truncates a girl’s childhood, gives rise to severe physical and psychological risks on health, and takes her from internationally accepted human rights. The difference between mean years of marriage and first birth interval indicates that Bangladeshi adolescents hurry to initiate childbearing. They are at high risk of reproductive health. Most of them suffered from various maternal health problems such as gynecological problems before pregnancy, complications during pregnancy, at the time of delivery, and after delivery due to the absence of proper maturity. Child marriage enlarges boundary of vulnerability to adolescents that leads to poor fertility control and fertility-related outcomes, and poor maternal health care issues.
Exploration of the Antimicrobial Resistance and Their Remedy in Living World: A Brief Study
Md. Ashiqur Rahamn1*, Bushra Rahman2, Tanvir Ahammed3, and Imdadul Haque Sharif4
1Dept. of Pharmacy, ASA University Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences North South University, Bangladesh; 3Dept. of Microbiology and Hygiene, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Bangladesh; and 4Dept. of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Science & Technology University, Gopalganj, Bangladesh.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) alarms the effective control and treatment of growing infections of bacterial, parasitic, viral, and fungal infections. This report, for the initial stage, examines the current state of monitoring and information regarding AMR at the global country level, particularly antibacterial resistance (ABR). The main research and public health effects of ABR; high rates of resistance to bacteria causing common health-care-related and community-acquired infections (e.g., urinary tract infections, pneumonia) have been perceived in all WHO areas. There are significant gaps in monitoring and a lack of criteria for methods, data splitting, and coordination. The key findings from AMR scrutiny in disease-specific programs are as; while multidrug-resistant TB is an enlarging concern, it has been reported in most cases blank, compromising control efforts. Artemisinin resistance foci in malaria have been picked out in several countries. Further spread or emergence of artemisinin-resistant strains in other regions could jeopardize recent attains in malaria prevention.
Microbiological Screening and Antimicrobial Sensitivity Profiling of Wound Infections in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Bangladesh
Abdullah Akhtar Ahmed1&2, Nusrat Akhtar Juyee3, S.M. Ali. Hasan4, and Mohammad Zakerin Abedin1*
1Dept. of Microbiology, Khwaja Yunus Ali University, Sirajganj, Bangladesh; 2Dept. of Microbiology, Khwaja Yunus Ali Medical College, Sirajganj, Bangladesh; 3Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh; and 4Dept. of Gastroenterology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
*Correspondence: firstname.lastname@example.org (Mohammad Zakerin Abedin, Assistant Professor and Head, Dept. of Microbiology, Khwaja Yunus Ali University, Sirajganj, Bangladesh).
Wound infection is a major problem in hospitals in developing countries. Wound infection causes morbidity and prolonged hospital stay thus this prospective study was conducted for a period of seven months (January 2019 to July 2019). A total of 217 specimens (wound swabs and pus exudates) from wound infected patients in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Bangladesh. A retrospective study of the microbiological evaluation was done by cultural growth as well as Gram staining and biochemical examination to identify the bacterial isolates. Finally, the antimicrobial vulnerability testing was performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion conventional method. A total of 295 samples were tested. Out of which 217 (73.5%) were found culture positive. E. coli was the most predominant gram-negative isolates whereas Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus were the most commonly isolated gram-positive organisms. Antimicrobial sensitivity profile of bacterial isolates revealed imipenem, meropenem, amikacin, and nitrofurantoin to be the most effective antimicrobials against gram-negative isolates, whereas imipenem, meropenem, amikacin, nitrofurantoin, amoxiclav, and gentamicin were the most effective drugs against gram-positive isolates. The result of this examination contributes to the identification of basic causative microbes involved in wound infection and findings of antibiotic susceptibility patterns can be helpful for primary care physicians to optimize the treatment modalities, articulate policies for empiric antimicrobial therapy, and to minimize the rate of infection among wound infected patients.
Prevalence of Subclinical Mastitis among Small Ruminants and Isolation of Some Etiological Bacterial Pathogens in Jimma Town, Ethiopia
Wakgari Abirham Hayle1*, Rokeya Ahmed2, and Md. Ekhlas Uddin3
1College Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, University of Gondar, Ethiopia; 2Dept. of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Gono Bishwabidyalay, Dhaka, Bangladesh; and 3Dept. of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Gono Bishwabidyalay, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Subclinical mastitis in small ruminants is of concern due to the animal welfare, economic, public health, productivity, and livelihood impacts that it may pose. A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2017 to April 2018 in and around Jimma town, Southwest, Ethiopia; to estimate the prevalence of subclinical mastitis, to isolate bacterial pathogens responsible for the occurrence of subclinical mastitis, and to identify risk factors associated with the development of subclinical mastitis in small ruminants. Milk samples were collected from 186 apparently healthy lactating small ruminants, tested on the field with the California Mastitis Test, and samples tested positive were subjected to bacteriological examinations. Out of 372 milk samples collected, 92(24.8%) samples from 70 animals were positive by the California Mastitis Test and these were cultured on different media. Through bacteriological examinations, six isolates of bacteria were identified which include; S. aureus (8.1%), S. epidermidis (10.2%), S. intermidus (2.2%), S. hyicus (1.6%), S. agalactiae (3.2%), and E. coli (12.4%). The highest prevalence of subclinical mastitis recorded was due to Staphylococcus species (22%) followed by E. coli (12.4%) and the least prevalence was due to S. agalactiae (3.2%). The overall prevalence of subclinical mastitis among small ruminants was 37.6%. Age and parity number variations among small ruminants were found important in influencing the prevalence in statistically significant (P = 0.00) extents. The highest prevalence of subclinical mastitis was recorded in old (24.7%) and in small ruminants having >5 parity numbers (24.7%). The high prevalence of small ruminant subclinical mastitis in the study area suggests that intervention strategies their-goal-being prevention and control of subclinical mastitis should be designed; so as to improve the welfare of animals, to save people consuming the milk of small ruminants from zoonotic risks, and to harvest the diverse benefits that may be generated from small ruminant production.
Exploring Socio-Economic Impact of Dengue Fever in Dhaka City: A Statistical Modeling Approach
Mohammad Ahsan Uddin*
Department of Statistics, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
*Correspondence: email@example.com (Mohammad Ahsan Uddin, Associate Professor, Department of Statistics, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh).
There was a sudden increase in dengue affected people in Dhaka city during 2018 and 2019, considering the seriousness of the disease, this study attempted to investigate the socio-economic impact of dengue fever instead of its biological significance. The study considered a primary dataset of 235 affected and 235 unaffected participants from Dhaka city. The impact of dengue infection on the monthly expenditure of the patient was determined by the multiple linear regression models. The impact of Dengue on the human productivity of the respondents was assessed by another multiple linear regression model; the dependent variable absence (number of days absent from work) was applied as a proxy for measuring the productivity of the patient. Moreover, an important objective was to find out potential determinants of dengue in Dhaka city. Binary logistic regression applied for detecting the factors which were responsible for occurring dengue disease. The study found no significant association of family cost with dengue incidence but the loss of productivity turned out as statistically significant. People who lived alone were identified to experience the disease more, which might occur due to their insincerity about this disease. So, living alone persons need to increase their consciousness considering the seriousness of this disease. It was highly recommended by respondents to use mosquito repellent and net during sleeping, changing the water regularly from plant container, providing regular mosquito spray, and developing a drainage system in Dhaka city.
Assessment of Depression among Musculoskeletal Fracture Patients in a Tertiary Referral Hospital in Bangladesh
Koushik Roy1, Selim Hossain1, Md. Abdul Awal Lilon1, Nasima Yasmin1, Susmita Sarkar1, Krishna Roy2, Abdul Haque3, Mahbub jobayer4, Banossree Saha4, and Ropak Chandra Roy1*
1Department of Physiotherapy, Gono Bishwabidyalay, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2Department of Psychiatry, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 3Cumilla Medical College Hospital, Cumilla, Bangladesh; 4Gonoshasthya Samaj Vittik Medical College Hospital, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
*Correspondence: firstname.lastname@example.org (Ropak Chandra Roy, Lecturer, Dept. of Physiotherapy, Gono Bishwabidyalay, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh).
Psychological therapy is very important in musculoskeletal fracture patients for mental support. The study was conducted National Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedic Rehabilitation (NITOR), Dhaka. 102 participate in this study. Patients with a musculoskeletal disorder are commonly treated by physical therapists; it influences clinically relevant outcomes such as pain and disability but not influence a treated psychological disorder. Psychological therapy is very important relatively to treat of physical therapy. It found that the severity of injury moderate 20%, serious 2.4%, severe 77.1% depression on musculoskeletal fracture, he/she feel sad 41.0%, sad all the time 44.0%, so sad 14.5%, Indicates minimal depression 1.2%, mild depression 12%, moderate depression 81.9%, severe depression 4.8%. It is found that the mean depressed mood of the respondent’s sadness 94.0%, frequent weeping 6.0%, in agitation occasional 7.2%, frequent 92.8%, anxiety no difficulty 1.2%, tension irritability 89.2%, fear 9.6% depression on musculoskeletal fracture. So that the Musculoskeletal fracture in our country is more vulnerable and mental health is not so good.
Phytochemical Screening and Bioactivity Determination of Ethyl Acetate and Methanolic Extracts of Leaf and Bark of the Plant Nyctanthes arbortristis L.
Saduddin Talukder1, Mohammad Sarowar Uddin1, Mahmuda Ferdous1, and Prodip Kumar Baral1*
1Department of Pharmacy, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Noakhali-3814, Bangladesh.
The present study targeted to evaluate the phytoconstituents of Nyctanthes arbortristis Linn., and its biological activity. By solvent extraction procedure, a total of four extracts were designated from the leaf and bark of the plant using two solvents (leaf extract in ethyl acetate and methanol: NALE & NALM; bark extract in ethyl acetate and methanol: NABE & NABM). Phytochemical screening was conducted by qualitative analysis and thin-layer chromatography. Parallelly, antioxidant property (by DPPH free radical scavenging method) and antimicrobial activity (by disk diffusion method) were also investigated to determine bioactivity. The presence of alkaloids and glycosides was detected by qualitative phytochemical assay of the extracts. Furthermore, TLC successfully observed the versatility of the compound's presence, such as phenolic compounds, different alkaloids, and glycosides. In DPPH assay, methanolic extracts are highly capable of scavenging the radicals than the ethyl acetate extracts. Surprisingly, IC50 for NABM (1.69 µg/ml) is less than ascorbic acid (3.58µg/ml), which is an exploration of excellent antioxidant potential of the plant. But any extracts showed no positive result in the antimicrobial test against gram-positive or gram-negative bacteria, even against yeast.
Study on Awareness, Knowledge and Practice of Breast Screening Methods among the Female Students of Bangladesh University of Health Sciences
Seejal Shah1, Sohel Rana1, Tanzila Parvin2*, SM Muraduzzaman2, and Mushtaque Ahmed Jalali3
1Department of Radiology & Imaging Technology, Bangladesh University of Health Sciences (BUHS), Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2Department of Biomedical Engineering & Medical Physics, Bangladesh University of Health Sciences (BUHS), Dhaka, Bangladesh; and 3National instituted of Cancer Research Hospital (NICRH), Dhaka, Bangladesh.
*Correspondence: email@example.com (Tanzila Parvin, Assistant Professor, Department of Biomedical Engineering & Medical Physics, BUHS, Dhaka, Bangladesh).
At the present time, Breast cancer (BC) is spreading in an uncontrolled way, both in developed and developing countries. The main reason behind the deaths occurred by BC is that women with BC are mainly diagnosed in late stages due to a lack of awareness of early detection and barriers to health services. The aim of this study was to find out the knowledge, awareness about BC, diagnosis, and screening of BC, mammography, and practice of breast self-examination. After taking verbal consent, 90 female students of age above 18 years from BUHS were interviewed using a pretested self-administered questionnaire. Most of the respondent of this study were unmarried (60%) and 65.6% had experienced menarche at the age of 14 years. Among 90 respondents 93.3% had ever heard of BC and 66.7% of any screening methods of breast screening. BSE procedure was known to 45.1% but only 33.3% actually performed BSE. Regarding mammography, only 52.2% had ever heard of mammography and only 42.2% knew the correct purpose of a mammogram. According to 60.97% of the respondent, a woman should start to examine her breasts after marriage as 85.37% of respondents mentioned feeling discomfort to share such issues for not going for breast screening. Among 90 respondents, 18.9% had ever felt any kind of abnormalities like lymph. From the results of this study, it had been shown that there is a need for educating not only young females of University but also all aged women on large scale about BC to improve their knowledge level and awareness regarding myths about BC and increase their practice of early screening methods. Moreover, their confidentiality should be increased to talk about their issues regarding breasts as well as they should be known about BSE for early detection of BC or any abnormalities by themselves.
Causes and Complications of Cesarean Section Delivery among Women in Cox’s Bazaar, Bangladesh
Zaziratul Zannat1*, Zamiatul Zannath2, Md. Raisul Islam3, Nazmul Alam1, and Mohammad Manir Hossain Mollah4
1Dept. of Public Health, Asian University for Women, Chittagong, Bangladesh; 2Dept. of Laws, National Law College, Chittagong, Bangladesh & Department of HRM, Cox’s Bazaar International University, Cox’s Bazaar, Bangladesh; 3Dept. of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, Chittagong University of Engineering and Technology (CUET), Chittagong, Bangladesh; 4Dept. of Bioinformatics and Public Health, Asian University for Women, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
Unnecessary cesarean section (CS) delivery is a major problem in Bangladesh and it is draining resources from both supply and demand sides. Many women do their cesarean delivery because of indicated causes in pregnancy, fear of unbearable labor pain, thinking about the safety of child, etc. which leads to many unwanted complications. The aim of this research was to investigate the causes and preferences of cesarean delivery and to characterize the outcomes after cesarean section delivery. This cross-sectional study was conducted by using a semi-structured questionnaire among women who delivered in selected hospitals in Cox’s Bazaar, Bangladesh. The total sample size number was 273 women with a mean age of 26.72 years. In this study the key reasons found for doing CS delivery were mother’s age, occupation, higher education, previous cesarean, doctor’s recommendation, fear of normal delivery and concern about baby’s health. Results showed that 48.7% women faced complications and 50.3% participants didn’t face any complication after CS delivery. The most frequent complications were pus, 22% and obesity,13.9% among the participants and breakdown of membrane, 28.2%, excess bleeding, 19.4% extreme pain, 19% and prolonged labor, 18.3% were found as the main causes indicated by the doctors for cesarean delivery. The prevalence of CS found much higher than the anticipation of WHO. The Causes of cesarean delivery lead to the complications with various factors which effects women health directly and indirectly. It is necessary to reduce the rate by making the mothers aware of the risks of cesarean delivery and providing training workshops as well to overcome the fear of normal delivery.