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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HUMANITIES AND ART RESEARCHES

Journal Papers (29) Details Call for Paper Manuscript submission Publication Ethics Contact Authors' Guide Line
1 Conceptual Analysis of Discrimination   , Ali Rıza ERDEM  
Discrimination is a concept which has been discussed by different sides of the society throughout the history and which still keeps its importance and will do in future, as well. The word “discrimination” originates from the latin word “discriminare” which means “separate” or “divide”. The major thing which is emphasized in definitions concerning discrimination is the negative categorization of the individual or the groups in the society, the negative categorization of the individuals with the reasons which are not found reasonable and discourse and actions that are parallel to the reasons. The conceptual analysis means to indicate its compounds and indicators. The compounds of discrimination are “prejudice”, “dogma” and “benefit”. (i) Prejudice. Prejudice is described as “the negative approach”, which are usually known as unbased, discriminative and intolerant, towards a group of people or singular members of the group as a consequence of missing or mistaken judgment. Therefore, prejudice makes up the fundamentals of discrimination. Individuals may tend to adopt discrimination as spiritual concept without considering the prejudice that sometimes they are not aware to obtain or they are never aware. (ii) Dogma. On the other hand, the term “dogma” is described as the thought whose credibility is absolutely accepted without all kinds of examination and criticize. The dogmas that are based on believing without any examination are one of the major compounds of discrimination. Dogma may also result is not using the logic because it cancels the functioning of human mind and so it may make human beings more prone to acceptations. (ii) Benefit. Meanwhile, the term “benefit” is considered negatively in language and so it is not seen in the first common place in interaction of us and this case is often underlined. Because consideration of benefit is invariably evaluated as a negative factor in interactive relations of people. Individuals or group membersmaytendtomakediscriminationsbecausethey consider their own benefits and moreover they are aware or not aware of it. The major indicators of discrimination is “hate speech”, “applications of violence” and “favoritism”. (i) Hate speech. Hate speech is the violation of right to life. That’s why, we notice that “the hate speech” points to inequality and rejects the concerned individual or the group and insults some parts or groups in the society and feeds the prejudice. The speech of hate which is a major indicator of discrimination may result in the violence by leading to physically, performance of hate crimes which is mainly based on hate speech. (ii) Applications of violence. In descriptions concerning violence over an individual or the society, physical power, brutal force for bad purposes and the harm of people who are exposed to violence and any kind of morally and financially negative factors concerning the physical and spiritual well-being. One of the major reasons of the violence over an individual or a group is the discrimination. Violence which is also expression of the discrimination may result in irrevocable harm in individuals in terms of emotional and social points as well as being considered a “crime” in law. (iii) Favoritism. The term “favoritism” which also refers to “lookout” backing up refers to supporting someone without considering the law and social rules to give priority unjustly in a subject. Favoritism is also classified in four major groups known as “nepotism”, “kronizm”, “partisanship” and “gender discrimination”. For this reason, favoritism threats the individuals, organizations and the society by means of corruption. Therefore, favoritism with is negative effects and so it seems inevitable that favoritism should be prevented by means of legal measures due to its negative effects over individuals, organizations and the society. Despite the negative effects of favoritism over the individual(s), organization(s) and the society, it has almost become an everyday factor and this assumption has gradually enlarged in the society. One of the major indicators of discrimination is favoritism that the individual(s), right(s) are grasped and it is considered one of the most critical reasons for the social corruption. In this respect, favoritism should be regarded as a major concrete evidence discrimination, as well. In other words, favoritism is that discrimination for individual(s) turns out to be a physically visible factor as back-up or support.  
2 The Tradition of Telling Mani Mountain Villages in Bursa   , Burcu KAYA ÇAKI  
Mani(s) are one of the most popular poetic forms of folk literature. They are written in syllabic meter of seven units, rhymed as “aaxa” and consist of a singular verse. They carry the cultural, social an even sometimes political features of the area which they were sung. Thus, they bridge the generations. They owed their popularity to the virtue that they are short and rhymed, so that they can be memorised without much effort and illiterate people can express their feelings and thoughts. The tradition of telling mani is a living tradition that is refined through the ages. The villages of Bursa are among that places that in which the mani tradition is still alive. The mountain villages of Bursa, their population largely consisted of Manav(s) and Yoruk(s) are located far from the city center, thus they could preserve their distinct oral tradition. Many traditions are still alive and prospering in these places; mani is one of these traditions. In this study, we collected the mani(s) from oral and written sources in the villages of Akcapınar, Belenoren, Çoreler, Duvenli, Dagguney, Haydar, Kemaliye, Mazlumlar, Mentese, Pınarcık, Sırıl and Sorgun. Then, examined them according to their characteristics of production and transmission, their structure (meter and rhyme) and their content. Mani(s) are vocalized in many different occasions such as military enlistments, sira nights, weddings (during the various phases of traditional wedding ceremonies, circumcision feast, hidrellez, nawruz, imece gatherings, Ramadan nights, traditional village plays. In the mountain villages of Bursa, mani(s) are usually sung in henna nights, weddings and during the holy month of Ramadan. This tradition is kept alive by women. Women entertain themselves by singing mani(s). They are mostly sung without musical instruments but sometimes primitives instruments, such as kitchen accessories or hand-claps are used to generate a rhythmic sound. Among men, Ramadan month is the only time in which mani(s) are sung. Drummers sung mani(s) in order to wake people up for the sahur or receiving tip-money toward the end of the month. The majority of the mani(s) of the mountain villages of Bursa share common structural features. They are mostly in syllabic meter of seven units and have the rhythmic scheme of “aaxa” however, some mani(s) have more than seven syllables. Many of the mani(s) that are examined in this study have rich or full rhyme. There are also assonants, bronze rhymes opunned rhymes or even mani(s) devoid of rhyme. Most of the mani(s) have repeated words. These mani(s) are divided into 22 topics according to their themes. Romance is the most popular theme; it is followed by homesickness. All mani(s) carry the traces of thought system, longings, troubles, likings and traditions of their culture. In total, 346 mani(s) from Bursa mountain villages are studied. They are graphically grouped by the number of their syllables and rhythmic schemes. The percentages are also given. 189 of the mani(s) have seven syllables, 44 of them have eight syllables and 113 of them use irregular meter. Most of the irregular mani(s) are those that are sung during the holy month of Ramadan. The reason is that drummers likely use different names in their mani(s) in order to receive tip money from different people so a line is always changing. Keywords: Mani, The tradition of telling mani, Bursa,  
3 Gestalt Principle In Packing Design   , Gültekin ERDAL  
Human beings felt the need to wrap and store surplus nutrients with various natural ingredients to reuse them when needed. Packaging is a cover for protection and preservation today, as in the early years of humanity. However, today there have been significant changes in the function of packaging, besides storage and protection; It had to accommodate features such as transportation, warehousing, sales, and hygiene ego such as competition and superiority with behind these changes in packaging. Manufacturers have always needed the advertising function of the packaging to explain that they are the best of their products. The efforts to establish a psychological connection between the packaging and the consumer came with the success of the packaging, and the consumer was allowed to acquire habits up to the degree of addiction. The developing packaging technology has brought new packaging materials, and more useful and showy packaging has been produced. The superiority ego produced much more functional and flashy packages. The number of consumers purchasing products is not small, just because they like the packaging. Because packaging is essential for the promotion and sale of the product, attention should be drawn to the consumer in order to receive the product. This is also possible with packaging. Design gains importance at this stage. The colors, texts, and shapes were chosen in good packaging design are compatible and give the consumer a sense of confidence by emphasizing the quality of this product. The color used in the packaging should reflect the characteristic features of the product or give the product a characteristic feature. The fact that the concept of design is far-reaching generally prefers to describe rather than define. The main problem is that the draft is confused with the ideas of selection, design, and design. Explaining these concepts as if they are identical may cause the concept of design to be perceived as a part of these concepts. However, not all of these concepts are results, but the pre-action preparation process. Celal Esad Arseven, by defining these concepts under different titles in his “Art Encyclopedia”, has revealed that they are separate concepts, although they have an organic bond between them. With his statement, the bill; “The first thought is the writing or picture about the idea or shape. While making the definition, a new title was opened under the name of the preliminary design, and its partitioning was also made. For the draft; While preparing the description of “preparation state for working on later,” for design, the definition of something imagined is used. He distinguishes the fine line between draft and design as the first rough form of the selection. While the design is defined as preparation before starting the implementation, it is mentioned that it is planned to put into practice what is envisaged in mind. Being able to differentiate concepts should mean correctly chosen functionality for the designer, the designer, and the target audience. Because of the design is far from the expected functionality, garbage is kind. If this is aesthetic garbage with an imagery icon value, it is art, and if hand-made production is a craft. Leveraging Gestalt principles in design can push surplus purchasing psychology, which surprises, impresses, or pushes the series into a collection. Because, according to Gestalt theory, the whole has a different meaning from the sum of the parts and the individual perceives the whole in integrity, not by dividing it into its components. Gestaltists are more concerned with themselves than parts of the whole. With this approach, design can be defined as the parts of the entire being compatible and functional or perceived. The narrative or function of the whole individual piece is taken into consideration. However, it is essential that each piece be consistent with the whole. The degree of harmony is also significant because if there is too much harmony in the design, it turns to boring or repetitive design work. On the other hand, although too many variables are used in the design study, the result may be chaotic and unusable. Gestalt theory advocates that good design should have principles.  
4 A Qualitative Research On Motherhood Experiences   , Süheyla SARITAŞ, Aslıhan BOZKURT  
Throughout history, socio-economic, cultural and political changes and transformations occurred in the structures of societies have also affected the basic institutions as well. As one of the basic institutions, the family and its elements have also been affected as mentioned above too. Undoubtedly, as one of the most basic actors of the family, woman and her roles and responsibilities are worth examining in all periods. Due to the changes which are experienced very fast in the modern world, it is certain that woman tries to position her own place and creates her identity, just like all the individuals in society. The factors for the changes in the structures of the family have been shown in the roles and responsibilities of the woman and her active role in the public sphere. The perception in traditional societies where man is positioned outside the house and woman in the house is now abandoned, specifically in modern societies. On the other hand, as woman entered the work life, the social structure made her part of the social division of labor and also forced her to continue her traditional roles and responsibilities. Especially, the woman who has experience of motherhood has also become an important actor in work life while she is dealing with child care and house work. The phenomenon of motherhood is defined as the practical realities and social importance of being a mother. This idea evaluates that motherhood is a socio-cultural phenomenon apart from a biological experience. In other words, the experience of motherhood is a social and cultural aspect rather than an individual one. Motherhood and maternity experiences are not only individual experiences but also refers to the identity of woman and her social status. The perception of motherhood which has changed in human history is generally defined and shaped as a social role and responsibilities in almost all societies. For this reason, the different motherhood roles emerged in different cultures and periods. This study explores how mothers interpret motherhood, what are the strengths and weaknesses during motherhood cycle, generally accepted motherhood best practices, parental education, resources to which mothers refer during motherhood experiences, generally accepted motherhood model, relationship between mother and child, child care, challenges faced in terms of child care and parenting, how changes in financial income affect motherhood in general, the effects of social media and motherhood models depending on socio-economic status. Main focus throughout the research is on motherhood experiences. The research is a qualitative case study for which Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) is adopted utilizing interviews performed with 40 mothers that live in Balikesir. This research reveals the fact that motherhood models change depending on the socioeconomic status; however, there are certain instances in which socioeconomic status does not matter. The study reveals that motherhood experiences do not change according to class difference and every mother has high consciousness and awareness of this experience. Today motherhood experiences are obtained not only from a previous generation or social environment but also virtual environment, knowledge transmitted from masters, scientific information. This situation has reveals that motherhood experience is related with the cultural change and transformation.  
5 The Effect of Physical Structure on Balance Performance   , Cemre Can AKKAYA, Hakan TAN, Bergün Meriç BİNGÜL  
In the human body, muscle, joint diameter, bone lengths, adipose tissue, body circumference measurements are determined by anthropomeetric measurements. Anthropometric measurement methods consist of bone length measurements of the individual or groups of athletes, low cost and practical applications used in determining physical properties. The ones used more than the measurement variables are the mass and length. The measurements used in determining the physical structure; diameter, circumference, length and skin fold thickness. Thanks to anthropometric measurements, the general density of the human body, the subcutaneous fat ratio and body muscle mass calculations are made. In order to make these calculations, body weight, height, joint diameter and muscle circumference measurements are taken. Muscle circumference and joint diameter measurement rates enable us to obtain lean body mass, but muscle circumference measurements can be said to be related to subcutaneous fat level. As a result, we can say that environmental measurements explain the body's rate of fat and lean muscle. In order to achieve an effective performance in all sports branches, it is considered that a physical structure suitable for the sports branch was made first. It has been observed in the literature that the genetic existing physical structure of the individual has a decisive role on the level of activity or the tendency of the individual to a specific branch, as well as branch-specific changes in the physical appearance as a result of continuous physical activities. In the researches, different somatotype features are seen in athletes in different sports branches, the physical properties of the athlete have an important effect on the somatotype structure, the sportsman intake and success of the branch, the balance ability and these factors are closely related with body mass index and muscle flexibility, and the balance feature increases mobility with flexibility. Is thought to be effective in reducing the risk of muscle damage due to physical activities. It has been observedinthestudiesthatphysicalfitnessandmobility levels are effective in the performance of competitors and sedentary sportsmen. Our aim is to determine the anthropometric and somatotype densities of Hayrettin Gürsoy Sports High School students and to determine their effect levels on balance properties by determining their body ratio levels with formulas. A total of 30 volunteer sports high school students, 11 women (age 16.27 ± 0.46 years, height 163.55 ± 2.60 cm body weight 53.88 ± 8.75) and 19 men (age 16.55 ± 0.51 height 171.8 ± 4.85 body weight 65.45 ± 7.23), participated. Among the research groups, muscle, bone, joint measurements and ratio indices (subcutaneous fat levels, bone length diameter and circumference measurements) and flamingo individual foot balance test measurements were applied. Heath- Carter formula was used to determine the somatotype characters. Anthropometric ratio indices (hip index, cormique index, acromi-iliacus index, martin index, chest circumference index) were calculated with formulas. SPSS 22.0 Package program was used to analyze the data and multivariate correlational method analysis was performed to determine the relationship between indexes and balance levels. Somatotype characters of female athletes were calculated as 3-3-3 (balanced somatotype), and somatotype average of male athletes were calculated as 2-4-3 (balanced mesomorph). The literature shows that different sports branches have different somatotype structures. Different ratio indices of male athletes in different sports branches, and variations in balance and physical fitness levels were determined. These variations are thought to arise from the difference of different physical structures and training methods required by different branches. Separately, it was analyzed that height, weight and BMI affect each other with different fitness parameters in different sports branches. It is recommended that club officials and coaches measure physical physical parameters and anthropometric ratio index levels at the point of directing physical education teachers in schools to children, young people and students. In our study, no relation was found between somatotype structures and balance properties in both men and women (p> 0.05). When looking at the relationship between other physical fitness parameters and balance performance, a statistically significant relationship was found between foot length and nondominant foot balance performance in women (p <0.05). Considering that studies related to the relationship between balance performance and physical structure show different results in the literature, it can be said that more comprehensive research is needed.  
6 An Eighteenth-Century Work: Şâkir Ahmed and His Divan   , Gülay Durmaz  
In the 18th century, Ottoman Empire implemented a series of political, social, economic and military regulations and it was a period where the state doubted its authority. In the period that included the pompous period of the “Tulip Age,” social and cultural disintegra- tion are noteworthy. The changes in the field of literature were observed only in the second half of the 19th century. Despite the great number of poets and poetry authored in the 18th century, the most significant poets of the period were Nedim and Gâlib. The poets, who did not receive the desired interest of the officials due to political instabilities, started to write historical poems instead of eulogies in this period where classical, didactic, aesthetic and local styles were prominent. Articulations in new and new-transient styles did not lead to a new poetry but were limited cer- tain innovations in theme, rhyme and repetitions. Social criticism and satire were more significant, and slang and obscene words were of interest. Şâkir was attested to the 17th century in biographical collections. In particular, in Tuhfe-i Nâilî, Silahdarzâde Biography and Tayyarzâde Ata History, Şâkir Ahmed Bey was mentioned as a poet who lived in the 17th century. However, the Şâkir Divan begins with Sıhhatnâme (get well wishes) for Sultan Mahmud. Sultan Mahmud reigned between 1730 and 1754. The Divan also included histories written for Osman III (1754-1757), Mustafa (1757-1774), Abdulhamid (1774-1789), and Prince Selim. All these sultans reigned in the 18th century. Furthermore, Shakir wrote a quintet on an ode by Ali Râ’ik. In Tayyarzâde Ata History, Ali Râ’ik was mentioned among the poets who lived during the reign of Sultan Abdülhamid Han (1774- 1789). Based on these evidences, it could be suggested that Şâkir lived in the 18th century. Also, according to the bi- ographical collections, he worked as the head of stablemen responsible for the maintenance of turbans and related clothing, and then as a teacher at the special school in the palace (Enderun). There is no information on his works in biographical collections except for an ode to Avnî. The only available copy of the Divan is registered as “Divan-ı Şâkir” (TSMKH No: 951) at Topkapı Palace Museum Treasury section. In the work that includes 41 pages, there are 5 eulogies and 1 petition including the Sıhhatnâme, 53 historical poems, 7 quintets and 1 canto that includes 6 verses. The total number of odes is 77. The 47 length of the odes ranges between 4 and 12 couplets. These are mostly 5, 7 and 6-couplet odes in the work. The poet wrote nazires (poem modeled after a poem by another poet in both content and form) to Avnî, Nakşî, and Nâbî. The divan begins with the Sıhhatnâme for Sul- tan Mahmud. The second ode was written to celebrate Mustafa Han’s enthronement, and the third ode was a celebration of the spring. The fourth ode was written for Ali İzzet Pasha. The fifth was written to praise Mustafa Han for the newly built mosque in Üsküdar. Of the 53 historical poems, 17 were written in ode verse. Historical poems are written to shed light on the period. The Divan included historical poems about the reigns of Sultan Mahmud, Sultan Osman III, Mustafa III, and Abdulhamid I and events in their reigns. For example, the Divan included eight new year celebra- tions, 2 congratulatory poems for Hat and Ramadan and a historical poem on the mosque in Laleli written during the reign of Mustafa III. In the same period, Tophane was rehabilitated within the context of military reforms, and new and powerful cannons were cast, and the navy was renovated. The historical poems on three galleons and one cannon were included in the Divan to witness these events. There are also historical poems on Prince Selim, the son of Mustafa III, and his daughters Shah Sultan, Mihrimah Sultan and Mihrishah Sultan. The Divan included seven pentastichs. These were written for Nakşî, Avnî, Rif ’at, Tâlib, Râ’ik Ali Efendi and Nâbî, respectively. The title of the hexastich was “Müseddes-i Der-Sitâyiş-i ‘Abdül’-hamîd Hân Berây Nakl-i Kerden-i Sâhilserây-ı Hümâyûn”. In the present paper, the Şâkir Divan content, con- sidered as an 18th century work, was evaluated based on both the poet and the work, and the poet’s works were analyzed based on the meter, rhyme, language and style in addition to the poet’s life and literary personality.  
7 Determination Of Demographic Factors Affecting The Theater’s Monitoring Request For İzmit Municipality Personnel   , İbrahim İ. ÖZTAHTALI , Şebnem TELCİ DERELİ  
Among the artistic activities that make up an indis- pensable part of our social life, the theatre is perhaps the oldest one in terms of organisation. The theatre, which reveals the social and individual perspectives of social life and the life itself, has evolved over the centuries, in which the people have mirrored themselves and tried to see and show themselves. This understanding has not changed from its most primitive forms to the present day. While the theatre is in a structure that can appeal to every layer of the society, its audience has come to a declining status due to the living circumstances and economic struggles in city life. The proliferation of television, cinema and digital entertainment channels is also among the factors affecting this result. Another critical point to note is the time-money relationship in theatre activity and partici- pation. In addition to the fact that urban life has the habit of using time more effectively and in a planned manner, economic difficulties are added, and today, moving away from the theatre still continues. An ancient proverb in an old quote states that “Love comes from rumination.”, and this proverb expresses the decrease in participation in art and artistic activity more clearly. The first condition to increase participation in artistic activities is that people should be able to supply their basic requirements easily. Today, it is evident that demand for being a theatre audi- ence and participation in theatrical acts differs in line with the variables among individuals and depending on the various possibilities and opportunities. Variables in ticket prices differ in almost every sense, from the inadequacy, distance, difficulty of transportation, participation statis- tics to the number of spectators. Previously, studies have been carried out by researchers on the economy of theatre and performing arts and also on-demand predictions. It has been investigated to what extent people’s participa- tion in artistic activities, art education, price, social and economic variables affect the demand for performing arts such as theatre, classical music, dance, opera and ballet. In a significant part of these studies, it is aimed to deter- mine the frequency of participation and preference of artistic activity by taking the demands of individuals into consideration. It has been determined how effective the level of participation in these artistic activities is in terms Determination Of Demographic Factors Affecting The Theater’s Monitoring Request For İzmit Municipality Personnel of price, social and economic levels. In order to make the determinations related to the issue more realistic, the socio-demographic and other characteristics related to participation should also be identified to understand how the demand levels in performance arts differ be- tween participation and art forms. It has been detected in the relevant literature that education is the leading determinant affecting art participation. In the current study, it was aimed to determine the frequency of par- ticipation to the artistic activities and to which artistic activity the preference of the individuals inclie among many artistic activities. In this research, the quantitative research method was utilised. Quantitative research is a scientific research method that makes events and facts numerically expressed, observable and measurable. The study was carried out to determine the demographic factors affecting the demand for the theatre of the per- sonnel of Izmit Municipality. Local and foreign sources were scanned for the research, and the resources avail- able on the subject were used in the study. This study, which was carried out with 257 participants, was carried out with a questionnaire consisting of 22 questions in the screening model, one of the quantitative research methods. According to the research results, as for gender distribution, there are 133 male and 124 female partici- pants. The participants were mostly between the ages of 35-40. The vast majority of the participants in the study went to the theatre at least once. It was stated by the participants that demographic variables did not have a significant effect on theatre watching habits, and the lack of time from the part of the participants and the lack of information about the theatre activities are among the reasons for not going to theatre and, according to the distribution of the cultural activities, the insufficiency of the number of desired activities are stated as underlying reasons. The current research is a study for determining the variables. For this purpose, it may be recommended for the relations and institutions to use tools to make the announcement of the activities more effectively.  
8 The Language of The Novel Love   , Levent Ali ÇANAKLI  
Elif Şafak, one of the most popular authors of recent Turkish literature, is a novelist who has received a lot of attention both in Turkey and abroad since his 1998 first novel Pinhan. Elif Şafak who writes in Turkish and English wrote Forty Rules of Love, firstly in English then translated to Turkish by the help of the writer. In terms of the author’s use of language and style, it is possible to say that Love has been rewritten in Turkish beyond being a translation. There are two stories in the novel, which is based on the friendship between Mevlana Jalaluddin Rumi, the Great Turkish Sufi, and Shams-i Tabrizi. The outer story of the novel develops between Ella Rubinstein, an American woman, and a sufi named Aziz Zahara. The novel the Sha- ria of Love, written by Aziz Zahara, who suddenly entered Ella’s life, deals with Mevlana and Shams-i Tabrizi. By this way, Love can also be described as a historical novel. Mevlana’s presence in the novel, which the Turkish com- munity commemorates with great affection and respect, is the main reason for the interest for the novel. In Turkey a few master’s theses and research articles were published in about the novel. On the other hand, Love has caused debate as well as great interest. Reviews and evaluations of the author have been criticized, especially around Sufism and the case time in the novel, as author considered to be inaccurate. However, the language used by the author, especially in the internal story, has not been the subject of a study itself, although it contains considerable errors. When the novel is examined by this way, it is seen that the author has fallen into error in many places. The first of these reveals at the point of the usage of historical language for the reader . There are different opinions about which language the author of the historical novel will use in his works. According to one of these, the author is free to choose the current or historical language, but the author must choose either one or the other, using both in the work will lead to instability in language and style. Another view says that there can be no archaism in the historical novel, that today’s language must be used in order for the historical elements described in the novel to become intelligible to us. The language choice of the author in the novel is generally current, but sometimes archaic wordsused from 13. century leads to indecision. The problem of language in historical novels is not just a tradition and modern problem. It is also important that some of the names mentioned in the text, some of the words quoted must belong to the period described. There- fore, it is necessary for the author to conduct a serious research process while establishing the language of the historical novel. Otherwise it would be inevitable to fall into anachronism. Exactly, that type of error is too much in Love. Secondly, in Love, we encounter a great deal of misspelling errors caused by negligence and fast writing as we think. In this variety of word mistakes, spelling mistakes, use of the word in the wrong sense, logic errors, wrong word choices, unknown of the correct shape of the word, errors of ordering words can be listed as errors arising from not knowing the language of culture. Some of the uses of language that we can charac- terize as inconsistencies also stand out in the romance novel. These inconsistencies include that the people in the novel do not behave or speak according to their original character, the author’s choice of words and style as a third person narrator are also seen in the novel’s heroes, and the fact that the text contains state- ments that will contradict each other. The article does not carry the aim of simply sorting errors in the work of a famous author. The writer is human, and naturally can fall into error. However, if a writer has been shown great kindness despite all the mistakes he has made in his mother tongue, then there is a mistake. The purpose of the article is mainly to point out this fault.  
9 Linguistic Characteristics Of The Folktales Compiled By Âşık Şevki Halıcı   , Minara ALİYEVA ÇINAR  
Turkish culture ranks among the world’s oldest and richest cultures. This culture, which has come down from our ancestors to the present day, continues to preserve its vitality at the current time. The Turkish Minstrelsy Tradi- tion also constitutes an essential part of this culture that changes by developing and develops by changing. Minstrel literature makes up an important part of our cultural history. This literature, which emerged in the 16th century, is the name of our traditional literature, which consists of folk poets, known as “âşık” (ashik), playing and singing their poems or those of master poets in the collo- quial language and syllabic meter, accompanied by the saz (a kind of lute), or narrating folktales. Minstrel literature came into being with the merging of the “ozan-bakşı” literary tradition with post-Islamic Sufi thought and the Ottoman way of life and values. This literature, which first developed as religious-Sufist folk literature, later began to take the form of Turkish national literature in the area of Anatolia in the 16th century. Since its formation until the present day, many artists have been raised in this area, such as Âşık Şenlik, Narmanlı Süm- manî, Âşık Zülali, Posoflu Müdamî, and Âşık Şeref Taşlıo- va. One of the important regions that were a cradle to the minstrelsy tradition of the Anatolian area was the region of Northeastern Anatolia. One of the minstrels who grew up in this region was Âşık Şevki Halıcı. Âşık Şevki Halıcı (1930-2015) was a storyteller who was born in 1930 in Çıldır. He compiled and narrated many folk tales. In this paper, an attempt is made to ex- amine fifteen folktales compiled by Âşık Şevki Halıcı, in a study named “Folk Tales Compiled by Âşık Şevki Halıcı.” These folktales were collected and published by Prof. Dr. Fikret Türkmen and Prof. Dr. Mustafa Cemiloğlu. The stories reflect the Terekeme (or Karapapak) dialect, as Şevki Halıcı was a member of an immigrant family from the Caucasus. Both his circle of friends and Şevki Halıcı himself identify him as a Terekeme or Karapapak Turk. The Turks, known as the Karapapak or Terekeme live mostly in Turkey and Georgia (Borçalı). This Turk- ish clan lives in Ardahan province, principally in the Çıldır district, and in the Göle and Hanak districts and a number of villages of this province; in the center of Kars and principally in its Susuz district, as well as in its Selim, Sarıkamış, Akyaka, and Arpaçay districts and its villages; in the Kangal District of Sivas and its environs; and in Ağrı, Amasya, Sivas, Erzurum, Muş, Tokat, and Yozgat. The Karapapak/Terekeme dialect of Çıldır is included among the Eastern group of dialects in the classifica- tion of Turkish dialects of Turkey. In her work entitled “Anadolu Ağızlarının Sınıflandırılması” (Classification of Anatolian Dialects), Leyla Karahan separated the Turkish dialects of Turkey into three groups, namely Eastern, Western and Northeastern, based on the dia- lectal ingredients that she examined. She also evaluated each group within itself. In this classification, Karahan evaluated the Karapapak/Terekeme dialect under the seventh sub-heading of the second sub-group of the Eastern group, as “the dialect of the Kars Azeris and Terekeme.” Âşık Şevki Halıcı, who was born and grew up in Çıldır and whose real name was Feyzullah Halıcı, became interested in the tradition of minstrelsy from an early age and was one of the self-educated minstrels (ashiks). Since as a narrator he was a Karapapak (Tere- keme) Turk, he generally used the dialect of Karapapak (Terekeme), one of the dialects of Azer- baijan Turkish, in his narratives. When Âşık Şevki Halıcı used the words and idioms of the Terekeme dialect, he expressed different dialectal characteristics. In the verse sections of the tales, which were less subject to change, and in pieces with a formu- la-pattern characteristic, the text was mostly recited in the Karapapak (Terekeme) dialect. In the prose sections, however, the Karapapak (Terekeme) dialect largely changed into contemporary Turkey Turkish. Linguisti- cally, a text emerges which has the differences between Turkey Turkish and Azerbaijan Turkish. When the text is examined, it is seen that a number of words are not used in standard Turkey Turkish. At the same time, many words not used in Azerbaijan Turkish figure in the narratives of Şevki Halıcı. Furthermore, in terms of both morphology and phonology, the characteristics of both dialects are sometimes seen in the texts. This article has been written in order to evaluate the linguistic characteristics used by the narrator.  
10 New Position of Storrytelling in the Context of Digital Narration   , Mine ARTU MUTLUGÜN,   Yasemin TOPUZ  
The concept of storytelling which existed long before the emergence of written sources, has been carried to quite different dimensions with the contribu- tion of the scientific and technological riches it brought with us. Starting with the hunting stories drawn on the cave walls, the story of the human being is moving towards a different point in a formal and contextual way with the development of the mass media. With the modernization and especially with the devel- opment of technology, there have been profound changes in the relationship between the narrator and the listener as well as the story concept. Transferring stories to virtual environments and storytelling through technological tools now defines a more interactive process. The relationship between the narrator / listener and the classical story is now intertwined through technological environments. In this process, new concepts such as online story writ- ing ”and“ interactive story writing ”have emerged.In this study, the relationship between the story and the listener is discussed in detail. In this study, social changes, the dynamics of the era and technological advances have been taken into consid- eration and the course of the storytelling has been dis- cussed from past to present. With the contribution of technological developments, the story, which has been transferred from verbal lan- guage to digital platform and thus to digital language, has undergone a significant change in terms of form and content in line with this new environment and new con- ditions.Especially the narratives put forward in techno- logical environments primarily on television and on the internet, is insufficient to defining this process only with “story” concept. Digital story production has created an environment for the emergence of different concepts. The narratives (stories), which became more accessible and more easily shared within the possibilities of the digital world, began to become more visible to the wider masses and to take the form of hypertext through widespread communication platforms. With the introduction of different disciplines, it has become necessary to make different definitions of the story. The story has now become interactive.The story is individualized, however. Thanks to the technolog- ical infrastructure, it is shared in a more global area. The potentials of the digital story have just begun to be understoodDespite this, studies on the concept of digital storytelling are still limited today.Identification of the limits or unlimitedness of digital storytelling, analysis of form and content, detailed studies on narrative and narrative will contribute to the definition of digital story and to develop a more academic perspective. It is now possible to calculate in this unlimited uni- verse, thanks to the possibilities of the digital world, by whom digital stories are shared, when they are read and when they are changed.Storytelling has now turned into a massive process.The digital story also opposes central media and capital, which monopolized television and cinema.It allows nonprofessional people to share their stories.Therefore, the concept of digital storytelling was evaluated not only in terms of narrative, formal and contextual aspects, but also in terms of social, economic and cultural results. The processes that the concept of storytelling goes through in the historical process will be examined through different examples, while the process extending to digital storytelling will be evaluated comparatively in the light of the opinions of different theorists.This study aims to develop a new perspective on the concept of a new story that continues its existence by changing / transforming it in such a new technological reality, at least to determine the last point of the concept of tech- nological storytelling  
11 The teaching of Values in Turkish Language and Literature Course   , Mustafa CEMİLOĞLU
Ethic or morality means all behaviors that include values to a large extent. In recent years, within the education-teaching environments, values and values education are on the front burner. Studies and papers are being published and graduate dissertations are being conducted on this issue. Board of Education, too, adds values education principles into the curriculum. A certain way and methods should be defined and these methods should be acquired to the educators and practitioners in the values education which is the base of morality and vir- tue. It is a problem solving or exploring way of teaching. Turkish Language and Literature is a very suitable course to give place to values education practice. Discussing texts which include behavioral dilemmas is the most important teaching material to help students gain values. This is the rightest way for values acquisition. “Do this and do not do that” is that a proper way through which values education cannot be realized. In addition to this, Ministry of Na- tional Education should plan and organize programs and course books accordingly. The Ministry of National Education has been carrying out various studies on the concept of “values” for the past few years. It has also implemented some innovations in order to gain individual values for students in education- al activities. It is also seen as a part of these innovations that the concept of “values” is emphasized in the renewed “Turkish Language and Literature Curriculum”. Of course, as a result of all these, the studies that carry the heading “Values” are emphasized both in the secondary schools where the Turkish Language and Literature course is taught and in the Faculties of Education that should naturally have an organic relationship with them. It is also possible to see this situation in the scientific publications of academics working in the Faculties of Education and in the postgraduate theses being made within the scope of the Educational Sciences Institutes. All these developments observed in the secondary education level are not a form of study that we have never seen before. Because the concept of “training-training” in the old term “training and training” or the new term “training-training” is nothing but adding “value.” Of course, when these “values” gained start to be observed in the students’ attitudes and behaviors over time, those who try to be given are also won. It is for this reason that the concept of “Values Education,” which the ministry frequently emphasizes in the curriculum of the courses and different fields of study, is not an innovation that has never been studied before. Perhaps, it is the organization of studies that have not been named previously, are left to chance, are not programmed, and are not defined, but of course, this is also a positive development. However, all courses in the secondary education level have a tripartite structure, namely “curriculum, “educational activities,” and “assessment and evaluation.” Again, these three details should be shaped to be com- patible with the integrity of the course. For this reason, in the later parts of the study, the concept of “Values Education” will be tried to be examined in terms of both the curriculum of the course, “educational activities” and “measurement and evaluation”. The main aim of the lessons being carried out in the secondary education level is to provide students with a medium level of knowledge and culture. If one of the main objectives of education is to provide students with “values” and to reflect these values on their attitudes and behaviors, the way to this is through a series of activities implemented in “education-training processes.” One of those activities is to discuss the “dilemmas” and “mor- al conflict” scenes in the reading texts of the Turkish Language and Literature Course. Students will reach a “cognition” in these discussion sessions. This cogni- tion will take them to “value” over time, and the values acquired will lead to a parallel pattern of behavior with it. Psychologists argue that the highest value in “good, righteous and beautiful” is “justice.” So it must be the first value to be gained.  
12 Examination of the Postgraduate Theses Prepared Under the Title of Literacy Skills in the Field of Social Studies Education   , Selma Güleç, Muhammed Nafiz Hüdavendigar  
Literacy is defined as a “state of being literate.” In addition, this skill corresponds to understanding what you are reading and communicating your thoughts. The word literacy comes in front of different names and gains various meanings. Thus, individuals with this skill can understand, use, and transfer information in that field to others. Social studies education is an essential disci- pline in preparing the individual for life, becoming an active citizen, and gaining some literacy. This literature, which is valuable in the maintenance of the livability of life in various fields of Social Sciences, has become more affluent, especially with the renewed social studies curric- ulum. Legal literacy, environmental literacy, digital litera- cy, financial literacy, map literacy, media literacy, political literacy, and the literacies emerge as last in the program. The aim of this study is to examine the master’s and doctoral theses prepared under the title of literacy skill in the field of social studies education between the years of 2008-2019 in Turkey in terms of different criteria. This study is essential in terms of creating a resource both in the field of social studies and for future academic edu- cation to be made on literacy skills. The problem of the study was stated as “How do the theses made under the title of literacy skill in the Social Studies Education dis- tribute according to various variables?” The questions to which answers were sought in the study are these: How do the publication years, the universities of publication, the genders of the researchers, the literacy subject areas, the sample groups and the employed research methods of the theses made under the title of literacy skill in the field of Social Studies Education distribute? The sample of the study was composed of all the post- graduate theses published on literacy skills in the field of social studies education between the years of 2008-2019 and recorded in the HEC National Thesis Center. In the determination of the sample of the study, the criterion sampling, one of the purposeful sampling methods, was used. The data of the study were collected by the re- searchers between 10th September and 15th November 2019. In the study, the master’s and the doctoral theses published under the title of literacy skill in the field of social studies education were reached via scanning the database of the Higher Education Council’s “National Thesis Center” by using the keywords of “Social Studies” and “Literacy.” As a result of the scanning, from among 1.517 postgraduate theses prepared in the field of social studies education, a total of 31 postgraduate theses, 17 master’s and 14 doctoral, published under the title of literacy between the years of 2008-2019, were reached. Each postgraduate thesis was examined separately under such categories as a method, gender, title, sample, year, and university of publication. Within the scope of the study, 31 theses were analyzed via the content analysis method, and the findings were shown via tables and graphs. The obtained data were analyzed using descrip- tive analysis. The research data were analyzed under six main headings, namely year of publication, the gender of the researcher, university of publication, the field of literacy, research method, and sample. In this study aims to determine the trends of the postgraduate theses prepared under the title of literacy in the field of social studies education, 31 postgraduate theses were examined, and the following results were reached. The postgraduate theses show the distribution in 13 differ- ent literacy areas. That five different literacy skills were studied in addition to 8 literacy areas included in the MNE Social Studies Education Teaching Program is a positive finding in terms of variety. Among these subject areas, the most frequently studied subject area was the skill “media literacy” in both master’s and doctoral areas. The highest number of theses was prepared between the years of 2017 and 2019. When the distribution, ac- cording to genders, was examined, it was observed that although the doctoral theses were equal, the number of male researchers was higher when it was looked in general. The title of “media literacy” was the most-fre- quently studied field. As a sample, mostly preservice teachers were chosen. Finally, the quantitative method was preferred more frequently than mixed and qualita- tive methods. In the direction of these results, various suggestions were made.  
13 Two Poetical Histories Mentioning the Ottomans' Eastern Expeditions in the Period of Sultan Murâd III: Âsafî’s Şecâat-nâme and Harîmî’s Gonca-i Bâğ-i Murâd   , Süleyman EROĞLU  
Works on history occupy an important place among the poetical and prosaic products of the Turkish literature. An important part of our literary products deriving their subjects from history are composed of works on wars re- flecting the holy war spirit in the Muslim Turkish society. Works on holy war appear before us generally under such names as gazaname, fetihname, zafername and sefername, but gazavatname has been used as a common name. In our literature, the first gazavatname examples deriving their subjects from our history are encountered starting from the 15th century on. The gazavatname type of works, the numbers of which highly increased together with the 16th century, continued to increase in number at the end of the century during the sultanate years of Sultan Murad III, who was sitting on the Ottoman throne, too. The Ottoman Eastern (Caucasian) Expeditions launched during the sultanate years of Sultan Murad III are rather important in terms of not only history and politics but also literature. The conquests starting in 1578 and continuing until 1590 in the Ottoman Eastern geog- raphy did not only expand the Ottoman domination area but they also allowed for the compilation of a remarkable number of literary works. Especially, the victories gained under the lead of Özdemiroğlu Osman Pasha became a source of inspiration for some poets. Hereby, the works penned by the poets of the period are not only each a his- torical document shedding light on the last period of the sixteenth century Ottoman history but also they each have the nature of a poetical history. Among the poets penning works in the type of poetical history about the Ottoman Eastern Expeditions during the period of Sultan Murad III were Âsafî and Harîmî, the two mostly-mentioned sol- dier poets raising in the second half of the 16th century. Âsafî, whose actual name was Mehmed, was born in Siroz (Serres). The first government office which he took following his educational life was the clerkship of the Imperial Council (Divan-ı Humayun). Âsafî, who was assigned to the office of writing biographies under the auspices of Özdemiroğlu Osman Pasha following the clerkship of the Imperial Council, personally took part in many battles taking place in the Ottoman Eastern geog- 54 raphy between the years of 1578 and 1585. Having been taken prisoner in the hands of Iranians in the end of 1582, the poet managed to escape from captivity in the middle of 1585 and participated in the Tabriz Expedi- tion along with Özdemiroğlu Osman Pasha. Having been assigned to the Beylerbeylic of Kefe following the conquest of Tabriz, Âsafî was appointed to the office reisülküttap in 1590. Having been discharged from the office of reisülküttap in 1593, Âsafî died in 1605. Âsafî left two literary works behind him, which we know with the names of Şecâat-nâme and Cezîre-i Mesnevî. Together with Âsafî, another one of the poetical history writers raising in the second half of the 16th century was Harîmî. The poet, whose actual name was Ibrahim and penname was Harîmî, was born in Küta- hya. A poet having a divan and known with the pen- name of Rahîmî and also known as Rahîmî-zâde due to his father underwent a good learning period and then took office in the Imperial Council. Having been sent to Baghdad as a sergeant of Dergâh-ı Âlî by the order of Sultan Murad III in 1575, Harîmî participated in the Eastern Expeditions in 1578 with the Ottoman army under the command of Lala Mustafa Pasha. Harîmî firstly took part in various struggles and public improve- ment in the regions of Çıldır, Tbilisi, Şirvan, Revan and Kars along with Lala Mustafa Pasha. Having partici- pated in the Tabriz Expedition under the sirdarship of Özdemiroğlu Osman Pasha, Harîmî took part in the Gence Expedition under the sirdarship of Ferhad Pasha following the Tabriz Expedition. Moreover, having continued his service in battlefields after the end of the eastern expeditions lasting 12 years during the sultan- ate of Sultan Murad III with the treaty reached in 1590, Harîmî fell a martyr in the defeat to which the Ottoman army went down in 1594 in the vicinity of the Hatvan Fortress, one of the border fortresses in Rumelia. Harîmî is known with his works entitled Zafer-nâme-i Sultân Murâd Han, Feth-i Tebriz, Gonca-i Bâğ-ı Murad and Kitâb-ı Gencîne-i Feth-i Gence, which he penned on the Eastern Expeditions, the most important campaigns of the period of Sultan Murad III. In this article, some information will be given about the lives and the works of Âsafî and Harîmî, two soldier poets who lived in the 16th century, and their masnavis entitled Şecâat-nâme and Gonca-i Bâğ-ı Murâd, each of which was a poetical history, will be introduced.  
14 Effective Design Of Packaging , Gultekin Erdal    
Today, there is almost no one person who is not interested in packaging. The packaging that its place and importance in our lives is increasing further has been documented how to surround of mankind's history by its 5000 years history. The increase of potential consumers can not be ignored at its acquiring of this much space in our daily lives, but manufacturer competition takes the lion's share. Purchasing is often triggered by the allurement instinct of packaging of the products on the shelves like a fashion charm. Brand value, product quality, type, and other factors are important details that consumers do not ignore. However, this article has been tried to focus on the factors which trigger customer ego as the allure of the packaging, lonely sales strategy, and creating a sense of trust. Therefore, reasons for the importance of packaging in our daily life have been the subject of this research Design of packaging, a form of packaging, psychological causes as their impact on ego, the power that brings to the second class of product brand and quality value have been tried to demonstrate.  B.C. In 3000, Egyptians, Phoenicians, Iranians, and Turks were able to make bottles by blowing glass, using containers such as jars and jars for liquid foods, and papyrus for packaging. With the development of humanity and the increase in needs, increases, and changes in packaging types and materials have started to take place. Especially M.S. The discovery of paper in 105, and later in the 15th century, the innovation movements that began in Europe were the most important factors that accelerated the development of packaging. Paper bags, tin, and corrugated cardboard boxes, high-quality glass bottles for milk and other liquid beverages, and other types of packaging have been introduced to humanity one after another. Furthermore, more durable and protective packages have been produced by increasing the resistance of these materials by tinning, coating, and similar chemical and physical interactions. In addition to materials and production techniques, original and realistic packages were designed with the knowledge of the contemporary structure of designers. Together with the developing packaging technology, more useful and showy packages have been produced. Its superior ego has created much more functional and flashy packages. The number of consumers who buy products is not limited because they like their packaging. However, the production of so many packages brought about environmental problems, and the packaging waste started to occupy the agenda. In many countries, municipalities felt the obligation to reuse trash by implementing packaging waste collection laws. Because after this stage, ego has started to be replaced by environmental awareness and common life concerns. It is the general aim of humanity to create a society and a world in which people can benefit equally from the welfare society, which continually develops without overloading the environment. Especially after product developers, consumers, and even anyone interested in packaging should make efforts. The purpose of the packaging has now changed for the third time. Since the creation of mankind, storage-protection in the first stage, protection-transportation-promotion in the second stage, and environment and living space creation in the third stage are the new points in the packaging. In other words, new concepts such as environmental protection, product responsibility, and universal designs have started to prevail in the world of packaging. This article has been demonstrated the characteristics of a successful packaging and has been described as the fact that it has been able to recognize packaging before the product via the designer's right approach. It was explained that most of the time, the sense of allure of the consumer that is created by packaging how comes to the forefront of the product and brand identity. With this study, which investigated the successful packaging forms and features, it has been wanted to explain the effective design in packaging, which means buying fast on the customer side. This article gives examples of how packaging reflects the place, the importance, the definition, and the human qualities we have in our lives. It is told how packaging is a living soul, how talking with us, how print quality affects packaging, and what tries to tell us. In today when the packaging is not just a container, and this value judgment is becoming more widespread, it has been revealed how people reflect their love, loneliness, and friendship and health worries to packaging. It was exemplified how we associate with a package when we receive a product, and how the product or its package directed us. In this study, living connective tissues between packages and humans were determined.
15 Investigation Of Reaction Time And Mental Rotation Performance Of Women Artistic And Aerobic Gymnastists , Şenay Şahin, Nilay Cesur, Ersin Şahin
Gymnastics watching is an admirable, exciting application, it is an ideal method for choosing physical harmony and it is very suitable sport for the modern era we live in. This sport uses the body's natural movements, allowing all muscles to work and this sport uses all the body's natural movements, allowing all muscles to work and giving the audience a taste of art. (Cihaner, 1998; Kesilmiş, 2012). Arm and hand rhythm and coordination in gymnastic athletes is essential for successful performance. Mental rotation supports the forming movoment of motor function components and has increase the importance in recent years. Because of its importance in the development of learning and perception, which is at the center of many cognitive functions, it is considered as a skill that increases the speed of achievement and solution in issues requiring spatial reasoning. this parameter is a concrete expression of the ability to mentally management, processing and manipulate visual information in memory. In the gymnastics branch, the athlete implemenets the movement that it imagined in it mind in a way that is appropriate to the body composition, without any failling and in a highly aesthetic way. Mental rotation is an important component in implementation this skill. It is reported that a good level of mental rotation improves the performance of the gymnast, plays an important role in maintaining body composition and forms the basis for dynamic sports with sudden changes in movement pattern. In this study that aims to examine mental rotation, visual and auditory reaction time of female artistic and aerobic gymnasts; 20 female artistic and 21 female aerobic, voluntary athletes participated from Bursa Provincial Directorate of Youth Services. In the study, mental rotation, visual and auditory reaction time measurements have been made by a special, validity and reliability done computer based programme. For the analysis of gained data, the possibility that continuous variables are convenient with normal distribution in SPSS “24.0” packaged software has been tested by Shapiro-Wilk test. The descriptive statistics of gained data have been presented as mean, standard deviation and values. T test has been used for between-groups comparison of continuous variables. The relation possibility between parameters has been researched by Pearson correlation coefficient. It has been observed among artistic and aerobic gymnasts that there is no statistically significant difference between mental rotation correct number, active response time, simple and selective visual reaction time fix interval and random interval also simple auditory reaction time fix interval and random interval (p>0.05), there is a statistically significant difference on behalf of artistic gymnasts (p<0.001). Also a statistically significant negative medium-level relation has been found between gymnasts’ body mass index, selective visual reaction time fix interval and simple auditory reaction time fix interval (p<0.05) besides that it has been found between age and selective visual reaction time (p<0.05). As a result it has been established among artistic and aerobic female gymnasts that there is no mental rotation, balance, visual and auditory reaction time difference and artistic gymnasts’ dominant hand performance is better but reaction period of simple auditory and selective visual reaction time strings out related to age and body mass index increase.    
16 Modeling and Optimizing a Vehicle Navigation System by G-Network ,  Mohammad Kouchaki Pahnekolaei, Morteza Romoozi,  Mahshid Ghorbani, Hamideh Babaei
Increasing the production of vehicles and necessity to use private and public cars have led to heavy traffic that has negative effects in that respect. The aim of intelligent transportation systems (ITS) is improving the quality of transportation, reducing travelling time and reducing fuel consumption via advanced technologies. Clearly, analyzing the routing problems of vehicles and finding optimized routes are among the considerable challenges in intelligent transportation systems. Vehicle navigation systems are the systems used for leading and routing. Using GPRS communication, these systems provide on-line services for collecting instant traffic information, such as vehicles coordination, speed and type, for enhancing them for efficient routing of vehicles. Furthermore, they can prepare diverse traffic reports regarding time, period, max. and min. speeds, the total driven distance in a desired specific date or time limit. Many navigation systems have used offline city maps and pre-set maps together with the history of navigation data obtained from GPS. These systems are not suitable due to rapid changes in the traffic conditions.     Since, online systems are preferred. Focusing on online navigation systems and dynamic VRP, we presented a navigation system for the vehicles to receive updated traffic information on reaching each junction, and select the best route with lower traffic to their destination, in case they are permitted to move in it.  In this paper, we used G-Network for modeling the proposed vehicles navigation system. G-Networks are queuing networks with the idea of considering negative customers against positive ones. Negative customers or signals can be considered actual or virtual, operating in different manners in the network. They can destruct positive customers in a queue [1], cause momentary passing of the customers to another queue [2], or remove a group of customers from the network [3]. Vehicles in our proposed model are positive customers and routing decisions are negative customers, here with considered virtual. The queue network is the map of an assumed city. Vehicles may be of different types, such as cars, heavy vehicles and rescue vehicles. Therefore, positive customers in the modeling include different classes. In this graph, each junction and also segments distributed uniformly in each pathway establish the queues of the queuing network. Accordingly, the relevant performance metrics of the network are presented.  The given model provide the possibility for us to use gradient descent method for optimization of the routing. Gradient descent is a first order optimization algorithm, used for finding the minimum rate of functions. In optimizing the behavior of the network, it was attempted to minimize the cost function, which includes parameters such as the probability of passing a type of vehicle from a junction and also probability of a routing decision in the junction. The obtained results from optimization show that the routing problems are improved by considering different criteria including average delay for the vehicles, average delay for routing decisions, average delay for the whole network and average usefulness.     Increasing the production of vehicles and necessity to use private and public cars have led to heavy traffic that has negative effects in that respect. The aim of intelligent transportation systems (ITS) is improving the quality of transportation, reducing travelling time and reducing fuel consumption via advanced technologies. Clearly, analyzing the routing problems of vehicles and finding optimized routes are among the considerable challenges in intelligent transportation systems. Vehicle navigation systems are the systems used for leading and routing. Using GPRS communication, these systems provide on-line services for collecting instant traffic information, such as vehicles coordination, speed and type, for enhancing them for efficient routing of vehicles. Furthermore, they can prepare diverse traffic reports regarding time, period, max. and min. speeds, the total driven distance in a desired specific date or time limit. Many navigation systems have used offline city maps and pre-set maps together with the history of navigation data obtained from GPS. These systems are not suitable due to rapid changes in the traffic conditions.     Since, online systems are preferred. Focusing on online navigation systems and dynamic VRP, we presented a navigation system for the vehicles to receive updated traffic information on reaching each junction, and select the best route with lower traffic to their destination, in case they are permitted to move in it.  In this paper, we used G-Network for modeling the proposed vehicles navigation system. G-Networks are queuing networks with the idea of considering negative customers against positive ones. Negative customers or signals can be considered actual or virtual, operating in different manners in the network. They can destruct positive customers in a queue [1], cause momentary passing of the customers to another queue [2], or remove a group of customers from the network [3]. Vehicles in our proposed model are positive customers and routing decisions are negative customers, here with considered virtual. The queue network is the map of an assumed city. Vehicles may be of different types, such as cars, heavy vehicles and rescue vehicles. Therefore, positive customers in the modeling include different classes. In this graph, each junction and also segments distributed uniformly in each pathway establish the queues of the queuing network. Accordingly, the relevant performance metrics of the network are presented.  The given model provide the possibility for us to use gradient descent method for optimization of the routing. Gradient descent is a first order optimization algorithm, used for finding the minimum rate of functions. In optimizing the behavior of the network, it was attempted to minimize the cost function, which includes parameters such as the probability of passing a type of vehicle from a junction and also probability of a routing decision in the junction. The obtained results from optimization show that the routing problems are improved by considering different criteria including average delay for the vehicles, average delay for routing decisions, average delay for the whole network and average usefulness.  
17 Edib Bey and Mecmû’a-i Eş’âr , Gülay Durmaz, Şükrü Baştürk
The 19th century witnessed renewal movements in every field in the Ottoman state that was experiencing a disintegration process due to the changing mentality. The aim of the Ottoman state, weakened in political, military and economic terms, was to adapt to the changing world order. Classical Turkish poetry that reigned for six centuries, was headed for the last roundup. Classical Turkish poetry tried to resist the new. While the changes observed in other areas of society were more pronounced, the rate of change in literature was not the same. The fact that the change in poetry was often observed only in content was an indication of this fact. Edib Bey, who was born in Yozgat in 1858 as the son of Osman Nuri Bey, was a statesman and poet of the period. Born in the second half of the 19th century, Edib Bey held various civil offices after graduation. He served as Yozgat deputy and was forced to reside in Kayseri due to Yozgat rebellion and died there. His solitary work is titled “The Book of Poetry” (Mecmûâ-i Eş’âr). Edib Bey said that every piece in it held a memory from his life and he did not want it to be lost; thus, he wanted it to be published. The Book of Poetry is registered in National Library A-E verse no: 795. In the book, it was mentioned that it was printed in 1327 (1909) by Ebuzziya Printing House and the author was Abdülcebbarzâde Edib. The work was 47 pages long and included various poems. These included poems in terkib-i bend (long poems constructed with cantos), tevhid (poems on oneness of Allah), münacat (appeal), naat (on Prophet), tahmis (quintuplets), hasbihal (dialogue), şarkı (lyric), kıt’a (quatrain), müfred (single verse), tarih (historical), kitabe (inscription), gazel (ode), and kaside (eulogy) forms. The number of odes was 11. The number of eulogies was 4. Three of the eulogies were written for Reşid Âkif Pasha. Kaside-i İnkılâbiye (Euology to the Revolution) was the fourth eulogy. Cantos and collective odes and lyrics, common in the 19th century, could be observed in the Book of Poetry as well. The book begins with a terkib-i bend that included eleven couplets and five cantos. An ode that included 14 couplets authored by Edib Bey and Memduh Bey, an example of collective poetry, two lyrics and three historical quatrains reflected the formal trends of the period. One of the references (nazire) written about the works of Naci and Fennî was titled “Nâcî Merhûmun Lâl Olursun Söylesem Bir Fıkra Sîneden Matlalı Gazeline Nazîre.” One of the three historical poems written between 1899-1906 was about the repairs of a mosque in Skopje, the second about the birth of the son of a friend, and the third about the fountain by the late Kul Agha Osman Efendi. The only inscription in the book was about the tombstone of the late Major Osman Efendi. Edib Bey attempted to express his own situation and asked for help in the eulogies written to Reşid Âkif Pasha. Complaining that the rightful people could not get what they deserve, Edib Bey criticized the period where malicious people were appointed to higher offices and expressed his regret that he was not appointed to the office he desired. Edib Bey stated that he was aware of the fact that he constantly repeated his desires but he thought that he could make his voice heard in order to get what he deserved via the poems. Edib Bey, who expressed similar considerations not only in the eulogies he wrote to Âkif Pasha but also in other forms of verse, stated that it was unfair to consider the virtuous and refined people and ignorant ones the same, and he could never accept the fact that fate let the ignorant ones to achieve higher offices. Furthermore, it is possible to observe affectionate expressions in the work. Edib Bey, who also utilized examples of daily language in his poems, also used proverbs. The present article included the life and work of Edib Bey who lived in the second half of the 19th century. During the review of Edib Bey's life, both biographies and his own poems were utilized. The verse forms, language and style of his work were also addressed.
18 Two Names Of Theater Literature In The Tanzimat Period: The Copyright Issues Of Mehmed Rıfat And Hasan Bedrettin Pasha In “Temâşâ” And The Fırst Known Dramaturgy Of Turkish Theater Literature , İbrahim İmran Öztahtalı
The first examples of the Turkish theatre, which has a long history, have been found in ancient Chinese sources, and these can be traced to shamanic culture. From the appearance of Turks in Anatolia to the Tanzimat period, which was shaped by the western influence, Karagöz, Puppet, Meddah and Traditional Improvised theatre fed the Turkish theatre. Europe, released from the darkness of the Middle Ages, in the light of the concepts of right, freedom, and equality of the XIX century, witnessed both political and social changes. The mirror of the troubles experienced in this century was, of course, literature, theatre literature and stage. It was impossible for the Ottomans not to be affected by the modernisation movements and new formations in Europe, especially at the state and the army levels. Defeats and lost of lands on battlefields made it obligatory to be in rapport with Europe in the context of modernisation. In particular, the influence of France in the intellectual field made itself felt in the field of literature. In the 19th century, a period of questioning for the Ottoman intellectual, the route of both intellectual and literary works was passing through France in a way. Even, those who somehow did not pass through Paris were not included in the intellectual class. It can also be thought that these quests arose from the fact that classical literature entered into a repetitive, vicious circle, especially in the literary field. The institution of the Ottoman society, which lagged behind Europe in many respects, especially educational institutions, collapsed and could not fulfil their functions. This situation increased the amount and variety of quests. In this inevitable innovation and change, as Ahmad Hamdi Tanpınar said, among the most important innovations that entered the country between 1839-1856, the theatre was the most important one. The French revolution increased the interest of the Ottoman intellectuals on social issues, and French was the language that was tried to be learned the most. During the Tanzimat period, the French embassy had a significant impact on the development of western-style theatre. While organising essential events both in Izmir and Istanbul, especially in the XVII century, the games played in the French embassy building in Istanbul were critical signals of this effect. This interest also provided great wealth in stories, novels and plays translated from French. The Western Theater, where we started to see the signs and examples much earlier, began to develop and attract attention under the leadership of non-Muslims with the declaration of the Tanzimat. The influence of the Ottoman dynasty and notables in the formation of this interest cannot be denied. Foreigners, especially the ambassadors sent to Europe, carried the cultural products to the capital, accelerating the westernisation efforts. With the staging of copyrighted translation adaptations which were brought to theatre literature, cultural change got a serious impetus, at least in Istanbul. Melodramas were the most remarkable plays of that period. When the Ottoman society, which has a low literacy rate, is taken into consideration, it is clear that the views of Tanzimat writers were correct. According to them, there was a large mass of people to be educated. Tanzimat writers were the ones who would ensure the movement of these people and shape it and show the right way. Theatre was the only collective means of education in this society which was in need of education and cannot benefit from printed books. During the Tanzimat period, melodramas were perceived as a way by which society can understand and acquire moral values alongside issues such as women roles and famililes. Namık Kemal's “Theater” article and Celal Mukaddime are the two masterpieces to reflect the painful process and adaptation problems of the Ottoman Turkish theatre, which had been in the process of learning and adjusting the western theatre until 1908, the declaration of the Constitutional Monarchy II. The main problems that attract attention in the article were the scarcity of copyright works, the shortage of pronunciation by the actors and non-Muslims, and the issue of translation. Two crucial names who contributed to the XIX century Turkish theatre literature are; Hasan Bedrettin and Mehmet Rıfat. The seven games they copyrighted together also contributed to the problem of copyright, which was an essential problem of the period. Many of the plays, which we see staged many times, are regarded as disasters in their own words. The prominent form of the Tanzimat period is melodramas. Some of the works of the authors are melodramas written under the influence of romanticism.  
19 Values Education in Kids Games , Kelime ERDAL
For some, the game is to throw away more of your energy; According to some, the analogy is to feed the instinct, according to others, to meet the need for ejaculation. According to Huizinga, there is one thing in common in all these views: It is based on the assumption that the game serves to reach a non-game goal. In addition to the researchers who claim that the game is played for entertainment purposes only, it can be said that the game is for learning purposes. All living things complete the learning process with the game and, at the same time, improve their physical development, reflex controls, and mental health. Then the game; is a fun learning and therapy process. The common idea in the book "Child Games, in which the Ministry of National Education collects children's games that are in oblivion, is that play has an important role in child development. In the book, Mevlana's "The game is actually in mind, but the child is wise with the play", JJ Rousseau's "The sensory organs of the child must be educated first. The importance of the game was emphasized by Einstein's words "Life = Work" and Goethe's words "The child learns by playing and is surprised by seriousness. Froebel "... Children's games are the core of life. All people develop, grow, and form there. The most beautiful and most positive talents of man rise there" reveal the importance of games to the "individual" upbringing. It is clear that the game is not just a means of entertainment, but a means of transferring values to generations. During the game, the act, attitude, and even the offensive words displayed are not thought to be real, and this increases the tolerance among the players. Although adult games are more fun than children's games, all values expected in a child playing are expected in adult games. The values of solidarity, solidarity, common joy or sadness, common ideal, and common future values of good people, good individuals, and a healthy society are conveyed through play. The game is the life for the child; it will come. Children are the future of society. While playing the game, the child passes out and reveals his true personality. The fact that the game has an educational feature also means that it can be educational material. Play is the most common action, especially for preschool children. It can be tested with the experiences that the gains learned or gained by the game are not forgotten and easily remembered in the future when the game is played. Social gains, personal love, and respect, cooperation, solidarity, tolerance, empathy, and justice are among these gains. Although the game itself is an effective source of values, it shapes itself with the influence of children, family, environment, school, and teacher. Instead of trying to give values to one of these factors or concentrating on one of these factors, it is necessary to create environments with games. In order for children to acquire the skills to distinguish between right and wrong, play environments where tolerance is intense, mistakes can be corrected; hostility is unimaginable should be created in home and school environments because the child is a social value that aims to play and have fun. Skill acquired through play is important for the child to make his own decisions at his own free will and to take responsibility for his decisions without being dependent on anyone.
20 About Repeats In Turkısh Language Wıth "M" , Hatice Şahin
In order to intensify the expression in Turkish and to increase the expression power, the reinforcement process, which is also met with the terms of empowerment, exaggeration, duplication, expansion and enrichment, can be realized in many different ways. One of the most widespread ways in the Turkish language is the reinforcement of the old grammar books which are based on Arabic grammar books and which are met with different terms from ours. Many compilations on duplicators are based on the fact that more studies on the subject have to be made, even though the studies have been carried out. The examples given in the headings of repetitions and dilemmas are differently classified in the works, Some of them were diluted and separated again, taken together in some studies. In the case of a separate structure, it is evaluated as a repeat, and as a duplication of some. In fact, before the confusion in this division, it is not clear yet whether the structures will be accepted as dilemmas or not. Dilemmas, which are generally accepted to reinforce meaning, can also generate a new word through the combination of two words of various qualities. From this point of view, some researchers define the dichotomy as two words that derive a new word, in other words a group of words that meet a new concept different from two words. Stereotypes have been highlighted as the most basic feature of the dilemmas. Despite all this, there is no clarity in terms of definitions and classifications. It is possible to come across different opinions about the structures and characteristics of the dilemmas in different sources. In fact, even before the confusion in this distinction, it is not clear whether the structures will be accepted as a dilemma. This situation should be of interest because it is directly related to the syntax, lexicology and semantics of the structures in question, that is, it is versatile. There are also “m structures” which are not yet known in the same place. Whether these structures are really duplicates, Whether or not it contributes to reinforcement it is necessary to work on examples which are given as a general rule and which show varying degrees of stereotypic or varying structures. Considering the structure and function of the duplicates, it can be considered that m iterations should not be taken within reinforcement. Because the name or verb mentioned in these structures is expressed rather than emphasized. It is not the name or verb in these structures that is intended to be emphasized during the narration. In addition, although it is seen that it is established mostly by nouns, it is also seen that it is established by verbs. It is sometimes extremely difficult and even impossible to distinguish these examples from other dilemmas in other structures. A significant part of the repetition of the "m" voice, some of which is also written in written language, is shown in the second group of meaningless dilemmas. The changes in the added "m" sound in terms of use are also noteworthy, apart from whether these structures are duplicated or repeated, or whether they are included in the reinforcement scope. The number of samples that have not been translated into written language and used only in the mouths is even greater. In fact, the starting point of this paper was the abundance of these examples in the Bursa dialects. According to this; The ways of consolidation in Turkish are very diverse. Different ways of reinforcing are used through sounds, affixes, words, syntax elements. Dilemmas and repetitions also play an important role in reinforcing. Sometimes the "m" sound-derived or commutative structures, which are counted among the dilemmas and given as one of the reinforcement ways, do not actually function as reinforcement. Rather, they are structures that are used to tell without mentioning or emphasizing it and others. Consequently; In this study, the structures in Turkish will be discussed and evaluated in terms of the points mentioned above.
21 On The Organ And Dısease Names In The Lehcetü’l Lugat , Ebru Kuybu Durmaz
A dictionary is a work that gives all the words and phrases of a language or specific words belonging to a specific area or words and phrases used in a period, giving their meanings, explaining, defining them or giving their meanings in another language. The first dictionary where Turkish words were given as the head of the Ottoman field is Lehcetü'l-Lügat which was written by Şeyhülislâm Mehmed Esad Efendi. This work is a historical dictionary which has gained a special place in Turkish lexicography by making Turkish words per item in the 19th century. The dictionary consists of 851 large pages and is prepared in a single volume. In this dictionary, which is from Turkish to Arabic and Persian, some headings are explained by pages and some headings are explained with a few words. The handling and explanation of the heads of articles can also be evaluated in terms of lexicography. Dictionaries are one of the most valuable resources for understanding and understanding the world view, lifestyle, traditions and customs of nations. Dictionaries are considered as the greatest witnesses and greatest treasures of the past. It is an inexhaustible, inexhaustible treasure for every language and the most comprehensive field of research. Dictionaries are the most valuable resource for tracing sociocultural change and development in the lives of all nations. One of the most important studies in the field of language is undoubtedly the business of writing and writing dictionaries. Dictionary creation is the most important part of lexicography. What is essential in lexicography is to create a source work to be used in linguistic works and actions. Lexicography is a tradition that requires a lot of patience, practice and long-term search, screening, compilation, planning. The dictionaries that emerged as a result of these studies are the works of a writer, but also the cultural memory of a nation. The dictionaries built on the words which are the building blocks of the language have a very important place in the material and spiritual life of the nations. In accordance with these explanations, Lehcetü’l Lügat, which is regarded as an important treasure of language and culture, included medical words, plant names and objects belonging to cultural life in the head of the article consisting of Turkish words. In addition, proverbs and idioms appear in the explanations of the headings. The work may also be evaluated in terms of its vocabulary. Therefore, Lehcetü'l Dictionary, Turkish Language Association of Turkey "Turkish Dictionary Project Old Dictionary Series" in Prof. Dr. It was translated into Latin letters by Ahmet Kırkkılıç. Taking into account the language data it contains, “Index of Proverbs and Positions”, Diz Medical Words Index and Their Benefits ”and“ Archaic Words Index ”were prepared. When Lehcetü’l-Lügat is examined, it is seen that the names of organs and diseases are frequently found as head of the substance in connection with the medical words. There are some long and some short explanations about these. Proverbs and idioms were used in the explanations of the headings in Persian and Arabic when it was necessary. In this respect, the dictionary has become an encyclopedic feature. Afakan, mouth, glitch, forehead, agility, palm, moon, foot, scream, intestine, calf, unconscious, faint, baby, waist, clap, benign, cloth, british, throat, muffled, neck, kidney, flank , obliteration, senile…. In this study, firstly the historical medical books and their importance will be mentioned and then an examination will be made on the names of the organs and diseases determined. With this study, it will be tried to make an appropriate contribution to today's modern lexicography understanding and to add a new one to the indexes prepared about the dictionary. The aim of the study is to give information about whether the disease and organ names found in the current Turkish Dictionary, Compilation and Screening Dictionaries. With this kind of examination, it was also wanted to reach the vocabulary about the names of organs and diseases of the period.
22 Geometric Overview of Iznik Green Mosque Tiles , Hülya Bozyokuş
Architect Hacı Musa built Bursa Iznik Green Mosque in 1391. The construction of the mosque was started by Çandarlı Halil Hayrettin Pasha, and after his death, his son Ali Pasha continued and completed it. The mosque was named as Green Mosque because of the tile decorations in its minaret. Although the mosque can be handled in many ways, the geometric shapes in the structure of the mosque are very important. On the square base of the minaret in the northwest corner of the main room, its body starts as a polygonal prism, continues with a round body, and is completed with a single cheer and a conical cone. The minaret is decorated in a row of semi-hexagonal marble with semi-hexagonal shapes. Between the bracelet part of the cylindrical minaret and the stone decorations, embellishments made of frieze and dark blue tiles were placed. In the middle of these, the six-pointed stars follow each other. Geometric shapes, ornaments, triangles, pentagons, hexagons, octagons, star polygons, motifs, and patterns in the Iznik Green Mosque, harmony in the color and texture of the tiles, the harmony created with symmetry, zigzag crossings, the transformation of stone mastery into art, are worth seeing. Iznik Yeşil Mosque is one of the important works representing the architectural features of the Seljuk period in Anatolia both historically and structurally, but its geometrical motifs in interior and exterior tile decorations are extraordinarily beautiful. Since the earliest times in history, since human beings need to embellish the environment they live in and the things they use, they have been used in functional forms and inspired by the environment they live in. Geometric motifs are also a universal form of decoration, and geometric forms have been used in symbolic motifs as a result of the necessity of expressing experiences, feelings, desires, and thoughts indirectly, as it forms the lifestyles and traditions of societies in every civilization throughout human history. A wide variety of compositions can be made in geometrical shapes, Turkish Islamic monuments, with the combination of broken and straight lines, stars, polygons, and other forms that use architecture as a decorative style. It is suggested that the first application of geometric ornaments in architecture in Turks began in the 11th century with Karahanli and Great Seljuks. It is stated that it started from the Iran Khorasan region and reached Anatolia through Azerbaijan. It is in this period that geometric compositions became a distinctive, continuous and consistent feature. You can enter the place of worship of the Iznik Yesil Mosque through a platform with three steps. This rectangular plan is divided into three sections, with columns and arches. There is an eight-slice dome in the middle. The mosque's square-shaped place of worship is covered with a central dome. Iznik Green Mosque consists of a place of worship with a square plan in the north and south general direction and a congregation place in the east-west direction. The main place of worship with a square plan is covered with a dome that sits on the outer octagonal pulley and provides a transition from the inside with a triangular belt. The triangles that provide the transition to the base and the body of the Iznik Green Mosque are covered with marble. There are geometrical crossings on both sides of the altar. Iznik Green Mosque has a great splendor with its tile patterns consisting of straight, curved, square, rectangular, pentagonal, hexagonal, circle and triangles, in which geometric shapes are used. Therefore, in this study, geometric shapes in Iznik Green Mosque tiles were examined and tried to be interpreted with a geometric view. Rectangular, square, triangle, circle, pentagonal, hexagonal, star, etc. formed by the geometric shapes, colors, shapes, and patterns in the tiles used in Iznik Green Mosque decorations. Observational research results are described by using qualitative data collection methods such as observation, interview, and document analysis by examining the geometric patterns formed by the combination of tiles. The evaluation of the tiles used in the mosque's interior and minaret with a geometric view will be useful in conveying the historical texture of that period to the next generations.
23 Machine Vibration Measurement With Designed High Resolution Monitoring Software , İsmet Gücüyener
Vibration is formed as a result of the oscillating movements created by the machines. The vibration values of the running machines are expected to be at an acceptable level. Acceptable vibration values are determined by preliminary tests by the manufacturer. In the machine, the vibration of the machine increases due to the wear and tear of the interconnected parts over time. Therefore, an increase in the vibration values of the machines is observed before the possible malfunction. Machine vibrations are constantly monitored in almost every factory that is produced. In sensitive vibration measurements, it can even be revealed from which part the malfunction is caused. Different algorithms and different sensors are used to make vibration measurements accurately. Vibration sensors and software used in our country are imported from abroad. In this study, vibration measurement was investigated by using shock sensor. Primarily, the designed system was tested by reading the signs known to perceive correct data. The results of the test procedures were verified with the oscilloscope measurement values. The designed vibration measurement system can create more precise graphic values than oscilloscope marks measuring 150 MHz. The importance of sensitive graphic values emerges if it provides the least erroneous data to reveal the machine condition. An engine test setup has been created to measure vibration so as to provide field applications. Vibration measurement was carried out at different speeds of the DC motor used in the test setup. The vibration graphics obtained as a result of the test have been shown to be compatible with the motor values used in industrial application. The shock sensor used for vibration sensing converts physical values into electrical signals using piezo-electric substance. An explanation is made by illustrating how the sensor's physical structure is. The crystal substance used in the sensor structure is produced from substances found in nature. If the raw material source used in the sensor structure is found in our country, more sensitive sensors can be produced. It is used to convert the desired physical event into electrical values on the basis of the sensor. It is always desirable for electronic devices that sensor signal values convert the sensed physical event into a large electrical range value. Industrial electrical noise sources in the industrial environment can affect sensor signals. In this case, the wrong values can be measured and wrong information about the machine condition can be produced. Generating false values makes a system unreliable. Therefore, there is an electromagnetic shielding shield on the sensor circuit used. If the sensor marks produce values in a larger electrical range, the electronic system to be designed will be safer. The model described in this study will shed light on the sensor researches that will be used to detect vibration marks. In the system designed for piezo vibration measurement process, Visual C ++ software, 16 bit ADC capable National Instrument PCI-4451 data acquisition card and BNC-2140 signal connection terminal were used. In the designed software, sampling frequency, sampling number and input gain can be changed optionally. In the system, the detected analog signals are converted into digital values. The margin of error in this conversion process is ± 76µV. The small margin of error always ensures that the designed system is more reliable. This margin of error, which we cannot eliminate in electronic devices, is quite small in the designed measurement system. Thanks to this feature, signal changes that cannot be seen on an oscilloscope screen used in a lab environment can be monitored. In addition, selecting the sampling value of the designed system and changing the gain of the received signals reveals another superior feature of the designed system. Of course, it is possible to design more sensitive systems. But in this case, the cost will increase as a deterrent. It is clear that the physical environment under measurement will never be a very clean laboratory. The use of sensitive devices in these environments is almost impossible due to heat exchange, humidity, dust, vibrating environment. In addition, professional software that will provide sensor detection brings costs such as software fee and update fee and project application fee. The design provides a flexible cost-effective vibration measurement system suitable for use in both factory environment and non-sensitive laboratory applications with normal conditions.  
24 Classroom experiences with Microsoft Teams® for foreign language teaching , Sercan ALABAY
When Benjamin Franklin carried out his well-known kite experiment in 1752, he had a strong feeling that along with light photons, there were other concepts traversing distances in a blink of an eye. The discovery of electricity was one of the biggest achievements in civilization. As human beings, we have always dreamed to reduce distances and to be as fast as we can. The supersonic aircrafts, the high-speed trains or fast cars are all the reflections of this vision. Even in ancient times, before electricity and other technological improvements, faster tamed birds, which reduced the distance, were used to communicate between people. The distance has always been an obstacle between us and the people or concepts that we would like to reach, but the progress welcomes us when we overcome these obstacles. Education is also an important area that we are eager to solve distance-based problems. However, it was the 20th century that technology and mass communication enabled alternatives to traditional offline learning. Although education was an important area in which we were eager to solve distance-based problems, it took the 20th century for technology and mass communication to provide alternatives to traditional offline learning. Distance learning "is a form of education which does not involve the physical presence of a teacher and is not carried out within the framework of a school establishment", according to the definition given by service-public.fr, official site of the French administration. In other words, distance learning is accessible wherever you are, in the presence of other participants or not. There are two forms of distance learning first of which is the so-called synchronous distance learning. It is a virtual class; it takes place in real time. You are attending a videoconference according to a defined schedule. The second one is the so-called asynchronous distance learning. Lessons take place offline. You have access to your courses in pdf or video format, they are accessible at any time. Distance learning makes education accessible to as many people as possible. It is intended for anyone who wishes to acquire new skills and new knowledge throughout their life. Although most universities around the world have programs that allow students to study through distance education, their numbers were not as high as the ones which have occurred in the first quarter of the 2020. The fact that large number of students have started to take part in the distance education has brought some important problems with the process and needs to be examined. For this reason, this study aims to compare the distance education process at a foreign language school of a public university and online exams conducted on the basis of Microsoft Teams software and traditional paper-based exams and interpret them from an instructor perspective. In this paper, it has been analyzed the use of Microsoft Teams as the major distant education support which is a proprietary collaborative communication (SaaS) application officially launched by Microsoft in November 2016. The service integrates with Microsoft Office 365 and Skype and offers extensions that can be used with products other than Microsoft. It is currently available in 181 countries and is translated into 25 languages. Microsoft Teams is a customizable collaborative platform that integrates video conferencing, file storage and transfer with SharePoint, a note taking block with OneNote. Instant messaging allowing to exchange in a team or in a work group while keeping a record of all exchanges. The research is conducted in descriptive survey, which is one of the quantitative research designs. The data was gathered through students’ exam papers. The study was conducted with 21 prep -class students. The study group was chosen through purposeful sampling. They were all French preparation class students. At the end of the study, the results showed that the distance education process at a public university and online exams conducted on the basis of Microsoft Teams software have been more effective and successful than traditional ones.
25 A19th Century Secaatnâme: Terci-i Bend-i Şecâ’at-nâme-i Osmânî , Gülay Durmaz
The word Şecaat is of Arabic origin. The lexical meaning is “bravery” and “courage”. In terms of its genre, it can be evaluated in gazavatnâmes. Gazavat is the plural word of gaza. When analysed in terms of historiography, the pieces written on excursion and reign period, namely gazavatnâme and zafernâmes, constitute the first type, Tevarih-i Âl-i Osmanlar, the second type, and universal history studies constitute the third type. Gazavatnames, reflecting the Ottoman war policies and the spirit of gaza, are seen as critical works in terms of both history and literature. Gazavatnames were first encountered in Arabic literature with the name of megazi. There have been those who accepted danişmendnâme and battalnâme in the Seljuk period as gazavatnâmes. When the gazavatnâmes in our literature are evaluated according to their topics, they can be categorised in three groups. First, works depicting a sultan and his works and important events such as Selimnâme, Süleymannâme. Secondly, the works that the person who carried out a gaza were also prominent: such as Barbaros Hayreddin, Köprülü Fazıl Ahmet, Tiryaki Hasan, Özdemiroğlu and Osman Pashas. Third, artefacts depicting a particular excursion or conquest of a fortress such as Gazanâme, fetihnâme or zafernâme. In the XV.century, the works of gazavatnâme began to be written, and more extensions were made in the XVI. century. When the Ottoman Empire started to decline, and its raids stopped, the works written in this type decreased accordingly, and the disappearance of the gaza tradition caused the gazavatnames to lose their continuity. Gazavatnames were seen as poetry and prose in classical literature. As an example of the Şecaatnâme type, Şecaatnâme by the Asafi Dal Mehmed Çelebi written in the XVI century can be presented. In the piece where the Ottoman Eastern expeditions in the period of Sultan Murad III are mainly dealt with, the conquests of Özdemiroğlu Osman Pasha were specifically explained and the events between Çıldır Victory in 1578 and Pasha's death in 1585 constituted the main subject of the work. The work examined in this article is “Terc-i Bend-i Şecâ’at-nâme-i Osmânî”. It is a work of the XIX. century. It was written by El-hac Mehmet Re’fet Efendi from Süleymaniye. The work was registered in A.E Poetry in 1336, and it starts with a dibace. Then, there are the poems and verses written for the Sultan of the time, Abdülaziz and his lineage. The section which the work was named after starts from the seventh page and continues for forty-one paragraphs. There is no mention of a particular gaza or victory described in Şecaatnâme. Mostly, Sultan Abdülaziz and the innovations made during his period were included. In accordance with the spirit of Şecaatnâma, the heroism and bravery of the state and the nation were emphasised. In this respect, it may be possible to include the work in the group of "gazavatnames", which describe the main events with a sultan and his works, among the gazavatnames that are evaluated according to their subjects. However, the fact that the work we have is an example of the XIX. century and the change that emerged in this period manifests itself in this type, distinguishes the work from its traditional structure. Such that the type of Şecaatnâme, which is generally dealt with in verses and mesnevi verse, is in the form of terci-i bent here. In the piece, the spirit of “Şecaat” was tried to be provided by stating the discourses based on the bravery and heroism of the state and the nation and the innovations realised by Sultan Abdülaziz, the sultan of the time. In this article, “Terc-i Bend-i Şecâ’at-nâme-i Osmânî”, a work of the XIX. century was examined. When evaluated in general, the place and importance of Şecaatname, which is categorised among the gazavatnâmes in the classical literature, is emphasised. Then, information was provided about Sultan Abdülaziz and his actions to understand the period included. In the chapter about the background of the piece, the life and works of Mehmed Refet and the content of “Terc-i Bend-i Şecâ’at-nâme-i Osmânî” are investigated. At the and of study, text it given.  
26 KARAGÖZ NEWSPAPER AND THE TOMB OF KARAGÖZ , İbrahim İmran ÖZTAHTALI
Technological developments made itself felt in every field following the Renaissance and industrial revolution. One of these effects was on periodicals with the invention of the printing press. Although the concept of printing and journalism occurred in the Ottoman society long after its time, it had the opportunity to follow the developments more closely as the Ottomans' direction returned to Europe. With the printing house established by Müteferrika, despite the low literacy rate compared to Europe, the printing began to increase. The rapidly growing number of printing presses enabled the printed books and periodicals to become widespread. Publications, which were limited until Tanzimat, were often published in state-run printing presses, forming the state's official media organ. The number of periodicals also increased with Tanzimat. The real increase was lived with the declaration of the Constitutional Monarchy II. More than two hundred newspapers and magazines were published in three months following the announcement in 1908. One of them was the Karagöz Newspaper. The publication, which was founded by Ali Fuat Bey by borrowing money, is one of the few newspapers issued until 1955 without interval. Karagöz, which started to appear as a humor newspaper, was based on the main character of one of the leading arts of traditional Turkish theatre, shadow play, and carried Karagöz from the stage into the social and political life. The newspaper, which brought humor to the peak with the caricatures of Ali Fuat Bey, was once among the highest publications in circulation. In a copy of the newspaper published in 1909, a documentary about the tomb of Karagöz in Bursa was shared. It was stated that the tomb inscription was fragmented in this document. According to the rumor in Bursa, the Greek soldier ruined the epitaph while leaving the city during the Bursa invasion. The incorrectness of this rumor was also revealed by this document. Additionally, the existence of the tomb of Hacıvat - Haci İvaz was also mentioned while giving information about the tomb of Karagöz, in the cover of a copy of the newspaper named Fevâid, published by Murat Emri Efendi. Karagöz, one of the most famous plays of traditional Turkish theater, has maintained a continuity based on the master-apprentice relationship for centuries. It was especially widespread in the time of Suleiman the Magnificent. An important reason for this is the love of the Sultan's Karagöz. Some nights he had karagöz performances in the Kanuni Palace and watched with his princes. He also brought the dream to the palace in the circumcision festivities of his princes and watched them together with his princes. Karagöz, which became very common in Istanbul in the 1540s, was also the subject of some gossip. Some of the Ulema have asked Karagöz not to comply with the sharia and not to be played due to the obscene communications in its content. Suleiman the Magnificent invites Ebussuud Efendi, the sheik of Islam of the time, to ask for a fatwa whether Karagöz is in accordance with the law. After a while, Ebussuud Efendi gave a fatwa that Karagöz conforms to the sharia, and Karagöz was saved from being erased from the historical scene. This fatwa was included in the work of Mustafa Ali, who came from Gallipoli, gathering fatwas of the period. The work is still in Beyazıt Library. Whether it is real people or imaginary, Karagöz is an essential brand and essential brand of our culture and Bursa, regardless of Hacıvat. The fact that Karagöz has been moved from the screen to newspaper pages is a registered document of the subtle humor of the Turkish people. Ali Fuad Bey, II. With the experiences he gained from the political and administrative structure during the reign of Abdulhamid, he was able to get along well with the existing governments, and therefore his newspaper was never closed during his entire broadcasting life. The Karagöz newspaper, which has been published for 47 years, expects to be examined in libraries and private collectors and to shed light on the political and social tendencies of the period, with both Ottoman copies and copies printed in new letters after 1928.
27 England’s Policy on Palestine at the Beginning of 20th Centurty , Ayşe ERYAMAN
In this study, England’s policy on Palestine at the beginning of 20th century and the increase in Jewish migration to Palestine within the framework of Zionist movement as a result of these policies were explained, and it was tried to be proven that this process was actually the basis for the foundation of Israeli State.  Having a geopolitical importance and being in the center of Middle East, Palestine and its surroundings is a place where the international rivalry is intensive. Countries like the ones in Middle East became marginal in the 16th century with the rise of capitalism, and they have become the center of interest from great powers like England. With the ongoing colonialism race among the great powers in the 20th century, the interest in Palestine which was the part of Ottoman lands increased, and plans on this land were made in accordance with those goals. At this point, England viewed Palestine as a bridge to its colonies in Australia and Far East.  When considered in association with Mesopotamia, Palestine was providing a land route from Egypt to India and was joining the Africa with Asia. Aiming at keeping its transportation paths with the colonies in the East secure and maintaining its dominance on strategic sea routes in Mediterranean Sea, England supported Ottoman Empire until the end of 19th century. However, the rise of Germany pointed at the start of a new era in the world policy. Germany took the privilege of stretching the Berlin-Bagdad railway to Basra. This situation was a threat to England’s strategic communication in India and Far East trade. In the early 1900s, such developments caused Ottoman Empire to have policy changes in Middle East, especially Palestine. At this point, England started to have positive attitudes towards Russia’s goals on the straits in order to protect its interests in the region. After the approval of Russia, England started negotiations on three ways over the Ottoman land in Middle East. Within this context, it is observed that England had negotiations with Arabs, the French, and Zionists, and made some conflicting promises.  Since England considered a German control in Palestine as the biggest danger in the post-war world, it preferred to support the Zionists in order to secure the power demands in Middle East through a loyal ally and neutralize the Arabic nationalism. For this purpose, English imperialism gave the biggest support to Zionism. Ultimately, the English government declared its side with the foundation of a national Jewish state in Palestine on Balfour Declaration and activated a project of Jewish country. Thus, the defense of the Suez Canal became easy, and land connection to India was secured. Moreover, an Arabic Palestine state was prevented, which would eventually make England leave the region. The ultimate aim of England was to serve the English interests in Palestine. As can be seen, the decisions of England on Palestine reflect not only the interpretations in the light of developments in Middle East, but English global strategy as well.
28 Sending Engineering Students And Officers To Germany For The Purpose Of Training In The Ottoman State , Derya GEÇİLİ
In 18th Century, there were great developments in Europe in terms of iron, steel industry and technology. The fast development in technology and the changes that depended on these changes showed their influences in the field of education as well as in many other fields. It was noticed with these changes in Europe that the traditional education system was disrupted and reform movements started. The most important movement among these was establishing engineering schools to provide modern technical education. The engineering schools started to send students to Europe in order to observe and follow the developments after they graduated or when they were still students. In 1903, an education agreement was signed between Germany and Ottoman State, and students were sent to Germany to be trained as engineers and officers for the military. When the students were being selected, the criterion was their status in educations being well. When the number of the students demanding to be sent to Germany was more than necessary, they were subjected to take an exam. Investigators and teachers were assigned for the duty of preparing them. They continued to keep the students under control during their educations in Germany. Before the students were sent to Germany, they received preparatory training in Istanbul. The travel and training expenses of the students were covered by the Government. When there were unsuccessful students, they had to repay the expenses made by the Government. The students were subject to some laws and military rules when they started training. They had a preparatory period for six months, and they received military training. They were given training in engineering schools and in factories to receive technological developments. After the training in Germany, the students had to serve in the military for ten years. With the increasing number of the engineers trained in Germany, the number of the engineers supplied from other countries decreased. Some of these students were assigned to important duties, and had successful works. The students who were assigned to important duties in the Army after they graduated from their schools in Germany ensured that the western mentality was imposed to the Ottoman State. The problem of the scarcity of engineers was overcome, and the engineers who were brought from Europe by paying excessive salaries were replaced by the Turkish engineers. The selection and placement processes of the students and officers sent to Germany for engineering training will be explained in the following sections. 
29 Knife And Bursa's Knife Brand , Gültekin ERDAL
Today, to live crafts is like a miracle when the serial and fabricated products increase rapidly. New products that come with improving technology, has wiped out many concepts in our lives. Dozens of professions such as tinsmith, copper, feltmaking, wicker, blacksmithing, fragrance-making, spoon-making, ropery, stonework and pottery have been succumbed to technology. At the same time, although it is known to contain cultural values of our nation, all of these professions have not been prevented to lose. Perhaps the biggest factor is that people no longer need to this product. However, it is not different in the traditional occupations which they are needed by the people even though their consumptions are increased.  Turkish culture is virtually rich and colorful. An unrecorded handcraft always exists in almost every part in Anatolia. Bursa cutlery is just one of them. Unfortunately, we have no reliable source regarding Bursa knives. That’s why we have obstacles in academic study and research.  One of the biggest problems in producing handmade knives is mass production. As known, mass production means less cost and it eliminates the master-apprentice tradition. This handcraft passed along from father to son to be a priceless legacy then from master to apprentice in earlier times is now about to disappear, which means loss of cultural and ethnographic values. Traditional handcrafts which are subsidized in some countries are on the verge of disappearing in our country. It is known that there were lots of towns where knives were made in the Ottoman Empire Period. Some of them still exist and Bursa is one of the most important ones. With this article Bursa knives have been recorded and given basic features of them and obtained typology. To that end, firstly, the forms of handles and materials used were analyzed in having the typology. When handle forms were the same but the embroidery technique was different. Classifications were made under subgroups. On the other hand, carrier sheath is another major detail in traditional Bursa knife. Sheaths for spear, dagger and hunting knives are made with great care, whereas, plastic carrier is preferred for kitchen knives for package reason. The cutler profession in Bursa is one of the traditional profession can maintain its 700-year adventure. In this study, cutler profession in Bursa and Bursa’s knives has been researched and typology of Bursa’s knives was tried to generate. Thus, the 700-year school and therefore a treasure which should not be lost, aimed to prevent deletion from memories. And in this article, carrier and sheaths are carefully considered in the analysis of the typology. The characteristics of traditional Burs knives were cited in this article. In doing so, recent problems concerning Bursa knives were questioned. Responsibilities of national and local administrations were stated one by one in order to pass along traditionally made Bursa knives to future generation. Another objective of this article is to introduce Bursa knives to World markets. Unlucky, this handcraft lives on thanks to just three knife masters at present. In this study, a link was constructed between knives traditionally made the knives made in recent years.