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International Journal of PharmaO2 (IJPO)

Journal Papers (26) Details Call for Paper Manuscript submission Publication Ethics Contact Authors' Guide Line
1 Evaluation of Memory Enhancing Potential of Dendrocalamus Strictus Leaf Extracts on Suitable Animal Model , Akshaykumar Daswad* , Dipali Shelke, Giridhar Shendarkar, Avinash Dhadwe
Medicinal plants have always been the principle sources of medicine worldwide. India sustains a very rich traditional medicinal plant wealth and inherits unique plant and animal communities. Present study enumerates the phytochemical screening followed by antioxidant and memory enhancing evaluation of aqueous and methanolic extract of Dendrocalamus strictus (DS) leaves. Freshly collected and authenticated leaves were studied for its morphological and pharmacognostic character followed by physical and phytochemical evaluation. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, carbohydrates, steroids and flavonoids in both the extracts. Physical parameters like solubility, ash values, LOD, extractive value etc. has been studied. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was done by using DPPH method. The results showed that aqueous extract at 100μg/ml concentration and methanolic extract at 150μg/ml concentration showed the significant antioxidant effect as compared with ascorbic acid as standard. The In-Vivo memory enhancing activity of DS leaf extracts was evaluated by radial arm maze model in rats using Piracetam as a standard. Both the extracts at 200mg/kg concn showed significant to highly significant increase in number of entries & time spent in P zone (from P < 0.05 to P < 0.001). The result suggested that DS leaf extracts possess memory enhancing activity and this might be due to flavonoids, Phenolic compounds, Steroids present in extracts. 
2 Immunity Booster Supplements to Fight against Viral Infection with Prominence on COVID-19: An Review , Dr. Pritam V. Chindarkar
Balanced diet which can help in maintaining or boosting immunity is essential for prevention and management of viral infections. While data regarding supplement in novel corona virus 2019 infection (COVID-19) are not available, in this review, we aimed to evaluated evidence from previous clinical trials that evaluated nutrition-based interventions for viral diseases (with special emphasis on respiratory infections), and tried to summaries our observations. Among vitamins, A, C and D showed a potential benefit, especially in deficient populations. Among minerals, selenium and zinc have also shown favourable immunity enhancing effects in viral respiratory infections. Several nutraceuticals, medicinal plants and probiotics may have some role in enhancing immune functions. In current review we summaries possible benefits of some vitamins, minerals, nutraceuticals, medicinal plants and probiotics. Nutrition principles based on these data could be useful in possible prevention and management of COVID-19.
3 Essential Oils: Herbal Remedy for Treatment of Vaginal Infections , Dr. Aparna Palshetkar*, Shweta Kitture, Purva Churi, Ketki Bhurkunde
Vaginal infections caused due to Candida species are very common in recent years because of current stressful lifestyle of women. Though these infections are not life threatening but can affect daily routine and standard of living of an individual female, hence care must be taken. Various vaginal infections can be treated using variety of synthetic dosage forms like oral tablets, capsules and topical tablets, suppositories, creams etc. that are available in market. The microorganisms develop resistance with prolong use of synthetic chemicals, so there is a need to reduce the use of synthetic antimicrobials. In this review article, we have focused on natural remedies for the treatment of vaginal infections which will ensure better results with lesser side effects. Over previous years a large number of essential oils isolated from various parts of the plant have been investigated for their antimicrobial properties against bacteria and fungi. The treatment of vaginal infections with essential oils has shown rapid recovery due to site specificity by exposing the individual’s infected part. This article enlists various essential oils obtained from diverse natural sources, their source of procurement, chemical composition and their role in treatment of vaginal infections. The article also includes the directions for use whether in diluted form or in combination with other additives. The article justifies the use of essential oils for the treatment of vaginal infections like vulvovaginal candidiasis.
4 Preparation and Evaluation of Herbal Cough Lozenges: Corid-Cough Pearls , Rohini Chandratre- Waghmare* , Kulsumfatima Khan, Mansi Patel, Harshala More, Dr. Prachi Mehendale
Traditional Indian system of medicine has different herb- based formulations to cure different aliments. Soreness of throat and cough are painful condition in throat infection. The soothing agents like cough syrup and lozenges can give symptomatic relief. Ayurveda reveals use of herbs such as Khadira (Acacia catechu), Javitri (Myristicafragrans), Kankol (Piper cubeba), Pomegranate rind (Punica granatum), Karpura (Cinnamomumcamphora) etc, as soothing agents in soreness of throat. Current research project was aimed at development and evaluation of polyherbal cough lozenges containing these herbs using natural excipients. Thoroughly dried and finely powdered herbs such as Khadira (Acacia catechu), Javitri (Myristica fragrans), Kankol (Piper cubeba) and Pomegranate rind (Punica granatum) mixed together homogeneously and Clove oil was added to it. The homogeneous mass was dispersed in molten mass of jaggery base. The prepared mixture was then poured in moulds to get desired shape. Prepared formulation was further evaluated for organoleptic characteristics, weight variation and other pharmacopoeial parameters.Oval shaped, brown coloured sweet lozenges with average weight of 1.5gm were prepared and foundto be as per standards laid down in the Pharmacopoeia. The lozenges were presented under brand name Corid-cough pearls. The prepared cough lozenges „Corid-cough pearls‟ can be used for treatment of initial stages of cough and throat infection
5 Formulation and Evaluation of Anisomeles Malabarica Panchanga Kshara , Bhagyashri D. Nagare
Ksaras are the derivatives of plant drug ashes in the form of solutions or crystals all of which have the basic quality of being alkaline. Because of its corrosive nature (Ksaranat), it is known as Kshara (alkali), Kshara is not having rasa, this is manifested by the combination of many rasas and it possesses itself many rasas dominated by katu and lavana rasas. It is the object of many senses and it involves a special method of preparation. In the present study, we have prepared Anisomeles malabarica panchanga Kshara under standard laboratory conditions and studied about the organoleptic and qualitative characteristics of Anisomeles malabarica Kshara. The Phytochemical parameters for the Anisomeles malabarica panchanga were also studied with the aim of drawing the phytochemical standards for this species. The presence study includes phytochemical standardization of Anisomeles malabarica aerial parts first time. The presence study includes preparation and evaluation of Anisomeles malabarica kshara first time
6 MRSA- Super bug: Review , Dr. Ashvini R. Patil*1 and Dr. Ravindra Patil2
Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an infection caused by Staphylococcus (staph) bacteria. This type of bacteria is resistant to many different antibiotics. These bacteria naturally live in the nose and on the skin and generally harmless. But, when they begin to multiply uncontrollably, a MRSA infection can occur. MRSA infections typically occur when there’s a cut or break in your skin. MRSA is very contagious and can be spread through direct contact with a person who has the infection. MRSA infections are classified as either hospital-acquired (HAMRSA) or community-acquired (CA-MRSA). Though a MRSA infection can be serious, it may be treated effectively with certain antibiotics. Now a day’s even some medicinal plants also gives synergistic effect with antibiotics to overcome from treatment.
7 The Insights of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis  , Amol BhalchandraDeore*1 and ManojJagannath Jagtap2
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a form of fatty liver disease where benign hepatic steatosis leads to chronic inflammation in the steatotic liver of a patient without any history of alcohol abuse. NASH is a necro-inflammatory response that ensues when hepatocytes are injured by lipids (lipotoxicity). NASH is strongly associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome, conditions that cause lipid accumulation in hepatocytes (hepatic steatosis). NASH is characterized by the presence of steatosis (the accumulation of fat in 5% or more of hepatocytes), hepatocellular ballooning, and inflammation. In NASH, lipotoxic hepatocytes result in the production of factors that promote wound healing as an attempt to replace dying hepatocytes. The presence of chronic and/or aberrant inflammation can lead to scar tissue deposition and the development of fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma Although clinical trials show promising results, there is actually no pharmacological agent approved to treat NASH. The rapidly increasing prevalence of this disease and of its aggressive form NASH will require novel therapeutic approaches based on a profound understanding of its pathogenesis to halt disease progression to advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis and cancer.This review emphases on our understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, which reinforces practice guidelines and drug development for this life-threatening liver disease.
8 Antimalarial Drug Toxicity: A Review , Kanchan R. Pagar, Sarika V. Khandbahale
Antimalarial drug toxicity is viewed differently dependingupon whether the clinical indication is for malaria treatmentor prophylaxis. In the treatment of Plasmodium falciparummalaria, which has a high mortality if untreated, a greater riskof adverse reactions to antimalarial drugs is inevitable. Aschloroquine resistance has become widespread, alternative agents may be used in treatment regimens, however, thetoxicity of these antimalarial agents should be considered.Quinine is the mainstay for treating severe malaria due to itsrare cardiovascular or CNS toxicity, but its hypoglycemic effectmay be problematic. Mefloquine can cause dose-related serious neuropsychiatric toxicity and pyrimethamine dapsoneis associated with agranulocytosis, especially if therecommended dose is exceeded. Pyrimethamine-sulfadoxineandamodiaquine are associated with a relatively highincidence of potentially fatal reactions, and are no longerrecommended for prophylaxis. Atovaquone/proguanil is anantimalarial combination with good efficacy and tolerabilityas prophylaxis and for treatment. The artemisinin derivatives have remarkable efficacy and an excellent safety record. Prescribing in pregnancy is a particular problem for cliniciansbecause the risk-benefit ratio is often very unclear.
9 Ethnobotanical studies of Erythrina indica Plants , Ms. Shraddha Avhad, Mr. Kundan Tiwari, and Dr. Y.V. Ushir
Medicinal plants are nature‟s gift to human society to make disease free healthy life. More than thousand medicinal plants are recognized in our country. The present review is therefore an effort to give a detail survey of the literature on its phytopharmacological properties of Erythrina indica belonging to the family Fabaceae, which is a shrub with prickly stems; it is a wild growing forest plant in India. Majorly popular system of medicine like Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and homeopathy. Various plant parts such as bark, root, fruits and leaves are used in treatment of fever, astringent, febrifuge, skin diseases etc. 
10 Basic Concepts of Vatvyadhi Chikitsa- An Overview , Vd. Sujata Jadhav *1, Dr. Smita V. Dhurde 2 , Dr. Sanjay Lungare3
Human beings are inviting many diseases because of fast running life with change in diet and sleeping habits. Due to daily routine, travelling and increased activities many people are suffering from multiple types of musculo-skeletal diseases (MSDs). According to Ayurveda these diseases are described as Vatvyadhi. Thorough Rogi (patient) and Rog (disease) Parikshana (examination) and applying basic concepts of Vatvyadhichikitsa, patients get more relief. Keywords: Vatvyadhi, Dincharya, Ritucharya, Chikitsa, Rogiparikshana , Rogparikshana. 
11 Pharmacognostical Standardization of Amaranthus paniculatus Seeds , Bharti K. Parmar* , Dr. Navin Sheth
Pharmacognostical parameters for the seeds of Amaranthus paniculatus was studied with the aim of drawing the Pharmacognostical standards for this species. There is not systematic work reported according to WHO guideline, So objective for work in present study is, to prepare a Monograph of Amaranthus paniculatus seed according to WHO guideline. Macroscopical and microscopical characters of seed, powder characteristics studies, preliminary chemical test and thin layer chromotgraphic studies for Amaranthus paniculatus seed Different physicochemical parameters were evaluated. TLC and HPTLC were performed for identification of different Amino Acids. In its microscopic study, testa, endosperm, epidermis, cotyledon and radical were observed. In its powder characteristic study oil globules and starch were found. The qualitative analysis shows presence of glycoside, carbohydrate, protein and amino acids and fixed oils and absence of alkaloid and tannin was found. The TLC result shows presence of n-butyric acid, alanine, tyrosine, valine. The HPTLC results shows presence of ornithine, arginine, alanine, glutamic acid, tyrosine, n-butyric acid, methionine, leucine, isoleucine. The study includes pharmacognostical standardization of Amaranthus paniculatus Seeds first time.
12 A Review on Kshara Karma Therapy , Dr. Pritam V. Chindarkar
Kshara is the one of Ayurvedic dosage form used in India from ancient period for treatments of various diseases and disorder. Kshara is a caustic, alkaline in nature obtained from the ashes of medicinal plants, animals and minerals. Depending on Kshara use it classified as; Pratisaraniya Kshara and Paniya Kshara. Panchanga of medicinal plant used for preparation of Kshara. Kshara Karma therapy is useful as the substitute of surgical instruments, because they can be used safely on the patients who are afraid of surgery. It is a milder procedure compared to surgery and thermal cautery. It is versatile, because even such places that are difficult in approach by ordinary measures can be treated by Kshara Karma therapy. Keywords: Kshara, Caustic, Panchanga, Ashes, Surgery
13 Liquorice and its Beneficial Effects in Dentistry-A Review , Mr. Prasad Kharche
Liquorice the name given to the roots and stolons of Glycyrrhiza species, has been used since ancient times as a traditional herbal remedy. Liquorice also known as yashtimadhu, sweetwood or mulhatti is one such herbal remedy which has shown to have immense potential in treatment of orofacial diseases. Liquorice contains several classes of secondary metabolites with which numerous human health benefits have been associated. Recent research suggests that liquorice and its bioactive ingredients such as glycyrrhizin, glabridin, licochalcone A, licoricidin, and licorisoflavan A possess potential beneficial effects in oral diseases. This paper reviews the effects of liquorice and its constituents on oral dental diseases (dental caries, candidiasis, Gingivitis,and periodontitis). It also summarizes results of clinical trials that investigated the potential beneficial effects of liquorice and its constituents for preventing ⁄ treating oral-dental diseases. Keywords: Liquorice, Dental caries, Candidiasis, Gingivitis, Periodontitis.
14 Anti-Tubercular Agents: Overview , Kundan Tiwari*, Kiran Suryavanshi, Dhananjay Patil
During the last few years, the pharmacy profession has expand significantly in terms of professional services delivery and now has been recognized as an important profession in the multidisciplinary provision of health care. The main objectives of tuberculosis therapy are to cure the patients and to minimize the possibility of transmission of the bacillus to healthy subjects. Adverse effects of antituberculosis drugs or drug interactions (among antituberculosis drugs or between antituberculosis drugs and other drugs) can make it necessary to modify or discontinue treatment. We describe the general mechanism of action, absorption, metabolization, and excretion of the drugs used to treat multidrug resistant tuberculosis (aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, cycloserine/terizidone, ethionamide, capreomycin, and para-aminosalicylic acid). We describe adverse drug reactions and interactions (with other drugs, food, and antacids), as well as the most appropriate approach to special situations, such as pregnancy, breastfeeding, liver failure, and kidney failure. Keywords: Bactericidal, Bacteriostatic, Neuritis, Tuberculosis.
15 Evaluation of Nutritional Value’s for Different Rice Varieties Cultivated in Ghoti Region. , Mrunmai Chaskar * and Darshana Varma
Rice (oryzi sativa) is one of most widely consumer food for larger part of human population. As a rice of different type having different nutritional values so, the main objective of study is to identify which rice variety has good nutritional value. Carbohydrates and protein content evaluated by IS 7219:1973 and USFDA Title 21, FDA April 2012 method. Some physical parameter also determined like moisture content, dimension etc. Results indicate that polished Kolpi rice (Carb-81.96% and Protein- 7.85%) have good nutritional value than unpolished Kolpi rice (Carb-81.51% and Protein-7.79%). Whereas, polished Indrayani rice shows good protein (Carb-81.93% and Protein-7.85%) than unpolished Indrayani rice (Carb-82.39% and Protein-7.73%). On basis of carbohydrate we can conclude that unpolished Indrayani rice (82.39%) have good energy source than other varieties under study. Keywords: Protein, Carbohydrates, Vitamins, Minerals, Dimension, Moisture content.
16 Traditional Knowledge of Medicinal Plants in Tribes of Khandesh: Need of Time to Preserve for Prosperity of Mankind , Payal H. Patil, Piyush S. Bafna, Rahul B. Pawara, Rakesh E. Mutha*
Abstract In the Maharashtra state, northern region is known as ‘Khandesh’ mainly known for tribal population. These tribal peoples have sound knowledge about various plants and their preparations for the effective treatment of many diseases. Their knowledge is passed from generation to generation by oral communication and much of traditional knowledge is kept in secret from outside world. The present study was carried out to collect, document and preserve the traditional knowledge from tribal medicine men like ‘Vaidus’ and elder people of tribal community of this region. During the same, the plant specimens were collected as directed by resource person in the flowering and fruiting conditions. In this study, information of 16different medicinally important plants was collected. The reported plants were arranged according to their scientific name, family, tribal name and method of preparation. In all, tribal health workers use these medicinal plants particularly to treat health issues like headache, jaundice, anemia, fever, etc. So an attempt was done to collect, document and preserve the traditional knowledge for the prosperity of mankind. Keywords: Khandesh, Tribal, Traditional knowledge, Health issues, Plants
17 Traditional Knowledge of Medicinal Plants in Tribes of Khandesh: Need of Time to Preserve for Prosperity of Mankind , Payal H. Patil, Piyush S. Bafna, Rahul B. Pawara, Rakesh E. Mutha*
Abstract In the Maharashtra state, northern region is known as ‘Khandesh’ mainly known for tribal population. These tribal peoples have sound knowledge about various plants and their preparations for the effective treatment of many diseases. Their knowledge is passed from generation to generation by oral communication and much of traditional knowledge is kept in secret from outside world. The present study was carried out to collect, document and preserve the traditional knowledge from tribal medicine men like ‘Vaidus’ and elder people of tribal community of this region. During the same, the plant specimens were collected as directed by resource person in the flowering and fruiting conditions. In this study, information of 16different medicinally important plants was collected. The reported plants were arranged according to their scientific name, family, tribal name and method of preparation. In all, tribal health workers use these medicinal plants particularly to treat health issues like headache, jaundice, anemia, fever, etc. So an attempt was done to collect, document and preserve the traditional knowledge for the prosperity of mankind. Keywords: Khandesh, Tribal, Traditional knowledge, Health issues, Plants
18 Design Development and Evaluation of Memory Enhancing Potential of Poly-Herbal Formulation , Dipali P. Shelke*, A.K. Daswad, G.R. Shendarkar, A.K. Dhadwe
Abstract- Ayurvedic arrangement of medication is as old as human progress. Present study includes the development of a Polyherbal formulation by utilizing four different herbs, Pumpkin seed (Cucurbita maxima), Sunflower seed (Helianthus annus), Spinach leaves (Spinach oleracea), and Beet root (Beta vulgaris). Ethanol (90%) was utilized for preparation of polyherbal tincture. Freshly collected and authenticated herbs were characterized by pharmacognostical character and physicochemical assessment. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, carbohydrates, amino acid, tannin, steroids and flavonoid in the tincture. Physical parameters like solubility, pH, ash values, LOD, extractive value etc. has been studied. The antioxidant activity of the tincture was determined by using DPPH free radical scavenging method. The results showed that the tincture has best antioxidant effect at a dose of 100μg/ml when it was compared with ascorbic acid as reference standard. From the acute toxicity studies safe dose and therapeutic experimental dose was found to be 300mg/kg. In-Vivo memory enhancing activity of Polyherbal formulation was evaluated by radial arm maze model in rats using Piracetam as a standard. Polyherbal formulation at the dose of 300mg/kg conc showed significant to highly significant memory enhancing potential. The result suggested that Polyherbal formulation possess in vivo memory enhancing activity and this might be due to Flavonoid, Phenolic compounds, Steroids or other constituents present in formulation. Keywords: Polyherbal formulation, Physicochemical, Antioxidant, Memory enhancing activity.
19 Pharmacological Investigation of Amaranthus paniculatus Seeds Extract , Bharti K. Parmar*, Dr. Navin Sheth
Abstract- The focus while study is on development of Amaranthus paniculatus seeds as a Herbal sports medicines. As Amaranthus paniculatus seeds have high energy value hence hypothesized here, ‘it can be use as Herbal Sports Medicine’. The Wistar Albino Rats were used during study and accordingly experimental models were designed. A. paniculatus seeds water extract prepared then two groups of animals were set for the study; Test-1 (T1), Test-2 (T2) and respectively 250mg/kg, 500mg/kg of extract were administered orally. Change in the weight, swimming capacity, change in plasma creatinine, TG, glucose and certain electrolyte level were observed on animals. The results show that’s, there were not significant changes in weight gain (3.667±2.894g) for 500mg/kg of extract. There are significant differences in the swimming time to exhaustion between control group (101.3± 3.403 sec) and each treatment group (177.2±9.547sec and 213.2±5.896sec respectively for T1 and T2). In order to clarify its mechanism plasma biochemical parameters were measured in the forced swimming treated Rats. In present study 500mg/kg of extract shows significantly difference in treatment group when compared to control group for TG (70.83±7.769mg/dL), calcium (5.976 ± 0.1371mg/dL) and chloride (104.1±2.693mg/dL). And in plasma Creatinine, Glucose and Electrolytes like magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium doesn’t having any significant differences. As seeds rich in Amino Acids- ornithine, arginine, alanine, glutamic acid, tyrosine, n-butyric acid, methionine, leucine and isoleucine that might be responsible for change in studied pharmacological activities. Key Words: A. paniculatus, Swimming capacity, Biochemical’s, Electrolytes, Amino Acids.
20 Solubility and Dissolution Enhancement of Erlotinib by Liquisolid Compact Technique , Mr. Rajesh Dumpala*, Mr. Jignesh S. Patel, Mr. Nikunj Patadiya, Mr. Chirag Patil
Abstract- In this study we try to increase the dissolution power of drug Erlotinib (Anti-Cancer drug) which is poorly soluble in nature) by using very famous technique called liquisolid compact method. In preparation of liquisolid tablet of Erlotinib using liquid vehicle polyethylene glycol 400(PEG 400) which is non-volatile in nature. We use Avicel PH200 used as carrier material, and for coating we used Aerosil 200 in different ratios. Mathematical model and 32 full factorial design became useful in formulation of different powder system. We evaluated our preparation by their micrometric properties, FTIR study(for showing interaction between drug and excipients), DSC study and XRD study(for showing crystalline structure of drug).For optimization Response surface methodology (32 factorial) was working to learning the cause of independent variables like drug concentration in liquid medication (X1) and carrier and coating ratio (R) (X2) on the dependent variables like Cumulative % drug release at 15 min (Y1) and Angle of slide (Y2). Based on this result, formulation O1 at level 0 (20) for X1 and level 0 (25) for X2 was selected as optimized formulation. Data was analyzed by using ANOVA, and value of P<0.05 was found to constant, it’s very important. In vitro dissolution of formulation was studies and compare with marketed formulation, in result liquisolid tablets shows higher % of dissolution due to high wetting properties due to using of MCC. We also evaluated its stability studies at 400C ± 20C temperature and 75 ± 5% RH for one month (accelerated stability study) which showed no major change in percentage drug content and its release patent. All result shows our formulation which main goal is increase dissolution of erlotinib was successfully formulated. Key Words: Erlotinib, solubility enhancement, 32factorial design, liquisolid compact.
21 Physical Quality and Antibacterial Activity test of Ethanol Extract Gel Preparation of Cocoa Pod Husk (Theobroma Cacao L.) against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli , Muhammad Nuriy Nuha Naufal* , Devita Febriani, Tusy Triwahyuni
Indonesia becomes the third-ranking country over the world in producing and exporting cocoa. Cocoa production increment in Indonesia leads to the increase of cocoa pod husk waste. The heap of cocoa pod husk waste can cause environmental problems and foul odors. Cocoa pod husk contain potentially antibacterial compounds such as flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids, terpenoids and tannins. Surgical wound infections can be caused by bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. These bacteria have been through a lot of resistance to antibiotics. This present study was conducted to determine the physical quality and antibacterial activity of ethanol extract gel of the cocoa pod husk (Theobroma cacao L.) against S. aureus and E.coli. This true experimental research used a post-test only control design. The stages of the research included extraction, testing the activity of antibacterial extract with various concentrations, gel formulations with variations in carbopol concentration, physical quality and antibacterial gel activity test. Data were analyzed using Kruskall-Wallis and Mann-Whitney. The results of this study were extracts with concentrations of 8%, 16% and 32% which had antibacterial activity against S. aureus, but did not have antibacterial activity against E. coli. The requirements for good physical gel quality only reached by the gel with carbopol concentration of 2% while gel with carbopol concentration of 1% and 3% did not meet the requirement of it. Gel with carbopol concentration of 1%, 2% and 3% have antibacterial activity against S. aureus. Cocoa pod husk extract gel with 8% extract concentration and 2% carbopol base concentration is the best formulation and has the antibacterial activity of S. aureus
22 New Approach For Cancer Treatment: an Overlook , Mr. Amol M. Chavan*, Mr. Vinayak M. Chavan , Mr. Dilip Shingare , Ms. Renuka Tayade
Cancer treatments a now days are very expensive and having much more side effects rather than effectiveness. So, Immune checkpoint therapy is the treatment of cancer which having less side effects as compare to chemotherapy. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen is the target for immune checkpoint therapy. Immune system will play key role through the T cell immune response and restrict undesired growth of cells. This treatment is more effective with the combination of with other traditional cancer treatments. In current review emphasis was made on various modern treatments for cancer.
23 Post-Covid Syndrome- An Overlook ,  Vilas A. Patil
After recovering from the initial infection from COVID-19 though out world some people has been ambushed by a baffling array of symptoms, including extreme fatigue, a foggy brain, a raised heartbeat and diarrhea. Recent analysis by the Covid Symptom Study suggested that as many as one in 10 people with Covid-19 have been sick for more than three weeks after symptoms first emerge. Corona virus that causes Covid-19 is a very different virus than influenza, so its long-term consequences are likely going to reflect. Treatment is mainly focused on reassurance, self-care, and symptomatic control. There are currently no FDA-approved treatments specifically for this condition.
24 A Review on the Therapeutic Potential of Nature derived Cholrin Photosensitizer and its Synthetic Counterparts for Photodynamic Therapy in the control of Neoplastic Diseases. , Mohamed Ali-Seyed* Siddiqua Ayesha
In the past three decades, photodynamic therapy (PDT) has accepted as an alternative modality for the management of wide variety of diseases including cancer, skin and bacterial, viral and fungal infections. It is minimally invasive treatment, which involves the interaction of a non-toxic photosensitizer (PS), light of an appropriate wavelength and tissue oxygen to remove unwanted cells by generating free radicals mediated by light receptors, which is more prevalent when the plant-produced metabolites are heterocyclic/polyphenols in nature. Until date, more than hundred photosensitizers or photosensitive drugs were identified various natural sources including plants. Many bioactive principles have shown in recent years to be potential photosensitizers, i.e. their toxic activities against various microorganisms, insects or cells are dependent on or are augmented by light of certain wavelengths. PDT considered often as selective and target specific, which led to the novel concept of therapeutic prospects in the control of infectious and other diseases including cancer. Photosensitization mechanisms commonly involve singlet oxygen and radicals, which causes photo damage to membranes or macromolecules. Although many existing PSs developed in the last 30 years, only a handful of them employed in human clinical applications. The main classes of natural photosensitizers reviewed in this chapter are chlorins and their synthetic counterparts because of their therapeutic efficacy by employing various search engines such as PubMed, Scifinder, and Web of Science. The continued progress in the development of novel photochemical is essential to advance targeted delivery of PS and efficacy of PDT, which consequently expands the range of clinical applications. The constant development of new photosensitizers is required to improve site-specific delivery for therapeutic efficacy of PDT, which consequently expands the range of clinical applications. If successful, these efforts will provide PDT therapy for infectious, cancer and other diseases with minimal risk to healthy tissue.
25 Formulation and In-Vitro Evaluation of Fast Dissolving Oral Film of Furosemide Using a Combination of Natural and Synthetic Disintegrant. , Uttam Budhathoki*, Shishir Shrestha, Namrata Dhakal, Ruby Shrestha, Sunita Tamang, Anu Shrestha, Tirtha Maiya Shrestha
This study attempts to formulate and characterize Lepidium sativum and synthetic disintegrant based oral films of Furosemide prepared by solvent casting method. The films were prepared using HPMC as film-forming polymer, Lepidium sativum mucilage as a natural disintegrant, Crospovidone as synthetic disintegrant, and PEG-400 as plasticizer. Furosemide is a loop diuretic that prevents our body from absorbing too much salt. It is used to treat fluid retention (edema) in people with congestive heart failure, liver disease, or a kidney disorder such as nephrotic syndrome and also used in high blood pressure. It has poor solubility and oral bioavailability of 60%. Furosemide was formulated as a fast-dissolving film to optimize bioavailability by solubilizing fast. Evaluation parameters such as thickness, weight uniformity, folding endurance, drug content uniformity, in-vitro disintegration time, in-vitro dissolution test, surface pH were carried out and the results were found to be satisfactory. The surface pH of films was found to be 7.8±0.5. The invitro disintegration time of optimized formulation was found to be 16.7±4.80 (n=10) seconds and in-vitro dissolution studies of optimized formulation showed a drug release rate of 79.3504% within 20 minutes.
26 Lead Deposits on the Leaves of Roadside Plants of Nashik Region- A Growing Concern , Poorva B. Birari , Sanyukta S. Jalihalkar, Sanchita A. Bhor, Rashmi H. Mishal , Dr. Harshavardhan B. Mishal
Consumption of plants and plant based food materials can be a source of essential elements or a route of human exposure to toxicants. Lead is easily accumulated in the edible parts of leafy vegetables as compared to grains or fruit crops. The accumulation of lead in agricultural soils is potentially hazardous to humans, livestock and plants species. The purpose of this study is to determine the lead deposited on the leaves of roadside plants with an attempt to find its interference in human comfort & health. The study area was different crowded locations in Nashik region. Dominant tree species Magnifera indica, Ficus religiosa, Psidium guajava, Magnolia alba, Zea mays were selected for screening from high traffic streets namely Dwarka circle, College road, Aurangabad Naka, Mumbai Naka and from outskirts of Nashik city namely Chandwad and Shinde palse gaon. Samples were collected in November- December. We collected leaves as they are most sensitive to pollution as well as least harmful to plants. The data collected was analyzed by ICP/MS technique and the results were obtained. The results of lead concentration of different samples of leaves collected were in the range of 0.36 mg/kg in Zea mays to 3.59 mg/kg in Magnolia alba. Higher concentrations of lead were observed in Nashik city heavy traffic zone as compared to low traffic routes in the outskirts of the city. The present study indicates that traffic volume may influence the concentration of lead deposited on the leaves of plants. Lead being a highly poisonous metal affecting almost every organ in the body its concentration in the consumed foodstuff of human beings should be monitored. This study emphasizes public to avoid feeding domestic animals and avoid the use of other agricultural food items grown close to this traffic zones which are high in lead concentration.