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African Journal of Engineering and Environment Research (AJOEER)

Journal Papers (16) Details Call for Paper Manuscript submission Publication Ethics Contact Authors' Guide Line
1 The Influence of Rescheduled-Overhaul in determining the number of Gas turbine Usage in Natural Gas Pipeline Transportation Network , Aziaka D. S1*; Le-ol A. K2; Pilidis P3.
Gas turbines are an integral part of the supply of natural gas in many parts of the world. In compressor stations, they are used for transporting gas from producing wells to consumers and across extensive networks of pipelines. This paper present how rescheduling of gas turbine overhaul from the baseline condition amid degradation influences the number of the gas turbine to be used in a compressor station without altering the original pipeline design for the desired amount of gas delivery. Eighteen compressor stations with gas turbine engines as the driver to the gas compressor have been investigated. The selected engines models were developed based on public domain specification, using an in-house engine performance simulation software: TURBOMATCH. Three seasons (rainy, dry and hot seasons) were considered in this paper based on the location of Trans-Saharan gas pipeline being investigated. Compressor and turbine were degraded (fouled) as a single type of degradation producing three performance scenarios (optimistic, medium and pessimistic). These scenarios define the levels of deterioration of the gas turbine in comparison with the clean conditions. The baseline case indicated that at a controlled TET, the number of GT used in each compressor station increases with increase in degradation (reduction in flow capacity and isentropic efficiency) which result to a variation in the number of engines per station. The result revealed that the implementation of rescheduled-overhaul on the engines reduces the number of Gas turbine usage at the same degraded and ambient condition of the baseline case. The further result indicated that the optimistic, medium and pessimistic scenarios that used 99, 106 and 120 number of engines for the 18 compression stations at baseline condition reduces to 91, 104 and 115 respectively when rescheduled overhaul was implemented for the same amount of gas to be delivered and at the same operating conditions. The proposed approach will enhance engine life-extension strategies that engine life-cycle managers, or natural gas pipeline investors may adopt to cost-effectively manage their engines while ensuring reliability and safety on the pipeline business. Keywords: Turbine Entry Temperature, Gas Compressor, TURBOMATCH, Natural gas, Degradation    
2 An Assessment of the Causes of Wellbore Instability and Stuck Pipe Occurrences in an Offshore Field, Niger Delta, Nigeria , Mode Ayonma W., Onuigbo Chukwuka, Anyiam Okwudiri, Eradiri J. N., Okeugo Chukwudike, and Umeadi Ijeoma  
Wellbore instability and consequential stuck pipe issues are a common challenge associated with offshore drilling. Usually, the effect of wellbore instability is an increase in non-productive time, possible loss of tools and costly drilling operations. Hence, there is a need for wellbore stability analyses before and during drilling operations. In “Agaza Field”, offshore Niger Delta, wellbore instability problems were encountered at various depths between 3,696-4,270 ft.; 5,000-5,425 ft. and 7,600-8000 ft. intervals. Sixty-five ditch-cutting samples and composite log plots obtained from both wells were and analyzed to determine the clay swelling potential and the cationic exchange between the formation and the drilling fluid as well as causes of formation instability. Agaza-1 well showed evidence of tight hole at intervals between 4,200 and 7,600 ft. In Agaza-2, there were indications of wellbore stresses from 1,908 ft. to 2,030 ft. However, deeper than 4,225ft depth, high fluctuation of pore pressure coincided with wellbore instability between 4,810 ft. and 5,200 ft. The principal clay minerals present within the formations are Illite, Smectite and Smectite/Illite interlayered types. Result of the cation exchange analysis showed that high concentration of calcium and sodium in the shale is responsible for high dissociation of the constituent minerals hence making the shales unstable. Analysis has shown that samples at some intervals from both wells are associated with high swelling potential while average cation exchange value is 40 meq/100g. Therefore, the primary cause of wellbore instability and stuck pipe within the studied intervals are attributed to high swelling and reactivity over time due to fluid-formation interaction.   Keywords: Clay cationic exchange, Clay swelling potential, Offshore drilling challenges, Reactive shales.  
3 The Inhibition Performance of Mono-Ethylene Glycol on Corrosion Rate of X-80 Grade Carbon Steel in Saturated Brine Environment.   , Ikeh, L and Dune, K.K  
The formation/deposition of hydrate and scale in gas production and transportation pipeline has continue to be a major challenge in the oil and gas industry. Pipeline transport is one of the most efficient, reliable and safer means of transporting petroleum products from the well sites to either the refineries or to the final destinations. Acetic acid (HAc), is formed in the formation water which also present in oil and gas production and transportation processes. Acetic acid aids corrosion in pipelines and in turn aids the formation and deposition of scales which may eventually choke off flow. Most times, Monethylene Glycol (MEG) is added into the pipeline as an antifreeze and anticorrosion agent. Some laboratory experiments have shown that the MEG needs to be separated from unwanted substance such as HAc that are present in the formation water to avoid critical conditions in the pipeline. Internal pipeline corrosion slows and decreases the production of oil and gas when associated with free water and reacts with CO2 and organic acid by lowering the integrity of the pipe. In this study, the effect of Mono-Ethylene Glycol (MEG) and Acetic acid (HAc) on the corrosion rate of X-80 grade carbon steel in CO2 saturated brine were evaluated at 25oC and 80oC using 3.5% NaCl solution in a semi-circulation flow loop set up. Weight loss and electrochemical measurements using the linear polarization resistance (LPR) and electrochemical impedance spectroscope (EIS) were used in measuring the corrosion rate as a function of HAc and MEG concentrations. The results obtained so far shows an average corrosion rate increases from 0.5 to 1.8 mm/yr at 25oC, and from 1.2 to 3.5 mm/yr at 80oC in the presence of HAc. However, there are decrease in corrosion rate from 1.8 to 0.95 mm/yr and from 3.5 to 1.6mm/yr respectively at 25oC and 80oC on addition of 20% and 80%  MEG concentrations to the solution. It is also noted that the charge transfer with the electrochemical measurements (EIS) results is the main corrosion controlling mechanism under the test conditions. The higher temperature led to faster film dissolution and higher corrosion rate in the presence of HAc. The EIS results also indicate that the charge transfer controlled behaviour was as a result of iron carbonate layer accelerated by the addition of different concentrations of MEG to the system.   Key words: CO2 corrosion, Carbon steel, MEG, HAc, Inhibition, Environment.  
4 Wear analysis of CNT-AL Nanocomposites using surface response method   , Umma Abdullahi, M.A. Maleque, M.Y. Ali and I.I. Yaacob 
Carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced aluminium (Al) nano-composites were produced using powder metallurgy route with different weight percent of CNT in to the Al matrix. The wear behaviour of CNT-Al nano-composite  was studied using a pin-on-disc tribometer against AISI4340 steel disc. Experiments were conducted using different sliding velocities of 0.5, 0.65 and 0.8 m/s and a normal load of 5, 7.5 and 10 N. Design Expert (DOE) version 6.0.8 was used to optimize the process variable for wear and friction test of the developed CNT-Al nano-composite using face centered central composite design based on response surface methodology and confirmed that 1.5 wt% was the optimum CNT-Al nano-composite formulations. The result showed that higher hardness value of the material showed a lesser wear rate and better wear resistance. The result showed that the wear rate of the developed nano-composite decreased with the increasing of CNT content but up to 1.5 wt% CNT into the nano-composite. The wear rate values varied from 2-0.6 x10-3 mm3/m (2, 0.2, 0.17. 0.3 and 0.6 mm3/m x10-3 for 0 wt%, 1 wt%, 1.5 wt%, 2 wt% and 2.5 wt% CNT respectively). These results also showed that the rate of wear decreases with the increase in normal load and sliding speed. DOE confirm the accuracy of the experimental result for the evaluation of the developed CNT-Al nano-composite.   Keywords: Wear testing, Sliding wear, Wear modelling, Metal-matrix composite and CNT-Al nano-composite  
5 Evaluating the Effect of Mud Rheology and Cuttings Size on Cuttings Transportation in Vertical Wells   , Chukwu A. Godwin,  Kpea-ue Marvin Lezor, Kinate Bright  
As drilling optimization becomes the major concern of the drilling engineer and the mud specialist, there is therefore need to properly evaluate key success factors that ultimately affects the success of drilling operations. This research work examined the effects of fluid rheology and cuttings size on cuttings transportation in vertical wells. To achieve that, an experiment was conducted on two samples of fresh oil-based mud (A and B) of different rheology and two drilled cuttings sample (A and B) of sizes 400µm and 1000µm obtained from Anieze North field after sieve analysis. The drilled cuttings samples(A and B) were comingled with the mud(A and B) and their rheology (viscosity, density, plastic viscosity, yield point and gel strength) and cuttings transport parameters (slip velocity, transport velocity, transport ratio and transport efficiency) were checked at different temperatures. The cuttings transport parameters generated with the test models (Moore, Chien et al, and Zeidler) reveal that drilled cuttings of smaller size are easily transported than those of larger size. It was also observed that temperature has remarkable effects on rheology and slip velocity. Hence, slip velocity increases with temperature, while rheological values decrease with temperature. As a recommendation arising from the results of this investigation, a lower cuttings size should be ensured in a low viscous fluid for an efficient hole-cleaning. Apart from the aforementioned factors for efficient transportation of drilled cuttings, drilling bit configuration which is major determinant of the size of cuttings should be properly examined before selection for any drilling operation.   Keywords: Cuttings Size, Cuttings Transport, Mud Rheology, Slip Velocity, Temperature
6 Developing an Integrated Nuclear Waste Management Strategy on Aggregate Orphan Source Radioactive Materials in the Oil and Gas Sector.   , Neeka, J.B, Gabriel, O.E, Doosu, P.N. and Chizoba, O.F  
Orphan sourced radioactive waste materials associated with oil and gas exploration, exploitation and production have been identified as causal factors in environmental health risks of operation personnel and the host communities in the Niger Delta. These Technologically Enhanced Radionuclides such as 14C, 40K, 87Rb, 232Th, 288U and some low frequency radioactive heavy metals constitute potential dangers to environmental health assay. Highly Sensitive Radiation Detection Tracers (HSRDT) were deployed for tracking and analysis of ionized leakages in the coastal marine offshore and shallow offshore areas in in a typical deltaic region.  The inverse determination technique of the generalized half-life period was integrated into the model equations 1 – 12. Table 1 is a survey from 1992 t0 2015, showing that some identified radionuclides are reactive and contaminants to the surrounding environment from oil and gas processes. However, inadequate strategic decommissioning activities are responsible for severe occupational and environmental hazards to flora and fauna. This paper is fundamental to developing an integrated orphan waste management system as remedial techniques to minimize radiation waste burns and other harmful environmental effects on personnel and the environment. Its application is useful for decision-making on radioactive waste material management strategy. Furthermore, possible conceptual legal framework and standards for the disposal system of orphan sourced radionuclides in the petroleum sector could be explored.   Keywords: Radioactive Waste Materials; Aggregate Orphan–Sourced Radionuclides; Environment Management; Waste Disposal Systems; Oil and Gas Sector etc.
7 Experimental Production of Biofuel using Lactose as an Enhancer to Aspergillus Niger and Saccharomyces Cerevisae   , M. N. Idris and M. M. Usman  
Nigeria is a rich nation in natural resources, which includes source of biofuel such as sweet potato starch etc. This starch can be converted to sugar through hydrolysis process in other to yield ethanol (biofuel). In this research work, the sweet potato peels was selected as a substrate for bioethanol production in the process, as it is rich in starch and cellulose. In this study, 5g, 10g, 15g, 20g and 25g each was weighed lactose and added to the Aspergillus Niger and Saccharomyces Cerevisae, the highest yield recorded when 20g of lactose was introduced. This achievement was observed after seven days, and the concentration of 91 ppm was highest for the sample containing 25g of lactose. The study also revealed that when lactose was added to fermentation medium together with  enzyme Aspergillus Niger, the results obtained show that the 20g lactose represent a highest yield of biofuel production. In summary, the increase and subsequent decrease in pH and specific gravity of each fermented sample indicated that the reaction (fermentation) was actually occurred, that is, the conversion of the substrate to products as well as the release of CO2 as the by-product took place.   Keywords: Aspergillus Niger, biofuel, starch and cellulose
8 Dilute Caustic and Water Comparisons as Solvents in the Removal of Acidic Gases from Combustion exhaust Stream of a Boiler. , Harry-Ngei, N. and Edward, P. A
This work focused on the comparative analyses between the use of dilute caustic with a composition of 1.84% and using water alone (pH=7) that have the potential to remove SO2 completely from the exhaust flue gas of a combustion system and H2S in the incomplete reaction scenario. Two reaction pathways were utilized for the study, the complete combustion pathway as well as the incomplete combustion pathway. ASPEN HYSYS 8.6, a process simulation software, was used to simulate conditions with PENG-ROBINSON utilized as the vapour-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data prediction tool of the software. For the complete combustion pathway, a complete removal of SO2 was achieved using caustic while with the same conditions, utilizing water as solvent achieved a reduction of 90%. For the incomplete combustion pathway, using caustic gave about 53% removal efficiency for H2S while the water only showed a poor 16% increase of H2S. The study recommended the use of the dilute caustic for the following reasons; it gave a better removal percentage than using water alone, the use of the caustic will not contribute to caustic corrosion because of the low composition of the dilute caustic that will be used in the absorber, the choice of the caustic was also observed to be economical. Keywords: Caustic, Absorption, Emission, Simulation, Combustion, Solvents.
9 Prediction of Condensate Banking with Relative Permeability To Oil – Gas And Saturation In A Gas Condensate Reservoir. , Minimah, M. D, Ifeanyi, S. N, and Bright B. K
Gas condensate fields are quite lucrative fields because of the highly economic value of condensates. However, the development of these fields is often difficult due to retrograde condensation resulting to condensate banking in the immediate vicinity of the wellbore. In many cases, adequate characterization and prediction of condensate banks are often difficult leading to poor technical decisions in the management of such fields. This study will present a simulation performed with Eclipse300 compositional simulator on a gas condensate reservoir with three case study wells- a gas injector (INJ1) and two producers (PROD1 and PROD2) to predict condensate banking. Rock and fluid properties at laboratory condition were simulated to reservoir conditions and a comparative method of analysis was used to efficiently diagnose the presence of condensate banks in the affected grid-blocks. Relative Permeability to Condensate and gas and saturation curves shows condensate banks region. The result shows that PROD2 was greatly affected by condensate banking while PROD1 remained unaffected during the investigation. Other factors were analyzed and the results reveal that the nature and composition of condensates can significantly affect condensate banking in the immediate vicinity of the wellbore. Also, it was observed that efficient production from condensate reservoir requires the pressure to be kept above dew point pressure so as to minimize the effect and the tendency of retrograde condensation.   Keywords: Condensate Banking, Phase Production, Relative Permeability, Relative Saturation, Retrograde Condensation
10 Geochemical and Geostatistical Assessment of Cretaceous Coals and Shales in some Nigerian Sedimentary Basins for their Hydrocarbon Proness and Maturity levels. , Obaje, N. G. , Adamu, L. M., Umar, U. M. , Umaru, A. O., and Okafor P, N.
The Rock–Eval pyrolysis and LECO analysis for 9 shale and 12 coal samples, as well as, geostatistical analysis have been used to investigate source rock characteristics, correlation between the assessed parameters (QI, BI, S1, S2, S3, HI, S1 + S2, OI, PI, TOC) and the impact of changes in the Tmax on the assessed parameters in the Cretaceous Sokoto, Anambra Basins and Middle Benue Trough of northwestern, southeastern and northcentral Nigeria respectively. The geochemical results point that about 97% of the samples have TOC values greater than the minimum limit value (0.5 wt %) required to induce hydrocarbon generation from source rocks. Meanwhile, the Dukamaje and Taloka shales and Lafia/Obi coal are found to be fair to good source rock for oil generation with slightly higher thermal maturation. The source rocks are generally immature through sub-mature to marginal mature with respect to the oil and gas window, while the potential source rocks from the Anambra Basin are generally sub-mature grading to mature within the oil window. The analyzed data were approached statistically to find some relations such as factors, and clusters concerning the examination of the source rocks. These factors were categorized into type of organic matter and organic richness, thermal maturity and hydrocarbon potency. In addendum, cluster analysis separated the source rocks in the study area into two groups. The source rocks characterized by HI >240 (mg/g), TOC from 58.89 to 66.43 wt %, S1 from 2.01 to 2.54 (mg/g) and S2 from 148.94 to 162.52 (mg/g) indicating good to excellent source rocks with kerogen of type II and type III and are capable of generating oil and gas. Followed by the Source rocks characterized by HI <240 (mg/g), TOC from 0.94 to 36.12 wt%, S1 from 0.14 to 0.72 (mg/g) and S2 from 0.14 to 20.38 (mg/g) indicating poor to good source rocks with kerogen of type III and are capable of generating gas. Howeverr, Pearson’s correlation coefficient and linear regression analysis shows a significant positive correlation between TOC and S1, S2 and HI and no correlation between TOC and Tmax, highly negative correlation between TOC and OI and no correlation between Tmax and HI.   Keywords- Cretaceous, Geochemical, Statistical, Cluster, Factor analyses.
11 Use of Sugarcane Rind Activated Carbon For Removal Of Organic Content In Wastewater. , Nyam, T.T.; Nwosibe, P.O.; Atiwurcha, N. I and Okechukwu, J. O
In this study, activated carbon produced from sugarcane rind was used to treat synthesized wastewater for the removal of formaldehyde. The prepared precursor was impregnated with ZnCl2 before carbonization at 300℃ for 30 minutes. Proximate analysis of the produced activated carbon showed that it had a moisture content of 15.3 %, ash content of 5 %, and fixed carbon of 69.7 % amongst others. While BET analysis revealed the activated carbon has a surface area of 328.87 m2 and a pore diameter of 2.840e+00 nm. When used in batch process treatment of wastewater the activated carbon showed an 18 – 25 % adsorption efficiency in removal of formaldehyde from the wastewater. This shows that this sugarcane rind hitherto considered as waste and a pollutant has values to be explored.   Keywords: Activated carbon, Formaldehyde, organic content, wastewater, Sugarcane peels, Sugarcane Rind etc.
12 Adsorption Study of Particle Sizes of Maiganga Coal. , Umar, A. , Muhammad, I.M. , Funtua, M.A. and Mohammed, H.Y.
The main purpose of this work is to carry out adsorption study of different particle sizes of Activated Maiganga Coal. Activated carbon was produced from five different particle sizes of 63 μm, 300 μm, 425 μm, 600 μm and 2.0 mm from coal using potassium hydroxide as an activating agent. Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption kinetics as well as some quality parameters were studied for the produced activated carbon. These quality parameters were evaluated for the five different samples. With the gradual increase in PH values from 5.7 to 8.3, a corresponding decrease in uptake has been observed as a result of deprotonation of the adsorbent surface. The ash content was found to increases as the particle sizes increases. The n values which reflects the intensity of adsorption decreased from 0.573 to 0.061. The K values (Freundlich constant) present the opposite trend which increased from 69.984 to 163.682. The magnitude of Qo which indicates the amount of phosphate per unit weight of the adsorbent to form a complete monolayer on the surface also increased from 0.05 to 0.50. This work shows that, the finer the particle size of activated carbon, the greater the adsorption capabilities. Keywords: Activated Carbon, adsorption, Coal, Freundlich, Langmuir, Maiganga,
13 Advances on the Geology and Evaluation of Potential Petroleum Systems of the Sokoto Basin in NW Nigeria. , Obaje, N. G., Faruq, U. Z. , Bomai, A. , Moses, S. D. , Ali, M. S. , Adamu, S. , Essien, A. , Lamorde, U. , Umar, U. M. , Ozoji, T. , Okonkwo, T. P. , Adamu, L. , Idris-Nda, A.
The stratigraphy of the Sokoto Basin has the Illo/Gundumi Formation at the bottom, followed successively upward by the Taloka, Dukamaje, Wurno, Dange, Kalambaina, Gamba and Gwandu Formations. Re-mapping of the basin carried out in this study shows that the geological framework remains largely as previously outlined except that some hitherto unreported tectonically controlled structures have been documented. The basin is generally shallower at the margin and deepens towards the centre such that the areas around the border with Niger Republic are deepest and hence most prospective on the Nigerian side. Geophysical aeromagnetic interpretation has assisted to analyze the depth to basement configurations. Organic geochemical studies show that the dark shales and limestones of the Dukamaje Formation constitute the source rocks in the potential petroleum system. With averages for source rock thickness of 50m, area of basin of 60,000km2, TOC of 7.5wt%, and HI of 212mgHC/gTOC, charge modeling indicates 808.10 million barrels of oil equivalent extractable hydrocarbons in the Sokoto Basin, at current knowledge of the geology and if the appropriate maturity has been attained at deeper sections. The sandstones of the Illo/Gundumi Formation as well as in the Taloka and Wurno Formations and carbonates of the Kalambaina Formation provide potential reservoir packages. The paper shale of the Gamba Formation and the clays of the Gwandu Formation provide regional seals. If the presently mapped tectonic structures are ubiquitous in the whole basin, structural and stratigraphic traps may upgrade the petroleum system. Other petroleum systems may exist in the basin with either or both the Illo/Gundumi and Taloka Formation(s) providing the source and reservoir rocks.   Keywords: Sokoto Basin, Dukamaje Formation, Hydrocarbons, Petroleum System, Reservoirs
14 An Experimental Investigation of the Effects of Cuttings Size on Mud Rheology. , Chukwu A. G, Kpea-ue M. L, and Nwankwo I. S.
Effective hole-cleaning is vital for a successful drilling operation and has significant effect on optimizing factors such as penetration rate, bit optimization and well stability. Efficient transportation of drilling cuttings are dependent on factors such as fluid properties and rheology, cuttings size and shape, fluid velocity, cuttings concentration, cuttings transport velocity and rate of penetration. This experimental work examined the effects of cutting sizes on drilling fluid rheology. To achieve this, two fresh samples of mud were prepared and the rheological properties were analyzed at different temperature ranges representing the operating conditions of most Niger Delta wells. A mesh analysis was carried on dried fresh drill cuttings from the Anieze North Field and dried cuttings taken from the laboratory and two samples were selected at ASTM#40 and #18. 10 % of these cuttings’ samples were added to each mud sample and the rheological properties were measured at similar temperature ranges as the original mud samples. The results gotten shows that at the various temperature ranges, mud contamination with smaller drill cuttings size (ASTM #40=400um) showed a better performance than the larger particles. The mud rheological properties (viscosity, yield point, YP, plastic viscosity, PV and density) measured at different temperatures showed a remarkable non-linear behavior as shown in the results.   KEY WORDS: Cuttings Size, Drill Cuttings, Mud Contamination, Mud Rheology, Temperature.
15 Absorber Performance Improvement Through Solvent Concentration Changes to Regulate Emissions from Combustion Systems. , Harry-ngei, ngei
This work highlighted the determination of the best concentration profile for the operation of an absorber with potential to cut down combustion products emissions from the complete combustion reaction scheme of a combustion system waste stream. The proposed solvent concentration had a range of 1.84%-2.20% of caustic entrainment, therefore further increase on the solvent concentration above 2.20% is not feasible. Incremental changes of 0.06% were made to assess the optimal concentration required for best absorber performance. A process simulation software, ASPEN HYSYS 8.6, was utilized to simulate the emissions profile with PENG-ROBINSON as the Vapour-Liquid Equilibrium evaluation tool in the software. The study found the performance of the absorber improved with a corresponding increase in the concentration with 2.20% giving the most efficient removal rate of 61.59%, 26.5% and 85.2% for SO2, CO2 and NO2, respectively. The study recommended that one veritable method of improving the performance of absorber systems is to increase the concentration of the alkali-based solvent to cut down on emissions from flue gas systems.   Keywords:Absorber Performance, Solvent Concentration, Combustion Systems, Vapour-Liquid Equilibrium and Flue Gas Systems.
16 Geology and mineral resources of Ebonyi State, southeastern Nigeria. , Friday D, O ; Betram M, O; and Chijiuka O.
Ebonyi State is underlain at depth by the Precambrian Basement Complex and by Cretaceous sedimentary units which include the Abakaliki Formation, Nkalagu Limestone, Amasiri Sandstone and Afikpo Sandstone and spans through Southern Benue Trough and Anambra Basin. Shales, sandstones, siltstones and limestones which range from shallow to deep marine depositional environments have intermediate to basic intrusive dolerites, extrusives and pyroclastics rocks emplaced in them. The sediments are dominated by physical structures such as faults, folds, fractures, joints, cross beds, mud cracks and an unconformity; chemical structures such as concretions and solution cavity; and biogenic structures such as burrows and bioturbation. The presence of benthic foraminifera such as Bolivina anambra and Haplopragmoides sp. suggest an upper bethyal deep to shallow marine environment for the sediments. Natural resources and mineral deposits such as lead, zinc, granite, limestone, dolerite, pyroclastics, salt-lake/brine, sand, laterites, clay, kaolin, iron ores, chalcopyrite, illmenite, fluorite, marble stone, quartz and copper ore which spread across the area, contribute largely to the gross domestic products of the state. Data gathered shows that 26% of the mineral deposits are partially exploited, 30 % are locally exploited, 4 % are highly exploited, while 39 % are dormant. Unfortunately, the reserve estimate of these mineral deposits are yet to be documented.   Keywords: Anambra Basin, Ebonyi State, Mineral deposits, Southern Benue Trough, Structure; Uncomformity