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Ergonomics International Journal

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1 A Methodology for Estimate Safety Barriers Effectiveness on Construction Industry Incorporating Uncertainties by the Use of Fuzzy Sets , Abel Pinto*
In occupational safety, prevention and protection usually involve the use of some sort of barriers. To estimate accurately safety barriers effectiveness it is of paramount importance to assure its performance and consequently keep the risks on adequate levels. But, what is safety barrier effectiveness? How to estimate it without statistical reliable data? Estimate the effectiveness of safety barriers is a complex process that entails the consideration some quantitative parameters as well as perceptions which are fuzzy by nature and its assessment process involves complexity and uncertainty. A fuzzy approach is a better mathematical framework to estimate safety climate because uncertainty represented on fuzzy systems is a non-statistical uncertainty, which express vagueness, imprecision and/or ambiguity through fuzzy membership functions, and has a different nature from statistical uncertainty that is based on the laws of probability and is resolved through observations. Departing from a literature review on safety climate, a set of factors affecting safety climate on construction sites were identified. A pole of six Portuguese construction safety experts contributed to adapt these factors to the Portuguese construction sites reality. The model was tested, conducting real case studies, by “peer” reviews by a pool of 11 safety experts from Brezil (2), Greece (3), Portugal (2), Turkey (3) and Bulgaria (1). Estimate safety barriers effectiveness is of particular value to avoid the occurrence of work accidents that are costly in terms of the potential for loss of equipment, material, man-hours and human lives. The assessment tool developed and presented in this work seems suitable and easy to use by safety practitioners in construction sites. Hence, in this work our objectives are: (1) to present a survey about concepts and performance of SB, (2) to overview how SB are used in construction industry and, (3) to provide a practical tool for assessing safety barriers effectiveness, using a fuzzy sets theory approach.
2 A Study on the Alcohol Beverages Drinking Effect on Potential CTS Symptoms , Sarfaraz Alam MD*, Salve UR, Kumar N and Kumar M
Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is an illness, not an injury, and health factors such as obesity, smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, diabetes, and thyroid disease are much more likely to contribute substantially to the onset of carpal tunnel syndrome than workplace activities. CTS are considered as a clinical entity and diagnosis is still based upon symptoms of numbness, tingling and/or burning in the distribution of the median nerve in the hand. The present study has been conducted among personnel engaged in connecting rod manufacturing workers, to check the susceptibility to CTS symptoms by classifying the workers on the basis of drunkard and non-drunkard. The population included all the manufacturing unit workers irrespective of age, gender or ethnic group. All full-time workers with at least 6 months on the job were invited to participate in the study. Of the 113 eligible workers, 103 agreed to participate (91%) in the study. So a sample size of 103 workers was used (N = 103). In the statistical analysis of Chi-square and odds ratio test revealed that alcohol drunkard worker has 2.62 times greater risk of having CTS symptoms as compared to non-drunkard workers. Hence, there is a significant difference amongst the number of CTS sufferers in non-drunkard and drunkard group.
3 Variations of Lotus Motif Represents an Important Indigenous Visual Culture , Chatterjee S*
Visual Culture addresses to aesthetic desire and various other kinds of sensory delight. Pleasure and values are closely related because high artistic principles are generally assigned to those artifacts that provide us with enduring gratification, that is a succession of pleasurable experience. They may be so complex and demanding that we have to invest considerable time and mental effort before any pleasure is gained. The process of visual culture involves many levels of intellectual integration. It comes under the course of creation even though many creative minds complain that creation is hard work or even agony. Mythology and Art are inseparable, mythology narrates the stories of the subjects and Art follows the right dimension of presentation and representation. Here the elements of Art play one of the major roles to find out the correct form of the subject from the nature. The stories of the Myth create emotions; perhaps emotions also need a virtual reality references to increase their range and subtlety for future use. Art, in short, may be nature’s own virtual reality. Human brain excels at visual imagery. Our brain evolved this ability to create an internal mental picture or model of the world. The use of metaphor in language as well as in visual art is well known. Indian temple structure is full of sculptures like the celestial nymph, ripe mangoes, lotus, the wish-fulfilling tree are a metaphor of the mysterious creative process, feminine principles, fertility and fecundity of nature. So there are multiple layers of metaphor and meaning in the form of Visual Culture.
4 Method for the Estimation of Dilution Efficiency for Water Quality Control, Lake Palić Case Study , Budinski L*, Fabian J, Okubo K and Kolaković S
In cases of polluted shallow lakes, dilution may provide short term relieve in terms of water quality. However, the efficiency of the dilution technique depends on wide range of influences, making the choice of design parameters quite difficult. The quantifier of mixing coupled with a numerical flow simulator makes a suitable design tool. The combination proved to be sensitive enough to detect even slight differences in the efficiency of dilution between different dilution scenarios. In the presented case study it helped the authors to determine the most suitable location of the emission points for the introduction of clean water into the lake.
5 Union Effects in Employee Performance and HRM Policies , Ali Soylu* and Preeti Singh
This paper specifically studies union effects on the performance and productivity of the employee and on various Human Resource Management policies by examining the role of labor unions in the workplace. It analyses both negative and positive aspects of the unionism however it concludes that there are more positive effects of unions on productivity and management. It also attempts to analyze the positive effect of the unions on productivity and the overall impact on the management policies and on various management functions like controlling, planning, and organizing. We make comparison between unionized and non unionized organization by analyzing the effects on productivity and management. We also analyze the importance and roles of unions in organizations to remain competitive in the global environment.
6 Ergonomic Assessment of Mental Workload in Higher Education. Effects of Education System on Student’s Workload Perception , Susana Rubio-Valdehita*, Mª Inmaculada López-Núñez and Eva Mª Díaz-Ramiro
Adaptation to the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) has meant a significant change in the workload of students. The main objective of this study is to evaluate and compare the perception of the workload of adapted and no-adapted to EHEA students in Psychology, and to analyze the nature of the changes produced by this adaptation considering several academic activities: attending theoretical classes, attending practical classes, conducting group work outside the classroom, searching for material and bibliography, studying and personal work, attending tutorials and other activities (attending seminars, conferences, etc.). The sample consisted of 645 students (397 no-adapted and 248 adapted). To measure the perceived workload, the NASA-TLX scale was used. The scale permits to distinguish six workload dimensions: effort, mental demand, temporal demand, physical demand, performance and frustration. The results show a significant increase in the perceived workload of attending practical classes and specially in performing group work outside the classroom. It is concluded that the adaptation to the EHEA has meant an increase in the perception of students' workload, which points out the need to develop training programs and evaluation of the teamwork competence, one of the most important transversal competence indicated in the professional profile of the degree in psychology.
7 Human Reliability Analysis from the Ergonomics Perspective: Towards a Systemic Approach , Petrillo A*
8 Across the Divide between Health Science Academics and Advising: Considerations in Student Engagement and Retention , Olga Salinas*
9 The Impact of the Ambient Conditions on the Desire to Stay for the Elderly in 3D Virtual Store , Liu CL
Virtual environments (VEs) technology applied in web shops provided a 3D perspective to customers for more real sense on goods and shopping environment. A sense of presence is one of the critical components required by any effective VEs. However, previous studies on cognitive aging have found that certain aspects of human informationprocessing abilities are negatively correlated with age. Therefore, when the quality of ambient condition is good, whether the perceptual confliction for the elderly will be less to influence the feeling of presence or not? An experiment addressed presence, and performance of 3D virtual store in the elderly participation with autostereoscopic, stereoscopic and monocular display in good/poor ambient condition. Results showed that 3D virtual store via auto-stereoscopic display with high quality ambient condition will produce good sense and realism in stereopsis, and high desire to stay. However, the response time of objects-searching with 3D displays was longer than monocular display.
10 The Violence Risk's Management and the Competent Act of Nursing Technicians , Mendes DP* and Cunha DM
The article aims to show the work of nursing technicians in psychiatric patient care in a crisis care unit, revealing the difficulties found and the strategies built to meet the operational needs for the development of actions of assistance, competence and the construction of workers' health. The methodological approach used was based on the Ergonomic Work´ Analysis - EWA and Ergology whose sample was composed of 17 professionals, auxiliaries and nursing technicians, from an emergency sector of a public psychiatric hospital. The results revealed structural changes with the consequent impact on care: A) Regarding the organization of the psychiatric care network, two main inferring factors were evidenced: 1) The distance between the organization of psychiatric care advocated by the Psychiatric Reform and the actual structure and organization of the system; 2) Social transformations carry significant changes in the profile of patients; B) Norms´ conflicts originated in the debates between Psychiatry and Mental Health; C) Collective settings in the daily care and skills of the nursing technician. As conclusion, it can be affirmed that the competent action of nursing technicians, anchored in teamwork, is central to the risks´ management in the analyzed context.
11 Occupational Health and Safety Risk Assessment for Demolition Processes in Construction , Mučenski V*, Kecman N, Peško I, Bibić D, Vujkov A and Velkovski T
Construction is one of the most diverse industry sectors in terms of the possibility of injuring and endangering the health of workers. The increasing number of incidents on the construction site and their severity require additional emphasis on the development of the workplace safety plan and program. Therefore, before opening the construction site in order to assess the risk and analysis the safety it is necessary to determine safety hazards that may occur. In this paper, from the aspect of facilities demolition for characteristic workplaces, the Matrix 3x3 method, AUVA and FMECA method were applied. The risk assessment was carried out for three construction sites and three characteristic workplaces, the construction site manager, the machine operator and the labourer. Applied methods were analysed in order to determine their sensitivity on increased and unacceptable levels of risks.
12 Nurses Job Satisfaction in Public Hospitals of South West Region of Ethiopia, 2014 , Ayele S*
There are no adequate research findings that address the issues of job satisfaction in developing countries including Ethiopia. We there for aimed to evaluate the level of job satisfaction and factors influencing it on nurses on South West Ethiopian public hospitals, southwestern Ethiopia. Institutional based census was employed from March to April, 2014 to conduct the study. Data were collected using closed ended questionnaire by using a modified version of the McCloskey/Mueller Satisfaction Scale. Bivariate and multivariable linear regressions were conducted to assess strength of association. Generally the mean job satisfaction score of nurses working in the South West Region Ethiopia was (67.43 ± 13.85). A third (33.5%) of them had low level job satisfaction. Some factors were identified to influence nurse’s job satisfaction in their job. Thirty three point five percent of the study participants had low level towards their job satisfaction. The dependent variable was predicted by professional commitment, workload, working unit, and mutual understanding at work predicted the outcome variable.
13 Biofabrication of Interpenetrating Polymer Network Hydrogels , Srikumar K, Zhengyi Z and Changxue Xu*
Interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) hydrogels are mixtures of multiple cross-linked polymers, which don’t have any covalent bonds between components, but cannot be separated using purely physical methods. The combination of the individual polymers results in a multi-component polymer system with a new profile with better mechanical properties and better swelling/deswelling response. This review paper aims to give an overview of the IPN hydrogels and the associated manufacturing techniques within a variety of biomedical applications. The first part of this review introduces different IPN-based hydrogels and their classification. The second part of this review focuses on different manufacturing techniques, which are used to process the IPN hydrogels to fabricate 3D constructs for various applications in biomedical engineering.
14 Evaluation of Hospital Laboratories Design in Ethiopia , Eshetu LH*
Background: Since advancement of science and technology in the area of laboratory medicine in 21st century the design of laboratory should be organized into high flexibility zones and need an open plan to support the dynamic nature lab testing by manual or semi-automated or fully automated. The most difficult issue in design of laboratory is allocation and organization of space. Although well design laboratory is in place, it will be compromised if the ergonomics workstation and workflow of laboratory are not designed well. In Ethiopia there is no baseline information on hospital laboratory design. Objectives: To evaluate the existed hospital laboratories design setup and proposed new laboratory design in Addis Ababa and Adama, Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional study design, quantitative method and direct observation were conducted in five public and private laboratories in Addis Ababa and Adama, Ethiopia between 2015 and 2016. Results: Floor plan was available and posted in all laboratories. Three of labs were not initially designed for the Laboratories. The adjoining and adjacent matrix principles were not documented in assessed laboratories. The laboratory design didn`t have proper exist door and show the direction of evacuation plan during emergency situation and fire extinguisher were not strategically placed and free of obstruction. Laboratories did not have any mechanical ventilation system. Laboratory and non-laboratory activities were not separated. The exited lab design didn’t accommodate future demands. Conclusion: Whenever laboratory construction or renovation is planned, first identifying the size and nature of laboratory test being performed, laboratory workflow, number and size of laboratory equipments needed, type and number of ergonomics casework and countertops, emergency evacuation plan, access control areas. Laboratory proximity programming and functional relationship between laboratories and reception should be determined early in design process and laboratory module unit space size determination and open plan laboratory together mobile care work and lean laboratory design should be consider in design process.
15 Investigation of Spatial Orientation of Freshmen Level Engineering Students with the Introduction of Additive and Subtractive Manufacturing , Dakeev U* and Pecen R
Generic introduction to computer aided design class in industrial/engineering technology involves the introduction to sketches, three-dimensional model development, and the generation of blueprints for the models. In some cases, the students learn the assembly and simulation for stress or aerodynamics analyses if the time is sufficient. Industrial and Engineering technology students rarely learn 3D printing or CNC in their CAD classes. Some institutions have advanced level computer aided design elective classes that teach students advanced techniques and skills within the software, however, the CNC and 3D printing is still left out of the curriculum. The advancement of technology requires both industrial and engineering technology students to possess 3D printing and CNC skills to stay competitive in the job market. This study reports on the redesign of an introductory CAD course in industrial technology department to involve regular CAD concepts, development of 3D printed parts, and manufacturing in CNC. This study is comprised of multiple phases: 1-Introductory CAD, 2- 3D printed CAD, and 3-CNC CAD. The participating students will receive a spatial test on a pre-defined object at the beginning of semester. During the phase 1 the students will have developed basic 3D modeling skills and reproduced the pre-defined part, where the researchers will record the influence of CAD software on the spatial orientation. The second phase involves students to 3D print their pre-defined part and inspect physically to compare with the original design and complete the spatial test. During the 3rd phase, the students will manufacture their parts in CNC, analyze the result, and complete the spatial test. All collected data will be statistically compared to investigate which of the phases influences student spatial orientation most. Authors believe that the introduction of 3D printing technology and CNC to an introductory computer aided design course will improve student spatial orientation and will better relate their degree to engineering practices.
16 Associations between Sitting Time and Musculoskeletal Pain in Different Body Regions among Workers According to Blue and White Collars , Moreira-Silva I* and Mota J
Objectives: To investigate the association between sitting time (daily total, and occupational and leisure-time periods) and musculoskeletal pain in different body regions among workers by blue-collar and white. Methods: The sample comprised 205 workers. Musculoskeletal pain and related symptoms was assessed with the Nordic Questionnaire of Osteoarticular Symptoms, and the sitting time was assessed with IPAQ – Short Version. The association of sitting time and musculoskeletal pain and related symptoms was analyzed with logistic regression, adjusted for BMI, age, gender and Moderate to Vigorous Physical activity. Results: The white collars participants had lower level of moderate to vigorous Physical Activity than Blue collars. The participants were more likely to have less musculoskeletal pain and related symptoms in the ankles/feets with higher sitting time (odds ratio [OR] = 0.995, p = .032). Conclusion: Sitting time is negatively associated with musculoskeletal pain in the ankles/feets intensity only among white collars workers. Future studies using a prospective design with objective measures of sitting time are recommended. Our results emphasize the need of worksite interventions to prevent musculoskeletal pain and related symptoms.
17 On the Evolution of Thermoregulation Models , Palella BI*, d’Ambrosio Alfano FR and Riccio G
Thermoregulation models are effective tools for predicting the human response to the thermal environments, assessing thermal comfort and/or thermal stress due to cold or hot conditions, in clothing and automotive research and in building simulation. Fifty years after the first paper by Stolwijk, this work is aimed to the reconstruction of the historical evolution of thermoregulation models based on the bibliography available at the InEQualitES (Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Saving) team, established in 1983 by professor Gaetano Alfano (University of Naples Federico II) and made by researchers of the DII and DIIn Departments. On the basis of the most recent literature, past and present perspectives of Stolwijk-like models have been also discussed showing the performances of THERMODE 193, a model inspired by the open source philosophy of its precursor and actualized to the recent advances in the field.
18 Insights into Adaptive Thermal Comfort on Learning Efficiency of Students-A Classroom-Based Case Study , Yin-Hao Chiu*, Yi-Chang Chiang and Yen Cheng
In light of increasing concerns about climatic impacts, adaptive thermal comfort has become a research focus. This study tried to explore key factors of adaptive thermal comfort on learning efficiency of students based on the classroom-based spatial density and time history. We underlined that adaptability reflects people’s adaptive regulation in the face of change; experience of thermal comfort in naturally ventilated space influences the comfort expectation of students who learn in natural ventilation (NV) and fully air conditioning (AC) space. Both the Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) and Predicted Percentage of Dissatisfied (PPD) were used to examine both spatial density of the classroom and time history of the students, which influence learning efficiency. The results indicated that the learning efficiency of students is inferior as the density is 100%.As the density is 10%, the learning efficiency can be effectively improved. We argued that adaptive arrangement of indoor and outdoor thermal environment is crucial on improving learning efficiency of students. We concluded that adaptive actions of students in time history and the spatial density of the classroom depend on human-environment interplay; it revealed that the learning efficiency will be dominated by students’ adaptability to be distracted not the temperatures.
19 Is there a Correlation between being involved in an Accident and Violent Victimization? , Salminen S*
The aim of this study is to examine the link from victim’s perspective. Criminological research had approached the link between crime and injury from the perspective of offenders as in the self-control theory of criminality. Based on the accident proneness theory, we suggest that a person involved in an accident is more likely to be a victim of violence. Our representative sample consisted of 7 193 Finnish people over 15 years of age in 2009. Results showed that victims of violence were at a five-fold risk of being involved in a traffic accident and at more than a two-fold risk of sustaining accidents at work or at home compared to other. Our results support both theories.
20 Insole Program in the Manufacturing Setting: Impact on Lower Extremity Muscle Activity , Carley P*, Kessler J and Lachowski S
Hasbro Games in East Longmeadow, Massachusetts sought to evaluate the impact of their year-long companyinstituted footwear insole program after removing floor mats. The employees subjectively reported reduced aches and pains while standing and working on concrete factory floors with the insoles; but because there was no objective data to substantiate their responses, the actual mechanism influencing the reported reductions in aches and pains remained unknown. Hasbro and the American International College’s physical therapy program collaboratively designed a study using electromyography (EMG) to investigate the potential difference in lower leg muscle activity with and without the insoles. Of the several employees who volunteered, 43 were randomly selected to participate in the EMG insole study. All participants reported standing or walking on concrete floors for 60 to 90 percent of their workday. Results of the EMG study disclosed a consistent reduction in lower leg muscle activity for both of the muscle groups using the company-issued polyurethane insoles compared with no insoles. There was a statistically significant reduction for peak and average Medial Gastrocnemius muscle activity and peak Tibialis Anterior with insole trials. While there was a reduction in average Tibialis Anterior muscle activity, the level was not statistically significant. Reducing lower leg muscle activity would have an accumulating beneficial effect for employees throughout daily, weekly, and annual work tasks. The greatest potential may be realized for those engaged in the utilities, transportation, hospitality, and service sectors of the economy
21 The Art of Spatial Flexion in Ancient Indian Sculpture Fabrication , Chatterjee S*
The ancient sculptural tradition of INDIA has a significant characteristic. The images, whether they are in seated, standing or reclining postures, are invariably composed in a manner that reflects the grace of dance movements. Dance forms of this country express emotions in a lucid, richly flavored, aesthetically pleasing manner which lingers on in the heart of the observer. Dance communicates various feelings by the way of changing expressions on the face; flexions and posture of the body like bending curving and supplicating; and lastly through the gesture of the hands. The shilpī-rishis (Master sculptor), perceiving the sensitivity and richness of the expressions of dance, have absorbed this methodology of communication into the sculptural forms. As a result, the sculptural tradition has become invested with dynamism and vigour. The sculptures thus augmented with dance forms evoke an aesthetic response of a very high order. The flexions of arms and legs, and the arching of the body represented through very difficult method in stone sculptures. The stretching and extending of limbs has to be much more subtle and held closer to the main body (this is the constraint of the material itself), and yet evoke a response in the observer. The grammar of the flexions in dance takes on a different meaning and connation in the eyes of shilpī (Artist). The main divisions of the grammar are bhaṅgaor body flexions and curves, āsana or postures and mudra or gestures.
22 Marital Conflict and Job Burnout , Hajihasani M*
The current research aimed at investigating the relationship between marital conflict and job burnout.In this research a total sample of 245 teachers were chosen by cluster sampling. The sampled teachers were asked to fill out theMarital ConflictQuestionnaire and Job Burnout Questionnaire.Pearson correlation coefficient showed a significant relationship between marital conflict and job burnout. The potential reasons for and implications of this finding were discussed in this article.
23 Ergonomics Importance of Wearable Medical Devices , Aksahin MF*
Medical technologies directly related to human and developed for diagnosis and/or treatment of diseases, are one of the most important issues of today. In order to prevent the various problems that arise with the increase of the human population, researchers are trying to give mobility to these technologies. Wearable medical devices are being developed for this purpose. In this study, the ergonomic importance of wearable medical devices in the literature is briefly summarized.
24 Residential Building PM2.5 Pollution Control from an Ergonomic and Energy Conservation Prospective , Lin Y*, Yang W and Gong X
PM2.5 pollution has become a big problem in China due to rapid industrialization and high energy consumption. This critical review focuses on current research on PM2.5 particle matter, and provides an insight from ergonomic and energy conservation prospective. It is suggested that the interactions among indoor particle concentration distribution and outdoor particulate concentration, building envelope characteristics, occupants’ window-opening behaviors and HVAC system operation need to be carefully considered to achieve energy savings while maintaining a healthy and productive indoor environment.
25 Prevalence of Traffic Noise in Jalandhar City , Singh LP*
Traffic noise becoming a significant environmental quality problem in economically developing countries and a cause of society’s increasing annoyance. The present study is focused upon measuring the traffic noise pollution in Jalandhar City. The study included four sites of city. A weighted (Leq) ambient noise was assessed by using a quest sound level meter “model SOUNDPRO SP-DL-1-1/3”. OSHA norms for hearing conservation were incorporated including an exchange rate of 5 dB (A)*, criterion level at 90* dB (A), criterion time of eight hours*, threshold level equal to 80 dB (A), upper limit equal to 140 dB (A) and with F/S response rate. The results of the study revealed that interstate bus terminal Jalandhar and Jyoti chowk were found at the highest level of noise pollution due to traffic. However Rama mandi and Maqsudan chowk were found moderately polluted area. The study recommended that there is a need of implementing the noise pollution criteria in the city. The appropriate noise control measures should be implemented.
26 Positive Sum Design: Designing Affordances for Bias, Choice and Coordination , Gonsher I*
27 Developing a Safety Culture Based on the Culture of Safe Behavior at Work-A Challenge for Polish Companies , Sadłowska-Wrzesińska J*
Safety culture is an attitude of the community towards risk, threats and security and the values that are considered important. A high safety culture is linked to the high value of human health and life, and keeping the boundary between the necessary risks that are inherent in life and development and the provision of safety and protection against threats. More and more companies are recognizing that investing only in the safety of machinery and technical equipment at a certain level of organization development is already insufficient. Building a safety culture based on shaping safe behaviors is widely propagated, also in Poland. However, the new problem arises - the lack of consistency in the implementation of the operational objectives in the context of behavioral programs.
28 Reliability of COP Measures in Healthy and Low Back Pain Subjects During a Dynamic Task , Mokhtarinia HR*, Kahrizi S, Sanjari MA and Parnianpour M
Study design. A test–retest design. Objectives: To study the reliability of the postural stability measures during whole body dynamic conditions in healthy and low back pain (LBP) subjects. Summary of Background Data: Postural control is an essential prerequisite for dynamic motions such as lifting, lowering, and repetitive trunk bending tasks. Test retest reliability of center of pressure (COP) measures is well documented in static conditions but such results may not be applicable to dynamic conditions. To the authors knowledge this has not been investigated in dynamic conditions. Methods: Twenty four subjects (12 healthy and 12 LBP) performed repeated trunk bending in two different conditions of high and low speed in sagittal plane. All measurements were repeated and recorded with an interval of 7-10 days later. COP data were used to calculate standard deviation of amplitude, standard deviation of velocity in anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions, mean total velocity and path length. Relative reliability was assessed using intra class correlation coefficient (ICC) and absolute reliability using standard error of measurement (SEM), minimum detectable change (MMDC) and coefficient of variation (CV). Results: Results in both groups revealed that mean total velocity and standard deviation of amplitude in anteriorposterior direction have an acceptable good to an excellent reliability with ICC range of 0.61-0.89. In healthy group the rest of others parameters also demonstrated an acceptable good to excellent reliability (range 0.6-0.97). In LBP subjects, in addition to standard deviation of amplitude in anterior posterior direction and mean total velocity, standard deviation of velocity in A-P in high pace condition also showed good reliability (ICC=0.69). Conclusion: Mean total velocity and standard deviation of amplitude in anterior-posterior direction are suggested as a good reliable parameter to use for evaluation postural stability in dynamic situations such as lifting and complex trunk movement
29 Ergonomics of Built Environment i.e. How Environmental Design Can Improve Human Performance and Well-Being in a Framework of Sustainability , Erminia Attaianese*
Ambient conditions in buildings are called to assure a delicate balance between environmental pressure and a so variable human response, the first expressed by the level and the combination of different environmental stimuli from physical factors, the second elicited by a wide range of individual capacities activated by people to cope and to elaborate those stimuli. Ergonomic /Human Factors approach is crucial in design of a physical space intended as an environmental support for users performance and comfort, since it provides theoretical principles, data and methods for understanding the interactions among humans and other elements of whatever system, and for identifying how conditions are able to make that system really fitting its users' needs and expectancies. Starting from an overview about effects on occupants of buildings physical factors, the paper summarizes principles of ergonomic design of built environment, for tending to sustainable and really supportive living environments for people.
30 Helicopter Pilots and Low Back Pain: How to Manage the Risk Factors? , Gilvan V da Silva*
A high prevalence of LBP in helicopter pilots has been reported by several epidemiological surveys since the early 1960’s. As pointed out by several authors the most important etiologic factor of LBP in helicopter pilots is the asymmetrical posture adopt during flight. The aim of the study is understand the pathomechanical model of the low back pain (LBP) that affects helicopter pilots in order to propose a risk management addressed to reduce this issue. A comprehensive literature review was performed to identify evidences about low back pain in helicopter pilots, risk factors related and some interventions/risk management adopted. In addition, a self-reported questionnaire was applied for LBP prevalence and pain characterization. Results showed asymmetrical in-flight posture; cockpit design/geometry; seat design; WBV; static posture; prolonged sitting; and flight duration as mainly risk factors and a higher prevalence of LBP among helicopter pilots as well as a significant influence of flight activity on pain features when compared to office workers. In order to solve the problem it will be necessary to provide a comprehensive solution composed by three different and complementary steps: a specific exercise program (as an immediate solution), the use of lumbar support (as a short term solution), and a proposal for redesign cockpit and seat (as a long term solution).
31 Monitoring Thermal Stress of Steel Re-Rolling Mill Workers , Ahasan R*, Basahel A, Haque W and Islam E
Monitoring heart rates using portable sport tester, this study investigated thermal stress as an important parameter of measuring physical effort of steel re-rolling mill workers. In all, 34 adult male subjects (age: 36 ± 4.1 years) volunteered for physiological tests that provided physiological reactions from the implication of their strenuous job-tasks and heat exposure. The subjective perceptions on the prevalence of heat stress, sweating, and heat exhaustion from extremely hot working environment was investigated using a questionnaire and ergonomic checklist. In findings, there were no significant differences of age, height, weight and rest pause except higher heart rates and sweat loss among most of the workers involved in strenuous job-tasks. The maximum working heart rate was measured as 140–190 beat per minute (bpm). The rise in oral temperature was found as 37.8°C (± 0.15°C) among the workers who worked in high heat and radiant environment. The results should however be compared with and confirmed for other stressful manual activities in high heat and radiant work environment. It would thus be appropriate to develop a local standard that can be useful to eliminate an eventual biasing effect of monitoring heart rates for measuring thermal stress for tropical countries. Further study is sought with the control subjects due to different socio-cultural, climatic and psychological factors of the sample used in the context of Bangladesh.
32 Back from the Future How to Deal with Technological Excitement , Cardini P*
The advent of new tools always provokes an uncontrolled and irrational enthusiasm that often leads, initially, towards pointless outcomes and immature solutions. Although is undeniable the value of experimentation, design education specifically should teach how to channel that enthusiasm into an optimized exploratory process. Looking at the present, where desktop manufacturing, electronics or digital tools are fully accessible to the masses, we observe an increase of poor creative material populating the web; this phenomenon could be explained by the fact that nowadays the spread of a newly accessible resource is usually faster than the time needed to understand its real meaning. The topic of this research paper focuses on how deconstruction and oversimplification could represent methods to help students transitioning from enthusiasm to awareness.
33 Effects of Elbow Flexion on the Hand-Grip Strength , Tayyari F*
The objective of this study was to explore the effects of elbow flexion on the hand-grip strength. The data were collected by trained, senior and graduate students as a required mini-project in an ergonomics course. A sample of 125 female and 222 male adults, ages 18 to 47 (22.5±3.35), body heights of 173.0±10.47cm and body weights of 73.6±16.48 kg, mostly from college student population, were tested using standardized data collection form, positioning and instructions. In this study, the grip strengths of 347 subjects were measured and recorded over a multiple number of years. Pair-wise comparisons using the Student’s T-Test showed that the hand-grip strength at the elbow in the fully extended position was significantly higher than when the elbow flexed. The test also showed significantly higher grip strength in 90° flexed position than in 30°, 60° or 120° flexion. No significant differences were found in the grip strength among the 30°, 60° or 120° elbow flexed positions. Comparison of the average hand-grip strength of dominant-hand and non-dominant hand of the subjects showed a significant difference. The female subjects found to have about 41% lower grip strength than the male counterparts.
34 Acculturation in Human Culture Interaction - A Case Study of Culture Meaning in Cultural Product Design , Ya-Juan Gao, Weichen Chang, Wen-Ting Fang and Rungtai Lin*
Acculturation plays an important role in cultural product design with embedded information technologies. Therefore designing culture into products will become a design approach in interaction design. Interaction design has switched focus from usability and cognitive ergonomics to the affective aspects of user interactive experience. For cultural product design, we need a better understanding of acculturation in human-culture interaction not just for taking part in the cultural context, but also for developing the interactive experience of users. The framework for human-culture interaction in design process proposed and discussed in this paper is of value for acculturation in cultural product design. The framework also can help designers to consider how to design “culture features” into cultural products as well as provide users with a valuable reference for understanding interactive experience in products. While cultural features become an important issue in the interactive user experience, we need a better understanding of the acculturation process not only for the designer’s model, but also for that of the user. For future studies, the acculturation process between human and culture in the cultural product design is worthy of further in-depth study.
35 Management of Human Resources inside Open Innovation Organizations: Some Reflections , Piciocchi P, Clara Bassano C* and Pietronudo MC
This paper refers to High performance HR inside organizations oriented to Open Innovation. The need for this work dates back to phenomena shifts of our more and more related market towards Open Innovation (OI). The Systems which are discussed in this study are enterprises of today which are oriented to OI, focusing on the human side of it, particularly on Human Resources Management (HRM) in order to thrive competitiveness. It deals with an overview upon the emergence of the phenomenon of Open Innovation remarking its effects on the “changing landscape of knowledge”. Nowadays enterprises find themselves inside the process of globalization which turns organizations of mere production into organizations of global production, where it is very difficult to crowd out a competition which is against local specializations and ramming of productive activities in places capable of offering specific competitive advantages. Therefore, the system of Closed Innovation is not reliable anymore: the change to Open Innovation is needed to thrive positively within the global market. Methodological approach we used refers to Service Science: a strategic area of scientific study of Service Systems at IBM Research. Service science aims to define and improve interactions of multiple entities which work together to achieve win-win outcomes or mutual benefits. More precisely, “a service is value co-creation in the sense of a change or a set of changes which people prefer and realize as a result of their communication, planning, or other purposeful and knowledge-intensive interactions”. Services are implemented by OI processes, determining change in the strategy of the company. In this contextualized scenario, “management of Human Resources inside OI organizations” is discussed. Pointing out that employee, their knowledge, skill sets, and attitudes towards collaboration determine the effectiveness of OI strategies and practices the HR department can play a crucial role in bringing about the necessary change in attitudes. More specifically, by developing HR practices in terms of both internal and external talent management according to the emergent T-Shaped Profile of Professionals
36 Concept of Dirty Dozen: The Silent Killers of Human Factor Errors and Mistakes , Ahasan R*, Shahren AZA, Haque W and Islam E
Human Factors (HFs) interactions are important that surely impact the employee behavior at work. HFs interactions that interact with individual worker behavior can complement unintentional consequences at work. Currently, these consequences at work are being seen as the notorious culprits of HFs. Safety policy and systematic procedures of industries and companies seems to be strongly okay, however, dirty dozen concepts are not emphasized in workplace health and safety program. Dirty dozen is the twelve HFs problems that cause human errors or operator mistakes. In many project team applications, these are potential human causal factors that degrade worker skills and abilities. Dirty dozen are the real killers in every workplace environment which are also hidden behind the work process. Hence, this paper explores the basic concepts behind the dirty dozen, the silent killers of HFs errors, which are blamed for degrading worker abilities to perform job-tasks effectively and safely.
37 Ambient Air Ionic Species (F- , Cl- , NO3 - , SO4 2-) Compositions Study at a Semi-Open/Outdoor Concrete Processing Factory in Changhua County, Taiwan , Fang GC*, Jhao GJ, Chang CW, Huang WC and Zhuang YJ
This study was to collect ambient air TSP, dry depositions, PM10, PM2.5 compositions and analyze the ionic species (F- , Cl- , NO3 - , SO4 2-) compositions which attached in TSP, dry depositions, PM10, PM2.5 for these semi-open/outdoor environments at a concrete processing factory in ChangHua Coastal Park. And the comparisons of ambient air ionic species (F- , Cl- , NO3 - , SO4 2-) in TSP, dry depositions, PM10, PM2.5 compositions for these semi-open/outdoor environments were also discussed during the year of 2017-half year observations. And the results indicated that the average ionic species SO4 2- was ranked highest average compositions in dry depositions, PM10, PM2.5 when compared with those of the other ionic species (F- , Cl- , NO3 -) while the ionic species for Cl- was ranked highest average compositions in TSP when compared with those of the other ionic species (F- , NO3 - , SO4 2-) at this semi-open/outdoor environments sampling site at a concrete processing factory in Changhua Coastal Park. In addition, the average ionic SO4 2- compositions in semi-open environment were higher than that of outdoor environment. In addition, ionic species SO4 2- occupied were than 60% of the compositions percentages when compared with all the ionic species at both PM10 and PM2.5. And ionic species SO4 2- compositions in TSP was occupied more than 50% of than concentrations percentages when compared with all the ionic species. Finally, ionic species SO4 2- compositions in dry depositions was occupied more than 40% of compositions percentages when compared with all the other ionic species in this study.
38 Effect of Respiratory Protection on Respiratory Flow Rates of Vehicle Spray Painters in Ibadan Metropolis, Oyo State, Nigeria , Akanbi OG, Ismaila SO*, Nwosu CK and Oriolowo KT
This study was carried out to determine the effect of insufficient respiratory protection on respiratory flow rates of vehicle spray painters. Eighty-six vehicle body-spray painters were used for the research. The main instruments for data collection were the modified Health and Safety Washington States repair/spraying shops questionnaire. Peak flow meter (EN-13826 model) was used to determine respiration flow rates. The descriptive statistics were used to analyse the demographic characteristics of the participants while the inferential statistics of t-test was the tool used to test the significance at a level of 0.05. The values of peak expiratory flow rates (PEFR) before spray painting were significantly (p < 0.001) higher than the values after spray painting. Moreover, the values of PEFR of spray painters were significantly (p < 0.001) lower than the values of the control group with an average of about 92 L/min. The study concluded that the devices used by vehicle spray painters for respiratory protection were not effective. It was, therefore, recommended that the spray painters should use the recommended protective respiratory devices while working.
39 Assessment of Employee Health Program at Ministry of Health Hospitals in Saudi Arabia , Hail M Abdaley, Ahmed M Hakawi, Mervat M Eldalatony* and Hanan M Hathout
Background: Due to lack of formal employee health services in ministry of health- Saudi Arabia and high exposure risk of health care workers. So it was a necessity to establish a comprehensive medical program to track occupational diseases, injuries and work place exposures. Methods: Assessment of employee health program in all MOH hospitals was carried out from January to march 2017 using survey prepared and circulated via email to staff responsible for employee clinics of all facilities at all health regions and governorates of Saudi Arabia that joined Ministry Of Health-Saudi Arabia's employee health program since its implementation in 2012. Results: Highest percent of employee health clinics was established in hospitals with a bed capacity ≥400 beds. Eighty percent of the clinics are fully supervised by infection control department, 81.3 % have one or more full time staff working in it, 91% have employee medical records either in hard or soft forms and 77.6 % have available equipment and materials necessary for the clinic duties. Services' coverage provided by employee health clinics as coverage of N95 Fit – Test , Post exposure Prophylaxis Medications, Availability of Reporting system (100 & 90 & 70 percent respectively ) with improvement of services with increased bed capacity. Conclusion: Improvement of employee health services is noticed in hospitals that implement the employee health program as employee health clinics was established in 58% of hospitals , Eighty percent of the clinics are fully supervised by infection control department, most of hospitals have one or more full time staff manage the clinics. Availability of Post exposure Prophylaxis Medications, Reporting system, and Mandatory Vaccination Supply was made available to all MOH' employee clinics especially hepatitis B vaccinations, influenza vaccinations, and meningitis. Recommendations: Expanding the employee health program to all Ministry of health' health care facilities and even the private sectors, Integration of services at different level to provide all essential vaccines mandated by international agencies to protect the health care workers, Generalization of electronic system for generating employee medical records, Recruitment of more staff to manage the employee health program.
40 Evaluation of Influencing Factors on Reliability of Industrial Operators’ Safe Performance Based on Multi Variant Analyses , Mououdi MA, Azizi Amiri J* and Akbari J
Human reliability refers to individual ability in properly doing certain job affairs taken over in a given period. One of means that make management capable of improving individual performance is human reliability analyses (HRA). This investigation is of an applicable fundamental type. Target society includes 30individuals belong to olefin plant of Imam Khomeini port petro chemical complex. In this investigation SPAR-H method is used. Some questionnaires (NASA-TLX, MEQ, ANQ, web based software (Fitts’ Law) and working procedure sheets (SPAR-H)) are used to collect data. SPSS software is used to collect data and also descriptive statistics method is used to analyzed at a statistically. Results show that operator’ reliabilities levels are more in doing operational duties than diagnostic ones.
41 The Comparison of Anthropometrical, Body Structural and Physical Fitness Parameters in Female Athletes and Non-Athletes Student , Ilbeigi S*, Arabshahi N and Afzalpour ME
The purpose of this study was to compare some of anthropometrical, body structural and physical fitness factors in athletes and non-athletes female students. The sample included40 elite athletes (volleyball, N=20, age: 21.5±2.6 and futsal, N=20, age: 21.3±1.25) and also 20 students as non-athletes (N=20, age: 20.5±1.72). The data including: height, weight, waist and hip circumference, body fat percentage, thoracic Kyphosis and lumbar Lordosis curvatures angles, leg muscle strength, cardiopulmonary fitness, flexibility and navicular drop index were evaluated using by standard methods. Statistical analysis using ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis test were used and the significant level set asp≤0.05. The results showed that volleyball players had lesser body fat percent and more muscle mass than the other two groups. The futsal players indicated lesser Lordosis angle than to other groups. Furthermore, leg muscle power, flexibility and cardio respiratory fitness of futsal players was significantly higher than others. In conjunction with BMI, WHR, Kyphosis angle and Navicular Drop Index, there was no significant difference among three groups. According to the results of the present study is the regular exercise such as volleyball and futsal could improve health-related fitness factors. Moreover, elite athletes with showed better body position as lower Kyphosis and Lordosis angles as compared to non-athletes. Considering the importance of general health status and to improve the quality of life, create sports programs for nonphysical education students should be designed on the agenda of university officials.
42 An Effective Visual Method for Information Tracking System on Automotive Head-Up Display , Jaekyu Park and Youngjae Im*
To provide various functions such as an in-vehicle information system, in-vehicle displays are continuously becoming larger. The head-up display, which shows information on windshields, has entered the spotlight. While in the past, invehicle head-up displays showed simple information including driving speed and distance between cars, they recently started displaying complex information including advanced driver assistance information. Therefore, tracking tasks are required to search for information on the head-up display, similar to the menu navigation of in-vehicle information systems. Tracking tasks are controlled by multiple controllers of the driving information system. This study aimed to identify the effects of three levels of visual enhancements, including no visual enhancement, shaded reference bar, and translucent reference bar, on the information search.
43 The Efficacy of Biomechanical Training in Decreasing WorkRelated Injuries in a Shipping/Receiving Company: A Comparison Study , Gayle R *, Curry A and Carley P
Background of Study: The shipping industry has become progressively more mechanized in the form of conveyor belts, sorting machines, and scanning devices but not all jobs can be automated. It is common for shipping industry’s employees to work 8-12 hours shifts performing various lifting tasks, machine maintenance, and manipulating awkward equipment. Based on the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) reports, there are many shipping and receiving work-related injuries involving mainly the shoulder, back, neck, and feet areas. Many of work tasks involve repetitive actions that include lifting and equipment operation. Even though workers are trained in lifting techniques, there are still frequent injuries reported in this setting causing both employee safety and employer financial concerns. Objective of Study: The purpose of this comparison study is to reduce the prevalence of work related injuries in the shipping and receiving industry through educating employees in proper biomechanics to perform their daily job safely. Design of the Study: A pre-survey was initially administered. Then followed by a 30-minute presentation for education. A second post survey was then provided for comparison. OSHA injury reports were reviewed a year later following the educational sessions. Methods: Pre and post anonymous surveys were completed by94 employees in various positions within a shipping/receiving company. The survey consisted of both multiple choice and circle all that apply. The survey was designed to assess: knowledge, activity level, and interest regarding biomechanics. The training provided by the investigators consisted of visual, verbal, and demonstrative techniques for proper biomechanical posturing. This included lifting, pushing, pulling, standing, twisting, and sitting, as well as basic stretching techniques to be included in daily routines going forward. Results: The results of the comparison between pre-education and post-educational sessions show an approximate 25% increase in employee appreciation and an understanding of posture, stretching, and regular exercise as is relates to daily life and their work place. Following the educational sessions in the reported fiscal year of 2016-2017 the OSHA reported injuries for lifting decreased by 66% and the injuries involving equipment handling decreased by 90%. Limitations: The limitations of this study include: small sample size, limited amount of time for educational sessions and time constraints of data collection due to shipping companies operational window, some employees had received some type of physical therapy in the past, and the OSHA data that has been collected regarding the injuries reported from the shipping company are not yet complete due to fiscal year ending in September 2018. Conclusion: Based on the subjective data collected via survey and the decrease in OSHA reported work-related injuries the authors conclude that with proper education and awareness regarding stretching, exercise, and proper biomechanics it is possible to decrease the number of work-related injuries within the shipping and receiving industry.
44 Fatigue Evaluation in Manual Handling Using Surface EMG and Ergonomic Design of Trolley , Balasubramanian KR*, Sivapirakasam SP and Vamshi Krishna
Musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) is one of the major health problems that are related to physical labour especially in jobs requiring manual work and the muscle fatigue is considered to be closely related to the muscle-related disorders. In addition to the existing techniques for fatigue assessment, the present research focuses on the use of electromyography for analyzing the fatigue at the workplace. This method calculates the fatigue at the muscular level which helps in evaluating the exact risk for further analysis. Since the spine is the most affected part during manual handling, the present research focuses on the muscle activity of spine for comparison of the risks associated with manual handling as well as using the trolley. The lifting of scrap load obtained from stretch forming machine in an industry is analyzed and an ergonomically designed trolley is suggested for lifting and carrying. The main objective of this research is to design the optimum handle height of the trolley which induces lower compressive stresses on the spine. The experimental values obtained for muscle activity of spine is compared with the data obtained from motion analysis using biomechanical software using 3DSSPP. The percentage reduction of muscle fatigue analysis is compared with Revised NIOSH lifting equation. It infers that the use of trolley for material handling significantly reduced the fatigue than manual material handling.
45 Ergonomic Design of Table and Chair based on QFD and Anthropometric Measurement and improved Facility Layout , Taposh Kumar K*, Mustafizur R, Muhammad AdibUz Z and Moin Uddin G
This study analyzed the probable mismatch between university table and chair dimensions and anthropometric characteristics of 200 Bangladeshi (Jessore University of science & technology) students and emphasize on student needs. Comfortable learning in a classroom depends on a number of concealed factors and appropriate university furniture like tables and chairs. Ergonomically fit tables and chairs ensure the comfortable learning facilitation. However, an anthropometric survey showed that most of these tables and chairs were not made according to ergonomic considerations. Fifteen anthropometric measurements are considered and nine dimensions from the existing classroom tables and chairs were measured and compared to identify the probable mismatch between them. Here, QFD tool is used. For obtaining the important ratings of the student’s demands for QFD, a survey was held. By using QFD tool, final design requirements are prioritized. The paper recommends the dimensions for ergonomically fit tables and chairs and also represents the facility layout of one of the specific university classrooms of the Bangladesh to allocate the available tables and chairs. Finally, new ergonomically fit new designs are proposed. As students spend most of their time in the classroom, it is very essential to supply appropriate tables and chairs for them. Long time sitting on those inappropriate tables and chairs can cause musculoskeletal disorders.
46 Finite Element Analysis of a PTO Shaft Used in an Agricultural Tractor , H. Kursat Celik*, Recep CINAR, Gokhan KUNT, Allan E.W. RENNIE, Mehmet UCAR and Ibrahim AKINCI
This study describes a finite element method (FEM) based deformation simulation procedure for a power take off (PTO) shaft in an agricultural tractor. The agricultural tractor is a mobile power source in agricultural fields. The Agricultural tractor transmits power to the working implement through several systems independently. Most especially, rotary elements used in agricultural machinery take the required power and movement from the tractor take off (PTO) shaft. During this operation, the PTO shaft experiences a high dynamic loading condition such as excessive instant (impact) loading. This may cause an undesired failure case for the PTO shaft. In order to prevent such undesired failures, loading condition and stress distribution on the component should be described properly; however, an accurate description of the structural stress distribution on the shaft becomes an important problem. In this content, a case study was carried out on a failed PTO shaft, as described in this paper. The aim of this case study is to exhibit the stress distribution on the PTO shaft through finite element analysis under a torsional loading case which may be considered as the main cause of the failure. Visual outputs from the simulation results revealed a better understanding of the failure zone on the shaft. The maximum equivalent stress magnitude obtained from the simulation was 632.08 [MPa] (which was lower than the fracture point) on the shaft under maximum PTO torque, however, it was concluded that the main reason for the failure was excessive shock torsional loading. This work contributes to further research into usage of numerical method based deformation simulation studies for the transmission elements used in agricultural tractors/machinery.
47 Concepts for the Reduction of Discomfort Generated by Prolonged Static Posture during Driving Task, Part I: Basic Concepts and Theories , Abdelkerim R*
Several researches have been reported in the last decade to improve comfort (reduce discomfort) of cars interior, especially car seats. Designing a comfortable car seat was and still is the problem of designers and ergonomists. Despite the huge number of researches conducted to reduce discomfort and to improve comfort feeling during driving task, hardly any solution was given to reduce discomfort of the Prolonged Static Posture (PSP) while driving. In this study, a questionnaire was completed by drivers working intensively on vehicles and spending several hours per day driving, to investigate discomfort caused by the driving activities and to get their opinion about aspects that need to be improved in order to design more comfortable car seat. The results show that almost every driver complains of the PSP symptoms after a long driving. In order to find the best possible solution for this problem, participatory and axiomatic design methodologies were employed in this study. Relevance to Industry: This paper may assist the improvement of design aspect of the car seat that consequently leads to reduction of the musculoskeletal injuries caused by the Prolonged Static Posture during driving task.
48 Prevalence of MSDs among Nurses: A Study in Indian Health Care Industry , Singh LP*
Nursing is the largest, the most diverse, and one of the most respected of all the health care professions. The demand for nursing remains high, and projections suggest that such demand will substantively increase. Awkward posture, lifting, forceful movements and manual work at rapid rate contribute to musculoskeletal disorders in nurses. Currently, India is facing a shortage of more than million nurses and this scenario needs to be rectified. Objective: Present study is focused on assessing risk of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among nurses engaged in different activities of healthcare. Method: A video film was recorded in real postures during the various actives performed by the nurses. Snaps were cropped after a fixed interval for each of the activity. The work postures were evaluated using REBA tool. Results: As per the REBA assessment, 3% nurses required immediately corrective measures and 20% nurses needed to correct their postures as soon as possible, 52% nurses needed further investigation due to moderate risk, 22% nurses are at low risk and only 3% are having negligible risk. Furthermore using REBA tool and questionnaires, it is found that major contributor in this MSDs of nurses is the back. 36% nurses reported problem in their back due to forward bending most of the time, 10% are having problem in their neck, 26% nurses reported problem in feet due to standing and breaks of lesser duration. This paper is restricted to only posture analysis on observation based, however application of ergonomics posture was suggested to the nurses. Conclusion: Awkward postures and manual patient handing in the workplace should be reduced. There is strong need of ergonomics techniques and low cost automation, in form of movable beds, elevators, application of various sensors to reduce the need of continuous monitoring, so that workload can be reduced and efficiency can be increased to affect the organizational cost and the society as a whole.
49 Designing a New Digital Font for Modi-Script , Chatterjee S*
The mature form of language is known with its script. There are many languages all over the world took help of other scripts to express its literary values in terms of human phonetic and literary wealth of human civilization. In the history of Indian scriptology Marathi language had used Modi script during 12th century. It mainly came into the eyes of researchers because all documents were found in Modi script during the era of great Maratha emperor Shivaji Raje Bhosale also known as Chatrapati Shivaji Maharaj. Modi-Script is one of the ancient scripts in India. Modi-Script was the official language to write Marathi documents and administrative papers till 19th century. Also, British Government decided to discard the use of Modi due to its complexity and non-uniformity and start the use of “Devanagari (Balbodh)”. Although, Modi was taught in the schools and it was used by the older generation till 1950. As time passed by the use of this very important script got reduced and it was on the verge of extinction. Fortunately, so many documents and manuscripts were found from the different parts of the world like London, Paris, Spain, Holland and South Asia. Number of researchers and historians have increased and tried to save this lost culture. Also, these precious manuscripts are suffering from decay and it can’t be manually handled or scanned, Hence there is a need for digitizing those manuscripts and make them available to the historians and researchers. So, there is a scope in designing a digital font for Modi script with proper technique which will help these documents and manuscripts to be preserved in the digital format. This thesis describes the designing of a logically modified font type for Modi-Script which will be useful for printing the educational books and for websites and mobile applications too. Also it describes the importance of the Modi-Script and why it is necessary to save this script by extinction.
50 Is Medial Arch Support Effective in Reducing Foot Pain, Heel Pain, Low Back Pain and Pressure Symptom in Knee Joint? , Shete K*, Karsh S and Pandve HT
Introduction: Many individuals experience pain in foot, heel, low back as well as pressure symptoms in knee joint due to fallen arch. Objective: To determine effectiveness of medial arch support on footwear to reduce pain in foot & heel and pressure in knee joint. Material & Methods: The randomly selected patients who were reported either with foot pain, heel pain, and low back pain or with pressure symptoms along with fallen arch, which was based on the foot evaluation irrespective of gender, were included in the study. Medial arch support on footwear was provided and follow up was taken after one month and then after six months by using Foot and Ankle Ability Measure of Activities of Daily Living Sub-scale. Statistical analysis: Mean, standard deviation was used for descriptive data. Repeated measure ANOVA was used as test of significance. Results: Total 30 patients were included in the study out of which 16 (53.33%) were males and 14 were females (46.67%). There was statistically significant improvement in the reduction of foot pain, heel pain, low back pain and pressure symptoms in knee joint on follow up measurements taken on repeated occasions that before intervention, one months after the intervention and six months after the intervention (F=60.862; p= 0.0001). Conclusion: This study concluded that use of medial arch support is effective in reducing foot pain, heel pain, low back pain and pressure symptoms knee joint.
51 Namghar: Aesthetics and Identity of Social Cultural Institutional Architecture in Assam, India , Charu Monga* and Amarendra Kumar Das
This paper concerns the application of visual ethnographic research to preserve the cultural identity of structures like Namghar located at the banks of Brahmaputra in Assam. Namghar are an important socio-cultural institution, whose design elements are essential and symbolic for binding the entire community especially belonging to various areas of Assam. However, rapid urbanization and changing lifestyle has led to variations in design elements of Namghar. This study on these variations in design elements will be essential in preserving the essence, harmony among diverse communities as well as heritage of Assam. The objectives of this study are to compare variations in design elements especially colour variations of Namghar located at different locations within Assam. Field observations of outer overall structure, elements as well as interior structure were made. Colour palate was identified and the visuals were analyzed. Similarities and differences among key architectural elements will be compared and discussed. Cultural aesthetics elements were explored with visual ethnography on architectural elements among Namghars in various locations. It is identified, discussed with reference to semiotics and semantics of cultural construction. This paper seeks to arouse the issues of cultural loss of Namghar and possibility of colour as a binding design element among the architecture of Namghar.
52 Development of Plasma Torch - A Case Report , Manna S, Sadhukhan AK, Gupta pp and Chatterjee PK*
This paper provides a case study of the design aspect of non-transferred and transferred torches. Designing a plasma torch, especially for the disposal of Municipal Solid Waste requires many parameters to be taken into account. The parameters are choice of material of construction of electrodes, cooling of electrodes, reduction of disintegration or consumption of electrodes, choice of carrier gas, cooling effect of carrier gas, rotation of point of discharge of electron on cathode using magnetic field, and none the less, type of power supply, that is AC, DC and Radio frequency.
53 Design and Validation of Differential Braking Controllers for Sport Utility Vehicles Considering the Interactions of Driver and Control System , Shenjin Zhu and Yuping He*
This paper introduces the design and validation of a differential braking controller for sport utility vehicles (SUVs) with driver-in-the-loop real-time simulations. SUVs are designed with high ground clearance, which is a main reason for their high rollover rate. A nonlinear 3 degrees-of-freedom (DOF) SUV model is generated to design a differential braking controller. The desired states are determined using a 2-DOF bicycle model and the lane-keeping control results derived from vehicle velocity and road curvature. The actual vehicle states of the 3-DOF model may deviate from the desired ones. A sliding model controller (SMC) is designed to minimize the state error to improve the performance measures, e.g., yaw stability. The SMC controller designed in LabVIEW is integrated with a virtual SUV generated in CarSim for cosimulations. The controller is first examined in the emulated sine-with-dwell maneuver specified in FMVSS 126. The SUV performance depends not only on the control strategy, but also on its interaction with the human driver. To study the interaction of the driver and the controller, the overall system is simulated using driver-software-in-the-loop (DSIL) realtime simulations under a double-line-change (DLC) maneuver. The simulations show that, even equipped with the electronic stability control (ESC) system, the driver still plays an important role in the vehicle dynamics. The simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed differential braking controller, and the research discloses important interactions of driver and ESC system.
54 Can the Physical Environment Play a role on Workers’ Safety Outcomes? A Brief Commentary on Restorative Design at the Workplace , Pasini M, Berto R and Brondino M*
Physical characteristics of the environment directly affect psycho-physiological well being. Stress occurs when there is an imbalance between physical setting demands and human resources, because individuals cannot cope with in the proper way. One of the causes of unsafe behaviours and performance are physical and mental resources jeopardized by stress due to the workplace physical characteristics. Moreover, physical settings may impact on individual’s capacity to direct attention not only consuming it, but offering respite from mental fatigue (due to the overuse of directed attention) thorough the so-called “restorative design”. Inside a quite unanimously accepted general theoretical framework, which consider contextual factors - such as safety policies and practices, safety culture and safety climate, influence of leaders and coworkers, as distal antecedents of safety performance, this brief communication suggests an innovative perspective, adding the restorative qualities of the physical environment among these contextual factors which can enhance safety at work.
55 A Survey on Level of Client Satisfaction Among Clients Visiting out Patient Department at Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Amhara Reginal State, North West Ethiopia, 2015 , Ayele Smachew Kasa*
Introduction: Service delivery refers to the systematic arrangement of activities in service giving in stitutions with the aim of fulfilling the needs and expectations of service users and other stake holders with optimum use of resources. Given the noticeable paucity of studies addressing out patient satisfaction among client in public Hospital setting, including Felege Hiwote Referal Hospital, the information obtained from this study will hopefully assist in determining the level of satisfaction among outpatient clients in Felege Hiwot referral hospital. Method: A cross sectional study conducted from November 22 to December 26, 2015. All departments included in the study using systematic random sampling techniques. A total of 271 respondents were recruited. Structured questionnaire was used to collect the data. The report depicted descriptively using measures of central tendency, dispersion and using tables and graphs. Result: Out of the total 271 respondents; 150(55.35%) were females; Most of the Clients (32.47%) were between15– 24yearsold. Sixty three (23.24%) were illiterates. Most of the clients, 60(22.14%) were farmers while thirty (11.07%) governmental employees, 30 (11.07%).One hundred seventy seven (65.31%) of clients comes from the rural areas of the region. Out of the total respondents, 60.88%werenew visitors. Nearly one third of the client’s 94(34.68%) were on paying and received the services for free. This study has revealed that the satisfaction level with the outpatient services in the Felegehiwot refer ral hospital was 62.01%. Conclusion: Many clients are found to be dissatisfied with service provision of the outpatient department soft he hospitals. These include in adequate information provision about the hospital services and the ir health problems, long waiting time to get the hospital services. So the concerned body (Amhara Regional Health Bureau) need sound rested the extent of the problem and plan to look Fr different mechanisms to enable detailed satisfaction survey.
56 Data Security , Eleonora Babayants*
Data security should be a priority in your organization. Data breaches are expensive. The top 13 breaches of last year alone cost the affected companies more than $32 billion. After the initial incident, the exposed information can take on new lives. Once the data is out there, it is completely exposed and the backlash of a breach can seem never ending and be costly well beyond the initial event. This article is about data security. It describes the importance of it and solutions to prevent data loss.
57 Icon Interpretation and Understanding: A Cross-Cultural Case Study of Product Interface , Ganesh S*, Somya Jain, Kavya R, Prabodh B and Rohan S
Electronics and appliances are often designed and manufactured from all around the world, and imported to India. Hence, they are not designed considering the Indian mental model in mind. In a country where there are 22 official languages and a countless number of dialects and cultures, it is necessary to communicate through a visual language rather than words or written language. Icons and visuals on appliances become essential for comprehending the functionality of an appliance. This paper interprets a case study on one such home appliance which is widely used by Indians; it investigates the usability of icons and product interface present on washing machines. The paper also highlights cross-cultural icon design implications and understanding mental models of the users. The study has been carried out in 3 phases – questionnaire, comprehension test and ranking test. The data collected from the 3 phases have been analyzed to determine the impact on Indian audience.
58 Diastolic Learning: Making the Tacit, Explicit , Papaspyros S,* and O’Regan D
Introduction: Surgery is a motor skill that has to be learnt through practice. The acquisition of motor skills and the principles are well documented especially in sport. Deliberate practice is the engagement in structured activities created specifically to improve performance in a domain and requires feedback. The experience needed to become an expert can be helped in the early stages of training with deliberate practice and observation by a skilled trainer. The aim of this project is to establish whether a combination of low fidelity simulation models and deliberate practice can reliably predict achievement of basic surgical skills competency. Video based scoring was used to quantify progress. Methods: We recruited thirty junior doctors and medical students with minimal exposure to surgery. They were provided with appropriate instruments and materials. They were given a demonstration of low fidelity simulation models, principles of needle handling and feedback on their first attempts. An initial video was taken. Subsequently they were given specific exercises to practice at home. They were reassessed after a period of one week and a second video was taken. Results: The participants were scored on four parameters: Time/pace, flow/rhythm, precision, rotation. There was significant improvement on all four parameters in twenty-eight out of thirty participants. This ranged from 18.9% (time) to 40% (flow). Conclusion: This project has enhanced our knowledge and practice in surgical education and training. Our work provides evidence on how low-fidelity simulation models can reliably be used to achieve significant progress through early stages of the learning curve. Furthermore it demonstrates the principles that need to be observed in order for deliberate practice to be effective and efficient in acquisition of surgical skills.
59 Integration of a Manoeuvring Negotiations Module in Driving Support Systems: A Simulator Study , Portouli E, Nathanael D* and Marmaras N
Drivers, when uncertain about others’ intent, tend to communicate their own and anticipate others’ intent through deliberate communicative acts. Although such communicative interactions among drivers are a crucial component of driving activity they are still not considered in the design of driving support and automation systems. A driving simulator study was conducted, in order to study the effects of integrating a manoeuvring negotiations module, simulating communicative interactions, in three driving support systems. Results from 20 experienced drivers show that participants initiated their manoeuvre sooner, felt more certain and were more in favour when the system provided them with the explicit “consent” of the other involved “driver” than when receiving just a warning according to estimated time to collision. Thus, there are possible benefits from the inclusion of a manoeuvring negotiation module in driving support and automation systems, and further studies should focus on adequately designing “socially interacting” systems.
60 Structural Loading of the Lower Lumbar Area in Different Level of Rubber Tapping , Meksawi S*, Tangtrakulwanich B and Chongsuvivatwong V
Around half of professional rubber tappers are known to have low back pain. It is speculated that this is due to prolonged lateral and forward bending of the trunk. Yet assessment on compression and shear force on the back and the level of back muscle fatigue and the role of degree of bending have never been done. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of tapping level on structural loading of the lower lumbar area and evaluated the factors associated with fatigue after a day of routine rubber tapping work. 48 healthy rubber tappers volunteered to join in the study. Data collected includes onetime biomechanical modeling of the lower lumbar spine during varying levels of rubber tapping using the University of Michigan 3D Static Strength Prediction Program (3DSSPP) and before-and-after one-day work evaluation of low back muscle activity using electromyography (EMG) and perceived fatigue scale. The results show that the lower the tapping level was, the higher the values of compression and shear force at L5/S1 and L4/L5 would be (p-value=0.001). For EMG, the amplitude was increased with a spectrum shifted toward lower frequency. The percentage of maximal voluntary contraction (%MVC) was also increased by more than 20%. The degree of perceived fatigue after work was at moderate level. These parameters were more severe among those tapping at lower level both before work, and more importantly, after work. Other independent predictors for fatigue were number of trees tapped per day but not sex, age, weight, and height. Low level rubber tapping exerts harmful effects on trunk structural loading. Further research to prevent its consequence is needed. Relevance to Industry Rubber tapping potentially has many ergonomic problems and high prevalence of low back pain was confirmed. Prior to this research there has not been study to quantify the excessive stress imposed on the lower lumbar area during rubber tapping at different tapping levels.
61 Electrochromic Glass Enhances the Passenger Experience in Airports , Hedge A*, Nou D and Horton R
Interviews were conducted with airline passengers in the flight gate areas at a major international airport under each of 2 conditions, one where the gate seating area had low-e glass, and one where the gate seating area had electrochromic glass that changes its visual transmittance (tint) as a function of predicted glare or solar gain via an automated software program. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with a total of 503 passengers over a 5 weeks period. On-site surveys and video footage of passenger behavior were collected to measure the comparative seat occupancy, seat dwell time and occupant behavior at both gates. Economic data was collected from proximate vendors at each gate. Results show that proximity to a window is important to the passenger experience and passenger opinions of electrochromic glass were either better or comparable to those for low emissivity glass. Significantly fewer passengers reported adverse glare effects with the electrochromic glass. Seat dwell times at gates with electrochromic glass was significantly longer for seats located close to the glass compared to the gate with low-e glass. There was suggestive evidence that passengers at the gate with the electrochromic class also tended to spend more money. Separately, an adjacent bar (also retrofit with electrochromic glass) reported average revenue increases of 102% for the 6 months after the glass was installed. Overall, electrochromic glass at airport gates and in retail outlets with external walls can improve the visual environment for airline passengers and may boost revenue.
62 Musculoskeletal Disorder (MSDs) and Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) Scoring Among Rubber Tappers , Meksawi S*, Tangtrakulwanich B and Chongsuvivatwong V
Due to a large population at risk of MSDs in the rubber tapping occupation, this study aimed to survey the MSD problems on different parts of rubber tappers’ bodies, and evaluate the RULA scoring system in terms of its pain prediction ability. 427 rubber tappers actively engaged in rubber tapping for at least 1 month, aged between 15-60 years, were recruited. Data were gathered using a questionnaire-based interview with an analog pain rating scale and a body discomfort chart. Video-based analysis of the various most common rubber tapping postures using the RULA method was also done. Factor analysis was used to group the correlated items of the RULA body part scores and pain scores from the relevant regions. Linear modeling was also performed to determine the ability of the various RULA factors to predict the associated pain scores. 52.9% of the rubber tappers reported current back pain, while pain at other bodily areas was uncommon (2.1%- 14.8%). In contrast, the RULA scores did not indicate the back to have the highest risk. Factor analysis found the RULA scores could be grouped into 3 factors. Linear modeling demonstrated a significant association between back pain and the RULA factor involving the vertebra and upper arm. However, the RULA scores had a poor predictive ability concerning body pains of the rubber tappers (R-squared=0.08), and further studies on the causes of back pain are needed.
63 The Job that Fits , Andrew Hague*
Getting the right people into the right job is essential for prosperity and peace. The job or role has to fit each person who all have differing abilities according to their mentality. Brains are not all the same. Identifying the type of person is part of ergonomics. Changing the person is difficult and disturbing. It is the job that has to be adjusted. What that may involve is the subject of this essay.
64 The Risk Assessment of Occupational Exposure to Chemical Substances by Use of a Global Product Strategy Method in Oil Refinery Industry , Akbari Jafar* and Moradi Rohoddin
Introduction: In order to implement an effective risk management program and RPP (respiratory protection program), assessing the risk of occupational exposure to chemicals in the workplace is necessary. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of occupational exposure to chemicals by using GPS (Global Product Strategy) provided by the ICCA (International Council of Chemical Associations) in various operational units of the refinery in Abadan. Material and Method: This study is descriptive-analytical. After determining the SEG (similar exposure groups) collect information about the process, maintenance, occupational groups and tasks, chemicals, priority and determine the status, chemical exposures, compounds BTEX (benzene, ethyl benzene, toluene and xylene) as well as hydrogen sulfide, respectively, using standard methods NIOSH 1501 and NIOSH 6013 were sampled. The mentioned items are as follows; process, maintenance, occupational groups and their tasks, chemical substance, prioritizing and determining the condition of exposure to chemicals and BTEX materials. Then, based on exposure rates (ER) and hazard classification (HC), describes qualitative risk classification (RC) was describing. The relation risk classification rate and respiratory function reduction and respiratory disorders were studied by t-independent test and through SPSS (version 20). Results: The risk of exposure to benzene in the operating units was higher other materials. Such that in some units, including ROP, distillation 100, CR1, distillation 70, of MTBE and NTA quality scores 1A (the highest possible), respectively. After benzene, the highest risk score substances (hydrogen sulfide, ethyl benzene, toluene and xylene), respectively. Exposure risk rate, in other units, was assessed in the first and second level of priorities and the suitable measures (red and yellow zones) were done. It was also found that a significant relationship the risk and respiratory rate were statistically lower (P <0.009). Conclusion: The results indicated that the risk of exposure to benzene Items investigated was high. The units ROP, CR1 and distillation 100 had the highest risk score. The results showed that the risk quality 1A (red area) for benzene in the unit NTA, MTBE, distillation (70,100), CR1 and hydrogen sulfide were found in Kat Crocker. Among the substance, benzene has the highest risk score is qualitative.
65 Worker Reactions to Electrochromic and Low e Glass Office Windows , Hedge A* and Nou D
Occupant surveys about the daylight and the visual environment effects of work, satisfaction, health and well-being, were conducted in 5 office buildings with electrochromic glass (n=268) and 2 office buildings with low-e glass (n=-44). Online surveys were administered to volunteer participants. Results showed that subjective reports of eyestrain, headaches, lighting quality satisfaction, window glass lighting quality, and alertness were significantly better for the electrochromic glass buildings. No significant differences between building types were found for daylight glare, daylight quality, mood, energy levels, health and well-being, self-rated productivity, and work quality. Findings show that electrochromic glass can improve indoor light quality that benefits occupant comfort and wellness.
66 Development of the Ergonomic Activity Sampling (EAS) Method to Analyse Video-Documented Work Processes with Activity Sampling , Landau Kurt L*, Nadeau Sylvie and LeFloch Tiphaine
Ergonomics analyses examine design parameters of work processes, e.g. postures and movements or action forces, with the aim of assessing work systems or work processes with regard to feasibility and long-term tolerability. Numerous applications of ergonomics analysis at "normal" industrial and service workplaces can be found in the relevant literature as well as in practical field studies. In contrast, there are only a few methodical presentations of ergonomics analysis under critical working and environmental conditions, e.g. in fire brigade and medical emergency operations, in heat and cold environments, in radioactive contamination of workplaces, etc. With the EAS, a procedure for video-supported activity sampling analysis is presented. Based on case studies from aircraft de-icing, it is shown that video-based activity sampling studies allow a well-founded analysis of postures and movements with a cost-benefit ratio that is acceptable to the analyst.
67 Impact of Sustainable Product Design on Elderly Ergonomics , Tris KEE* and Alex KING
With an unprecedented increase in the ageing population in the global context, 47 million people are currently living with dementia worldwide according to the World Health Organisation Report – Dementia: A Public Health Priority (2017). Although there is a number of research that contributed to the design of health- and-safety products for people with dementia, co-designed elderly health care products or research are scarce. This paper aims to fill the gap in research by, firstly, co-designing and developing a series of ten sets of elderly ergonomics board games to delay the deterioration in cognitive function, behavioral changes and functional limitations of elderly with dementia; and secondly, examining the impact of the elderly ergonomics products on their six recognized physical and cognitive domains; namely memory, language, recognition, visuospatial function, numeracy and attention. By utilizing qualitative research methodology, this research employed desktop study, observation, semi-structured face-to-face interviews, and focus groups discussions to understand the experiences of this set of co-designed products on the impact of health development on the ageing population. The paper provides an insight into both psychological and health impact and development of a specially designed health care product design on the dementia cohort in Hong Kong aged 65 to 95. The findings of this research can make significant contributions to the scholarly understanding of the enhancement of elderly’s health and living environment since Hong Kong is confronted with a severe ageing demography
68 Symptoms of Musculoskeletal Disorders in Firefighter Worker in Brazil , Felipe RAS*, Ferraz MCM, Machado LA, Oliveira LAS, Gondo FLB and Quemelo PRV
Fireman's labor activity requires situations of extreme physical demand and few studies are directed at this class of workers. The aim of this study was to identify the musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) symptoms in firefighter workers and to and verify the correlation of MSD prevalence with age and working time. Socio demographic were collected and the Nordic Questionnaire was used to verify the MSD prevalence. In Group A, 91% of workers reported MSD symptoms for the last 6 months or in the last 7 days, with the low back region being the most affected? In Group B, 80% of workers reported MSD symptoms in the last 6 months or the last 7 days. No significant difference was observed between the groups considering MSD prevalence with working time exposure and age of worker. In conclusion, most of the fireman reported some type of MSD symptoms (89%); low back pain was the most body region affected. Work time factor and age did not influence the MSD prevalence. The results of the present study point to the need for interventions for this group of workers with the aim of reducing the MSD prevalence, regardless of working time exposure and age of worker.
69 Segmental Proportions Based on Anthropometry of Female Agricultural Workers, India , Yadav R*, Jakasania RG and Vadher AL
Women play a major role in the development of rural and national economies of India through their agricultural operation. For proper design of farm equipment for women workers, it is necessary to collect anthropometric data on farm women. But not much of information is available regarding their anthropometric data. Therefore, an anthropometric survey was carried out for female agricultural workers of Gujarat state, wherein 382 female agricultural workers were selected and 38 body dimensions were precisely measured and recorded from each subject. The data measured were statistically analyzed for mean, standard deviation, 5th and 95th percentile values which are used in design. For making the data comprehensive and more useful, a set of 19 body dimensions, which are having direct implications on agricultural tool/implement design were selected, and compared with data of different states of India and also with other countries female workers. The mean weight and stature of female agricultural workers were found to be 48 kg and 1522 mm, respectively. A large variation in anthropometric dimensions was observed in the anthropometric data of female farm workers of different states of India and other countries. The data as obtained are intended to be used for the design and modifications of agricultural hand tools/implements with a view to reduce drudgery and at the same time increase efficiency, safety and comfort of operators in agriculture operation.
70 Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Disorders Risk among Dentist: A Study in Northern India , Singh LP*
Present study is focused to assess the musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) risk and work posture of dentists in clinic and hospital of Northern India. Seven different jobs performed by 50 different dentists of clinic and hospital were investigated with the help of RULA method. The results revealed that In L.H.S 54% dentist were under low risk, 30% dentists under medium risk and 16% were under high risk. Further Chi-Square χ2 analysis was performed to check the dependability of MSDs on various demographic and operational parameters. The analysis revealed that RULA was found dependent on type of task performed by dentists, although, the MSDs were found independent of age, BMI. The study concluded that there is no association between LHS RULA score and job performed by dentists and similarly there is no association between RHS RULA score and job performed by dentists.
71 Modern Approaches for Realization of Training Operators of Mining Machines at Mining Enterprises , Velikanov VS*
This study investigates the quality issue of the in-house training process for mining machine operators. The authors prove the urgency of the designated problem. The changes in modern society, as well as the development of science and technology have a direct impact on the vocational education system. This paper describes the main aspects of the inhouse training process of mining machine operators; define the essence, structure, contents, and main directions of its revitalization. The following solutions are proposed in order to improve the quality of the in-house training process: to use the original method based on a rating system of the operator knowledge evaluation, active and interactive forms of using modern training technologies. The authors conducted testing techniques in mining enterprises with the aim of confirming the adequacy of the suggested approaches. The results are given in the work. It was proposed that the methods and tools integration has a positive impact on professional training system.
72 What Goes In, Must Come Out , Andrew Hague*
The interdependence of all living things affects human health. Food is more than energy alone. There are varieties of minerals that are balanced by the body according to its needs and what it does not need is expelled. If they remain, they cause problems.
73 Motor Fitness and High Intensity Effort in University Students-A Gender Variation , Bandyopadhyay A* and Dalui R
Majority of college and university students do not participate in moderate or vigorous physical activity in daily life and this causes deterioration of physical fitness. Several sex differences in fitness profile parameters among college students were noted in different populations. But data of motor fitness parameters in University students are lacking, especially in Indian context. The present study was aimed to provide gender specific motor fitness reference standards among Indian University students from Kolkata. 82 non–smoker male (n=41) and female (n=41) university students belonging to the age group of 20–26 years and similar socio–economic background were recruited in the study. Motor fitness parameters (agility, vertical jump test, push up test, flexibility, hand grip strength) and anaerobic capacity were measured by standard methods. Motor fitness parameters (agility, vertical jump test, push up test, flexibility, hand grip strength) and anaerobic capacity were significantly higher in male students than their female counterparts. Present data will also serve as a national standard data of motor fitness parameters of university students. This would be of further help to fitness instructors towards implementation of better fitness or exercise regime in different populations to improve physical fitness and for preventing injuries by increasing muscles’ flexibility especially in case of females.
74 Comparing the Results of Three Ergonomic Assessment Tools , Ahmadi M, Etemadinezhad S*, Yazdani Charati J, Akbarzadeh L and Kaveh R
The outcome of an ergonomic assessment underlies and is followed by the decisions on where and when an intervention is required; therefore, selecting a suitable method indirectly affects the effectiveness of an ergonomics program. Currently, available ergonomics assessment tools vary over a wide range, some of which can be interchangeably used for similar purposes. This could make the practitioners confuse to choose the most appropriate tool. QEC, ManTRA and MFA are of those methods having to do with routine manual tasks which their distinctions have never been drawn. The objective of this study was to compare the results of these three ergonomics methods to determine their agreements with one another and correlations with workers’ musculoskeletal discomforts. The tools were applied to 350 manual tasks by several ergonomics experts, as was the Cornel Musculoskeletal Questionnaire to the workers working on those tasks. The outputs of the three methods were compared with one another as well as with the workers’ musculoskeletal discomforts rate. Of the methods, MFA evaluated the tasks as at risk in more moderate way than the other methods and had the most correlation with the workers’ musculoskeletal discomforts. ManTRA was also found as the most lenient approach which tended to ignore some risky tasks of the work systems. In contrast, QEC was the strictest of the three and would classify a task as high/very high risk more than the other tools in this study.
75 Psychometrics Evaluation of the Persian Version of the Swedish Occupational Fatigue Inventory (SOFI), Cultural Adaptation and Reliability , Pashmdarfard M, Hamid Reza Mokhtarinia* and Karimlou M
Introduction: This study assessed the translation, cultural adaptation and reliability of the Persian version of Swedish Occupational Fatigue Inventory Questionnaire (SOFI). Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the psychometric characteristics of the SOFI Questionnaire by performing reliability and cultural adaptation. Cultural adaptation was done based on the previous published guidelines and reliability of the SOFI was assessed by internal consistency and test–retest reliability. Testretest reliability was performed in the 50 nurses recorded at baseline and 3-7 days later. Internal consistency was assessed using Cronbach’s-α. Results: Some minor changes were applied to the SOFI during the cultural adaptation process. An acceptable level of internal consistency (Cronbach’s Alpha= 0.94) and test–retest reliability (ICC= 0.9) was obtained. Conclusion: The Persian version of the SOFI was proved to have sufficient levels of reliability for estimating occupational fatigue of Iranian nurses.
76 Healthcare Workers Adherence to Follow-Up after Occupational Sharp Objects, Blood and Body Fluids Exposure Incidents in a Secondary Care Hospital-Saudi Arabia , Abdaley HM, Hakawi AM, Hathout HM and Eldalatony MM*
Background: Prompt reporting of occupational blood and body fluid exposure increases the effectiveness of prophylaxis and treatment. Post-exposure follow-up of cases is extremely important Objectives: The study aims at assessing HCWs' adherence to follow-up after occupational exposure to blood and body fluids at a secondary care hospital in Saudi Arabia during Jan. 2012- Dec. 2015. Methods: A prospective follow-up in a secondary care hospital (550 bed) - Saudi Arabia includes all occupational blood and body fluid exposures during January 2012- Dec. 2015. Data entered in the data base of Epinet 1-5 US. Program. Cases evaluated for completing the recommended post- exposure management. Results: Total number of exposures was 293 incidents. Low compliance to follow up after exposure (27.5%, 2.9%) for hepatitis C and HIV respectively. Conclusion: Study of healthcare workers adherence to post exposure management revealed low compliance rates especially in case of suspected exposure to hepatitis C and HIV.
77 Comparative Study on Design Elements of Namghars in Urban, Rural and Semi-Urban Region using Visual Approach , Monga C* and Das AK
Rising inequality and suppression of people belonging to lower class led to Vaishnavite movement, which in turn resulted in creation of “Namghar”. Namghars are an important socio-cultural institution, whose design elements are essential and symbolic for binding the entire community especially belonging to rural areas. However, rapid urbanization and changing lifestyle has led to variations in design elements of Namghar. This study on these variations in design elements will be essential in preserving the essence, harmony among diverse communities as well as heritage of Assam. The objectives of this study are to compare variations in design elements of Namghar located at three different locations: 1) Urban (Zoo Road, Guwahati) 2) Semi-Urban (Sualkuchi) and 3) Rural (Hajo). Field observations of outer overall structure, elements as well as interior structure were made using high-resolution camera. The visuals were analyzed and similarities and differences among key architectural design elements (outer gate, main door, pillars, prayer hall, relief work; Manikut) were compared and discussed. It was found that among all architectural elements; Manikut was found to have least variation (or most preserved). Other elements have drastic variations in size, material as well as form. The design of outer main gate, which was adorned with Vaisnava elements and floral design work for rural and semi-urban areas, is now almost plain without any significant decorations. Similarly, Pillars, which were carved with complex design of Vaisnava elements (Bhakat or Lord Krishna) and also floral work in case of semi-urban and rural Namghars seems to change to much simpler design form (plain round shape) in case of urban Namghars. Overall, there is strong indication of increasing essence of modernization, energy efficiency along with security as compared to relief and decorative work (Vaisnava sect elements) in design of architectural elements of Namghar in Urban location.
78 Evaluation of Hospital Laboratory Workflow Design in Ethiopia: Blood Specimen Collection and Chemistry Laboratory Testing , Eshetu LH*
Background: Laboratories have recognized their internal business and operate as a set of business processes or workflows. Modern Laboratories are highly suitable to this workflow driven approach. Evaluation of current workflow and re-design processes are necessary and requirements of customers to increase customer needs and efficiency in daily laboratory operation. In Ethiopia there is no baseline information on hospital laboratory workflows sited on literature. Objective: To evaluate existed workflow in clinical hospital laboratory and proposed new workflow in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Method: A cross-sectional study design was used. Quantitative method and direct observation were conducted. Standardized checklist and questionnaire was used to assess the workflow of existed automated chemistry laboratory testing and OPD specimen collection workflow. To assessed these the study drawn a map of the sample`s journey using a tool called value stream mapping; spaghetti diagram and record detail of workflow. A new workflow simulation model is proposed based on adoption of Vacutainer blood collection device and its associated tubes instead of syringe needle. Results: The average time of samples waiting at reception after collection and prior to delivery to respective laboratories were decline as more samples collected within short time interval. The average cycle times of 489 blood sample drawing processes were 3.58 minutes and 76.5% (374) of blood samples were drawn with an average cycle time of 1.0 to 5.0 minutes. A total of 1231.31 minutes were identified as non-value added (waste) time from existed workflow of chemistry laboratory testing process and seven non-valued added process steps were recognized. Clinical chemistry laboratory process cycle efficiency was 56.6%. New simulation workflow is redesign by considering Vacutainer blood collection device and their associated tubes are being used rather than syringe needle. Accordingly simulated specimen collection workflow were reduced to 19 steps from existed workflow of 28 steps, 18 major steps were proposed for new chemistry laboratory testing workflow from 26 steps; and the movement of operator could be reduced significantly into six steps as compared 17 steps of movement where 12 operator`s movements were considered as wastes. Conclusion: Laboratories should identified non-value added process, steps or activities and by eliminating those wastes and implementing a powerful business improvement tools like lean method possible to maximized and redesign process to meet customer needs. Laboratories should assess their workflow periodically to identify wasteful practices and focused only value-added activity to increase the process cycle efficiency and productivity.
79 Work Practices in Small and Marginal Farm Holdings: An Ergonomics Analysis , Mondal T* and Nag PK
This present contribution elucidates the extent of use of tools and machinery, human energy spent, man hours involved and work severity among the rice farmers of the state of Wes Bengal, India. The study covered a single paddy growing season, i.e., monsoon spanning from July to December and objective data were gathered from 400 farmers. The level of mechanization in the studied area, however, remains scattered due to the compulsiveness to the situation dominated by the economic layout of farm holdings, land size, and large-scale deprivation of access to the technology suitable to small holdings. Analysis revealed paddy cultivation in this region is dependent on manual labour, about 100-130 man-days per ha is required in a single paddy growing season. Except for land preparation, most of the tasks are dependent on manual labour and manually operated tools and devices. Sowing, harvesting, and weeding are found to be the most labour intensive task. All the tasks related to rice cropping activities are grouped into five distinct categories to indicate the level of work severity involved in each task. The study provides an insight by comparing total human energy requirement to different farm activities and manpower involvement per unit land. Therefore, the need for design and development of efficient small machinery and manually operated devices exist to reduce drudgery and match requirements of the farm workers in smallholdings.
80 A Mathematical Model for Determining Job Rotation Strategy Considering Mental and Physical Fatique , Yelda YENER and Gülin Feryal CAN*
Job rotation is a type of work organization that provides the ability for doing more than one jobs for workers by directed those to different works at certain times of a working day. Mental and physical fatigue occurred on workers by high repetitive, needing attention and monotonous jobs are prevented with job rotation. By determining appropriate job rotation strategy, worker’s productivity increase, company’s production quantity and profitability are also increase. In this study, optimal job rotation strategy is attempted to determine by using mathematical model that aims the maximization of the production quantity in addition to reduce mental and physical fatigue. The mixed integer programming model is used for mathematical model. OWAS (Ovako Working Posture Analysis System) and NASA TLX (National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index) approaches are used to evaluate physical and mental exposure respectively. Moreover, performance changes among workers are also considered in the proposed model.
81 The Impact of Dual Computer Screen Size on Neck Discomfort , Akladios M* and Greenberg E
Background: Work related musculoskeletal disorders are problems experienced in a variety of vocations. Office-based tasks’ inherent static and repetitive nature introduces a unique set of ergonomic challenges. One of the most conspicuous changes in office work settings is the increasing size of computer monitors and displays. This project focused on whether or not these ever-enlarging computer screens may contribute to neck discomfort by directly measuring neck and shoulder muscle activity of participants when they are interacting with different size computer displays. Purpose: The research helped determine if there exists a statistically relevant correlation between size of display and muscle activity of the neck and shoulder. This knowledge could be used to provide information on what size monitors would best mitigate neck discomfort. Methods: Thirty volunteers performed two types of computer-interfacing tasks using dual 20” computer monitors and repeating the 2.5 minute tasks with dual 32” computer monitors: (1) typing a written script, and (2) playing a drag-anddrop game. Direct bilateral measurements of activities of the sternocleidomastoid and upper trapezius were taken using surface electromyography. Additionally, each participant completed demographic and discomfort surveys following each task. Results: Muscle engagement of the left sternocleidomastoid showed statistically significant increase during the typing and drag-and-drop exercises while using the larger monitor displays. Whereas, the size of the monitors did not influence the muscle engagement of the upper trapezius during the drag-and-drop exercise, but there was a statistical significant increase for that muscle during the typing exercise. Conclusions: Larger dual monitor displays could contribute to an increase in neck discomfort for workers engaged in typing and mousing work activities.
82 Indices Assessment of Ergonomic-Psycho-Sociological Workplace in the Metal Casting Industry of El Hadjar (Algeria) , Sefouhi L* and Bouterfa M
The improvement of working conditions constitutes the major challenge for any company in order to ensure a better productivity. The conditions of work include several elements: material, physical, moral…etc. These can present risks or loads on the health and well-being of workers, which will probably reflecting its profitability. Our study will analyze the working conditions of casting workplace in a steel company of El Hadjar Complex of Annaba city (Algeria). This work uses the Labour Economics and Sociology Laboratory of France (LEST) method to evaluate the ergonomic-psycho-sociological quality of work in this workstation with the aim of promoting them in a perspective of socio-economic development of the company.
83 Work Related Stress and Needlestick Injuries (NIs): A Study among Iranian Nurses with/without NIs , Akbari J, Taheri MR*, Khosravi N, Zamani S and Ghadami A
Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the work related stress among Iranian nurses with/without needlestick injuries (NIs) as an exposure factor to blood-borne pathogens. Materials and Method: This study was conducted on 1070 nurses in Iranian public hospitals. The data were collected using a NIs questionnaire and the HSE Management Standards Indicator Tool and then, analyzed through independent ttest and logistic regression. Results: The mean work related stress scores among the groups of nurses with/without NIs were 114.49 and 110.37, respectively. Moreover, the mean for five out of the seven stress component including control, managerial support, peer support, role clarity, and change were lower in the group of nurses with NIs, as compared to the other group, resulting in a significant difference between the two groups regarding the five stress component and work related stress (p<0.05). Further, the results showed that work related stress was significantly correlated with the variables of age, work experience, BMI, work shift the NIslast occurred, the way the NIs last occurred and received/unreceived Hepatitis B vaccine(p<0.05). Conclusion: The NIs incidence was observed to cause increased levels of work related stress and its associated stressors among nurses. Accordingly, the work related stress level increased after the NI incidence and over time, the work related stress severity declined among nurses. Post-Nıs work related stress is considered as a mild PTSD with less severe effects. Therefore, it is essential to take control measures to reduce the work related stress and its negative effects.
84 Subjective Workload Assessment for Elderly Sales Force , Feride Bahar IŞIN, Gülin Feryal CAN*, Kumru Didem ATALAY and Metehan TOLON
This study aims is to compare subjective workload level of younger and elderly industrial salespeople and discuss the differences according to gender job satisfaction and parentage. The subjective workload is particularly important for the service sector because the salespeople who have a face to face contact with the customers are the biggest asset of the company in this sector. The subjective workload of the salespeople was measured with a multi grading scale known as National Aeronautical and Space Administration Task Load Index-(NASA TLX). This study attempt to inform, and lead the managers and policy designers in relatively under-recognized subject of elderly workforce. The results show that the subjective workload of younger and elderly salespeople are different and subjective workload of younger and elderly salespeople vary according to the gender, job satisfaction and parentage.
85 Ergonomically Women Friendly Weeder: A Review , Yadav R*, Jakasania RG and Mohnot P
Weeding operation mainly done by woman. Millions of farm women engaged in these activities are without any mechanical advantageous tools. They experience drudgery; output is low, more time at task, physical strain and suffers from occupational problems. To enhance participation in mechanization especially women workers, ergonomic design considerations have to be incorporated in tools and equipment. As we know that anthropometry of women is different from that of men so, there is a need to modify the existing tools and to make them women friendly. If the tool geometry is evaluated based on the bio-mechanical analysis of women worker, the fatigue caused could be reduced and tool efficiency can be improved. This paper aims to present a review of different women friendly weeder developed by researchers. Anthropometric data and strength data is very important in design of wedeer for women.V
86 Prevalance of Work Related Musculoskeletal Disorder among the Car Mechanics of Indo-Pak Boarder City of Punjab , Singh LP* and Singh G
Working conditions and the nature of profession tend to have a major effect on the health of the worker. Occupational health and safety systems are still in developing stage in India. The quantity of work-related problems in India is greater. The study is aimed to appraise the work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD) among car-repair mechanics of an Indo-Pak border area (Gurdaspur) of Punjab, India. This cross-sectional study included 125 car mechanics, conveniently selected from different authorized and unauthorized workshops. A comprehensive questioner was designed and used to seek information on WMSD. The rapid entire body assessment (REBA) technique was used to assess the risk level of musculoskeletal symptoms. The results showed that about 58 %of workers are having the musculoskeletal disorder at least one region of the body. The most reported MSD complaints are; lower back pain (52%), neck stiffness and shoulder pain (49%). The socio-demographic and physical risk factor are significantly associated (at ‘P’ <0.05) with the occurrence of musculoskeletal symptoms. It is concluded that car care workers are deprived of ergonomics awareness and appropriate interventions are required to be implemented
87 Utility, Advantages and Challenges of Digital Technologies in the Manufacturing Sector , Nadeau S* and Landau K
The technological transformations brought on by digital technologies may well make it possible for the manufacturing sector to overcome the challenges of competitiveness and a changing demographic. A literature review of the last six years identified the current uses and purposes of digital technology and its documented benefits and challenges in the manufacturing sector. The value of digital technologies is that they support or enhance human capacities and skills, as well as assist humans in their activities. This can apply to every aspect of manufacturing. The expected impact on production is the improvement of time frames (training, assembly/execution/operations/manufacturing, production idle/downtime, launch), quality, occupational health and safety. Several challenges are reported in the literature as much in terms of cost of investment, as in compatibility of the work or environment, physical and mental workload, risks (reliability, safety, behaviour of the technology) and acceptability (collection and manipulation of confidential data). Digital technologies are bearers of constructive progress. Changes must be carefully planned and humans should be at the heart of considerations. Several questions remain and will need to be addressed with the collaboration of the various work settings.
88 Prevalance of Work Related Musculoskeletal Disorder among the Car Mechanics of Indo-Pak Boarder City of Punjab , Singh LP* and Singh G
Working conditions and the nature of profession tend to have a major effect on the health of the worker. Occupational health and safety systems are still in developing stage in India. The quantity of work-related problems in India is greater. The study is aimed to appraise the work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD) among car-repair mechanics of an Indo-Pak border area (Gurdaspur) of Punjab, India. This cross-sectional study included 125 car mechanics, conveniently selected from different authorized and unauthorized workshops. A comprehensive questioner was designed and used to seek information on WMSD. The rapid entire body assessment (REBA) technique was used to assess the risk level of musculoskeletal symptoms. The results showed that about 58 %of workers are having the musculoskeletal disorder at least one region of the body. The most reported MSD complaints are; lower back pain (52%), neck stiffness and shoulder pain (49%). The socio-demographic and physical risk factor are significantly associated (at ‘P’ <0.05) with the occurrence of musculoskeletal symptoms. It is concluded that car care workers are deprived of ergonomics awareness and appropriate interventions are required to be implemented
89 Assessment of Sustainable Development of New Ergonomics Aid for the Betterment of Job Procedure in Ridging Activity in Potato Cultivation among the Farmers of West Bengal, India , Banibrata Das*
The study deals with the assessment of musculoskeletal disorder among the potato farmers in ridging activity and to implement new ergonomic aid for the betterment of job procedure and improvement of productivity, health and safety of the workers. Two hundred sixty two potato farmers were randomly selected from the villages of West Bengal, India, to evaluate musculoskeletal disorder. Modified Nordic questionnaire studies and discomfort level scale along with hand grip strength were assessed among the potato farmers before and after using the ergonomic aid in ridging activity. After implementing the newly designed ergonomic aid, a maximum decrease in discomfort feeling, especially at the wrist, hand and shoulder and at the lower back region of the body, is observed. Thus the application of ergonomic aid in ridging activity in potato cultivation has significantly increased the productivity of the workers by decreasing the absenteeism from work among both the groups of workers.
90 Enhancement of Information Design and its Retrieval in Glucose Monitoring Device , Chatterjee S*
Today we are living in emerging world where doctors, engineers and designers are collaborating for growth and development of Health care sector. Researchers are not only working on the cure and treatment of severe diseases but also taking care of their monitoring aspect. In current scenario, we are battling against diseases with no cure such as Cancer, Alzheimer’s, HIV and diabetes. Diabetes is spanning day by day in every generation around the world because of our unhealthy life style and ignorance towards precautions. According to IDF, the numbers of diabetics in the world are 365 million, representing around 8.5% of the global population. India has the highest number of diabetics in the entire world. In diabetes, glucose monitoring is crucial as it can be lethal if not checked regularly. Even with the discovery of glucose monitoring system days back in 1960s, its technology is still fresh and foreign to our population. Most of the glucose monitoring devices available in India is developed by foreign companies. User manual, patient leaflet and device interface is inspired by taking into account of emotions, life style and knowledge of foreign population. Glucose meter, which comes with measuring strips, is widely available in India and measuring glucose level with it, is a complex task. To make this measuring task simple for the user and offer better information regardless of age, gender and education is the demand of Indian users. Therefore, Designing and developing it for Indian population is a necessity. It should be designed in such a way that Indian users can connect with and understand it with their present knowledge.
91 No Waste by Default: Nudging to Prevent Food Waste in Restaurants , Cesareo M*, Oppo A, Lopes ME, Vaccaro M, Stoyanova PS, Pozzi F and Moderato P
Nudge techniques concern any aspect of the choice architecture that alters people's behavior in a predictable way without forbidding any options or significantly changing their economic incentives. In order to tackle the problem of food waste in restaurants, a nudge intervention was developed to increase the demand of “doggy bag” in a restaurant close to Milan. In the intervention the default rule was manipulated to automatically provide with a doggy bag the customers who had uneaten food in their plates, unless they actively choose to opt out. Data showed that, in the experimental condition, the number of doggy bags demanded was more than doubled compared with the control one suggesting the effectiveness of the intervention.
92 Smartphone and Musculoskeletal Risk Factors: A Systematic Review , Vahedi Z, Hajizadeh L and Garosi E*
Background: Smartphones (SPs) are one of the newest technologies that influence users’ daily lives. These technologies have both improved and exerted negative effects on our ways of living. With this issue in mind, we conducted a systematic review of studies on how SPs are used and its effects on muscle activity and joint motion in people’s upper extremities. Objective: This systematic review was aimed at surveying the effects of different tasks and typing styles by SP on SP user musculoskeletal disorders. Method: Articles on the level of muscular activity and the kinematics of neck, upper extremities, and wrist during SP use were searched over Google Scholar, PubMed, Research Gate, and Science Direct. The search yielded 513 articles, out of which 18 were selected on the basis of inclusion and eligibility criteria. Result: The reviewed articles showed that muscle activity and joint movement in the neck, wrist, and fingers were highly associated with the manner by which SP features were used. Two-handed and one-handed grips required different degrees of extension in the wrist and thumb. Conclusion: Although the reviewed studies provided various recommendations for the healthy and appropriate use of SPs, there continues to be a lack of research that establishes precise guidelines on working correctly with these devices. Such guidelines are important considering that the functions and applications of SPs are being rapidly developed.
93 Ancient Diseases: New Cures , Hague A*
94 Leprosy and Cancer , Hague A*
95 Safety Culture is Not Really a Culture! What?!?! So how do we Change it and why do we call it that?! , Allen J*
96 Evaluation of Cervical Cancer Screening Uptake and Risk Factors Knowledge: Health Beliefs Model (HBM) , Eshetu LH*, Gurja B, Ransom SA, Van geertruyden JP and Bogers JP
Background: Even though 20 million women are eligible for cervical screening in Ethiopia only less than 1% of women are screened. Part of the explanation for the low uptake of cervical cancer (CC) screening could be rooted women`s health beliefs and inadequate knowledge of risk factors. Objectives: To assess women health beliefs on CC screening and CC risk factors knowledge who visited Sister Aklesia Memorial Hospital (SAMH) for any medical reasons in Adama town, Oromia, Ethiopia. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted and a total of 412 women participated between September and December 2017. Results: The average age of women was 44.6 years. Among 28 women who visited health facility, thirteen (3.2%) had underwent screening test either of VIA or Pap test. Association between women's education (p<0.05) and household income (p<0.05) with health facility visit for the purpose of CC screening were found statistically significant. Women didn't visit clinics for screening purpose because they belief "douching every day" can prevent CC; and "no see and treat" system existed; "uncomfortable if a man does the procedure"; "no self-sampling device available" were the main barrier factors. Women believed that they are not susceptible of CC when they don't have sex with many partner (p<0.05) and don't have symptoms (P<0.05), and so they don't need a CC screening test. Significant number of women (p<0.05) didn't consider abnormal CC screening tests without treatment can lead to cervical cancer. Conclusion: The health belief model could be used to study factors influencing Ethiopian women's participation in cervical cancer screening. Therefore, changing social structure and living condition of women may improve health through increasing preventive belief and incentives for screening tests. This study is identified several factors influencing cancer screening uptake and compliance.
97 The Relationship between Front Crawl Swimming Performance and Strength Variables in College Swimmers , Lopes TJD, Gonçalves CA, Graça C, Neiva HP and Marinho DA*
Swimmers are tested in both dry land and specific swim protocol. The purpose of the present study was to verify the relationships between dry-land exercises and sprint swimming performance. Fifteen male college swimmers (age: 20 ± 1.46; body mass: 67.81 ± 8.04 kg; height: 177.60 ± 6.99 cm) of high-level volunteered to participate. Strength variables (bench press, full-squat, countermovement jump and the medicine ball throwing), swimming performance (50m and 100m front crawl), biomechanical variables (stroke length, stroke frequency, stroke index) were assessed in different days in the beginning of the season. The correlations between swimming test and strength test were quantified using Pearson's bivariate correlation coefficient (r), assuming a significance level of p<0.05. Bench press a maximum repetition (1RM) showed correlation with 50m front crawl performance (p<0.05). The strength variables were strongly correlated with the biomechanical variables, specifically the stroke length and the stroke index in the 50m (r = 0.56 to 0.83) and in 100m front crawl (r = 0.561 to 0.718). It is suggested that strength variables are relevant to swimming performance and also influence swimming technique. Thus, strength training should be included to improve swimming performance. Coaches are encouraged to implement strategies enable to increase overall power and strength in sprinter swimmers, considering the abovementioned dry-land exercises.
98 Failure-Oriented-Accelerated-Testing and its Possible Application in Ergonomics , Suhir E*
99 Workload Analysis and Ergonomic Design of Nursing Tasks when Caring for Chronically Sick Patients , Landau K*, Weißert-Horn M, Diaz Meyer M, Jacobs M, Salmanzadeh H and Ahmadi M
Nurses in the hospital and home are usually exposed to high psycho-physical stress. In this review, we address lumbar spine hazards that result from the use of forced posture, lifting and carrying, or the use of force to transfer patients. Our remarks refer to transfer procedures to patients in persistent vegetative state , to patients with paraplegia and to patients after transplantation. It is therefore in all cases to care for the most vulnerable. Based on video studies, body posture analyzes and biomechanical calculations, transfers to two hospital wards with a total of 71 patients were examined. More than half of the nurses make four transfers per shift or more. The transfers are made alone or in pairs. Partly they work according to kinesthetic principles. Aids, such as lifters, sliding mats, roll boards, etc. are only used occasionally. The compression forces at L4 / L5 calculated using the 3DSSPP University of Michigan software ranged from 2810 N to 6279 N, well above the recommended limits (not only) for women. Multi-moment posture analyzes in a 509 case study focused on standing-stooped and standing-strongly stooped postures, which in many cases were coupled with lateral upper body tilt, upper body torsion, and work in the arm's reach margins.
100 Development and Ergonomic Evaluation of a Coconut Palm Climbing Device , Agravat VV, Makavana JM, Mohnot P, Yadav R* and Gajjar PP
Harvesting of coconut is very difficult and tedious work due to non-branched structure of the coconut palm. Only skilled persons can do this work. In Gujarat coconut palm growers are completely depend on the trained climbers who climb up unsafely without using any equipment. To resolve this, a sitting type coconut palm climbing device was developed at Department of Farm Machinery and Power Engineering, College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh. It has two units such as the upper unit that provides seating facility to the operator and the lower unit that is actuated by legs. The device was designed as per the anthropometric dimensions of the climbers of Saurashtra region. The main components of the device were approach section, junction, seat support pipe, base pipe, seat, telescopic pipe, metal rope, and gripping face plate. Total weight of the device was 4.5 kg. The device was able to sustain the external load up to 160kg. For field testing and ergonomic evaluation, independent variables such as operator (O1, O2, and O3) and height of coconut palm (7,9 and 11 m) were selected. Operator O3 with developed device achieved the highest ascending speed (26.60 cm /s) and descending speed (27.16 cm /s). The highest climbing capacity with developed device was found to be 13palm/h with operator O3. Increase in heart rate (21.82%) and body temperature (1.03%) were found lowest with the combination of operator O3 at 7 m height of coconut palm.
101 Effects on the Tactile Affections of Touch Behavior and Product Material , Jaekyu Park and Youngjae Im*
This study examines the degree of influence specific tactile properties have by investigating user behavior when the epidermal skin layer comes into contact with various tactile samples. Although there have been various studies on user sensitivity for consumer products, there has not been an in-depth examination of tactile stimulus on users particularly in utilizing a measurement system to evaluate specific tactile properties and how this influences the user. This study observed how the user perceived the concept of roughness and how this perception changed as tactile properties were altered. There was an analysis of variance for subjective roughness of 6 different types of tactile material contacted by 3 touch behaviors (press, rub and grasp). There was significant difference between the subjective roughness according to different tactile material and touch behavior. However, there was no significant difference between the luxuriousness according to the types of tactile material and touch behaviors. Post-hoc analysis results for the different tactile material indicated that subjective roughness was judged differently according to the increase of roughness properties. In addition, subjects could not accurately judge the difference when the size of the tactile material was small even if subjective roughness was high. Post-hoc analysis results of the touch behavior indicated that feeling friction allowed users to easily distinguish pressure, but pressing made users not feel roughness well. This study suggests a tactile guideline for measuring roughness through certain design parameters.
102 Less Sugar by Default: A Nudge Methodology to Reduce Sugar Consumption in a Coffee Bar , Massimo Cesareo*, Magdalena Edyta Lopes, Annalisa Oppo, Paolina Stoyanova, Marianna Vaccaro, Mariateresa Volpe, Francesco Pozzi and Paolo Moderato
The present study aimed to reduce the sugar intake among the customers who purchased coffee in a coffee shop inside a gym in Catania, Italy. We hypothesised that people would frame their choice about the amount of sugar to put in their coffee in units (number of packets) and not in amount (grams). Thus, we expected a significant decrease in sugar intake among the customers in the experimental phase. The customers of the coffee shop were observed for two weeks (N=213) and just the data about those who put sugar in their coffee were analysed (N=96). During both the first (control phase) and the second week (experimental phase), sugar consumption was measured. During the experimental phase, however, the packets originally used in the coffee shop (7.5g) were replaced with packets that contain less sugar (4g). Results supported the hypothesis, showing a significant reduction in the sugar consumption during the second week
103 A Fuzzy Model for Estimating Accidents Possibility of Occurrence in the Construction Industry , Abel Pinto*
Quantify or, more generally, estimate the possibility of occurrence of occupational accidents is a decisive step in any occupational risk assessment process. Due to the lack of historic information in the construction industry (accident data collection and recording are incipient and insufficient) and the lack of practical and acurate tools to estimate/quantify the risks of occuring work accidents we need a more systematic and rigorous approach for the construction industry. This work purpose is the definition of a practical Ocuppational Accidents Possibility of occurrence (OAP) model, which proposes a fuzzy approach to determine the posssibility of occurrence of accidents modes. The OAP includes 4 main steps: (1) identification of accidents´modes; (2) definition of a checklist with questions related to factors that may affect the accidents possibility; (3) assessment (rating) of each factor using a fuzzy linguistic variable “adequacy”; (4) aggregation of the rated factors per each mode of accident. The factors will be evaluated by safety experts, from observable conditions or existing data on the construction site. The proposed fuzzy rating evaluation process is done with a linguistic variable that allows measuring the level of inadequacy of the factors. We believe our proposed OAP model contributes to advances in determining the quality of the overall occupational risk assessment.
104 The Use of Simulation in Training to Improve Motor Learning Skill Acquisition for Complex Tasks in the Medical Industry , Hannah M*
For years, training across various industries has involved on the job or classroom-based training. In the medical industry they primarily adopt the Halstedian method of whole-task motor learning training. This has been found in the literature to lead to slower learning training times resulting in higher learning costs, resources and more opportunity for human error. It assumes the premise that instruction improves performance, which has also been found to be less effective to reduce human error in highly complex settings compared with other training modes. This is one of several studies which examines the benefits of the use of simulation to enhance trialing various modes of training, enhance skill acquisition and user acceptance of participants. This experiment quantifiably explores how the use of a non-fidelity simulator for colonoscopy training improved the learning curve of participants. Lower cost simulators have been found to reduce costs but allow for training modification to enhance the quality of training. In addition, often the low fidelity models have been found to have equal learning transference as higher fidelity models. Of all surgeries, colonoscopies has a four year learning curve. It is an ergonomically a difficult technical skill to master ie simultaneously performing the diagnostic examination and surgery removal of matter. By conducting a task analysis, separating the task of use of equipment and diagnostic tasks, it was found that they require vastly different skills. The study examined if skill acquisition can be achieved using a low fidelity simulator to enhance the learning curve of the whole set of tasks. Using university medical students across various cases using the simulator demonstrated that this was the case. In addition, self-reporting of students found that the use of the simulator enhance confidence in performing the task on a patient. Further research should explore this further to examine the impact on surgical performance and human error.
105 Musculoskeletal Disorders and Whole Body Vibration Exposure among Auto-Rickshaw (Three Wheelers) Drivers: A Case Study in Northern India , Singh LP*
Basic Background: The three-wheelers (auto rickshaw) are predominantly being used as a mean of transportation of goods in industries and local transportation in cities and suburban areas of northern India. This study aims to assess the whole body vibration exposure and prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among auto rickshaw drivers. Procedure and Methods: The study included four models of auto rickshaws for assessment of whole body vibration exposure with different road conditions and the number of passengers boarded and its association with musculoskeletal complaints. Whole body vibration exposure was measured using SVAN 106 tri-axial accelerometer and SVANPC+ software. A comprehensive questionnaire was devised and used for the subjective assessment of musculoskeletal complaints. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance and Chi-Square test to check the variability and association of whole body vibration exposure and musculoskeletal disorders for all the models of auto rickshaws. Results: There is a significant dependency of the magnitude of whole body vibration exposure on the road conditions and a number of passengers. Also, there is a significant influence (‘p’ value < 0.05) of whole body vibration exposure due to driving experience and age of auto rickshaw drivers on musculoskeletal complaints, low back pain is found more prominent factor. Conclusions: The auto rickshaw drivers are working at high exposure to WBV and consequently at high risk of musculoskeletal disorders, therefore it is recommended that auto-rickshaw drivers must adjust the vehicle speed to suit the road conditions to avoid excessive bumping and jolting. In rough road conditions less number of passengers should be avoided.
106 Stress and Burnout among Nurses Working in Menoufia University Hospitals , El Dalatony MM*, Hathout HM and Allam HK
Background: Every work environment, especially within a hospital setup, needs to be conducive, friendly and stress-free to promote quality care and wellbeing of health care workers whose job demands are increasing day by day. As healthcare providers are exposed to high stress degrees during their work, so we conducted the present work aiming to study stress and burnout among nurses working in Menoufia University hospitals. Methods: A cross-sectional study involved 158 nurses in different departments in Menoufia University Hospitals. Tools used in this study were data collection forms including different forms including sociodemographic factors, work-related factors, Job satisfaction questions, stress and Burnout questions, Burnout prevention Survey. Data analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows version 21.0. Results: Significant factors associated with stress among nurses are gender, educational level, working department, Job satisfaction, and working hours/ week. The binomial logistic analysis found that education, working hours/ week are independent significant factors associated with stress among the study group. The only significant factor associated with burnout prevention and the ability to cope with stress is working years. Conclusion: A comprehensive review of working hours, responsibilities and distribution of work are strongly recommended. Together with multiple interventions to help staff to cope with stress through counseling, motivation, redistribution of work, reducing working hours, and recruitment of new staff.
107 HPV Testing on Vaginal/Cervical Nurse Assisted Self-Samples Versus Clinician-Taken Specimens and EHE HPV Prevalence, in Adama Town, Ethiopia , Eshetu LH*, Cindy S, Ina B, Gurja B, Jean-Pierre VG, Sharon AR, Ramokone LL and Johannes PB
This study aimed to determine the feasibility of vaginal/cervical Nurse Assisted Self-Sampling (NASS) and the agreement between Human papillomavirus (HPV) test on self-samples versus clinician-taken (CT) specimens. Women participated voluntary for the cervical cancer screening at St. Aklesia Memorial Hospital. Eighty three (83) women provided a total of 166 coupled self and clinician taken specimens collected. Specimens were stored at room temperature for maximum 10 months and analyzed using validated the RIATOL qPCR HPV genotyping test, a quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) high-throughput HPV E6, E7 assay. The average age of the participating women was 32 years. Seventy three of the 83 women (87.9%) felt that NASS was easy to use. An overall HPV, HR (High Risk) HPV and LR (Low Risk) HPV prevalence was 22.7% (15/66), 18.2% (12/66) and 6.1% (4/66), respectively. The overall HR HPV prevalence was 17.2% (NASS) and 15.5% (CT). The most prevalent HPV type was HPV51; HPV 16 was only detected in 1 woman (CT+NASS) and HPV18 only in 1 woman (CT). The overall measurement agreement between self- and clinician-collected samples was moderate with a kappa value of 0.576 (p <0.001). Life time partnered with more than two man were associated with HR HPV positivity (P value <0.001). There was strong statistical association between HR HPV positivity and visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) positive (p value<0.001). Nurse assisted self-sampling for HPV testing could be seen as alternative option and an acceptable to Ethiopian women. The overall HRHPV prevalence was comparable with Sub-Saharan countries in the general population.
108 Can Emergency Medicine become Redundant? , Hague A*
So long as there are emergencies, we shall need emergency doctors. Is it unrealistic to believe that we can plan our lives so that emergencies never happen? Utopia is dreamland, it is said, but nevertheless, without such visions we have no sense of direction. If the unexpected can be anticipated and avoided then pain, suffering and disruption is minimised.
109 The Relationship between Postural Risk Factors and Musculoskeletal Disorders in Occupational Therapists in Tehran , Hassani Z, Shahbazi A, Mokhtarinia HR* and Gabel CP
Purpose: Work Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WRMDs) are considered one of the most common occupational problems. Occupational therapists are one group of health-care professionals who need to provide therapeutic techniques during work in different working postures. Observational postural analysis methods are a powerful and effective method for detecting awkward working postures which may result in injury. This study’s aim was to assess the relationship between postural risk factors and the existence of musculoskeletal disorders in occupational therapists. Methods: In this cross sectional study, 30 occupational therapists in Tehran were recruited. Musculoskeletal disorders were assessed using the General Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (GNQ), and the ergonomic risk factors during the specific working posture were evaluated by the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) and the Quick Exposure Check (QEC) methods. . Data analysis was performed using SPSS-21 software. Results: Analysis of the results indicate the annual prevalence of musculoskeletal disorder was 76.6% with the highest prevalence of discomfort in the regions of the lower back (43.3%), neck (30%) and right wrist (26.7%). Results of the RULA score indicated 30% of subjects scored between 5-7 which ranged in the ‘action level’ of 3-4 for severity indicating activity change should investigated or initiated. The QEC results showed 60% of subjects scored 51-70, indicating the need to do corrective strategy. Conclusion: A relative high percentage of occupational therapists work with non-ergonomic postures, which should be investigated and a view to modifications initiated precipitously.
110 Analysis of Noise Level in a Campus Area: Case Study for Gazi University Maltepe Campus , Erman Çakıt*
There are several kind of sources such as cars, airplanes, vacuum cleaners, obtained as a result of technological improvement cause noise while they are working. If they are not controlled, high noise pollution will cause health problems including hearing loss, insomnia and psychological deteriorations. Noise pollution effects Gazi University Engineering Faculty Campus because of its proximity to the highways. For the purpose of assessing noise level at different points in campus area, some measurements were colllected at open and close places by using sound level meter. To capture the high noise events of campus’ particular areas, noise levels were collected with a sound level meter at 16 points within the campus at three different timings (9– 12 am, 12–2 pm, and 2–4 pm) over two cycles of measurements. Based on the obtained results, higher noise levels were observed during morning times and there should be taken immediate precautions to overcome noise pollution in campus area.
111 An Ergonomic Forklift Training Program , Daniel C, Priyadarshini DG*, William CC and Lawrence M
Training programs rarely focus on projecting skills as part of activities to finish a task. We have used a sample forklift training program as a model training program. The uniqueness of this is that it includes instructional objectives and describes an intended outcome (as a skill) of instruction. We have divided the forklift operation into several tasks, stratified each task into different steps and each steps into different activities. The activities are the main performance which are expected from the operators. If the performance is a covert one, an indicator behavior was also attached. Each activity was focused as an imperative skill without which the performance of the trainees were deemed incomplete. We compared our developed training program with other existing programs in order to find its efficacy in retaining the training material. To attain a maximum training effectiveness we strongly recommended a criterion testing to evaluate the skills following our training program.
112 Effects of Heat Exposure from Live-Burn Fire Training on Postural Stability of Firefighters , Singh U, Mani A, James K, Rao M B and Bhattacharya A*
Firefighters perform physically intensive jobs in suboptimal environments, making it even more important for them to maintain good functional postural balance or stability. As part of their training, firefighters are required to perform physically demanding tasks under high stress and high heat environments. These demanding tasks lead to increased physical fatigue which can then result in poor performance and/or postural instability. The objectives of this study were to 1) investigate the effect of live-firefighting training-induced heat stress on static postural balance, and 2) investigate the association between commonly monitored physiological responses (core body temperature, heart rate, oxygen saturation and blood pressure) and measures of static postural balance. Twenty-six firefighters (mean ± SD: age 36.0 years ±5.2, weight 216 lbs. ± 34, BMI 29.7 ± 4.2) participated in live firefighting training while performing following tasks: search and rescue, hose advancement, and backup. Prior to heat exposure (PRE) and following each scenario (POST1, POST2, POST3), firefighters’ postural balance was assessed with a wearable 3-D inertial sensor system quantifying time dependent changes in linear acceleration (LIN ACC) and angular velocity (AV) about three orthogonal axes [Anterior-Posterior (AP), Medial-Lateral (ML), and vertical (V)] during one foot balance tests for 30 seconds under eyes open and eyes closed conditions. The outcome variables from 3-D wearable sensors were used to create 3-D Phase-Plane based postural stability metrics. Physiological measurement of core body temperature (CBT) (measured with a radio pill) as well as perception of heat increased significantly during the live fire-training exercise. In addition, firefighters also perceived an increase in physical fatigue and respiratory distress. Angular combined stability parameters (ACSP), RMS angular velocity around ML axis were significantly correlated with CBT. In the multivariate analysis adjusted for the scenarios, height and weight of the firefighters, these measures of static postural balance were significantly associated with CBT. As per the model results, static postural balance, as indicated by ACSP, worsened with an increase in CBT. Future studies should place sensors at body extremities along with close to center of mass to capture the kinematic movements more comprehensively influencing postural balance.
113 Musculoskeletal Pain and Associated Factors among Building Construction Workers in Southeastern Ethiopia , Abate Lette*, Abduljewad Hussen, Musa Kumbi, Shemsu Nuriye and Yonas Lamore
Background: Musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) is a major global occupational health problem, and employees in the construction industry have potential risk of it. Worldwide, the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms involving one or more body regions is higher in construction workers. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate prevalence of musculoskeletal pain and associated factors among building construction workers. Methodology: An institutional based cross sectional study was carried out among building construction employees in Goba towm from April 01-30/2017. Structured and pre-tested questionnaire was used to select the study sample. Simple random sampling method was employed to select the study participants. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 20 computer software. Binary logistic regression and multivariable logistic regression analysis with 95% confidence interval (CI) were performed. Result: The overall prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among building construction workers was 43.9% [95 % CI: (37.2, 49.3)] in the previous 12 months. Lower back (25.5%), wrist/ hands (16.9%), and upper back (15.7%) disorders were the three leading types of musculoskeletal disorders. Work category (AOR=3.71 for manual laborer and AOR=1.30 for masonry), and experience (AOR = 0.51) were identified as risk factors of musculoskeletal pain. Conclusion: In this study the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among building construction workers is high. Being manual laborer and masonry, and working more than 5 years in the construction work will raise the odds of musculoskeletal pain.
114 Implicit Biases a Breeding Ground for Stereotypes and Racism , Moore Y and Taylor K*
This Manuscript examines stereotypes assigned by college students on different members of society. Specially through a quantitative research design, measured are stereotypes that exist amongst a small sample of Millikin University a Private University with a limited body of diverse students located in Decatur Il. The purpose of this survey was to examine the irrational stereotypes place on individuals when only a picture of their presumed race and gender are available.
115 Are Teachers Standing Too Much at Work? , Alias AN*, Karuppiah K, Vivien How, Perumal V, Sambasivam S, Tamrin SBM
Limited standing working conditions such as prolonged standing work or static working posture among teachers is a common sight in the classroom, especially during school hours. From the perspective of this article working in a prolonged static standing working posture is very disadvantageous since the lower extremities would fully support the total body weight of a teacher. This will result in continuous loading on the lower extremities such as the knee joints and particularly the feet, leading to the incidence of discomfort and pain. In appreciation of the significance of managing standing jobs among teachers, this article was ready to disseminate data on prolong-standing health effects and intervention methods associated with teaching practices. This information may be helpful as a guideline for improving their school management to improve occupational health among teachers.
116 Soil is Life and the Importance of Asking Questions , Hague A*
Life on land depends on soil. From it grow plants that feed animals. If the soil is impoverished then so is food and health suffers
117 A Facile Technique of Sensing Adulteration in Emulsion: A Road to Safety , Biswas R* and Karmakar PK
Urea is a regular contaminant used in raw milk. Excess intake of urea-contaminated milk produces various health hazards. The key experimental challenge is to develop a rapid and inexpensive urea detection technique. Despite multitude of analytical schemes, they fall short either in rapid sensing or in cost effectiveness. In the quest of solutions, we unravel the systematic and procedural colorimetric quantification of urea through pristine gold nanoparticles. The sensing provides a limit of detection of 0.03 mg/ml, which is well below the permissible range of the World Health Organization (WHO). Being endowed with an excellent linearity of~0.99 and cost effectiveness, the sensing unit possesses a good reproducibility with potential scope in real sample analysis.
118 The Study of Universal Design and Cultural Elements Depicted in Queen’s Stepwell of Patan in Gujarat , Chatterjee S*
Ancient Indian monuments always represent the combination of cultural and design attributes. Architectural marvels of the Patan stepwell in Gujarat state were studied, to look into the Cultural and Design tradition in India. The outer surfaces of the monuments were always decorated with intricate design to depict the cultural tradition of Ancient Indian lifestyle. The initial investigations showed that the artifacts are full of components of daily use, which reflects the concurrent evolution of rituals and style in that era and its growth in the subsequent periods. The ideal elements are seriously following all the artistic domain of Indian art and Indian philosophy. It represents a real panorama of life with all its weal and woes, transcending in a spiritual life of redemption through such magnificent sculptures on the panels and niche in the wall. Analytical observation of body shift and flexions from the central plumb line in Nāyikās figures are one of the key cultural design elements in the monument. Behind this project there was a deep sense of System Design which was formulated a step by step progression of the monument. The analytical study of the monument will reveal the Holistic Design Approach behind the monument. The vision and the unique concept of the stepwell also reflect the personality of the Queen Udayamatī of Solanki Dynasty, who was built this unique stepwell for mankind in 11th century AD. The UNESCO declared this stepwell as a world heritage site in 2014. This monument is a true sense of “Universal Design” and constantly inspiring the creative world in modern era.
119 A Gentle Push to Reduce the Frequency of Smartphone Use in Corporate Meetings , Vaccaro M*, Venanzi P, Bisagni M, Pozzi F and Moderato P
In order to address the problem of the high frequency of smartphone usage during company meetings, a nudge intervention was developed in a Lombardy company to reduce its usage The use of two nudge techniques, simplification and social norms, has allowed the participants to push gently, without punishment or economic incentives, to reduce the usage of their device during meetings between employees and the company manager. The data showed that, under experimental conditions, the frequency of use of the devices was reduced compared to the control rate, which suggests the effectiveness of the intervention.
120 Functionality of the Nudge to Reduce the Frequency of Use of Smartphones in a School Context , Vaccaro M* , Bisagni M, Pozzi F and Moderato P
The Nudge techniques concern every aspect in the architecture of the choices that alters, in a simple and economic way, the behavior of people in a predictable way without the use of prohibitions or economic incentives. In order to address the problem of the high frequency of use of the smartphone in the school context during the course of educational activities, a nudge intervention was developed in a higher institute in Piedmont to reduce its use. Simplification has made it possible to propose information in such a way as to reduce its complexity (physical or conceptual) and therefore decrease the cognitive cost necessary, in terms of time and energy, to make a choice, increasing the probability that the correct choice will be made in the children how to store your smartphone in your backpack during educational activities. The data showed that, under experimental conditions, the frequency of use of the devices was reduced compared to the control rate, which suggests the effectiveness of the intervention.
121 Ergonomic Risk Assessment using Cornell Musculoskeletal Discomfort Questionnaire in a Grocery Store , Erman Çakıt*
In most grocery stores in Turkey, workers are standing while their shift. They are also subjected to repetitive tasks and awkward postures. The aim of this cross-sectional analysis was to explain the prevalence of work-related symptoms of musculoskeletal in grocery shops. The study participants (n =10) included supermarket staff from five separate grocery stores in a medium-sized grocery chain. In particular, the perceived pain of each worker was determined using Cornell Musculoskeletal Discomfort Questionnaire (CMDQ). The results obtained using CMDQ work positions are in need of change. Furthermore, the results can be used for recommendations to improve ergonomics factors of the tasks in form of a guideline or general statements presenting recommendations for mitigating risks.
122 Occupational Health Issues among Police Personnel: An Exploratory Study , Singh LP*
Background: Among the 11 million cases of occupational diseases globally, 1.9 (17%) million cases are contributed by India. Most studies on occupational health in India are done in industrial settings, whereas few studies have looked into other occupational groups. Police personnel by nature of their job are continuously exposed to toxic pollutants, noise from automobiles and long working hours of standing, poor posture, poor work centre design etc. throughout their job. This study aimed to investigate the occupationally induced health problems (respiratory problems, musculoskeletal and hearing problems) among police personnel in Jalandhar city and to find out the factors associated with them. Methodology: Quantitative research model in the form of prospective type survey design was selected for this study. Total 160 subjects were selected from Police department of Jalandhar City based on non-probability convenience sampling. Data was collected using questionnaire including questions on respiratory problems, low back pain and noise induced hearing loss respectively. Descriptive statistic and chi square was used for data analysis. Results: The prevalence of overall respiratory problems, low back pain, and noise induced hearing loss was 64%, 68% and 46% respectively. Work related factors like number of service years, type of duty, posting location, nature of shift, working hours near roadside per day were significantly associated with the outcome. Lack of proper use of protective aids (face masks, hearing aids) contributes to respiratory and hearing problems. Improper design of car seat, duty belt, improper posture and driving also contributes in low back pain. Conclusion: Police personnel have significantly higher prevalence of occupational health problems. They should be educated on ergonomics, posture, working hour breaks in between work, use of protective aids to improve healthy life and performance in duty.
123 A Novel Two-Stage Intutitonistic Fuzzy Approach Proposal Based On Anp and Mathematical Modelling for Risk Assessment , Yelda AYRIM and Gülin Feryal CAN*
Risk assessment (RA) is an activity performed to determine the hazards that may exist in the work areas. RA deals with complex expressions including hesitancy as it contains linguistic data. This study proposes a novel two-stage intuitionistic fuzzy RA based on Intuitionistic Fuzzy Analytic Network Process (IF-ANP) and intuitionistic mathematical modeling. In the first stage, by considering the effects between each risk factor (RF) and relations between FMs, importance weights of RFs are computed and the rankings of FMs are obtained with IF-ANP. In the second stage, an intuitionistic mathematical model has been established reflecting the real constraints of the company as cost, safety level and the rankings’ weights of FMs obtained from IF-ANP to determine the FMs that must be prevent firstly. Goals of the mathematical model are minimizing the cost and the risk level of the assembly area. Environmental, administrative, cost and risk structure related factors are considered as main RFs to rank nine FMs.
124 Right to Refuse Hazardous Work: A Study of the Challenge , Costa Calvo DS, Ferreira JA, Cunha DM and Mendes DP*
The purpose of this article is to discuss the right of refusal of dangerous work/serious and imminent risks, their origins, characteristics, acknowledgments, negligence and potentialities. The importance of developing new perspectives and strategies for work organization raises the issue of the right of refusal at the center of these reflections, since their contributions can go beyond the expectations associated with health and safety at work, also improving other aspects of the productive system, such as the criteria associated with the quality of products and services, environmental variables and expectations aligned with social responsibility. For this, a participatory, democratic, non-punitive, and participatory approach to operators is paramount, which effectively values their contributions centered on their knowledge and practice. Concatenating prerogatives of normative prescriptions (operational procedures) with the knowledge and skills of the operators (practical intelligence) built and constituted in the actual work activity, the right of refusal can become an effective and innovative strategy for the management of work, contributing to the positive and significant achievement of the productive objectives proposed by the organizations.
125 Assessment of Knowledge and Attitude towards Ergonomics in Dental Practice , Shenoi R, Jain S*, Kolte V, Shenoi P and Kartik DS
Objective: To analyze prevalence of knowledge in dentists regarding ergonomics in dentistry. Background: Ergonomics has become the overseer of all the professions in past decade. An inside out of ergonomics could definitely aid in reducing the number of dentists retiring due to musculoskeletal disorder. Method: A self-administered, close ended questionnaire consisting of 10 questions regarding ergonomics was distributed among the postgraduates and dental practitioners to assess the knowledge about basic ergonomics in dentistry. Results: Overall it was observed that the prevalence of knowledge regarding ergonomics is scarce among dentists whereby only 25.6% respondents have attended any workshop or lecture for ergonomics. The awareness pertaining to four handed and six handed dentistry was higher vis a vis other ergonomical aspects of dentistry. The rest such as neutral position, microbreaks, stretch breaks etc saw lesser awareness. Conclusion: The low prevalence of knowledge of ergonomics is an alarming situation. The need of the hour is instilling appropriate and elaborate knowledge among the dentists of ergonomics thereby lowering the associated musculoskeletal disorders. Application: Present study has thrown light on poor awareness of ergonomics which calls for organizing more workshops and lectures for the same thereby promoting an ergonomically sound practice of dentistry
126 A Study of the use of Mobile Application for Train Conductors to Improve Passenger Alarms Management , Rai R*
127 Everything in a Part: About the Creation of Universe and Consciousness , Di Sia P* and Bhadra NK
In this paper we consider a scenario beyond the well known Standard Model (SM) of physics that is holistic, appropriate for the explanation of everything, including the consciousness. Mathematically we deal with the Super Unified Gaussian Energy Group SU(11) instead of SU(5) related to SM. The presence of the group SU(6) inside SU(11) can allow, after the symmetry breaking of SU(11), the creation of new particles, responsible of the consciousness. Consciousness can be considered as a non-local quantum information, describing an elegant information-participatory universe connecting quantum-information consciousness and physics; so we can understand consciousness, energy and matter as different expressions of a same informational order. Very important is the function of the entanglement, assuring an informational universe-consciousness interconnection. A recent model in progress, said B-DS model, is part of this global scenario, in the attempt to contribute in explaining reality in its totality in a holistic way, leaving the scheme that sees contemporary physics focused only on matter, with the exclusion of consciousness.
128 Application of Acacia Catechu Natural Dye on Banana Fiber , Pratap Singh P*, Sharma D and Chatterjee S
The use of natural dyes on textiles has become a matter of importance because of the increased environmental awareness to avoid hazardous, non-biodegradable synthetic dyes (soluble and Non water soluble) and synthetic chemicals. Pre-mordanting, and post-mordanting of 10%, 30% and 50% concentration of mordants carried out using alum, stannous chloride and ferrous shulphate. Results were achieved for dyeing at 90°C for 60 min at 10%, 30% and 50% concentration of the dye on the weight of fabric using pre- and post-mordant dyeing techniques Treated fiber showed a substantial increase in colour depth (K/S) and adequate wash, light and rubbing fastness properties without and with mordanted and dyed banana fiber.
129 The Use of the Smartphone, A Nice Paradox: Functional and Dysfunctional at the Same Time , Vaccaro M*
Article’s aim is to create a parallel between the functionality and the dysfunctionality in the use of the smartphone to prevent abuse of the device. The increase in the frequency of use of the smartphone appears as a physiological reaction to technological progress but at the same time it seems to appear as a “paradox effect”. On one hand, the presence of the smartphone improved human communication in distance and speed. It helped personal and relational growth. On other hand, it has made all personal data public, traceable at any time and in context, increasing the fragility of the human being. It becomes an effective stimulus to modify the relationships and biological balance of the human organism, but the abuse of the smartphone today leads to talk about addiction. It is important get to the bottom of to emerging data in the literature to prevent it.
130 The Difficulties of Big Bang Theory and a New Explanatory Scenario , Di Sia P* and Sorli AS
The Big Bang (BB) theory is considered an accepted scientific fact, despite a substantial lack of empirical evidence and although there is a growing set of discrepancies with the observations made of the far universe. New measurements of the Hubble constant suggest strong implications about the validity of the current Standard Model of cosmology at the extreme scales of cosmos. NASA measured in 2014 that space in the universe has an Euclidean shape, not a curved one. According to Stephen Hawking and Alan Guth, the universe started from a mathematical point, with an infinite amount of energy, which is a non-physical and non-falsifiable assumption. Problems also exist about the size of the universe observable today. A new model solves all these problems and offers a new vision of cosmology through the extension of the Einstein’s theory of relativity and the introduction of a principle of bijectivity.
131 Why is the Implementation of Crew Resource Management through Checklists in Healthcare not Systematically Successful? An Answer from Cognitive Systems Engineering , Bernard CI and Morineau T*
Medical checklists come from researches on Crew Resource Management originally performed in the aviation domain. Despite significant benefits brought by checklists, difficulties have appeared in practice through the emergence of individual resistance, passive non-compliance, or partial application of instructions. Our hypothesis is that the medical field differs significantly from the aviation field. Contrary to the aviation field, healthcare systems are loosely coupled systems in which standardization of practices with checklists can be inappropriate. Through cognitive work analysis, Cognitive Systems Engineering can provide alternative methodological frameworks to consider this issue.
132 Why is the Implementation of Crew Resource Management through Checklists in Healthcare not Systematically Successful? An Answer from Cognitive Systems Engineering , Bernard CI and Morineau T*
Medical checklists come from researches on Crew Resource Management originally performed in the aviation domain. Despite significant benefits brought by checklists, difficulties have appeared in practice through the emergence of individual resistance, passive non-compliance, or partial application of instructions. Our hypothesis is that the medical field differs significantly from the aviation field. Contrary to the aviation field, healthcare systems are loosely coupled systems in which standardization of practices with checklists can be inappropriate. Through cognitive work analysis, Cognitive Systems Engineering can provide alternative methodological frameworks to consider this issue.
133 How Much are Aware of the Effects of Smartphone use in Daily Activities? , Vaccaro M*
The aim of the article is to highlight the consequences that the presence of the smartphone has induced in people’s lives in daily activities such as driving, sleeping and studying. Its pervasiveness also affects mental health by increasing depressive symptoms, chronic stress and anxiety. Physically, it leads to gain weight, since it negatively affects appetite and food intake control. The literature shows that it is not the tool itself that is harmful but the frequency of use that the individual makes of it in everyday life. Born as a tool capable of speeding up communication and reducing distances at a geographical level, it presents itself today as an element that hinders face-to-face communication and causes a change in relationships. Recent studies identify among the problematic behaviors resulting from the easiness of use and transport of the smartphone, the phantom vibration syndrome, the fear of remaining without a smartphone - Nomophobia, FOMO, fear of not being continuously informed and of losing what happens online, Phubbing, specific behavior that consists in neglecting the person with whom you are engaged in any social situation, to compulsively watch, control and touch the smartphone. According to this situation, it is important to intervene and sensitize the population to obtain a reduction in the frequency of use of the smartphone, leaving the man free to choose, compared to the man that he would like to be, how much time to actually dedicate in the use of the smartphone and as for the reality that surrounds him.
134 Weak Point Analysis and Work Design for Positioning Measures of Patients in Need of Intensive Care , Landau K* and Jacobs M
Working on and with the sick or elderly person has various health effects on the nursing staff. The relevant literature describes the wide range of musculoskeletal disorders, infections, skin diseases or burnout. A high musculoskeletal load on the nursing staff results mainly from transfer and positioning measures on the patient. In this paper we deal with work process analysis and workplace design for positioning measures. Video analyses of the manual work performed by nursing staff on patients requiring the most intensive care were carried out at 71 workplaces in ward rooms and stress factors were calculated using the REBA method. The causes of high levels of stress are identified and ergonomic recommendations for improving working methods are derived.
135 Use of Photo Diary to Explore Needs for Digital Disease Management Program among Community Older Adults with Chronic Disease , Kuo MC, Chen CM*, Wu FG, Chen CH, Yin ZX and Wang CY
As technology advanced, new e-health solutions are evolved to empower people to manage their care at home. This study explored the needs for disease management in activity tracking using photo diary through older adults’ subjective perspective. It further aimed to suggest which lifestyle measures, symptoms and behaviors would be meaningful to include in such a digital diseases care management program for technology design. Both photo diary and focus group discussion were used, 11 older adults with multiple metabolism-related chronic diseases (Mean age, 72.5 ± 6.14 years) were recruited and asked to carry out the photo diary to trace their living situation and needs using a tablet camera. A focus group discussion was applied to identify the needs of chronic disease management, basing on the results of living context tracing. Five themes, regular physical activity, health management, and healthy diet, regular daily routine and social connection, were identified by content analysis from photo diary and the focus group discussion. The results indicated that the photo diary program can raise awareness and promotes positive behavior changes. It is believed that the E-approach can be applied to the effectively enhance older adults’ self-management by monitoring their health status and their daily routine activities.
136 Isometric Muscular Strength of Agricultural Workers of Gujarat India , Yadav R*, Jakasania RG and Savani JB
An agricultural worker must exert a push/pull force on the horizontal plane while using many agricultural tools and equipment. However, very little data are available on the push/pull force of farm workers. A study was therefore carried out to collect these data on male as well as female agricultural workers. Therefore, strength parameters of 105 agricultural workers (75 male and 30 female) were measured on “strength measurement setup” comprising load cell with digital indicator. The average push strength for male and female workers (with both hands in standing posture) was found to be 248.29 and 171.07 N respectively whereas the pull strength in standing posture was 232.40 and 141.75 N respectively. Average torque strength of both hands in standing posture for male and female workers are found to be 209.93 and 117.72 N-m respectively. The data were intended to be used to design and modification of hand tools and agricultural equipment in order to reduce drudgery and increase the level of efficiency, safety and comfort for users. Therefore, an attempt was made to illustrate the relevance of these data in the design of tractor controls.
137 The Effect of Whole-Body Vibration on Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: A Systematic Review , Alam MM, Khan AA* and Farooq M
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a type of degenerative syndrome that causes impaired physical function, decreased walking, imbalance, spasticity, sensory impairment, muscle weakness, fatigue and demyelination of the central nervous system. The purpose of this review was to critically examine available studies on the efficacy of whole-body vibration (WBV) in patients suffering from MS during rehabilitation training to increase strength, balance, and functional mobility; and also to investigate the effects of various vibration parameters (method of application of vibration, frequency and amplitude of vibration exposure) and exercise protocols on the effects of this training. An organized literature search was performed on databases from various sources, including Pub Med MEDLINE, CINAHL, and EMBASE, to identify relevant randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Eight studies were finally selected based on exclusion and inclusion criteria. Attempts were made to identify factors affecting the improvement in muscle strength, balance, and functional mobility in MS patients as a result of the WBV intervention. The results of the review showed that WBV interventions are positive for the rehabilitation of MS patients, with improvements in muscle strength, balance recovery, functional mobility and walking endurance. Therefore, it can be concluded that the WBV training protocol has a positive effect on improving functional abilities, walking endurance, postural control, and strength of MS patients. Balance restoration and functional mobility appeared to respond to a WBV intervention with additional exercise protocols compared to a WBV intervention alone.
138 Role of Ergonomics and Innovation during Covid-19 Pandemic , Pandve HT*
139 Ergonomics , Mishra S and Narendra P*
The term Ergonomics comes from the Greek word “Ergon” meaning work and “Nomos” means laws. It means the “Science of work”. The work is to be systematically divided into various tasks and it should be aligned with the person who will be doing the work. People should be comfortable in their work setting in order to optimize their wellbeing and over all organizational performance. Ergonomics is often used in relation to the physical aspects of the organization, which consists of designing chairs, tools, machines, systems, tasks, jobs, and work environment for safe, comfortable, and effective human use. It complements the strengths and abilities of people and minimize the effects of their limitations. Hence, an appropriate ergonomics design, training and awareness are essential in order to reduce the ergonomics risk factors such as WRMSD (Work Related Musculoskeletal Disorder) which is one of the most prevalent occupational health problems. Major causes of MSDs arise due to high physical demands such as awkward working postures (e.g. Bending and twisting, kneeling, working with the arms above shoulder height etc.). This paper emphasizes on how various situations like physical, cognitive, and organizational ergonomics can be aligned to suit the people who need to use it rather than forcing them to work in an uncomfortable, stressful and dangerous way. Primary outcome of this study is to enhance and improve safety, physical and mental health of the employees for effective performance and productivity by ergonomics solutions.
140 Low Back Pain Prevalence in Brazilian Helicopter Pilots , Gilvan V da Silva*
Studies have suggested a higher prevalence of low back pain in helicopter pilots when compared to the general population. This work aims to study the frequency distribution of recurrent low back pain observed in civilian and military helicopter pilots. To carry out the survey, a self-reported questionnaire was applied to 197 helicopter pilots, of which 106 were military personnel and 91 were civilians. The questionnaire was the same used by da Silva 2018 and Bongers et al. 1990. The data collected were: age, weight, height, total flight hours in rotary-wing aircraft, average hours flown per week, level of Physical activity, characteristics, intensity and region of pain, its relationship with flight, etc. Of the 197 tabulated questionnaires, the prevalence of low back pain of 44.6% and spinal pain of 54.2% were found, and of this group, 98.15% reported pain during or immediately after the flight, and only less than 2.0% affirms that the referred pain has no connection with air activity. These data confirm those found in the literature. The present study is part of an investigation process that, through the analysis and interpretation of the collected data, aims to provide subsidies for a future elaboration of a specific physical exercise program for the reduction of low back pain in helicopter pilots.
141 Physiopathological Analysis of MSDs, by Exposure to PDV’s in Oil Production Plant Operators , Guillermo Neusa Arenas*, Jeanette del Pilar Ureña Aguirre, Ramiro Vicente Saraguro, and María Yajaira Galeano Tocain
The innovation in office areas and control rooms with new technologies can generate discomfort in the work environment by the use of display screens (PDV’s), there are several physiopathologies in the appearance of musculoskeletal disorders (MSD); in a study of 100 operators of a production center of crude oil, were analyzed pathological occupational symptoms such as: right wrist pain, lower back pain, elbow inflammation, pain in the thumb and neck pain, caused in many cases by poor posture or repetition in each cycle of work. When applying the ROSE method, I determine the presence of fatigue and stress, observing the relation of clinical occupational alterations; lumbago 26%, carpal tunnel syndrome 23%, olecranon bursitis 18%, radial styloid tenosynovitis 13%, muscular inflammation 11%, and by degenerative discopathy 9%; the presence of these dysergonomic conditions and, with other successes reached by other authors.
142 Application of Electromyography in Rehabilitation Devices , Bhardwaj S, Khan AA* and Muzammil M
With the increase in disability rate as well as rise in the elderly population, there is a need for a much prompt and advance methods to deliver the rehabilitation and assistive services to the patients. One important element in this context is the robotics rehabilitation devices. The therapeutic alliance is an important factor that needs to be addressed for these robotic devices where user compliance is still a broad field to be explored. Bio-signals have shown a promising approach in improving user physical and cognitive integration with these devices. Electromyogram (EMG) is one such bio-signal, originating from the peripheral nervous system, which is capable of interpreting the motion intent of the user. In the present study, the usability of EMG is shown for its feasibility in the context of rehabilitation devices. Method for acquisition, processing and classification of EMG has been discussed.
143 Low Back Injury Risk among Workers Engaged in LPG Supply Chain , Singh LP* and Kapur S*
Manual handling of containers may expose workers to physical conditions (e.g., force, awkward postures, and repetitive motions) that can lead to injuries, over consumption of energy and time. Present study evaluates the lifting, lowering and handling of LPG cylinder by the delivery boy of Northern India. Therefore, risk of low back injuries among workers was assessed using NIOSH lifting equation and Lifting Index. The study involved, 40 different workers working in 3 modes of transportation of LPG cylinders via Trucks, 3 wheelers and cycle rickshaw. The results revealed that 100 % of the workers were performing under different levels of risk as reflected by the lifting index (LI) > 1. The study revealed that most contributing factors were horizontal distances of grip. However, no statistically significant difference was found between the lifting tasks performed by the workers of different modes of supply of the cylinders. The study concluded that there is a need to redesign in terms of mechanizing the lifting and lowering tasks.
144 Dysergonomic Evaluation: Based on ISO 11226-2000, in Oil Production Operators , Guillermo Neusa Arenas*, Jeanette del Pilar Ureña Aguirre, Ramiro Vicente Saraguro and Jessica Karina Freire Soria
Introduction: In ergonomics, adaptation to the work area concerns the man. In the oil production areas, it requires diverse work, adopting different forced positions in each of the tasks, causing musculoskeletal pathologies or musculoskeletal disorder (SMD). In a study carried out on several operators of the production plants, the different postures per exposure are identified, in order to determine some clinical occupational picture. when applying the ISO 11226-2000 methodology for forced postures and based on the calculation of the finite sample of 411 operators, 63.5% represent low back pain, while 24.9% present an occupational clinical picture of cervical problems and 11.6% tolerate TME. Results and Conclusions: In the main dysergonomic pains, they are analyzed according to the work cycles per task to be performed, certain pathologies such as thoracolumbar spine (waist), cervical spine (neck), rotator cuff syndrome or capium tunnel syndrome. Therefore, these symptoms over time become chronic, affecting health, since an occupational health plan with an emphasis on postural biometrics reduces exposure to forced postures.
145 Ergonomic Risk By: Repetitive Movements, in the Operators of a Crude Oil Production Plant , Guillermo Neusa Arenas*, Jeanette del Pilar Ureña Aguirre, Ramiro Vicente Saraguro and Edwin Javier Iza Sánchez
Hobbies to health due to exposure to repetitive physical effort in operators of crude production plants and, in each of the different macro processes by work cycles they carry out in their daily tasks, lead to different biomechanical movements in the body, creating occupational pathological hobbies such as musculoskeletal disorder (SMD). In a study carried out through the calculation of the (finite) sample of 150 operators and, based on the Nordic Standardized Questionnaire (CNE), several operators were assessed for exposure to the dysergonomic risk factor and; By applying the OCRA Checklist and the OCRA method, the exposure index (IE) is analyzed, which provides a result of the position with the highest IE; As a result of the data obtained by the initial checklist, it was determined, of 18 positions or areas of work analyzed, 72% are at high risk, 21% of operators, clinical lumbar clinical picture, although 20%, have A clinical picture of painful shoulder. As an effect, the execution of an occupational ergonomics plan allows the establishment of preventive measures for pathological control by postural biometrics, creating a safe environment and protection of the health of the operators.
146 Ergonomics for Working from Home during COVID-19 Pandemic , Singh LP*
There has been 5.2 million of corona virus cases and 3.4 lac deaths due to COVID-19 throughout the whole world and is observing the lockdown for the last couple of months. There is considerable proportion of copulation who have been working from home (WFH) during the lockdown period, however they may or may not be habitual of working from home. Therefore, the workstation design and seating issues need to be considered especially while in teleworking the lock down due to COVID -19 Pandemic. This paper highlights the ergonomics for designing the work place so as to fitting the job, the equipment and the work environment to the employee who are working from home. There are number of issues related to the use of portable computing devices such as; laptop, smart phones etc. and the different postures adopted that deteriorate the physical health, these are need to be addressed. Therefore, ergonomic considerations are must for their safe and healthy working.
147 Ergonomic Force Analysis, based on the UNE-EN-1005-3 Method, for Crude Oil Production Plant Operators , Guillermo Neusa Arenas*, Jeanette del Pilar Ureña Aguirre, Ramiro Vicente Saraguro and Soraya Nathali Puco Fonseca
The processes carried out by the operators in the crude oil production centers (CPF) of the oil sector require greater interaction when making a musculoskeletal movement in each operation, this implies manipulation and force or the combination of the two, during the time of exposure to this factor for several hours a day, generating different pathologies that represent damage to health, producing consequences of physical overload in each work cycle during the biomechanical action of the body by manipulation, force, push or pull. Based on the Nordic (CN) questionnaire, the operators present indicators of high and medium morbidity due to Musculoskeletal Injury (SCI), more than 62.4% of the operators in the CPF, show chronic pain causing absenteeism from work and loss in production, causing deterioration in health in the short, medium or long term. By applying the UNE-EN-1005-3 method, it allows evaluating each cycle of physiological movement by force. These disergonomic aspects need to be corrected in due time, preventing pathologies due to SCI both clinical and permanent or temporary disability, preventing damage to the back-lumbar or cervical area. An occupational medical control program can decrease morbidity and increase the organization productivity.