1 The Influence of Rescheduled-Overhaul in determining the number of Gas turbine Usage in Natural Gas Pipeline Transportation Network , Aziaka D. S1*; Le-ol A. K2; Pilidis P3.
Gas turbines are an integral part of the supply of natural gas in many parts of the world. In compressor stations, they are used for transporting gas from producing wells to consumers and across extensive networks of pipelines. This paper present how rescheduling of gas turbine overhaul from the baseline condition amid degradation influences the number of the gas turbine to be used in a compressor station without altering the original pipeline design for the desired amount of gas delivery. Eighteen compressor stations with gas turbine engines as the driver to the gas compressor have been investigated. The selected engines models were developed based on public domain specification, using an in-house engine performance simulation software: TURBOMATCH. Three seasons (rainy, dry and hot seasons) were considered in this paper based on the location of Trans-Saharan gas pipeline being investigated. Compressor and turbine were degraded (fouled) as a single type of degradation producing three performance scenarios (optimistic, medium and pessimistic). These scenarios define the levels of deterioration of the gas turbine in comparison with the clean conditions. The baseline case indicated that at a controlled TET, the number of GT used in each compressor station increases with increase in degradation (reduction in flow capacity and isentropic efficiency) which result to a variation in the number of engines per station. The result revealed that the implementation of rescheduled-overhaul on the engines reduces the number of Gas turbine usage at the same degraded and ambient condition of the baseline case. The further result indicated that the optimistic, medium and pessimistic scenarios that used 99, 106 and 120 number of engines for the 18 compression stations at baseline condition reduces to 91, 104 and 115 respectively when rescheduled overhaul was implemented for the same amount of gas to be delivered and at the same operating conditions. The proposed approach will enhance engine life-extension strategies that engine life-cycle managers, or natural gas pipeline investors may adopt to cost-effectively manage their engines while ensuring reliability and safety on the pipeline business. Keywords: Turbine Entry Temperature, Gas Compressor, TURBOMATCH, Natural gas, Degradation    
2 An Assessment of the Causes of Wellbore Instability and Stuck Pipe Occurrences in an Offshore Field, Niger Delta, Nigeria , Mode Ayonma W., Onuigbo Chukwuka, Anyiam Okwudiri, Eradiri J. N., Okeugo Chukwudike, and Umeadi Ijeoma  
Wellbore instability and consequential stuck pipe issues are a common challenge associated with offshore drilling. Usually, the effect of wellbore instability is an increase in non-productive time, possible loss of tools and costly drilling operations. Hence, there is a need for wellbore stability analyses before and during drilling operations. In “Agaza Field”, offshore Niger Delta, wellbore instability problems were encountered at various depths between 3,696-4,270 ft.; 5,000-5,425 ft. and 7,600-8000 ft. intervals. Sixty-five ditch-cutting samples and composite log plots obtained from both wells were and analyzed to determine the clay swelling potential and the cationic exchange between the formation and the drilling fluid as well as causes of formation instability. Agaza-1 well showed evidence of tight hole at intervals between 4,200 and 7,600 ft. In Agaza-2, there were indications of wellbore stresses from 1,908 ft. to 2,030 ft. However, deeper than 4,225ft depth, high fluctuation of pore pressure coincided with wellbore instability between 4,810 ft. and 5,200 ft. The principal clay minerals present within the formations are Illite, Smectite and Smectite/Illite interlayered types. Result of the cation exchange analysis showed that high concentration of calcium and sodium in the shale is responsible for high dissociation of the constituent minerals hence making the shales unstable. Analysis has shown that samples at some intervals from both wells are associated with high swelling potential while average cation exchange value is 40 meq/100g. Therefore, the primary cause of wellbore instability and stuck pipe within the studied intervals are attributed to high swelling and reactivity over time due to fluid-formation interaction.   Keywords: Clay cationic exchange, Clay swelling potential, Offshore drilling challenges, Reactive shales.  
3 The Inhibition Performance of Mono-Ethylene Glycol on Corrosion Rate of X-80 Grade Carbon Steel in Saturated Brine Environment.   , Ikeh, L and Dune, K.K  
The formation/deposition of hydrate and scale in gas production and transportation pipeline has continue to be a major challenge in the oil and gas industry. Pipeline transport is one of the most efficient, reliable and safer means of transporting petroleum products from the well sites to either the refineries or to the final destinations. Acetic acid (HAc), is formed in the formation water which also present in oil and gas production and transportation processes. Acetic acid aids corrosion in pipelines and in turn aids the formation and deposition of scales which may eventually choke off flow. Most times, Monethylene Glycol (MEG) is added into the pipeline as an antifreeze and anticorrosion agent. Some laboratory experiments have shown that the MEG needs to be separated from unwanted substance such as HAc that are present in the formation water to avoid critical conditions in the pipeline. Internal pipeline corrosion slows and decreases the production of oil and gas when associated with free water and reacts with CO2 and organic acid by lowering the integrity of the pipe. In this study, the effect of Mono-Ethylene Glycol (MEG) and Acetic acid (HAc) on the corrosion rate of X-80 grade carbon steel in CO2 saturated brine were evaluated at 25oC and 80oC using 3.5% NaCl solution in a semi-circulation flow loop set up. Weight loss and electrochemical measurements using the linear polarization resistance (LPR) and electrochemical impedance spectroscope (EIS) were used in measuring the corrosion rate as a function of HAc and MEG concentrations. The results obtained so far shows an average corrosion rate increases from 0.5 to 1.8 mm/yr at 25oC, and from 1.2 to 3.5 mm/yr at 80oC in the presence of HAc. However, there are decrease in corrosion rate from 1.8 to 0.95 mm/yr and from 3.5 to 1.6mm/yr respectively at 25oC and 80oC on addition of 20% and 80%  MEG concentrations to the solution. It is also noted that the charge transfer with the electrochemical measurements (EIS) results is the main corrosion controlling mechanism under the test conditions. The higher temperature led to faster film dissolution and higher corrosion rate in the presence of HAc. The EIS results also indicate that the charge transfer controlled behaviour was as a result of iron carbonate layer accelerated by the addition of different concentrations of MEG to the system.   Key words: CO2 corrosion, Carbon steel, MEG, HAc, Inhibition, Environment.  
4 Wear analysis of CNT-AL Nanocomposites using surface response method   , Umma Abdullahi, M.A. Maleque, M.Y. Ali and I.I. Yaacob 
Carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced aluminium (Al) nano-composites were produced using powder metallurgy route with different weight percent of CNT in to the Al matrix. The wear behaviour of CNT-Al nano-composite  was studied using a pin-on-disc tribometer against AISI4340 steel disc. Experiments were conducted using different sliding velocities of 0.5, 0.65 and 0.8 m/s and a normal load of 5, 7.5 and 10 N. Design Expert (DOE) version 6.0.8 was used to optimize the process variable for wear and friction test of the developed CNT-Al nano-composite using face centered central composite design based on response surface methodology and confirmed that 1.5 wt% was the optimum CNT-Al nano-composite formulations. The result showed that higher hardness value of the material showed a lesser wear rate and better wear resistance. The result showed that the wear rate of the developed nano-composite decreased with the increasing of CNT content but up to 1.5 wt% CNT into the nano-composite. The wear rate values varied from 2-0.6 x10-3 mm3/m (2, 0.2, 0.17. 0.3 and 0.6 mm3/m x10-3 for 0 wt%, 1 wt%, 1.5 wt%, 2 wt% and 2.5 wt% CNT respectively). These results also showed that the rate of wear decreases with the increase in normal load and sliding speed. DOE confirm the accuracy of the experimental result for the evaluation of the developed CNT-Al nano-composite.   Keywords: Wear testing, Sliding wear, Wear modelling, Metal-matrix composite and CNT-Al nano-composite  
5 Evaluating the Effect of Mud Rheology and Cuttings Size on Cuttings Transportation in Vertical Wells   , Chukwu A. Godwin,  Kpea-ue Marvin Lezor, Kinate Bright  
As drilling optimization becomes the major concern of the drilling engineer and the mud specialist, there is therefore need to properly evaluate key success factors that ultimately affects the success of drilling operations. This research work examined the effects of fluid rheology and cuttings size on cuttings transportation in vertical wells. To achieve that, an experiment was conducted on two samples of fresh oil-based mud (A and B) of different rheology and two drilled cuttings sample (A and B) of sizes 400µm and 1000µm obtained from Anieze North field after sieve analysis. The drilled cuttings samples(A and B) were comingled with the mud(A and B) and their rheology (viscosity, density, plastic viscosity, yield point and gel strength) and cuttings transport parameters (slip velocity, transport velocity, transport ratio and transport efficiency) were checked at different temperatures. The cuttings transport parameters generated with the test models (Moore, Chien et al, and Zeidler) reveal that drilled cuttings of smaller size are easily transported than those of larger size. It was also observed that temperature has remarkable effects on rheology and slip velocity. Hence, slip velocity increases with temperature, while rheological values decrease with temperature. As a recommendation arising from the results of this investigation, a lower cuttings size should be ensured in a low viscous fluid for an efficient hole-cleaning. Apart from the aforementioned factors for efficient transportation of drilled cuttings, drilling bit configuration which is major determinant of the size of cuttings should be properly examined before selection for any drilling operation.   Keywords: Cuttings Size, Cuttings Transport, Mud Rheology, Slip Velocity, Temperature
6 Developing an Integrated Nuclear Waste Management Strategy on Aggregate Orphan Source Radioactive Materials in the Oil and Gas Sector.   , Neeka, J.B, Gabriel, O.E, Doosu, P.N. and Chizoba, O.F  
Orphan sourced radioactive waste materials associated with oil and gas exploration, exploitation and production have been identified as causal factors in environmental health risks of operation personnel and the host communities in the Niger Delta. These Technologically Enhanced Radionuclides such as 14C, 40K, 87Rb, 232Th, 288U and some low frequency radioactive heavy metals constitute potential dangers to environmental health assay. Highly Sensitive Radiation Detection Tracers (HSRDT) were deployed for tracking and analysis of ionized leakages in the coastal marine offshore and shallow offshore areas in in a typical deltaic region.  The inverse determination technique of the generalized half-life period was integrated into the model equations 1 – 12. Table 1 is a survey from 1992 t0 2015, showing that some identified radionuclides are reactive and contaminants to the surrounding environment from oil and gas processes. However, inadequate strategic decommissioning activities are responsible for severe occupational and environmental hazards to flora and fauna. This paper is fundamental to developing an integrated orphan waste management system as remedial techniques to minimize radiation waste burns and other harmful environmental effects on personnel and the environment. Its application is useful for decision-making on radioactive waste material management strategy. Furthermore, possible conceptual legal framework and standards for the disposal system of orphan sourced radionuclides in the petroleum sector could be explored.   Keywords: Radioactive Waste Materials; Aggregate Orphan–Sourced Radionuclides; Environment Management; Waste Disposal Systems; Oil and Gas Sector etc.
7 Experimental Production of Biofuel using Lactose as an Enhancer to Aspergillus Niger and Saccharomyces Cerevisae   , M. N. Idris and M. M. Usman  
Nigeria is a rich nation in natural resources, which includes source of biofuel such as sweet potato starch etc. This starch can be converted to sugar through hydrolysis process in other to yield ethanol (biofuel). In this research work, the sweet potato peels was selected as a substrate for bioethanol production in the process, as it is rich in starch and cellulose. In this study, 5g, 10g, 15g, 20g and 25g each was weighed lactose and added to the Aspergillus Niger and Saccharomyces Cerevisae, the highest yield recorded when 20g of lactose was introduced. This achievement was observed after seven days, and the concentration of 91 ppm was highest for the sample containing 25g of lactose. The study also revealed that when lactose was added to fermentation medium together with  enzyme Aspergillus Niger, the results obtained show that the 20g lactose represent a highest yield of biofuel production. In summary, the increase and subsequent decrease in pH and specific gravity of each fermented sample indicated that the reaction (fermentation) was actually occurred, that is, the conversion of the substrate to products as well as the release of CO2 as the by-product took place.   Keywords: Aspergillus Niger, biofuel, starch and cellulose
8 Dilute Caustic and Water Comparisons as Solvents in the Removal of Acidic Gases from Combustion exhaust Stream of a Boiler. , Harry-Ngei, N. and Edward, P. A
This work focused on the comparative analyses between the use of dilute caustic with a composition of 1.84% and using water alone (pH=7) that have the potential to remove SO2 completely from the exhaust flue gas of a combustion system and H2S in the incomplete reaction scenario. Two reaction pathways were utilized for the study, the complete combustion pathway as well as the incomplete combustion pathway. ASPEN HYSYS 8.6, a process simulation software, was used to simulate conditions with PENG-ROBINSON utilized as the vapour-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data prediction tool of the software. For the complete combustion pathway, a complete removal of SO2 was achieved using caustic while with the same conditions, utilizing water as solvent achieved a reduction of 90%. For the incomplete combustion pathway, using caustic gave about 53% removal efficiency for H2S while the water only showed a poor 16% increase of H2S. The study recommended the use of the dilute caustic for the following reasons; it gave a better removal percentage than using water alone, the use of the caustic will not contribute to caustic corrosion because of the low composition of the dilute caustic that will be used in the absorber, the choice of the caustic was also observed to be economical. Keywords: Caustic, Absorption, Emission, Simulation, Combustion, Solvents.
9 Prediction of Condensate Banking with Relative Permeability To Oil – Gas And Saturation In A Gas Condensate Reservoir. , Minimah, M. D, Ifeanyi, S. N, and Bright B. K
Gas condensate fields are quite lucrative fields because of the highly economic value of condensates. However, the development of these fields is often difficult due to retrograde condensation resulting to condensate banking in the immediate vicinity of the wellbore. In many cases, adequate characterization and prediction of condensate banks are often difficult leading to poor technical decisions in the management of such fields. This study will present a simulation performed with Eclipse300 compositional simulator on a gas condensate reservoir with three case study wells- a gas injector (INJ1) and two producers (PROD1 and PROD2) to predict condensate banking. Rock and fluid properties at laboratory condition were simulated to reservoir conditions and a comparative method of analysis was used to efficiently diagnose the presence of condensate banks in the affected grid-blocks. Relative Permeability to Condensate and gas and saturation curves shows condensate banks region. The result shows that PROD2 was greatly affected by condensate banking while PROD1 remained unaffected during the investigation. Other factors were analyzed and the results reveal that the nature and composition of condensates can significantly affect condensate banking in the immediate vicinity of the wellbore. Also, it was observed that efficient production from condensate reservoir requires the pressure to be kept above dew point pressure so as to minimize the effect and the tendency of retrograde condensation.   Keywords: Condensate Banking, Phase Production, Relative Permeability, Relative Saturation, Retrograde Condensation
10 Geochemical and Geostatistical Assessment of Cretaceous Coals and Shales in some Nigerian Sedimentary Basins for their Hydrocarbon Proness and Maturity levels. , Obaje, N. G. , Adamu, L. M., Umar, U. M. , Umaru, A. O., and Okafor P, N.
The Rock–Eval pyrolysis and LECO analysis for 9 shale and 12 coal samples, as well as, geostatistical analysis have been used to investigate source rock characteristics, correlation between the assessed parameters (QI, BI, S1, S2, S3, HI, S1 + S2, OI, PI, TOC) and the impact of changes in the Tmax on the assessed parameters in the Cretaceous Sokoto, Anambra Basins and Middle Benue Trough of northwestern, southeastern and northcentral Nigeria respectively. The geochemical results point that about 97% of the samples have TOC values greater than the minimum limit value (0.5 wt %) required to induce hydrocarbon generation from source rocks. Meanwhile, the Dukamaje and Taloka shales and Lafia/Obi coal are found to be fair to good source rock for oil generation with slightly higher thermal maturation. The source rocks are generally immature through sub-mature to marginal mature with respect to the oil and gas window, while the potential source rocks from the Anambra Basin are generally sub-mature grading to mature within the oil window. The analyzed data were approached statistically to find some relations such as factors, and clusters concerning the examination of the source rocks. These factors were categorized into type of organic matter and organic richness, thermal maturity and hydrocarbon potency. In addendum, cluster analysis separated the source rocks in the study area into two groups. The source rocks characterized by HI >240 (mg/g), TOC from 58.89 to 66.43 wt %, S1 from 2.01 to 2.54 (mg/g) and S2 from 148.94 to 162.52 (mg/g) indicating good to excellent source rocks with kerogen of type II and type III and are capable of generating oil and gas. Followed by the Source rocks characterized by HI <240 (mg/g), TOC from 0.94 to 36.12 wt%, S1 from 0.14 to 0.72 (mg/g) and S2 from 0.14 to 20.38 (mg/g) indicating poor to good source rocks with kerogen of type III and are capable of generating gas. Howeverr, Pearson’s correlation coefficient and linear regression analysis shows a significant positive correlation between TOC and S1, S2 and HI and no correlation between TOC and Tmax, highly negative correlation between TOC and OI and no correlation between Tmax and HI.   Keywords- Cretaceous, Geochemical, Statistical, Cluster, Factor analyses.
11 Use of Sugarcane Rind Activated Carbon For Removal Of Organic Content In Wastewater. , Nyam, T.T.; Nwosibe, P.O.; Atiwurcha, N. I and Okechukwu, J. O
In this study, activated carbon produced from sugarcane rind was used to treat synthesized wastewater for the removal of formaldehyde. The prepared precursor was impregnated with ZnCl2 before carbonization at 300℃ for 30 minutes. Proximate analysis of the produced activated carbon showed that it had a moisture content of 15.3 %, ash content of 5 %, and fixed carbon of 69.7 % amongst others. While BET analysis revealed the activated carbon has a surface area of 328.87 m2 and a pore diameter of 2.840e+00 nm. When used in batch process treatment of wastewater the activated carbon showed an 18 – 25 % adsorption efficiency in removal of formaldehyde from the wastewater. This shows that this sugarcane rind hitherto considered as waste and a pollutant has values to be explored.   Keywords: Activated carbon, Formaldehyde, organic content, wastewater, Sugarcane peels, Sugarcane Rind etc.
12 Adsorption Study of Particle Sizes of Maiganga Coal. , Umar, A. , Muhammad, I.M. , Funtua, M.A. and Mohammed, H.Y.
The main purpose of this work is to carry out adsorption study of different particle sizes of Activated Maiganga Coal. Activated carbon was produced from five different particle sizes of 63 μm, 300 μm, 425 μm, 600 μm and 2.0 mm from coal using potassium hydroxide as an activating agent. Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption kinetics as well as some quality parameters were studied for the produced activated carbon. These quality parameters were evaluated for the five different samples. With the gradual increase in PH values from 5.7 to 8.3, a corresponding decrease in uptake has been observed as a result of deprotonation of the adsorbent surface. The ash content was found to increases as the particle sizes increases. The n values which reflects the intensity of adsorption decreased from 0.573 to 0.061. The K values (Freundlich constant) present the opposite trend which increased from 69.984 to 163.682. The magnitude of Qo which indicates the amount of phosphate per unit weight of the adsorbent to form a complete monolayer on the surface also increased from 0.05 to 0.50. This work shows that, the finer the particle size of activated carbon, the greater the adsorption capabilities. Keywords: Activated Carbon, adsorption, Coal, Freundlich, Langmuir, Maiganga,
13 Advances on the Geology and Evaluation of Potential Petroleum Systems of the Sokoto Basin in NW Nigeria. , Obaje, N. G., Faruq, U. Z. , Bomai, A. , Moses, S. D. , Ali, M. S. , Adamu, S. , Essien, A. , Lamorde, U. , Umar, U. M. , Ozoji, T. , Okonkwo, T. P. , Adamu, L. , Idris-Nda, A.
The stratigraphy of the Sokoto Basin has the Illo/Gundumi Formation at the bottom, followed successively upward by the Taloka, Dukamaje, Wurno, Dange, Kalambaina, Gamba and Gwandu Formations. Re-mapping of the basin carried out in this study shows that the geological framework remains largely as previously outlined except that some hitherto unreported tectonically controlled structures have been documented. The basin is generally shallower at the margin and deepens towards the centre such that the areas around the border with Niger Republic are deepest and hence most prospective on the Nigerian side. Geophysical aeromagnetic interpretation has assisted to analyze the depth to basement configurations. Organic geochemical studies show that the dark shales and limestones of the Dukamaje Formation constitute the source rocks in the potential petroleum system. With averages for source rock thickness of 50m, area of basin of 60,000km2, TOC of 7.5wt%, and HI of 212mgHC/gTOC, charge modeling indicates 808.10 million barrels of oil equivalent extractable hydrocarbons in the Sokoto Basin, at current knowledge of the geology and if the appropriate maturity has been attained at deeper sections. The sandstones of the Illo/Gundumi Formation as well as in the Taloka and Wurno Formations and carbonates of the Kalambaina Formation provide potential reservoir packages. The paper shale of the Gamba Formation and the clays of the Gwandu Formation provide regional seals. If the presently mapped tectonic structures are ubiquitous in the whole basin, structural and stratigraphic traps may upgrade the petroleum system. Other petroleum systems may exist in the basin with either or both the Illo/Gundumi and Taloka Formation(s) providing the source and reservoir rocks.   Keywords: Sokoto Basin, Dukamaje Formation, Hydrocarbons, Petroleum System, Reservoirs
14 An Experimental Investigation of the Effects of Cuttings Size on Mud Rheology. , Chukwu A. G, Kpea-ue M. L, and Nwankwo I. S.
Effective hole-cleaning is vital for a successful drilling operation and has significant effect on optimizing factors such as penetration rate, bit optimization and well stability. Efficient transportation of drilling cuttings are dependent on factors such as fluid properties and rheology, cuttings size and shape, fluid velocity, cuttings concentration, cuttings transport velocity and rate of penetration. This experimental work examined the effects of cutting sizes on drilling fluid rheology. To achieve this, two fresh samples of mud were prepared and the rheological properties were analyzed at different temperature ranges representing the operating conditions of most Niger Delta wells. A mesh analysis was carried on dried fresh drill cuttings from the Anieze North Field and dried cuttings taken from the laboratory and two samples were selected at ASTM#40 and #18. 10 % of these cuttings’ samples were added to each mud sample and the rheological properties were measured at similar temperature ranges as the original mud samples. The results gotten shows that at the various temperature ranges, mud contamination with smaller drill cuttings size (ASTM #40=400um) showed a better performance than the larger particles. The mud rheological properties (viscosity, yield point, YP, plastic viscosity, PV and density) measured at different temperatures showed a remarkable non-linear behavior as shown in the results.   KEY WORDS: Cuttings Size, Drill Cuttings, Mud Contamination, Mud Rheology, Temperature.
15 Absorber Performance Improvement Through Solvent Concentration Changes to Regulate Emissions from Combustion Systems. , Harry-ngei, ngei
This work highlighted the determination of the best concentration profile for the operation of an absorber with potential to cut down combustion products emissions from the complete combustion reaction scheme of a combustion system waste stream. The proposed solvent concentration had a range of 1.84%-2.20% of caustic entrainment, therefore further increase on the solvent concentration above 2.20% is not feasible. Incremental changes of 0.06% were made to assess the optimal concentration required for best absorber performance. A process simulation software, ASPEN HYSYS 8.6, was utilized to simulate the emissions profile with PENG-ROBINSON as the Vapour-Liquid Equilibrium evaluation tool in the software. The study found the performance of the absorber improved with a corresponding increase in the concentration with 2.20% giving the most efficient removal rate of 61.59%, 26.5% and 85.2% for SO2, CO2 and NO2, respectively. The study recommended that one veritable method of improving the performance of absorber systems is to increase the concentration of the alkali-based solvent to cut down on emissions from flue gas systems.   Keywords:Absorber Performance, Solvent Concentration, Combustion Systems, Vapour-Liquid Equilibrium and Flue Gas Systems.
16 Geology and mineral resources of Ebonyi State, southeastern Nigeria. , Friday D, O ; Betram M, O; and Chijiuka O.
Ebonyi State is underlain at depth by the Precambrian Basement Complex and by Cretaceous sedimentary units which include the Abakaliki Formation, Nkalagu Limestone, Amasiri Sandstone and Afikpo Sandstone and spans through Southern Benue Trough and Anambra Basin. Shales, sandstones, siltstones and limestones which range from shallow to deep marine depositional environments have intermediate to basic intrusive dolerites, extrusives and pyroclastics rocks emplaced in them. The sediments are dominated by physical structures such as faults, folds, fractures, joints, cross beds, mud cracks and an unconformity; chemical structures such as concretions and solution cavity; and biogenic structures such as burrows and bioturbation. The presence of benthic foraminifera such as Bolivina anambra and Haplopragmoides sp. suggest an upper bethyal deep to shallow marine environment for the sediments. Natural resources and mineral deposits such as lead, zinc, granite, limestone, dolerite, pyroclastics, salt-lake/brine, sand, laterites, clay, kaolin, iron ores, chalcopyrite, illmenite, fluorite, marble stone, quartz and copper ore which spread across the area, contribute largely to the gross domestic products of the state. Data gathered shows that 26% of the mineral deposits are partially exploited, 30 % are locally exploited, 4 % are highly exploited, while 39 % are dormant. Unfortunately, the reserve estimate of these mineral deposits are yet to be documented.   Keywords: Anambra Basin, Ebonyi State, Mineral deposits, Southern Benue Trough, Structure; Uncomformity
17 Preliminary Investigation of the Chemical Composition of Ballast Water and Tank Sediments of Selected Ships within the Lagos Harbour, Nigeria. , Bamanga, A, Bassey, B and Al-Anzi, B
Ballast water is important for safe and efficient operation of vessels, helping to maintain stability during voyage in seas and docking in harbours. However, ballast water can pose considerable environmental challenges because they are often laden with polluted sediments and invasive species. The Lagos Harbour, which houses in the largest port in West Africa, receives about five thousand vessels annually which discharge ballast water and tank sediments into the water with the potential to cause environmental pollution. In the Nigerian context there is high potential for pollution due to weak regulations, poor enforcement and limited research of this kind in order to understand their composition, fate and impacts. This study aims at characterizing the chemical composition (Heavy metals- Arsenic, Cadmium, Chromium, Copper, Lead & Zinc, as well as carbon and nitrogen content) of the ballast water and the tank sediments because of their positive correlation with the survival of invasive species in the ballast water and tank sediments. Water samples were collected from four ships (2 cargos and 2 tankers) within the Lagos Harbour; surface (1-5 cm) sediment samples were scooped from ship tanks using a specialized grab for sampling ballast sediments. The sediments were transferred in specialized sample containers (cool boxes) to the University of Portsmouth in United Kingdom for analysis. Total metal concentrations were analysed using X-ray fluorescence (XRF). They were subjected to two acid digestions: Aqua regia (AR) and 1 M hydrochloric acid (1 M HCl) following the procedures set out by the Canadian National Water Research Institute (NWRI) and the United States Environment Protection Agency (US-EPA Method 3050B). Total carbon and nitrogen contents were determined using an in-line Yanaco MT-5 CHN analyser. The results obtained were compared with established guidelines and subjected to correlation and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The findings indicated high concentrations of Nickel, Lead, and Zinc in the sediments with values of 59.6 mg/kg, 33.75 mg/kg and 43,145.7 mg/kg respectively which exceeded NOAA and CSQGs permissible standards. Tanker vessels contained relatively higher concentrations of the pollutants than cargo vessels. The findings from this study provide useful baseline data which will guide a more intensive investigation of the chemical composition of ballast water and tank sediments for effective comparison with what is obtainable elsewhere in the world. The maritime industry needs to pay close attention to ballast as a potential source of marine pollution particularly in developing countries like Nigeria where there is limited regulation for management of coastal areas with respect to shipping activities. The IMO needs to direct further effort at investigating the non-biological components of ballast water and sediments in order to protect valuable biodiversity.   Keywords: Coastal Pollution, Ballast Water Management, Ships, Analytical Techniques
18 Effect of Biomass Blending and Desulphurization on Flue Gas Emissions of Nigerian Sub Bituminous Coal Briquettes.  , Adekunle, J.O, Ibrahim, H. D and Ibrahim, J.S.
The effect of blending, briquetting and desulphurization of coal and biocoal briquettes of Nigerian sub bituminous coal is discussed. The flue gas of the coal and biocoal samples were analyzed to study the emission characteristics of nitrogen oxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) due to environment concern with the use of coal as either domestic   or industrial fuel. Sub bituminous coal sample from eight coal mines and sites in five states in   Nigeria were collected. The states and sites included Kogi (Ogboyoga, Okaba), Benue(Owukpa),Nassarawa (Lafia/Obi), Ebonyi (Afikpo) and Enugu (Okpara,Onyeama and Ezinmo).The samples were pulverized and blended with sawdust at various constituent ratios of 0:100, 10:90, 20:80, 30:70, 40:60, 50:50 and 100:0 sawdust : coal. Cassava starch was used as binding material while calcium hydroxide was used as desulphurizing agent for the briquettes. Emission tests for various compositions of the briquettes were carried out and the O2, CO2, CO, NO2 and SO2 of the briquettes were compared. Results showed reduction in combustion emission withincrease in sawdust concentration with the reduction in smoke and noxious gas emission. Thesulphur dioxide range of the coal briquettes is between 0.018ppm and 0.028ppm which decreased to between 0.025and 0.005 ppm in biocoal briquettes. Same for nitrogen oxide which range between 0.034ppm and 0.038ppm but decreased to between 0.025 and 0.019 ppm and carbon    monoxide range of between 0.3ppm and 0.48ppm which decreased to between 0.43ppm and 0.12 ppm in the biocoal briquettes. The 50:50 blends of sawdust to coal for Ogboyaga has the lowest carbon monoxide emission of 0.12 ppm; Okpara has the lowest sulphur dioxide emission of 0.005ppm while Onyeama has the lowest nitrogen oxide emission of 0.019 ppm. These are below the national ambient air quality standards which put sulphur dioxide at 1.4 x 10-1 ppm. The biocoal briquette emits less sulphur dioxide because it contains desulphurizing agent which fixes some of the sulphur that would have gone to the atmosphere to ash. Keywords: biocoal briquettes, blending, flue gas emissions, sub - bituminous coal.  
19 Effect of Biomass Blending and Desulphurization on Flue Gas Emissions of Nigerian Sub Bituminous Coal Briquettes.  , Adekunle, J.O, Ibrahim, H. D and Ibrahim, J.S.
The effect of blending, briquetting and desulphurization of coal and biocoal briquettes of Nigerian sub bituminous coal is discussed. The flue gas of the coal and biocoal samples were analyzed to study the emission characteristics of nitrogen oxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) due to environment concern with the use of coal as either domestic   or industrial fuel. Sub bituminous coal sample from eight coal mines and sites in five states in   Nigeria were collected. The states and sites included Kogi (Ogboyoga, Okaba), Benue(Owukpa),Nassarawa (Lafia/Obi), Ebonyi (Afikpo) and Enugu (Okpara,Onyeama and Ezinmo).The samples were pulverized and blended with sawdust at various constituent ratios of 0:100, 10:90, 20:80, 30:70, 40:60, 50:50 and 100:0 sawdust : coal. Cassava starch was used as binding material while calcium hydroxide was used as desulphurizing agent for the briquettes. Emission tests for various compositions of the briquettes were carried out and the O2, CO2, CO, NO2 and SO2 of the briquettes were compared. Results showed reduction in combustion emission withincrease in sawdust concentration with the reduction in smoke and noxious gas emission. Thesulphur dioxide range of the coal briquettes is between 0.018ppm and 0.028ppm which decreased to between 0.025and 0.005 ppm in biocoal briquettes. Same for nitrogen oxide which range between 0.034ppm and 0.038ppm but decreased to between 0.025 and 0.019 ppm and carbon    monoxide range of between 0.3ppm and 0.48ppm which decreased to between 0.43ppm and 0.12 ppm in the biocoal briquettes. The 50:50 blends of sawdust to coal for Ogboyaga has the lowest carbon monoxide emission of 0.12 ppm; Okpara has the lowest sulphur dioxide emission of 0.005ppm while Onyeama has the lowest nitrogen oxide emission of 0.019 ppm. These are below the national ambient air quality standards which put sulphur dioxide at 1.4 x 10-1 ppm. The biocoal briquette emits less sulphur dioxide because it contains desulphurizing agent which fixes some of the sulphur that would have gone to the atmosphere to ash. Keywords: biocoal briquettes, blending, flue gas emissions, sub - bituminous coal.  
20 Ecological Risk Assessment and Pollution Load of Heavy Metals in Soils within Bori Urban, Rivers State, Nigeria.   , NWINEEWII, J.D. and NYODEE, G.T.  
The study assessed the ecological risk and polluting load of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in surface soils within Bori Urban. The composite soil samples collected from different locations were prepared and atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) was used for the analysis of the heavy metals. From the results of the analysis, the mean concentrations (mg/kg) of the heavy metals decreased in the order Cu (37.42) > Ni (34.06) > Cr (28.66) > Zn (7.75) >Pb (2.03) > Cd (0.89). The mean concentrations of Cd, Cu, and Ni were above USEPA soil guidelines and world unpolluted soil average, while those of Pb and Zn were below. The mean concentrations of the heavy metals from the study locations were all above that of the control location. The findings indicated that the urban soils of the study were loaded with heavy metals due to anthropogenic activities. The anthropogenic percentage input was in the range of 63.92 - 89.13 above 50% indicating anthropogenic origin of the heavy metals in soils of the study area. The results of ecological risk index (Er) indicated that Cd with Er (467.40) contributed up to 94.51% to the potential ecological risk index (RI) while Zn (0.78) contributed 0.16%. The heavy metals under study posed highly strongly potential ecological risk with RI value of 494.56 to the Bori urban soil due to anthropogenic activities. The ANOVA result of FCal 6.42 > [F(5.30) = 2.53, P< 0.05)] revealed significant differences between the soil sample mean values due to different anthropogenic pollution sources with different loads of heavy metals as pollutants. The Omega Squared (w2) value of 0.52 > 0.14 showed very strong interactive relationship among the heavy metals to bring about high level of ecological potential risk of the urban soils in the study area. Based on the findings, the surface soils have elevated load of heavy metals thereby posing ecological potential risk to Bori urban soils. Therefore, there should be periodic monitoring and environmental audit by relevant authorities to ensure good soil quality of Bori urban soil. Keywords: Potential ecological risk, pollution load, Bori Urban, Anthropogenic Percentage input, contamination Factor.  
21 Comparative Study and Analysis of Carbon Steel Corrosion in co2 Saturated Environment.   , Ikeh L, Ezeike, K.C and Neeka, J.B  
Carbon steel is arguably one of the most efficient, reliable and safer kind of steel used in petroleum and gas industry for production, distribution and transmission of products. Acetic acid (HAc), is also one of the impurities in oil and gas during transportation from the well sites to the refineries. It is formed in the formation water, which also present in oil and gas production and transportation processes. Acetic acid aids corrosion in pipelines and as a result causes environmental degradation. It has been observed that high concentration of HAc increases the rate of corrosion of carbon steel in CO2 environment. Corrosion slows down production of oil and gas and thereby reduces revenue. In this work, a comparative study and analysis of carbon steel corrosion in the presence of HAc was carried out at 25oC and 80oC in CO2 saturated environment. Weight loss and surface analysis methods (XRD, EDX and SEM) were used to characterize the corrosion layers of the carbon steel samples at different conditions. The weight loss results show that the corrosion rate increased initially with the increase in the concentration of HAc and attained a maximum, and then gradually decreased. At 25oC with 500ppm of HAc, the corrosion rate is 1.35 mm/yr, and 1.80 mm/yr when 1000ppm of HAc was added to the solution. At 80oC and 500ppm HAc, the corrosion rate was 1.80 mm/yr and 2.70 mm/yr with 1000ppm of HAc. A further increase was observed at 3.45 mm/yr when 2500ppm of HAc was added to the system. This increase in corrosion rate is attributed to increase in temperature as increased temperature increases the rate of all reactions. The XRD analysis confirmed that the iron is formed in the absence of HAc while siderite (FeCO3), which is an ore of iron is observed on the materials with HAc. The SEM and EDX results confirmed that a fairly dense material of FeCO3 was formed in the absence of HAc and the layers became porous on addition of HAc to the solution. Key Words: Corrosion, Acetic acid, Carbon steel, CO2, Environment  
22 Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activities of Beetroot Peel.   , Shuaibu B.S. , Aremu M. O. and Kalifa U. J.   
Proximate, mineral and antioxidant properties of beetroot (Beta vulgaris) peel were investigated using standard analytical techniques. Result for proximate revealed that moisture content was 30.88%, ash content (10.58%), crude fat (3.29%), crude fiber (6.98%), crude protein (4.10%) and carbohydrate (44.17%). The mineral composition (mg/g) also showed that sodium was 4.17%, iron (26.46%), copper (0.21%), magnesium (5.91%), potassium (13.82%) and phosphorus (11.57%) while zinc and calcium were not at detectable range of AAS. There was no activity for its antioxidant property. The results obtained from this analysis shows that Beetroot peel is a good source of carbohydrates, protein, ash, fiber, lipid and moisture, it also contained some mineral contents such as copper, phosphorous and iron which are required by the body to function effectively. Its consumption is therefore encouraged instead of regarding it as a waste material. Keywords: antioxidant, investigation, mineral, peel, proximate.  
23 Engineering Properties of Lateritic Soil in Otun Area, Ekiti State, Nigeria   , Obaro, R.I and Obaro, N.T  
Lateritic soils at Otun Ekiti, Ekiti state, southwestern Nigeria were investigated with respect to their geotechnical properties and their suitability for subgrade and sub – base construction materials. Four disturbed lateritic soil samples (sample A, B, C and D) were selected for the various laboratory techniques. The grain size analyses, the specific gravity tests, the atterberg limit tests, compaction, California bearing ratio and shear box tests were carried out on the samples. The grain size analysis shows that sample A is gravelly silt-clayey sand. Sample B is silt – clayey gravel composition. Sample C is gravelly silt-clayey while Sample D is silt-clayey gravel. Atterberg consistency limit test indicate that sample A has 30.0%, liquid limit 19.5% plastic limit, 10.5% plasticity index, 9.1% shrinkage limit. Sample B has liquid limit of 27.0%, 16.2% plastic limit, 10.8% plasticity index and 7.4% shrinkage limit. Sample C has a liquid limit of 32.4%, plastic limit of 15.6%. It has a plastic index of 16.8%, Shrinkage limit of 9.7% while Sample D has a liquid limit of 36.2%, plastic limit of 17.7%. It has a plastic index of 18.5% and 11.1% as shrinkage limit. Thus, the soil is classified to be intermediate plasticity which can be used for sub – grade and sub – base materials. The soil samples are above the activity (A) line in the zone of intermediate plasticity (CL) which suggests that they are inorganic soils. Based on engineering use chart, the workability as construction engineering is good to fair particularly as erosion resistance in canal construction. However, the high shrinkage limit may also reduce erosion in this area because of cohesion of the plastic clay material. The California Bearing Ratio (CBR) values are within 2 – 3% (mean = 2.75%) and 2 - 4% (mean = 2.75%) in sample A and sample B respectively while California Bearing Ratio (CBR) of 2 - 4% (mean = 2.75%) and 2 – 3% (mean = 2.75%) in sample C and sample D respectively. This implies that the materials can be used as a sub-grade to base course material for support of flexible pavements. The compaction tests for the optimum water content for sample A is 15.0% and 13.0% for standard and modified proctor respectively. The standard and modified proctor for sample B is 15.0% and 14.0% respectively. The compaction tests for the optimum water content for sample C and D is 15.0% and 14.0% for standard and modified proctor respectively. The compaction tests for Sample A indicate a higher fine fraction and thus a higher optimum moisture content while sample B, C and D has higher coarse fraction with lower optimum moisture content. The cohesion falls within 70-90Kpa (mean = 79Kpa) and the angle of internal friction ranges from 260 - 320 with mean of 280 for standard and modified compaction energies respectively. The results obtained from geotechnical analysis suggest that the soil is good to fair as erosion resistance in canal construction because of its high bearing capacity and it can also be used as sub – grade and base course in road construction. Keywords: Lateritic soil, Construction, Erosional and Geotechnical.  
24 The Role of Leadership in Tacit Knowledge Transfer in the Nigerian Oil and Gas Industry.     , Funminiyi S. Egbedoyin and Edward P. Agbai
The oil and gas industries are knowledge driven industry. The technology deployed in deep water exploration and production involve knowledge-intensive process by highly technical personnel. The problem was that the leadership of the oil and gas industries have not necessitated early recovery of tacit knowledge transfer from experts to employees managing the plant operations. The purpose of this qualitative multiple case study was to gain an understanding of how oil and gas industry leaders in Nigeria facilitate the transfer of tacit knowledge from experts to employees managing the plant after exploration activities. The conceptual framework was the socialization, externalization, combination, and internalization model developed by Nonaka and Takeuchi and Burns’ transformational leadership theory. A qualitative multiple case study design was used by adopting multiple sources of information including semi-structured interviews, field notes, and review of organizational documents. The unit of analysis was leaders in an oil and gas services organization. The data analysis processes involved coding of the data, categorizing the coded data, and subsequently generating themes in line with the research question using NVivo Version 12 software. Findings indicated that leaders facilitated the transfer of tacit knowledge through the creation of a safe working environment and demonstration of care for the employees. The opportunity to facilitate the transfer of tacit knowledge from expert to employees managing operations after exploration enhance the organization’s stability and promotes healthy communities. Keywords– Knowledge-Transfer, Leadership Style, Oil and Gas Industry  
Heavy metal contaminations in surface soils within Bori were examined. The composite soil sample at 10 – 15cm depth was collected from each of the seven sampling locations including the control location using a stainless-steel hand auger. The soil samples were air-dried for 2 days, homogenized and sieved through a 2mm mesh to obtain uniform size. The soil samples were subjected to wet digestion method using nitric-perchloric acid. The digested samples were used for determination of concentrations of the heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Ni, Mn, Pb, Fe Cu and Zn) using the atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS).  The mean concentrations of the heavy metals obtained ranged as follows: Pb (0.553 – 4.551 mg/kg), Cr (1.713 – 7.965 mg/kg), Cd (0.011 – 2.549 mg/kg), Mn (6.914 – 40.162 mg/kg), Ni (2.942 – 6.597 mg/kg), Zn (4.468 – 13.976 mg/kg) and Cu (1.90 – 11.503 mg/kg). The results were below the world average values except Fe (53.554 – 122.203mg/kg). The enrichment factor values ranged between 0.04 and 20.86 and showed low to moderate enrichment due to anthropogenic activities. The pollution load index (PLI) value was 1, the combined pollution index (CPI) values ranged between 0.39 and 1.73 and the metal pollution load index (MPL) value of 3.73 > 1 revealed pollution in urban surface soils of the study area. The high positive correlation result among the heavy metals in the sample soils of the study area suggested that they are of similar pollution sources. Based on the findings, the urban surface soils of the study area are contaminated with heavy metals. Therefore, there should be monitoring and environmental audit by relevant authorities to ensure adequate environmental quality of urban surface soils in the study area.   Keywords: Heavy metals, contaminations, Bori, metal pollution load, combined pollution index.  
The approach in the use of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) has shown antimicrobial effects in different frequencies and intensities. So far, different modalities of EMFs showed antimicrobial and antibacterial effects in different pathogens. However, a novel approach in the use of the EMFs on microbes was carried out using elaborate experimental set up. Apart from the inclusion of ionic pH medium, a short cylindrical pipe was inserted to a short iron core of the same concentric center to form a space in between. Void materials of glass pebbles activated charcoal and saline water (Gel) was filled to the space respectively in accordance with the three experimental set-ups. A coil of wire was inserted around the iron core with the terminals connected to a 12v rechargeable finger battery. These three novel EMFs approaches were conducted under normal prevailing temperature and each of the experimental set up was tested on a table surface infected with pathogens. The novel results showed that the destruction of microbes was 99.9% in faster and better than the prior methods. These results of these experiments will pave way for the optimal industrial application of EMFs to make surface sanitary wipe efficient and effective in Nigeria. Keywords: Electromagnetic Field. Surface Wipes, Microbes, Frequency, Radiation.  
27 Repositioning PTDF as a Source of Cutting-Edge Research in the Oil and Gas Industry: A Collaborative and Innovative Strategies for Knowledge Management.   , Neeka, J,  Mannir, A, Agboola, O and Haruna, M  
The mandate of an organization is fundamental to achieving its objectives in society and the Petroleum Technology Development Fund is not an exception. Research Development and Innovation is one of the Key mandates of the PTDF and repositioning it for the desired purposes in the industry is in high demand and of necessity. In this paper, strategic approaches developed to reposition the research focus of the Fund is examined. Challenges and opportunities are highlighted for possible frontier expansion and restructuring at optimal levels. Oil and Gas industry is highly technical and competitive, requiring the use of the best technologies in solving problems and research development and innovations is the bedrock in achieving and sustaining such goals. The primary purpose of the PTDF as a technology development agency of government must be redirected with state-of-the-act policy to drive research as a cutting-edge tool for national economic development. Secondly, this paper identified key knowledge enablers and inhibitors to the use of research information for industrial development. Accordingly, this paper is useful for research design, policy formulation and structural reform in research development and innovative cycle for the energy industry and other sectors of the economy. Finally, this paper will serve as a source document for the expansion project on research restructuring in Oil and Gas in Nigeria. Keywords: Research Development and Innovation, Strategic Knowledge Enablers and Inhibitors, Frontier Basins, Collaboration and Linkages.  
28 Load Prediction on Metal Forming Process (Forging) Using Finite Element Method.     , Ogbeyemi, A, Okoh, I, Imuero, O and Akpobi, J 
Metal forming process is a widely used manufacturing process especially in high volume metal production system. In this paper, the main objective is using Bubnov-Galerkin finite element model to derive the pressure field set up at various cross-sections of a metal blank during a forging process, and the four Lagrange quadratic elements were assembled to represent the various metal blank. The governing equation adopted for this paper is a one-dimensional differential equation describing the pressures exerted on the forging process. During the analysis, the various metal blanks are divided into a finite number of elements and the weighted integral form for each element were formed after applying the Bubnov-Galerkin weighted residual method. A matrix form under certain boundary conditions from the weighted residual method were used to obtain the pressure distribution across the cross-section of the various metal blanks. Finite element results are obtained for a value of a circular disc diameter, thickness, coefficient of friction, principal stress, length, and radius of a circular material. Finite element method and the Exact solution approach are used to achieve and compare both results. Furthermore, the combination of both methods shows that there are potentials for using this approach towards the optimization of metal forming in manufacturing processes and some engineering practices. Keywords: Forging; LaGrange Interpolation Function; Bubnov-Galerkin Weighted Residual Method; Finite Element Method.  
29 Modelling and Rheological Characterization of Bentonite Muds Formulated using Cassava-Starch Treated with Preservatives.   , Nwosu, B.F.C., Ademiluyi, F.T. and Akpa, G.J.
This work investigated and characterized the rheological model that best describes the shear stress-shear rate relationship of stabilized cassava-starch bentonite mud. Rheology has undoubtedly become one of the most important parameters in characterizing drilling fluids. The accuracy in the rheological parameter determination enables a corresponding effective fluid hydraulics evaluation. This in turn addresses the frequent challenges of frictional pressure losses in drilling operations. Fluid rheology failures could result in problem as kicks, stuck pipes, loss of circulation, mud pump failure or a blow-out amongst others. In this study, two local cassava cultivar starches; TMS 92/0057 and TMS 98/0581 were stabilized by the addition of salts of benzoate, sorbate and propionate as preservatives and mixed with bentonite. The rheology tests were carried out at 800F, 1200F, 1500Fand 1900F. The experimental data was applied to four rheological models. The Herschel Bulkley model presented the best correlation to the experimental data, to be followed by the Casson model. Bingham Plastic model overestimates the shear stress while Power Law model does underestimation. The yield stresses showed positive and progressive temperature dependence. The flow behaviour indexes did not indicate any clear or patterned temperature relationship. The mud rheology presented pseudo-plastic and shear thinning profiles and good thermal stability which is desirable features for productive drilling campaigns. Therefore, applying the Herschel-Bulkley model to predict shear stress-shear rate relationships for drilling muds of this cassava-starch formulation is an opportunity to be explored in furtherance of the local content drive in the Nigerian oil and gas industry. Keywords: Cassava starch, drilling mud, model parameters, preservatives, rheology.
30 Mathematical Model of DSM Tool for the Design and Modelling of Fluid Transportation Pipeline , Bunakiye, R. J., Evans, F. O., Joseph A. E.3, and Juliana I. C.
In the oil and gas industry, there have been constant demands for more cost-effective and efficient tools to productive pipeline design. The task of pipeline design for effective implementation has only been done by performing expensive and time-consuming product development cycles which involve building the model, building a physical prototype of the design, testing the prototype in the field, evaluating the results of the field tests and modifying the design based on results of the field tests. This research interest, therefore, is to address these demands by coming up with a mathematical model using a domain specific modelling (DSM) tool solution equipped with type-systems and semantics that can simplify design and implementation of transmission pipeline structures. The metrics associated with the equations in the mathematical model presented in this paper with the accompanying figures indicate that the system can be used for front end engineering design (FEED), detailed engineering design and simulation of oil and gas flow on transmission pipelines. This DSM tool, which is a software suite conceived to be a robust system for fluid transportation pipeline design and modelling spans through the transient effect of temperature, pressure, stress, corrosion allowance for pipe, buckling effects for a successful flow assurance for piping systems, and operations for both offshore and onshore pipelines. Keywords— Domain Specific Modelling (DSM), front end engineering design (FEED), finite element method (FEM), computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and gas pipeline.
31 Technical Analysis of Gas Utilization Strategies in Remote Locations   , Chidike E., Joel O., Sunday I., Neeka, J. B.
Worldwide energy demand has been growing exponentially over the decade. There is therefore need not only to increase worldwide energy supply but also to maximize the current supply. Natural gas tends to play a huge role in supplying required energy but it is however marred by some activities that prevents its maximization such as gas flaring. Gas flaring not only wastes valuable resources but also contributes to greenhouse gas emission. Gas flaring is still practiced today in many locations around the world especially in Nigeria due to lack of gas utilization infrastructures, unsustainable exploitation practices and location of gas production facilities. A holistic review of different technologies used in converting, storing and transporting recovered flare gas from remote locations to processing facilities was done in this paper. At the end of the review, it was concluded that Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Technology is the most viable technology for the transportation and effective utilization of small volumes of recovered flare gas produced in remote locations. Keywords: Gas Utilization Strategies, Remote locations, Technology and Transportation.
32 Experimental Studies on Green-Algae and its by-Products as an Energy Source – Biofuels, Bioenergy, and Biogas Perspectives.   , Idris, M. N. * and Bello, O. A.
The technology of biofuels is no longer a doubted process of developing renewable energy alternatives to petroleum-based fuels resources. This sustainable technology has increased tremendously with decrease in world-crude oil reserves while the price of energy is on the increase. Biofuels are renewable and less toxic and are readily biodegradable form of fuels from biological sources. Fossil fuel has been a major source of energy for household and industrial use, but concerns about shortage of fossil fuels, increasing crude oil price, energy security and accumulation of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the atmosphere that result to global warming (GW) have led to growing worldwide interest in renewable energy source. In this study, an alga was used instead of traditional agro-based raw materials, because it does not compete with food or fodder and is abundantly available in fresh water or marine ecosystem. The experimental studies conducted show that algal species can be used to produce biodiesel (biofuels). The results reveal that algae are fast growing organism and can be grown artificially. Inducement of fertilizer and other growth media can be used to increase the growth rate of biofuels production. Oil produced from algae oil was esterified using methanol as catalyst. The properties of the biodiesel produced clearly show that biodiesel produced from green algae can be used to run engine. The experimental results show that the Flash point was 1350C, Pour point was 170C and Cloud point was 180C and are all in agreement with the standard of biodiesel (biofuels). Keywords: Green-algae, biofuels, and sustainable energy
33 Applications of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System (SCADA) in Oil and Gas Exploration: Case Study of Nigeria.   , Mtamabari, S. T, and Tobinson, B
This Research reviewed the application of supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) in oilfields. The challenges face by vast network of production facilities crisscrossing the nations landscape in retrieving accurate and real time data is discussed. A critical study showed that Fire, Vandalization, Environmental leaks, flow assurance and tempering with pipelines continue to persist as major pipeline issues in Nigeria. This research revealed that Oil fields are becoming part of an ICT network, as all of them are increasingly interconnected through SCADA system and monitored in real time because accurate and real time data is required for decision making to optimize the efficiency of the oil and gas industry. It is established that Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition, SCADA, is a sophisticated, cost - saving technology that can effectively address the challenges and remained the best technology for monitoring/surveillance and optimization of Oilfield production. This technology will provide a mechanism, which allows the oil and Gas operators to remotely monitor, control and optimize the distribution network. It was noted that Nigeria oil sector have not efficiently deploy the use of this technology in its oil & gas operations due to certain barriers. This work concluded that adopting this technology will prevent vandalization, leakages, oil and gas theft, monitors flow and retrieve accurate and real time data required for decision making to enhance efficiency and optimize production, operations and maintenance. Keywords: SCADA, Oil & Gas, Exploration, Remote Monitoring, Automation.
34 The Hydrogeology of Chikun and Environs (Kakuri Sheet 144 Nw) North Central- Nigeria   , Odey, B.O, Garba, M. L, Adaaja, B.O1, Raji, E.U, Zamani, E.Y 1 and Otiwa, G. I
The Hydrogeology of Chikun and Environs (Kakuri Sheet 144 NW) North Central- Nigeria was studied using geological, hydrogeological and geophysical methods. The major rock mapped within the study area include mica schist, granitic gneiss and porphyritic granite. The petrographic analyses carried out reveals the presence of quartz, muscovite, microcline, perthite, biotite, plagioclase, and orthoclase. Results of VES interpretation reveal four to six geoelectric layers, thicknesses and their respective resistivity values that include; Top soil having the thickness and resistivity of 0.3-2.1 m soil thickness and 391.0 Ωm , sandy clay: 7.51 m and 291.0 Ωm, weathered regolith: 22.12 m and 204.1 Ωm, highly weathered basement: 27.57 m and 262.6 Ωm, partially weathered basement: 30.85 m and 427.0 Ωm, and the fresh basement: 87.50 m and 604.4 Ωm. Based on hydraulic head measurements from 38 hand-dug wells, the groundwater configuration map for both dry and wet seasons were drawn to show the groundwater flow direction of the study area. The borehole performance was examined using information on hydraulic characteristics of the aquifer that include yield ranging from (15.552-88.128 m3/day), Transmissivity, T (1.779 x 100- 8.96 x 10-1 m2/day) and Storativity, S (1.03 x 10-1-3.706 x 10-3) as computed from the pumping test result. The geochemical results show Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) ranging from 8-365 mg/l having a median value of 14 mg/l with an average of 70.1mg/l, Electrical conductivity (EC) ranges from 13-522 μS/cm having a median value of 69 μS/cm with an average of 100.1 μS/cm, Temperature ranges from 6-30.75°C having a median value of 13.35 °C with an average of 22°C and pH ranges from 5.26-6.8 having a median value of 5.89 with an average of 6. The major and minor elements concentrations are mostly within the permissible limit of NIS (2007) and WHO (2011). The results show that the groundwater in the study area is potable and suitable for domestic, industrial and agricultural uses, except in some locations like Gwogofe, Damba 2, Gwagwada 3, Angwan Turai, Gudun Guya and Angwan Alkali 2 where the concentration of Pb and Cr are slightly above permissible limits. Based on the VES interpretation, VES 1, 2, 5, 8, 9, 13 and 15 can be considered for citing a borehole because of their relatively lower resistivities (between 195.3-215.1 Ωm) and layered aquifer thickness of 68.7 m. Similarly, VES 3, 4, 6, 7, 10, 11, 12 and 14 are considered suitable for citing boreholes (between 213.3-259.0 Ωm) and layered aquifer thickness of 69.8 m. The groundwater potential for the study area is rated low having a coefficient of T (m2/d) ranging from 10-1 within the class of T magnitude of IV when compared with Krasny’s Classification of Transmissivity of Magnitude and Variation, this classification suggests that the volume of groundwater within the study area is for smaller withdrawals for local water supply (Private consumption). Key words: Groundwater, Transmissivity, Storativity, Aquifer.
35 Algorithmic Models On Chemo-Statistics Corrosion Rate Data of a Nitrogenous Fertilizer Plant, South-South Niger Delta.   , Neeka, J.B., Ike, L.N., Mannir, A. and Onuwaje, J.O.
Corrosion rate trend of the High-Pressure Carbamate Condenser, in a Nitrogenous Fertilizer plant was simulated from an existing Field Data Initially in Place (FDIIP), using the sequence algorithm to establish the corrosion pathways and failure analysis in the plant. The tube material is made up of: A213M16L: X2CrN M017132 urea grade (BC.01), (Ike et al, 2021). The tube dimensions: OD20, 12163mm. The tube number: 2353 with a minimum overlay thickness of 8mm and 5mm liner material. This study further highlights chemical process plat corrosion statistics (Chemo-statistics) in the tubular High Temperature, High Pressure (HTHP) equipment over a period of ten active production year where the temperature of the liquids ranges from 183-195oC. Carbon dioxide gas while the pressure of the system is kept at about 163kgf/cm2 after the ammonia flow has been discharged. The data sets were carried out as part of the preliminary field investigation on the plat and is useful for planning and good decision-making. The simulation was done using computer program in Visual Basic with two major assumptions on Percentage counting process (pica) and Random counting process (Racop). These results obtained quite contradict field report of the technical partner which indicated that corrosion rate was within the maximum tolerable limit value. The total Td accounted for 15% of the population predicting CR at tp =1.8years above MTLV (O.064mpy). These are responsible for the rapid drop in tensile properties of the tubes and hence increase CR along Tdï‚£ 2.40mm. Also, increased CR directly increased the heavy metal and chloride ion (Cl-) concentrations in process waters which enhanced pressure drop in the tubes due to severe leakages. This work is useful for good decision making and for forecasting in oil and gas chemical corrosion data statistics for strategic administration. Keywords: Nitrogenous Fertilizer, Corrosion Rate Data, Algorithmic Models, Chemostatistics.
36 Aspenplus Simulation Studies to Improve On the Control Systems of Sulphur Recovering Unit (SRU) Of Modern Refinery Plant   , Idris, M. N.,  Alhassan, M., and Abdulghaffar, A.
Sulphur recovery unit (SRU) is one amongst the most important units of a modern refinery due to its functional peculiarity and economies. Nigerian crude oil is rich in sulphur content when compared with e.g. Arabian light crude. In this study, numerical design of SRU was carried out with the primal emphasis on its control systems and its analysis on the sulphur reheater unit. In this unit, it is required to maintain the outlet temperature of the reheater at about 3200C fed into the catalytic equilibrium reactor. The results of the simulation gives a steady outlet temperature of 319.70C for the PID (proportional, integral and differential) control integration and 319.60C for PI control integration after a simulation pace of 2.5 secs respectively. The rise time and settling time for the PID control integration of the jacket was recorded at 0.105 sec and 0.814 sec respectively, while the tank was at 0.567 sec and 2.88 secs respectively. In addition, step tests analysis for the transmitter was investigated for both the tank and jacket, and at 2.0 secs was optimally achieved for both cases. Keywords: Control systems, simulation, and SRU
37 Economics of Methane Production from Animal Dung using 681.3 M3 Fixed-Domes Digester for Farm Application   , Mtamabari, S. T., and Ebigenibo, G.S.
Renewable energy is one of the vital sources to meet partially the global energy demand of developed as well as developing countries. Biogas plant can be one of the major sources of renewable energy in farms and rural Nigeria as huge amount of animal dung and poultry waste is available. Biogas plant can be of different types of which fixed dome and floating cover is in use in many countries for many years. The bag design is becoming popular in many countries. The generated gas can be used for cooking, lighting, power generation and the sludge can be used as fertilizer for land. Animal waste is easily available and inexpensive; the major share of cost is incurred at the initial stage. The operating and the maintenance costs are quite low. In the present work, an attempt has been taken to study the economics of a 681.3m3 fixed dome digester for methane gas production. Costs related to the fabrication of plant are collected from various sources and the other items were estimated based on available information. Net present worth, internal rate of return, benefit-cost ratio and payback period were calculated. Based on calculated values, it was found that the biogas plant is economically viable, and viability increased with the increase of plant size, availability of waste and increased cost of fossil fuel. The technological suitability in the context of prevailing situation, economic viability and future scope of biogas plants has been evaluated. The findings of this study would give some directions and guidelines for future planning and implementation of biogas plants in Nigeria. Key Words: Biogas, Digester, Slurry, Life-Cycle Costing, Annualized Life-Cycle Cost, Cost of Biogas, fossil fuel.
38 Corporate Social Responsibility under the Petroleum Industry Act 2021: Achieving Environmental Sustainability through Multi-Stakeholder Partnership. , Joy A. Debski, Elimma C. Ezeani.
Several attempts have been made by the Nigerian government to reform the oil and gas industry. In March 2007, the first attempt to introduce the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Bill was initiated by the late Senator Uche Chwukwumerije but it failed to pass the second reading. Further attempts to reform the industry in 2009, 2012 and 2018 also failed until the National Assembly passed the 2021 Petroleum Industry Bill now known as the Petroleum Industry Act 2021(PIA). Chapter 3 Section 240 (2) of the PIA by making CSR contribution a mandatory levy on corporations, has changed the voluntary and self-regulatory element of CSR to hard law legislation. We are of the view, that a multi-stakeholder approach and multi-stakeholder framework comprising host communities, oil and gas companies as well as government, is essential to achieving the broad requirements of CSR in the Nigerian oil and gas industry. In this paper, we analyse this approach in line with the role and challenges of CSR as provided for under the new Petroleum Industry Act. Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility, Multi-stakeholder Partnership, and Petroleum Industry Act.
39 Foucault Account on Power/Knowledge: Its Implication on Educational Process in Nigeria   , Ebiye Mary Agbai, Edward P. Agbai
The power/knowledge relationship is studied rarely as social factors integrated in research framework. We question the factors that influence knowledge creation underlining the role of power in the development of the child in the classroom, advancement in technological, innovation, and economic stability in the twilight of the 20th century entering the 21st century. The views of Foucault on power and knowledge provides a basis to rethink the whole power and knowledge construct. Using a descriptive approach of the Foucault Power/Knowledge relation in the Nigeria emerging education scenario and Foucault’s lens necessitates the understanding of power not as a social construct between sovereign and individuals but in the politics of everyday life. We offer four analytic strategies: beginning from power and discipline, power and repression, power and knowledge and the use of modern power in technology. The power/knowledge discussion to grow society in general and the Nigerian society. Findings indicates that Power/Knowledge transfer is facilitated through creation of a safe school and work environment that demonstrates positive learning. We recommend using power/knowledge as a tool to relevant pedagogy practice for the learning processes of technology of the self and to provide new knowledge in the learning environments is crucial for understanding of the socially constructed nature of truth and its inscription in knowledge/power relations. Keywords – Education, Pedagogy, Power, Knowledge, Technology of the self, Discipline
40 Assessment of Nigeria’s Manufacturing Industry and Economic Growth Relationship through Factors that Affect Economic Growth   , Lesor Paul Togi and Vurasi Morrison Ndor
The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between Nigerian’s manufacturing industry and economic growth for their relative improvement through factors that affect economic growth which include financial accessibility, human capital development, government policy/ implementation and infrastructural development. The statistical significant relationship between manufacturing and financial accessibility human capital development, government policy/implementation and infrastructural development are 0.031, 0.04, 0.022 and 0.012 respectively. Comparatively, the p-value obtained from the relationship between manufacturing and infrastructural development indicates stronger evidence in favour of the alternative hypothesis than other factors affecting economic growth. This study focuses on the Nigerian labour-intensive manufacturing sector and the units of analysis are manufacturing leather, wood, and metal products. To effectively investigate this relationship, quantitative research approach and survey research strategy are used. The data collected from the research were analyzed statistically with IBM SPSS Statistics Version 21. The results obtained show that statistically there is significant relationship between manufacturing and economic growth. Keywords: Assessment, Manufacturing industry, Relationship, Factors, Economic growth.
41 Application of Model Driven Valuation Methodology for Maximum Throughput in Oil and Gas Pipeline Engineering Operations   , Bunakiye R. Japheth
The focus of this paper is on economic success for engineers and related experts whose primary line of business is tied to the field of pipeline mechanisms in the oil and gas industry. General purpose programming languages and computer aided design systems cannot express oil and gas pipeline engineering domain concepts appropriately, which means that domain experts in the oil and gas industry find it cumbersome to operate at optimal using conventional software in their line of business. This paper, therefore, presented a model driven valuation technique that enable the engineer simply input values corresponding to familiar notations such as pipe diameter, fittings, flow metrics etc.) on an interface to get done the kind of design, simulation artifact and other pipeline configurations without having to use any general-purpose programming system. The policies and mechanics of the valuation coupled software system production process incorporated inherent properties from MATLAB application programmer interface (API) to integrate the domain characteristics and concepts. The result became a new layer of reusable software capable of processing these domain characteristics and concepts to produce desired artefacts. A collection that supports further layers of accessible software connected through interfaces. This system is recommended to industries with a principal business interest in the oil and gas industry with the hope that crafting pipeline configurations for effective oil and gas supply within the value chain can be achieved with ease. Keywords: pipeline project, consistent valuation data, design interests, model driven design, domain driven design, design scenarios, economic success.
42 Water and Green Energy as the Heart of Sustainable Development – Promoting Sustainable Environment Through Innovate Engineering Technology in Nigeria Economy   , M. N. Idris, M. O. Owofu, N. J. Biragbara
Water for energy, energy for water is an independent sector and through their inextricable linkage, water and energy remains the key driver of economic growth and social development. The benefits water and energy (W-E) provides are: on poverty reductions, economic progress-impairment on the ecosystems, but has quantified costs. In addition, it improves the health and in education, promotes stable society and human dignity and help in realizing basic human rights. When achieving developmental goals on W-E sustainability, it is of disadvantages that there will be an increase on water scarcity, high exposure to environmental degradation, e.g. floods and droughts etc., scaling energy prices which will reduce on access to W-E and in-turn increase poverty and by extension impact on natural ecosystems. By improving the performance optimization on W-E nexus; the resultant increase on energy efficiency; decrease water pollution, reduce costs of energy and water provision, increase access to services and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emission. The effective development of renewable energy worldwide would be a stabilizing driver on fossil fuel availability and global climate change. Water is especially important and used in large volumes in generating electricity, whether through green energy (hydroelectric power), or heat exchange (steam systems), and for cooling (nuclear). This paper presents some studies on algae formations instead of traditional agro-based raw materials, because it does not compete with food or fodder and is abundantly available in fresh water or marine ecosystem. The studies show that algal species can be used to produce biodiesel (biofuels). A comparative study was conducted using chemically pre-treated with NaOH and un-treated spirogyra biomass. The spirogyra biomass was subjected to saccharification process by the fungi Aspergillus Niger for hydrolysis, for six (6) days and then followed by the fermentation process by using yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) for another 6 days. The comparative study experimented, and the results recorded showed that high yield of ethanol was obtained for un-treated Spirogyra biomass when compared to chemically pre-treated biomass. Additional studies reveal that inducement of fertilizer and other growth media can be used to increase the growth rate of biofuels production from algae. Oil produced from algae was esterified using CH3OH as catalyst. The properties of the biodiesel produced clearly show that biodiesel produced from green algae can be used to run engine. The experimental results show that the Flash point was 1350C, Pour point was 170C and Cloud point was 180C and are all in agreement with the standard of biodiesel (biofuels). The current production cost of bioethanol plant is $26,560 US. Keywords: Energy, water, environment, and sustainability  
43 Rethinking Women in Leadership in the Contemporary Workplace   , Abayomi Abidakun, Ebiye Mary Agbai
Given the progression of women into labor market, growing concern over improved diversity in the workplace, and legislation advocating for equal opportunities for women and men, it remained a mystery why the opportunity of women into top leadership positions remains limited and why the narrative of ‘think manager think men is becoming a norm. The overarching objective of this paper is to review women in leadership positions in the contemporary workplace. This paper is conceptual in nature and based on extensive review of literature. The paper noted that women experience stumbling blocks that are becoming too tough to break and the obstructions are founded not on lack educational of qualifications, and requisite job experience, but prejudices connected to cultural, societal, organizational, individual, and situational impediments. The paper concludes that women have progressed slightly into leadership roles, but the gap is still much wider. The study recommends expanded opportunity for women into networks and gain sponsorship as a way of climbing into leadership positions. In addition, there is need for inclusive gender policy towards improving women career progression in the workplace. Keywords: Gender, Glass ceiling; Leadership, Career progression, Discrimination.
44 Extraction, Isolation, and Identification of Flavonoid from Cassia Singueana Aerial Parts.   , B A. Adedoyin1, O I. Adeniran , A. B Mohammad Luthfun Nahar, S. D. Sarker
The flavonoids contained in C. singueana aerial parts were extracted, identified and characterized. Sequential Soxhlet extracts were subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening and flavonoid quantification. The results showed that maximum yield of the flavonoid (8.435 mg/g) were obtained from DCM extract. The DCM extract was subjected to flash chromatography for isolation of flavonoid. Isolated flavonoid was characterized using various spectroscopic techniques. On the basis of chemical and spectral analyses structure was elucidated as 2-3, (4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3, 5, 7-trihydroxy-4H-chromen-4-one, a flavonoid. Keywords: Cassia Singueana, Flavonoids, Flash chromatography, Quercetin
45 Application of CFD to Improve on Reliability and Efficiency of Centrifugal Pump for Oil and Gas Processing Plant   , M. N. Idris, A. A. Kois
Centrifugal pump is one of the standard pump specification uses in process industries for qualitative and quantitative fluid transfer. Most industrial application of centrifugal pump has mechanical configuration problems that resulted to pump inefficiency and malfunctions. Fault or bad design pumps are characterized due to quality engineering design which prompted this investigation. In this study, CFD code was used to simulate pump efficiency and compared with real experimental studies. Within the limit of simulation experimental error, it was found that, the centrifugal pump was designed within the constraint of pumping at a flow rate of 0.04 m3/s and at a Head of 55-70 m. After the design calculations, the system was model and drawn in SOLIDWOKS, it was found that the pump was given the required material from the software material library in line with the design specifications and parameters using local materials. The performance of the pump was simulated and evaluated to have a flow rate of 0.043 m3/s, velocity of 8.2 m/s with a head of 70 m and various efficiencies ranging from 68.45 - 81.61%. After the analysis was done, 590 it was identified to be the optimum impeller outlet blade angle in which volumetric efficiency and hydraulic efficiency is maximum. The efficiency pressure ratio has also increased; therefore the pump head also increase. Keywords: Flow, pump, efficiency and reliability
46 Evaluation of Geomechanical Parameters for Sand Prediction in Apogee Field Offshore, Niger Delta.   , Anthony Benedict Sunebari, Oliseyenum Precious Chukuemeke,, Rogerson Ntor-ue, and Chinda Eze
The research focuses on the evaluation of geomechanical parameters for sand prediction in APOGEE, offshore Nigeria. Depletion of reservoir, increased water- cut, reservoir ageing, poor completion and poor reservoir management all causes sand production. Sand production increases the cost of maintenance of a well, leads to well shut in and jeopardizes the safety of worker. Four wells were evaluated using geomechanical parameters and well logs data (sonic log, Gamma ray, density, resistivity, and neutron log). Furthermore, six reservoirs were identified (reservoir 1- 6) and correlated across the five wells. Shear and compressive wave travel time from the sonic log were obtained and were used to estimate geomechanical parameters (both elastic and inelastic). The estimated geomehcanical parameters includes Poison ratio, Young modulus, Bulk modulus, UCS and pore pressure. Four methods were used to evaluate the sand potential and they include: B-index, Schlumberger index, Bulk modulus, Compression ratio and combined ratio. The analysis revealed a strong linear relationship between UCS and porosity with a regression coefficient correlation between 1 and 0. 98. This research shows the studied reservoirs falls below the threshold pressure for sand production. Comparing the four methods, the ratio of Shear modulus to the bulk compressibility ratio (G/Cb) method predicted the highest potential for sand production. This research therefore validates that reservoirs in APOGEE field is highly unconsolidated. Keywords: Poison ratio, Young modulus, Bulk modulus, UCS and Pore pressure and Sand control
This research was carried out based on the need for creating a digitalized environmental resource database for Ogoni (comprising its four Local Government Area of Eleme, Khana, Tai and Gokana in Rivers State, Nigeria). Leveraging on the Engaged techniques in monitoring oil spill Remediation management. The research was proposed towards monitoring Remediation with various degrees of impact resulting from oil spill contamination within the study area, through the knowledge of spill sources, contaminated area, degree of impact and sizes, from which a viable database is built. List of the impacted 64 UNEP facts sheets sites, list of 12 sites undergoing Remedial work, spill investigation area and their reference GPS coordinates as provided by HYPREP was analysed using the Geographical Information Systems. collected dataset was analysed using ArcGIS 10.5 as imported in Geographical Information Systems environment, suffer was used in producing maps and contour. Indications from result shows that each impacted site, has an associated source with the contour showing point of high and low impact of contamination. The research has therefore conclusively shown the effective use of Geographical Information Systems, in creating a spatial database in monitoring and modelling oil spill trend for the purpose Remediation putting in place adequate Remediation Management System in the study area. I recommend that Remediation Management System maps covering study area be consistently made available and accessed when needed for upward review. Key worlds: Oil Spill, Remediation, Environmental Pollution, Ogoni clean-up.
48 In vitro Cytotoxicity of Euphorbia heterophylla Against Human Cancer Cell Lines   , B A. Adedoyin, O I. Adeniran , M.S Abubbakar Luthfun Nahar, S. D. Sarker
Euphorbia heterophylla (EH) is a well-known Africa medicinal plant, which has been used in the African traditional medicine for the treatment of various human ailments including tumours and cancers. Previous phytochemical screening of E. hetrophylla has detected many flavonoids, terpenoids and sterols (Okeniyi et al., 2012: Silva et al., 2019). Seven compounds were isolated from the different fractions of EH including three biflavonoids (Cupressuflavone, Quecertin and Quercitrin) and four diterpenes (13-epicupressic acid, imbricatholic acid, 3α-hydroxy sandaracopimaric acid and β− hydroxysandaracopimaric acid). All the compounds were tested for their cytotoxicity against the A549 cell lines and compared with the anticancer standard etoposide. Cupressuflavone and 13-epicupressic acid showed the highest cytotoxicity against human lung cancer cells lines (A549) with IC50 values of 58 and 73μM respectively. The current findings support the traditional use of EH for the treatment of tumours and other cancer related diseases. It is suggested that the cytotoxic activity revealed in the polar MeOH fractions was due to the presence of cytotoxic bioflavonoids and the cytotoxicity observed with the non-polar fractions of E. heterophylla root were contributed by various cytotoxic terpenes. Keywords: Euphorbia heterophylla, bioflavonoids, terpenoids, Cupressuflavone, 13-epicupressic acid, Cytotoxicity  
This paper reports a compressive study on the utilization of rice husk (RH) as an important agro waste and reinforcement for composites fabrication. It also reports in details, a review of the physical and mechanical properties of RH composites and it intensively highlighted the knowledge gaps that need to be filled in the respective research areas. Furthermore, it discusses the potential of RH composites to be used in photonics, construction materials, and automotive and furniture applications, based on their strength and thermal characteristics. It also revealed that, extensive efforts can make rice husk a material for sustainable development since it has the potential to reduce greenhouse emissions, reduces material costs and abundantly affordable. Keywords: Rice Husk, Composites, Matrix, Reinforcement
This research work uses gravimetric analysis for corrosion tests performed to determine the weight loss and corrosion extent on carbon steel and glass reinforced epoxy (GRE) specimens. Comparative results for both specimens are analysed to justify the use of glass reinforced epoxy pipe as an effective control measure for the corrosion of oil pipelines used for the transportation of hydrocarbon products. The values obtained from the experiment are used to develop regression model which can be helpful to predict the corrosion extents on both materials within the test composition. Coefficient of determination is explored to ascertain the reliability of the regression models. The results obtained indicated that 99 percent of the original uncertainty has been explained by the regression models. From the experimental results, glass reinforced epoxy test specimens had better resistant to corrosion than carbon steel test specimens which makes it attractive alternative to the conventional carbon steel pipe for the transportation of hydrocarbon products in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. Keywords: Carbon steel, Corrosion extent, Gravimetric analysis, GRE, Regression models
51 USE OF GLASS REINFORCED EPOXY PIPE IN PLACE OF CARBON STEEL PIPE IN NIGER DELTA.   , Adeleye Mutiu Adesina, Oluwajana Oladotun Afolabi, Lawal Yusuf Olutayo, Danwanzan Jerry.
The Anambra Basin contains oil and gas producing reservoirs in the southeastern part of Nigeria. Two-dimensional (2-D) modeling, using data from three (3) exploration wells has been carried out to assess the maturity, timing, and distribution of hydrocarbon generation in the Anambra Basin. This current study focuses on two sources in Anambra Basin namely; Coniacian Agwu and Nkporo source rocks. The results of models generated indicate that the onset of hydrocarbon generation from Awgu source rock started in the area of deepest subsidence during the late Campanian (77.30Ma). Awgu source rock in the model has a present-day transformation ratio of about 60-65%. This range indicates that the Awgu source rock has sufficient generation for hydrocarbon expulsion to occur. Nkporo source rock was equally observed to have capacity for hydrocarbon generation, but the generation was insufficient for expulsion because it has lower transformation ratio (<10%). Migrated hydrocarbon from the Coniacian Awgu source rock must have accumulated as oil and gas pools within the Coniacian Agbani and upper Campanian Owelli Sandstone. The discovery of gas in the Coniacian Agbani sandstone of Amansiodo-1, Akukwa-2, and Nzam-1 wells indicates the existence of petroleum traps in Cretaceous beds of the Anambra Basin. Keywords: Two dimensional modelling, Hydrocarbon generation and expulsion, Anambra basin, Transformation ratio, Awgu and Nkporo shales.
Biotechnological advances for the past decades have provided new surfactant production technologies. Surface active substances (biosurfactants) produced by fermentative processes have proven to be a safer and sustainable alternative to many synthetic molecules. Biosurfactants are a promising substitute due to their synthesis potential by a wide variety of microorganisms. They are a highly diverse group of structures, such as glycolipids, lipopeptides, polysaccharide-protein complexes, phospholipids, fatty acids, and neutral lipids. This diversity promotes many advantages compared to synthetic surfactants, thereby making biosurfactants a suitable choice for technological advances associated with sustainable development. Such advantages include fermentative production viability using renewable resources, effectiveness in small concentrations even under extreme conditions, selective and specific potential for several applications, lower toxicity, higher biodegradability, and better stability to physicochemical variations. Despite these benefits enumerated, they are not widely used because of the high production costs. Hence, finding cost-effective substrates is imperative to making biosurfactants an economically competitive product against synthetic surfactants. In this review, inexpensive and renewable substrates that can be used for biosurfactants production are discussed. Also, biosurfactants and their potential use in bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminants, and effectiveness in bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminants compared to synthetic surfactants are reviewed. Keywords: Biosurfactants, Hydrocarbon degradation, Bioremediation, Environment.
Pollution of aquatic environments in the Niger Delta remains a major source of food chain contamination. In this study, the concentrations of heavy metals and Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in biota were determined. Standard laboratory and environmental techniques were employed in sampling and analysis of samples. Samples were collected from Borokiri, Kaa, Okrika and Eagle Island rivers. The concentrations of PCBs were determined using gas chromatography equipped with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) while heavy metals were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The results were analyzed using descriptive and inferential techniques. The results of the study showed that concentrations of PCBs in biota ranged from 0.95 – 0.98 mg/kg. Heavy metals concentrations (mg/kg) in biota ranged as 0.848- 9.719, 4.325-6.115, 5.917-9.013, 4.369-7.395, 0.619-1.462, 3.712-5.653 and 2.911-5.614 for Cd, Cu, Zn, Cr, Ba, Pb and Ni respectively. The result shows that there is a significant difference in the concentrations of the metals in biota along the locations. While the concentrations of the PCB were within regulatory limits, there is need to consistently monitor their levels as they can contaminate the food chain thereby inducing toxicities in humans. Keywords: Polychlorinated biphenyls, heavy metals, periwinkle, concentrations, food chain, contamination.
Sediments are important in the geochemical cycles of marine and estuarine ecosystems with the ability to influence ecological processes and inhabiting biota. This study evaluated sediment particle sizes of the Lagos Harbour and inland water system with a view to determine their diversity and influence on heavy metal levels. Samples were collected using Van veen grabs, viz; dry season 2013 (DS-1), wet season 2013 (WS) and dry season 2014 (DS-2) for a period of 18 months in the Lagos Lagoon and inland water system. The sediments collected were analysed according to the British Standard (BS 1377-2, 1990) at the instrument Physical Geography Laboratory, University of Portsmouth. The mean clay, silt, course and sand were found to be 6.67± 4.51, 6.0 ± 3.0, 9.17± 3.25 and 0.37 ± 3.06 respectively. The particle size in relation with total metals/metalloids concentration in the sediment revealed positive correlation with significant differences (p<0.05) between clay and Fe (r = 0.391*), clay and Pb (r = 0.40*). While the particle size in relation and recoverable metals/metalloids concentration in the sediment revealed positive correlation with significant differences (p<0.05) between clay and Mn (r = 0.416*), silt and Mn (r = 0.414*). The particle size in relation with bioavailable metals/metalloids concentration in the sediment revealed positive correlation with were significant differences (p<0.05) between silt and Pb (r = 0.426*). This implies that the widespread dredging of the lagoon sediments and artisanal sand mining has had its toll on the structural integrity of the substratum. The strong correlation between the finer particle sizes with total, recoverable and bioavailable fractions of Fe-Mn-Pb in the sediment samples is notable and implies increased chances of retention of pollutants in the sediment matrix. Keywords: Evaluation Techniques, Inland-Lagoons, Sediment texture, Heavy metal/metalloid, Marine pollution.
The energy potentials of briquettes produced from a mixture of rice husk and saw dust have been investigated from the physic-chemical properties under strict laboratory analysis. The parameters indicated that briquettes from rice husk and saw dust using cassava starch as binders, are reddish brown while briquettes from rice husk and saw dust with gum Arabic are dark brown in colours. Furthermore, the moisture content of briquettes from rice husk and cassava starch is lower compared to that from saw dust and cassava starch (Table 1 and 2). Under intense pressure, briquettes from rice husk and cassava starch burn at 40oC in 3minutes, while rice husk with gum Arabic burn at 54oC in 3minutes. At the ratio of 50 – 50, briquettes with gum Arabic as binders is the best in calorific values at 0.694g/sec (Table 5). Saw dust has high thermal efficiency than rice husk while starch is more combustible than gum arabic. Equations 1 and 2 are determinants in the weight measurement processes and the ratio of materials for the right proportion of rice husk and saw dust with the different binders at different times. The moisture contents and burning rates of these briquettes are fundamental to the determinations of the energy potentials as alternative renewable energy source in Nigeria, equation 2. Briquettes produced from rice husk and saw dust is compatible with fuel needs in the rural areas and makes good biomass fuel as alternative energy sources if properly harness for both domestic and industrial use. This paper therefore, is useful for policy decisions on renewable energy industrialization, energy diversification and agro-economics for environmental preservation in Nigeria. Keywords: Briquettes, Renewable Energy, Saw dust, Rice Husk, Gum Arabic.
Simplified predictive models developed to determine sustainable local content policy and human capacity development in the Nigeria’s oil and gas industry was carried out using secondary data from the Petroleum Technology Development Fund (PTDF) within ten years. The research was formulated on both descriptive and analytical statistical methods for the prediction of the expected capacity development value at optimum conditions based on critical industry need assessment and audit report between 2018 -2023 - a baseline study and the secondary data sets from PTDF trio-capacity development strategies from 2011 – 2021. From equations 2.1 – 2.11, it was established that challenging weaknesses could be turned into opportunities for the Fund. A comparative analysis of the Skills Gap Audit (SGA) and Simplified Predictive Models (SPM) was carried out using arithmetic mean, standard deviation and correlation coefficient from the assumed mean of the unclassified data. Tables 2.1 - 4.5 and Figures 2.1 and 2.6 are reference commonality data sets. The results established that more key performance indicators were captured in the SPM models (mean of 23.04 and deviation of 0.4) against the imputed values in the SGA, (mean 4.52 and deviation of 0.5) respectively. This research is useful for policy formulation and decision-making on local content policy formulations and capacity development programmes in Nigeria. Keywords: Predictive models, Sustainable local content policy, Petroleum technology Development Fund.
Deep frying is one of the most commonly used procedures for the preparation and manufacture of foods throughout the world, for both domestic and industrial food preparation procedures. During deep-frying, the oil is exposed to elevated temperatures in the presence of air and moisture. A number of chemical reactions, including oxidation and hydrolysis, occur during this time, as do changes due to thermal decomposition. The oil commonly used in deep-frying includes groundnut oil, canola oil, sunflower oil, palm olefin, soybean oil. The addition of antioxidants is the most commonly used form to retard lipid oxidation processes and extend the shelf life of oils and fats. Synthetic antioxidants such as BHT, BHA, TBHQ and PQ are reported to be health hazardous, and some are removed from the GRAS (generally recognized as safe) list and banned in many countries. Natural antioxidants are mainly polyphenolic compounds that help to stabilize oils and food, trapping free radicals and retarding oxidative processes. Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is known to contain natural antioxidants that can remove reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reduce lipid peroxides and low-density lipoprotein oxidation. The antioxidant properties of garlic compounds are allyl cysteine, alliin, allicin, and allyl disulfide. This study was conducted to determine the effect of garlic on some quality characteristics of repeatedly used groundnut oil. The initial phenolic content of the oil before frying was 677±2.83g GAE/g. At the end of the frying period, the total mean value for the phenolic content of the samples were 493±7.53g GAE/g, 407±3.43g GAE/g, and 346±4.44g GAE/g for Sample GS2 (7% garlic), Sample GS1 (4% garlic) and Sample GS0 (untreated groundnut oil) respectively. This research work is significant for decision –making and policy formulation in the food industry value chain in Nigeria. Keywords: Antioxidant, Deep-Frying, Garlic, Food Chain, Polyphenol.
58 RENEWABLE SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS FOR SUSTAINABLE DRYING OF BANANA (MUSA ACUMINATA) PEEL BIOMASS., Oluseye Omotoso Agbede, Kehinde Ayokunle Omotola, Funmilayo Nihinlola Osuolale, Olufunmilayo Abiola Aworanti, Akeem Olatunde Arinkoola, Kehinde Ayoola Babatunde, Solomon Oluyemi Alagbe, Samuel Enahoro Agarry, and Oladipupo Olaosebikan Ogunleye
Huge amount of banana peel biomass are generated annually which are excellent sources of bioenergy, biofuels and other value-added products. The initial moisture content of banana peel is about 70%, which leads to deterioration and limits the efficiency of conversion processes. Solar energy is abundant, free and renewable, so the solar drying of banana peel was investigated. Drying kinetics of banana peel in passive and active solar dryers were compared with that of direct sunlight. Mathematical and artificial neural network (ANN) modelling methods were applied to describe the rate of drying of the peel. The banana peel dried fastest in the active dryer followed by the passive dryer, then direct sunlight. The peels dried in the falling rate period. The Verma, Midilli-Kucuk and Weibull models best described the peel drying kinetics in direct sunlight, passive and active solar dryers, respectively. Feed-forward multilayer perception ANNs having (4-3-1) network topologies best fitted the drying data. The estimated diffusivities of moisture in the peel were 7.835 × 10-11, 9.59 × 10-11 and 1.952 × 10-10 m2 s-1 during its drying in direct sunlight, passive and active solar dryers, respectively. Renewable solar energy can sustainably remove moisture from banana peel biomass. Keywords: ANN Modelling, Banana peel, drying kinetics, mathematical modelling, solar dryer, thin layer
The Bentonite samples were crushed to finer particles and sun dried for 5 days, using a mortal to obtain the powder form. Further, the bentonite powder is activated by chemical reaction with soda ash (Na2CO3) resulted in improved montmorillonite content. The activation process increased the clay yield and swelling power, bentonite sample was then modified using oxalic acid and CTMABr. Bentonite powder is calcined at temperature of 600 oC for 1 hour. Finally, a combination of some analytical techniques such as X-ray Flourescence (XRF), Infrared spectroscopy in transmission mode (FTIR), Thermal analysis (TGA/DTG) were employed to characterize From the characterization results it is reported that the chemical constituents of natural bentonite Phase are Al, Si, Ca,Fe and Ti. Wyoming silica, alumina, sodium and calcium contents for bentonites are (45 wt%, 17wt%, 2.7 wt%, 1.77 wt%; 61.55wt%, 20.55wt%, 2.41 wt% ,1.32 wt%; 61.80 wt%, 20.44 wt%, 2.1 wt%, 1.4 wt%; 48.35 wt% , 12.15 wt %, 3.65 wt%, 6.68 wt%) respectively. However, in this work the silica (SiO2) values of the Local and Foreign bentonites (48.16wt % and 49. 87wt %) are similar to the values reported by Nweke et al, (2015) [45 wt%]; Tabak et al., (2007) [48.35 wt%] respectively. This work is useful as reference materials for further studies and for policy decision making. Keywords: Bentonites, Petroleum Industry, Drilling Muds, Thermal Analysis, Infrared Spectroscopy.
60 A REVIEW OF THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF DISTILLATIONCOLUMN, Funmilayo N. Osuolale, Oluseye O. Agbede, Solomon O. Alagbe and Ambrose N. Anozie
Separation technique with distillation column is an energy intensive process even though it is one of the most extensively used separation process in the petrochemical, chemical and agro-allied industries. Studies have proved that some other schemes of distillation columns other than the conventional columns could be more energy efficient. This has led to a number of different configurations of the columns. This study presents a review of second law of thermodynamics in determining and enhancing the effectiveness of energy usage in the distillation columns. The review covers binary, multicomponent and crude distillation columns and it is not limited to the conventional columns. It can be concluded that exergy analysis of the columns while providing a true analysis of the column efficiency can be used to improve the column’s energy efficiency. It is therefore imperative that process engineers should be armed with this tool to design and operate energy efficient columns. Keywords: Distillation, Exergy analysis, Efficiency, Thermodynamics.
61 SIMULATION OF NATURAL GAS INFRASTRUCTURE FOR CNG AND LPG RECOVERY - A CASE STUDY, Noble Ukela Odoi, Ogbonna F. Joel, Sunday S. Ikiensikimama, Neeka B. Jacob
This research is a case study focused at presenting a framework upon which design methods can be followed to achieve an effective natural gas gathering, processing and fractionation process. It also reveals the incentive for flare reduction while encouraging domestic consumption of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) and the use of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) for electricity generation. The simulation of the plant was done using ASPEN HYSYS version 11.0 with the Peng Robinson equation of state as the thermodynamic fluid package. The gas was gathered from two flow stations 0.8km and 6.4km respectively from the proposed processing field. Since the gases from the region under study is a sweet with negligible sulphur content there was no need for a sweetening process. The Tri-Ethylene Glycol (TEG) was used for the gas dehydration, then fractionators were simulated to produce LPG and CNG of high purity. Results from the HYSYS report shows good energy and mass balance as well as efficient gas flow throughout the processing cycle. The resulting volume of CNG and LPG is substantial to power several households and supply them with cooking gas respectively. Keywords: Natural Gas Simulation, Liquefied Petroleum Gas, Compressed Natural Gas, Computer aided Design.
62 Repositioning the Nations’ Agricultural Potentials Towards Diversifying the Economy for Sustainable Development – the Engineering Perspectives and Netherlands Examples, Muhammad. N. Idris and Ibrahim. Abdul
Agricultural production was the main financial revenues, that is, the front-line gross domestic product GDP, for the country before the advent of black gold (fossil fuel). Unfortunately, since the beginning of petroleum exploration and production in Nigeria, the country has lost it numerous agricultural potentials, due to the immediate monetary benefits from exporting crude oil to the Europe and America. Since 2017, the Netherlands has repositioned herself as the second-largest exporter of agriculture in the world with a net value of $111 billion US. These include $10 billion of flowers and $7.4 billion of vegetables. The Netherlands is the world’s second-largest agricultural exporter, after the United States. In 2021, the net value of the agricultural export was more than $118 billion US. Nigeria must take a leave from Netherlands by setting a robust and sustainable policies, the Netherlands model, to salvage her agricultural developments that will catapult the country to be in the fore-front of the world agricultural products for both domestic and foreign export gains, which in-turn increases the nations’ gross domestic product, GDP. The interest of this paper is to provide some valuable insights to the Nigerian government and policy makers on the guides to achieving these objectives within a short span. Keywords: Potentials, reposition, and sustainable development
63 Safety Evaluation of Petroleum Tank Farm: An Analytical Study of NNPCL Maiduguri Depot Plant, Muhammad. N. Idris, Abdul. A. Gajere and Neeka. J. Biragbara
A petroleum tank farm, usually known as an oil terminal is a common facility that stores flammable liquid. Tank farm has possible hazards to the people, environment and asset. Some of the hazards such as fire, static electricity, transportation etc. are accidents which occur at the oil terminals. Many industries are using different risk assessment methods to priorities hazards linked to their work activities. In this study, a new risk and safety analysis model, known as quantitative risk assessment (QRA) for tank farm was applied. QRA is an effective planning tool used in chemical processing plant, to help at forecasting the potential major accident occurrences, so that suitable mitigating and preventive measures can be implemented. QRA was conducted on a selected NNPCL Maiduguri depot tank farm with specified objectives. The three main objectives for this study are hazard identification, risk evaluation using qualitative and quantitative risk assessment by using the hazard and operability analysis, HAZOP and failure mode effect analysis (FMEA) methods. It was found that hazard occurrences were from various categories namely general management, hazardous chemical exposure and fire safety etc. In this research work, two scenarios was established and the estimated risks are associated to the petroleum tank farm activity such as leakage at dispenser area due to poor safeguarding systems, underground fuel leakage during unloading due to fittings failure and storage tank explosion due to high pressure. However, in summary, complete planning which combines all aspects are deemed necessary so that the impact of the associated risk from the operational, storage and maintenance of petroleum tank farm can be identified and minimized during the activities by working out the FMEA method sheet. Keywords: Leakage, hazard, hazard risk and unload
64 On a DSML Domain Server for Fluids Transmission Pipeline Design and Modeling, Bunakiye Richard Japheth; Juliana I. Consul; Joseph A. Erho
Domain specific modelling languages (DSMLs) are special purpose languages that have been designed and tailored for specific application domains. With domain specific features user of the language can construct with very familiar notations and get desired outcomes. The focus in this paper is on the functionality of a domain server in a domain specific modelling language for modelling oil and gas pipeline design. A domain server is coupled to a range of pipeline physical components by a pipeline context model, each of the components having a variety of pipeline built units, attributes and values. The domain server stores data received from at least one of the range of the pipeline physical components, the data including values associated with one or more attributes of the components. The domain server derives a model type for at least one phase from the lifecycle of the pipeline design operation for the first instance of the pipeline built units, based on analytics of information stored in the pipeline built units memory and the component attributes storage, where the model type includes a set of attributes for at least one of the range of pipeline physical components. In addition, the domain server generates an orientation for performance operation of an instance including one or more actions from the pipeline built units corresponding to at least one attribute of the set of attributes Keywords: Attribute sets, model type, built units, pipeline context model (PCM)
65 Industrial Assessment Programs for Maintenance of All Associated Equipment With Fuel Delivery Systems In An Existing Refinery Depot Plant., M. N. Idris; M. K. Adam
Depot facilities are industrial equipments used for the storage of oil, gas and petrochemical products etc., and from which these products are usually transported to end users or for further storages. In the maintenance and sustainability of keeping fuel delivery systems in safe checks, there are needs to derive standard programs to achieving these objectives. Maintenance is a combination of technical and administrative activities to keep a machine or equipment in its functional state. Machines or equipment with poor maintenance will result in dysfunction that might likely result to defective products which affect the quality of the products. These involve reliability of the machines and equipments, the manpower and the equipment perform to a standard level of quality assurance. In this research work, the failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) result indicate that six potential causes of failure were identified; three causes are critical and high risk priority number (RPN), these are; mechanical damage and cases of sabotage, spillage, potential fire/explosion. The above critical failures should be reduced and taking preventive action and corrective action to eliminate or reduce the failure. The result indicates that the equipment with the highest RPN 300 is pipe, which is that of mechanical damage and sabotage. But after implementing preventive and corrective action, the RPN has reduced to 160, when compared with Achilla, (2015). Keywords: Flow, pump, efficiency and reliability.
In this paper, the review of the features of big data characteristics of cloud protection problem and research various security regulations and cloud domains were carried out. In order to perform security studies on availability and average time to failure of security, the stochastic process model was applied to analyze security. Based on this research, the use of integrated auditing for safe data storage and transaction logs is highly recommended, and transaction logs, enforcement and security reporting in real time, data climate, compliance with legislation, auditing of facilities, privacy, legality, management of identity and access, cyber threats, and granular auditing to achieve big data security advocated. The purpose of this research is to enforce the use of big data analytics for decision making and policy formulation in corporate and private organizations as well as create room for further research in cloud computing discipline. Keywords: Big data; security regulation; integrated auditing; cloud computing.
Globally, water hyacinth infestations are regarded as invasive weeds which tend to obstruct water channel causing considerable socio-economic concerns, decline in biodiversity and water quality. The study seeks to ascertain the quantified mass and impacts of water hyacinth infestation along three designated waterways within the Nigerian coastline; Majidun River (MR), Igbokoda water channel (IWC) and Imo River (IR) (October, 2020 – April, 2021). This project was undertaken by NIMASA, saddled with the responsibility to clear waterways for safety of navigation and prevention of marine pollution. Reconnaissance survey was carried out using ARGIS mapping to identify infested hotspots. Mechanical and manual methods were deployed for evacuation, collection, weighing and documenting the dislodged vegetation for adequate disposal. The quantified water hyacinth evacuated recorded a total of 2,298 bags with weight of 92,449 kg (w/w) across 15 hotspots at Majidum River. At Igbokoda water channel, a total of 1,625 bags with weight of 122,500 kg (w/w) across 11 hotspots, while at Imo River, Ikot Abasi a total of 1,458 bags with weight of 56,055 kg (w/w) across 6 identified hotspots. The percentage total weight of infested water hyacinth had 34.11%, 45.20%, 20.68% and with no significant differences (p>0.05) across MR, IWC and IR respectively. The successful removal of the infested aquatic weeds could be effectively managed through routinely monitoring of the Nigerian aquatic ecosystems protected from immense anthropogenic pressure of constant of nutrients enrichment that could further proliferate the growth of these infested weeds. Keywords: Water hyacinth infestation, Mechanical removal, Nigerian coastal environment.
Evaluation of petrological characteristics and engineering analyses of gravel deposits were carried out around Amoyo area Kwara state to assess its suitability as construction materials. The petrological characteristics were done out through visual inspection and measurement of the particles axes. Representative samples were subjected engineering analyses such as Specific Gravity, Water Absorption Value, Aggregate Abrasion Value, Aggregate crushing Value and Aggregate Impact Value. Petrology characteristics of the aggregates (particle shape and size) revealed that the gravel deposit consists of particles ranging from clay to boulders which are essentially poorly sorted with variable mixtures of pebbles, cobbles and boulders. The engineering analyses carried out suggests that Specific Gravity of gravel aggregates ranges from 2.58 to 2.63 with an average of 2.60, Water Absorption Value ranges from 1.66% to 1.98% with an average of 1.80%.Aggregate Abrasion Value ranges from 27.20% to 38.91% with an average of 31.74%. Aggregate Crushing Value and Aggregate Impact Value ranges from 26.30% to 30.10% with an average of 28.70% and aggregate impact value falls within 26.65% and 28.70% with an average of 27.55% The results of petrological study and engineering analysis revealed that all the rocks favourable conform with standards used for construction purpose but can also be suitable with good workability for road, concrete and filter aggregates. Keywords: Geological, Engineering, Gravel, Aggregates, Construction.
The drilling for oil and gas is at high risk and challenging for the past decades. Irrespective of the uncertainly and the problem associated with the drilling operations, wells are being drilled every day. In order to overcome these problems, the drilling mud engineers must prepare for these challenges so as to meet the expected revenue and the time allocated for a particular drilling job. In this work, experimental tests were conducted at temperature of 120oF and atmospheric pressure to determine the contaminants effects of mud system and drilling operation on seawater and cement slurry of water-based mud (WBM) and oil-based mud (OBM) properties respectively. However, results obtained from the salt and cement contaminants have shown that filtration of different agents into mud system affects the rheological and chemical properties of both (WBM) and (OBM) respectively. The presence of other contaminants on the drilling mud reduces the properties as well and in turn affects the rate of penetration, its performance and poses serious drilling problems. Based on the results obtained, it is advisable that mud program should be properly designed which gives provision for correction of expected contaminant(s) beforehand. Basic knowledge of the drilling mud chemistry must be known so as to effectively supervise the contaminants control, and also mud must be properly treated in order to prevent the destruction of subsurface equipment. Keywords: Drilling fluids, contaminants, water base mud, oil base mud.
Nigeria is blessed with a considerably large deposit of solid minerals, of which barite is one of it. The industrial need for barite has increasedover the period as oil and gas exploration and exploitation grew because barite is used as a weighting agent in drilling fluids. Though, this is not the only application of barite. This resulted in the massive importation of barite for use by oil and gas firms operating in Nigeria. However, we sit on a deposit of barite, and we also import it, losing high foreign exchange earnings owing to some studies that revealed that Nigeria has low grade barite which is not meeting up with the API’s specification. In fact, some deposits of barite have not been explored for first time. This review paper has revealed a good number of studies done by researchers in the recent past, showing the rheological properties of local barite measuring up the imported ones and the API’s specific gravity is 4.2 and some works reviewed showed high grade barite have specific gravity (S.G) of 4.2 and little above. The previous studies showed that drilling mud treated with local barites have the required rheological properties for safe drilling operation. The fluid loss property of local barite is a little lower that the API standard and the imported barites but improved when 10 g Torkula barite was used to enhance the filter cake quality and reduce the fluid loss (Afolayan, et al., 2021). This review will serve as a boost to Government’s and agencies’ efforts to go full ball into extraction and processing barite in Nigeria to bridge the gap in the supply chain of local barite in Nigerian oil and gas industry in order to increase foreign exchange earnings. Keywords: Barite, Drilling fluid, Specific Gravity, Weighting Agent and API Specification.