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Annals of Advanced Biomedical Sciences

ISSN(p): | ISSN(e):2641-9459
Journal Papers (54) Details
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Indexed Journal

1 Role of Ubiquilins in Neurodegenerative Diseases , Hongmin W* and Shelley F
Ubiquilin (Ubqln) proteins, including Ubqln1-4, are a family of ubiquitin-like (UBL) proteins that structurally contain anN-terminalubiquitin-like domain, a C-terminalubiquitin-associated (UBA) domain, and aninternal variable number of Stil repeat motifs. Unlike those small molecule ubiquitin-like proteins, Ubqln proteins cannot be covalently tagged to the proteins that are targeted to the proteasome for degradation. Instead, this family of proteins binds to thepolyubiquitinated proteins via the UBA domain and delivers them to the proteasome for degradation, despite their involving in autophagy-mediated protein degradation. Increasing studies have suggested that Ubqln proteins play important roles in mediating the degradation of damaged/misfolded proteins and thus theirinsufficiencies or dysfunctionsare frequently associated with different neurodegenerative disorders. This review summarizes the role of Ubqln proteins in several neurodegenerative disorders.
2 Music and the Brain ,
From our very first moments in life when our mother gently whispers some lullaby to help us sleep or calm us down, to the overwhelming walls of sound that surround us in our first rock concert, when we aggressively affirm our independence and individuality, music plays an important role in our everyday life.
3 To Eat or Not to Eat-An Inflammatory Issue , Jenna RM*
Comprised of a rich and complex microbial ecosystem, the human intestinal tract is both an immunological organ and supplier of the body’s energy demand and nutrient requirements. This intestinal microbiota provides a large reservoir of bacterial lipopolysaccharide, (known also as endotoxin) that has an immediate stimulatory action on the innate immune system. The gut has evolved mechanisms to detoxify endotoxin and neutralise its potential inflammatory properties. However, this potent inflammatory molecule is transiently detectable in the circulation of healthy individuals following ingestion of food by virtue of a transient gut epithelial permeability arising from the digestive process itself. This acute post-prandial inflammation is somewhat dependent on meal composition with energy rich meals dense in saturated fat and low in fibre and polyphenols exacerbating the process. Chronic exposure to circulating endotoxin by this mechanism has been associated with a dysregulated cardiometabolic phenotype and risk of cardiovascular disease. Spending the majority of wake time in the post-prandial state therefore may contribute to the pathogenesis of these diseases. In this review, I present an overview of the mechanisms by which post-prandial inflammatory events and raise the possibility of modulating meal frequency as a dietary tool to, at least in part, ameliorate the detrimental outcomes of endotoxemia.
4 In Vitro Antiplasmodial Activity of Aqueous Leaves Extract of Azadirachta Indica (Juss), Senna occidentalis (Linn) against Combination Therapy of Both Plants Extract on the Multiplication of Plasmodium Falciparum (Laveran) , Alkali K*, Abdullahi K, Mshelia HE, Yahaya MA, Abubakar N and Tarbutu AG
This study investigated the antiplasmodial effects of leaves extract of Azadirachta indica, Senna occidentalis and Combination therapy of both plans extracts using RPMI 1640 culture media (in vitro). Parasite density was determined by counting the number of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocyte in 5,000 erythrocytes of the culture, thin blood smear were prepared and stained with Giemsa stain. Varying concentrations of the extracts such as 10, 20, to 100 mg/mL were prepared, the effect of the leaves extracts against the growth of schizonts were dose dependant. A. indica showed highest growth inhibition (96.92%) at 70m g/ml. However, the schizonts were found to be inhibited by the leaves extract of S. occidetalis at the highest concentration (100 mg/mL) with growth inhibition of 98.46%, there was no significant difference in the anti-malaria efficacy among the leave extracts and the Combination therapy (p<0.05) at 100 mg/mL. The results of phytochemical screening indicated A. indica and S.occidentalis contain Alkaloids, Flavonoids, Saponins, Saponins glycosides, Steroids and Terpenoids. The result of the study showed that Azadirachta indica and Senna occidentalis contain pharmacologically active compounds, hence they are potential antimalaria.
5 Discovering Novel Biomarkers for Pulmonary Hypertension , Nadiya P*
Groundbreaking research into a new biomarker that can indicate cardiac damage and mortality in pulmonary hypertension patients has been identified in a recent study by Tzouvelekis, et al. on ‘S100A12 [1] as a marker of worse cardiac output and mortality in pulmonary hypertension’. Biomarkers are objectively measured characteristics that provide an indication of normal biological processes, pathogenic processes or processes in the body that occur as a pharmaceutical response to treatment
6 The Trend of Fermented Foods , Shue-Shue Wang*and Chung-Chin Sun
Fermented food is one of the traditional human diet cultures. In early human history, it is mainly used in food preservation and taste increases. Western medicine has long been less help for some difficult chronic diseases. Some studies have shown that the gastrointestinal tract is directly related to immunity, nerves, metabolism, and the like. The microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract is closely related to health. Turning the unbalanced into balanced microbiota can often reverse the diseases and restore health, especially for chronic or degenerative diseases that are currently difficult to have drug effects, such as Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), depression, and cancer, etc. The discovery and research of probiotics have demonstrated their health effects by helping balance or formation of beneficial microbiota in gastrointestinal tract. Supply of probiotics has become a good way of health care in people's daily life. Fermented foods not only provide important nutrients, functional active ingredients, but also provide a group of active microorganisms that are beneficial to the body health, which can repair, balance or maintain the healthy microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract. Driven by the health care trend, fermented food has become an option for people to maintain health. Scientists have begun to interest in the feasibility of using single or combined natural herbal ferments for use in difficult diseases. Initial results have also shown significant effectiveness and they are expected to be an improvement or resolution of unresolved ill diseases in the future. In spite of fermented food or herbal medicine, it is necessary to construct a good quality of fermented food or herbal ferment. In the fermentation process, selected specific microbe or microbiota, and developed chemical and biological analysis methods to confirm the quality of the food after fermentation, and clarified the microbial population in the food after fermentation are necessary. The final products are confirmed the beneficial microbe or microbiota and show the evidence of clinical safety and efficacy. In order to widely promote the fermented foods in market in the future, the products should be cheaper than that of the current market products. One approach is researched to shorten the fermentative process which can increase inventory turnover
7 Advances in Stem Cell Technologies for Disease Therapy: A Current Review , Nadiya P*
Stem cells have the capability of differentiating into limitless cell types, alongside the function of exceptional proliferative capacity. There are three main types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells (ESCs), induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). ESCs are highly versatile and hold great therapeutic potential but have great ethical barriers and considerations that are yet to be overcome. IPSCs have become increasingly popular within research as they are not restrained by any ethical issues and do not require approval for their usage. The aim of this review was to expand on the background and therapeutic potential of ESCs and IPSCs whilst linking this to their use within disease therapy with a specific focus on ethics, tumorigenesis and survivability. The analysis found some conflicting results and a delay in the advance of overcoming the problems of tumorigenesis and survivability of stem cells. Both stem cells types have shown good efficacy but do also come with their disadvantages.
8 It is Disturbing, in Spite of the Existence of Appropriate Legislation, Illegal Distribution of Medicines , Omer AM*
The strategy of price liberalisation and privatisation had been implemented in Sudan over the last decade, and has had a positive result on government deficit. The investment law approved recently has good statements and rules on the above strategy in particular to pharmacy regulations. Under the pressure of the new privatisation policy, the government introduced radical changes in the pharmacy regulations. To improve the effectiveness of the public pharmacy, resources should be switched towards areas of need, reducing inequalities and promoting better health conditions. Medicines are financed either through cost sharing or full private. The role of the private services is significant. A review of reform of financing medicines in Sudan is given in this study. Also, it highlights the current drug supply system in the public sector, which is currently responsibility of the Central Medical Supplies Public Corporation (CMS). In Sudan, the researchers did not identify any rigorous evaluations or quantitative studies about the impact of drug regulations on the quality of medicines and how to protect public health against counterfeit or low quality medicines, although it is practically possible. However, the regulations must be continually evaluated to ensure the public health is protected against by marketing high quality medicines rather than commercial interests, and the drug companies are held accountable for their conduct.
9 Evaluation of the Shift in Antimicrobial Resistance Due to Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase and AmpC Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Hampshire England , Fouch S*, Mitchell J, Lwaleed B and Zinkevich V
The aim of this study was to identify shifts in antimicrobial resistance in the Hampshire region including correlations between patient demographic and antibiotic prescribing to inform safe and effective antimicrobial stewardship. 475 ESBL and AmpC producing bacteria, from various infection sites, were obtained from four hospital laboratories in Hampshire, UK, during 2010 and 2012. All isolates were identified to species level. ESBL production and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using disc diffusion methodology. Multiplex PCR and gel electrophoresis was used to detect the BlaCTX, BlaTEM and BlaSHV resistance determinants. Corresponding patient data included patient age, gender, location, clinical details and previous antibiotic therapy. Patient information revealed mean ages of 60 and 62 for the 2010 and 2012 cohorts respectively, with ages ranging from 3 months to 96. ESBL production was the most prevalent resistance mechanism (65% in 2010, 79% in 2012), produced mostly by E.coli (85% in 2010, 84% in 2012). While 9 of the 13 antibiotics demonstrated increased resistance, 4 demonstrated a decrease. CTX was the most prevalent resistance determinant (38% in 2010 and 27% in 2012), followed by dual expression of CTX & TEM, TEM, TEM & SHV, SHV, SHV & CTX and all three resistance determinants. A significant correlation between patient age and joint expression of TEM & SHV was observed in 2010, in 2012, patient age significantly correlated with joint CTX and SHV expression. Significant differences could also be determined between resistance determinant type and antimicrobial resistance. This study shows that the incidence of ESBL and AmpC infections and resistance to commonly used antibiotics within Hampshire is increasing both within the hospital and community setting. This emphasises the need for judicious antibiotic prescribing to safeguard this valuable medical commodity.
10 Cervical Lesion: Types and Etiology , FASOGBON Samuel A*, ADEBAYO Ahmed O, AJILEYE Ayodeji B, OKORIE Nnaemeka and ADELUWOYE Adekunle O
A cervical lesion is an area of abnormal tissue found on the cervix, which is the lower end of a woman’s uterus. The type of the lesion can be atypical squamous cells, squamous intraepithelianeoplasia, and atypical glandular cells. The early stages of cervical cancer may be asymptomatic. In advanced disease, there may be metastases to the abdomen, lungs or any other organ. Infection with some types of human papilloma virus (HPV) is the highest risk factor for cervical cancer which can be transmitted due to multiple sex partners, followed by smoking. Other risk factors include human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), early age at first sexual intercourse, early age at first pregnancy, tobacco use, exposure to passive smoke and other related factors. It is therefore recommended that all the risk factors should be avoided to reduce cervical cancer in the society and women should go for regular cervical screening as early detection can easily be treated.
11 Automated Segmentation of Optic Disc and Cup in Color Fundus Images , Vijay M Mane* and Rahul Bal
An automatic Optic disc and Optic cup detection technique which is an important step in developing systems for computer-aided eye disease diagnosis is presented in this paper. This paper presents an algorithm for localization and segmentation of optic disc from digital retinal images. OD localization is achieved by circular Hough transform using morphological preprocessing and segmentation is achieved by watershed transformation. Optic cup segmentation is achieved by marker controlled watershed transformation. The optic disc to cup ratio (CDR) is calculated which is an important parameter for glaucoma diagnosis. The presented algorithm is evaluated against publically available DRIVE dataset. The presented methodology achieved 88% average sensitivity and 80% average overlap. The average CDR detected is 0.1983.
12 Hemodialysis or Transplantation for Ethiopia: A Cost Utility Analysis , Tariku Shimels* and Arebu I Bilal
Background: The burden of end stage kidney disease (ESKD) characterized with a requirement with lifesaving dialysis or kidney transplantation is estimated to be more than 1.4 million whereas the annual incidence exceeds 8% worldwide. In Ethiopia, there is no renal transplant practice whereas hemodialysis is characterized with very limited number of dialysis centers in the capital; Addis Ababa. The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the cost-utility of hemodialysis and renal transplantation in Ethiopia. Method: A cost utility evaluation (CUA) was produced to estimate if kidney transplantation would be a cost-effective alternative to hemodialysis. The decision model was developed as a decision tree that allows for comparisons of costutility evaluation between the two alternatives. While a patient perspective was used in the study, The Probabilities cost of transplant and effects included in this study were derived from the literature following a formal MEDLINE search for studies published in English language. Results: Transplantation resulted in an incremental cost of $42,623.74 and incremental utility of 3.18 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) compared with conventional hemodialysis presented with an incremental cost of $25,902.08 but very less QALY of 0.36 over a five years’ time horizon. Given its higher incremental costs, transplantation remained more cost effective than hemodialysis (ICUR of 13414.67 vs. 71860.00 $/QALY). The one way ANOVA sensitivity analysis has also confirmed that the result of the CUA is not sensitive to any plausible parameter changes. Conclusion: Our cost utility analysis result demonstrated that the incremental cost utility ratio of a patient’s five year therapy by hemodialysis at end-stage renal disease is significantly higher than by performing therapy of kidney transplantation, by more than a factor of five times.
13 K-means Clustering Algorithm for Myocardial Infarction Classification , ElAmin A, Alotaibi YM, Abaida EA, Malaekah E, Ismail Saied HF* and Mukhanov VV
Heart attack is one of the main causes of death around the world. The electrocardiogram (ECG) is considered as an effective method to diagnose heart diseases. In this study, the classification approach will be applied to distinguish between myocardial infarctions (MI) subtypes. The abnormalities approval depends on morphological analysis used to detect the appearance or absence of some specific features in ECG graph. The classification approach consists of many basic steps such as data segmentation and various kinds of noise removal. Stemming filter will be used for detection of some features through a large number of data. Features selection and normalization approaches will be used for data validation and significant clustering. Finally, the K-means clustering will be used to differentiate between MI subtypes. The statistical analyses such as Precision, Recall, and F-Score were used to evaluate the performance of the K-mean algorithm. The F-score achievement is indicated at 0.98% in significant clustering and with 87.61% in right classification of MI subtypes
14 Developments in Segmentation of Abdominal Liver CT Images for Cancer and Other Disease Lesion Detection , Hariharan S*
Segmentation is one of the most important and widely used methods in medical image analysis. It is considered to be a high level image processing technique and can be used for many applications in medical imaging. CT images are commonly used in medical field and it provides clear picture of the internal organs. However in some places further processing of CT images are required for disease diagnosis and lesion detection. This work is an effort for bringing out clinical information from liver images of computed tomography based on image processing. Finally liver tumor classifications have been performed using texture based image analysis.
15 Planning Method for Safety Neurosurgical and Computed Tomography Contrast-Data Set Visualization , Avrunin OG and Husham Farouk IS*
Discussed the issues' associated with the development of a computed neurosurgery planning system. An important part is to determine the value of invasive surgical access. The study purpose is to design a methodology for finding the shortest distance between surgical target and peripheral point of the brain tissue with strict adherence considering the type of the brain anatomical structure existing in the path of surgical track (risk map), these two condition used in companion to determine the risk value of the surgical access. The study method consists of two algorithms for calculating the shortest surgical access to the target and assuring the safety by avoiding high-density tissues identification method “internal map” describing the anatomy of the brain such as bones. An algorithm for automatic identification of brain vascular system also was designed. The structural diagram of the contrast data visualization system, using computed tomography data, was thoroughly discussed. Also, trying to contribute in solving issues facing developers of modern medical imaging visualization systems to select the most appropriate method from the whole arsenal of algorithms and processing models concerning displaying brain surgical zone using image registration and optical tracking system. The visualization of the target zone is carried out according to an internal reference landmark points inside the center of the brain as well as an automatic algorithm for contour recognition was applied. Moreover, the optical tracking system was used to assess the navigation accuracy of determining the position of the surgical instrument outside the patient head. Algorithms necessary for operational planning also was included, and the proposed method was applied in a pilot study with simulation mode to human brain model, in order to target a specific surgical zone, and as a result, the system suggested (24) possible surgical track, among them, were selected the best and safest access. The total error of a surgical instrument targeting was less than 3 mm (in average 2.6 mm)
16 The Effect of Mastery Cooperative Learning Strategy and Individual Inquiry on Attaining the Technical Aspects of the Stages of Shot Put and Digital Achievement using the Linear Method among Vietnam University Students , Dao Chanh Thuc* and Hang Quang Thai
Physiological indicators say a lot about the preparedness and performance of athletes. This study investigates the Effect of mastery cooperative learning strategy and individual inquiry in using the linear method among female students of An Giang University, the study sample consisted of (57) female students enrolled in track and field course (1) at the Faculty of physical education at An Giang University during the first quarter 2016/2017. The sample was divided into three equal groups. The first group (n=19) taught using the mastery cooperative learning strategy, the second group (n=19) taught using the individual inquiry strategy, while the third group (n=19) was taught using the traditional method. Results showed that there were statistical differences in favor of the mastery cooperative learning strategy and individual inquiry strategy over the traditional way.
17 Elimination and Eradication of Malaria: Nigeria in Perspective , Dokunmu TM*
Eradication globally is the current goal for malaria control by eliminating the disease locally in all countries where it is endemic [1,2], but plasmodium species continue to evolve different survival mechanisms including development of resistance to all class of antimalarial drugs [1,3].
18 The Molecular Detection of mecA Genes of Staphylococcus Aureus , Nwaogaraku CN*, Smith SI and Badaki JA
Antibiotic resistance is common among pathogenic bacteria associated with community acquired and nosocomial infections. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections have become a global health problem particularly in hospital setup causing simple skin infections to life threatening infections. The present study aimed to investigate the presence of mecA genes in MRSA from pigs, using Polymerase Chain Reaction. One hundred S. aureus isolates of blood samples from Pigs in Bariga, Lagos State were collected from Molecular Biology and Biotechnology Unit, Nigeria Institute of Medical Research. Methicillin resistance was determined by Kirby-Bauer’s disc diffusion method. The PCR was used for mecA gene detection from MRSA strains. Twenty-five pure Staphylococcus aureus isolates were identified based on cultural characteristics, biochemical reactions and positive slide coagulase test. Out of these, 11 (44%) strains were MRSA by phenotypic method. Amplification of mecA gene for all the 11 MRSA isolates was negative when visualized on 2% agarose gel electrophoresis. Eleven strains of MRSA were found among Staphylococcus aureus isolates of blood samples from Pigs. The MRSA phenotype observed in the isolates was not the classical mecA mediated resistance. Hence, it is highly recommended to consider alternative mechanisms for β-lactams resistance that may compete with mecA gene in the emergence of MRSA phenomenon in Nigeria.
19 Social Return to Education: Empirical Study from Dhofar Region in Oman , Hussein MA* and Sid Ahmed HM
A model was developed in this paper to examine the effect of wife and husbands' education, mother age, age at first marriage and child mortality on fertility among women in Dhofar Region, Oman. Econometric techniques are applied to examine social returns to female education. Descriptive statistics and ordinary least squares (OLS) methods are used for data analysis. The results suggest that mother’s education, child mortality, mother’s age and age at first marriage are important factors in determining the fertility level. Mother’s education, particularly secondary and university education, are found to have a significant negative impact on fertility, whereas child mortality, mother’s age and age at first marriage have significant positive impact on fertility.
20 Characteristics and Micromorphology of Designed Regenerative a Cellular Dermal Collagen Particles Derived from a Combined Procedure of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Fluids and Protease Treatments at Low Temperatures , Ching-Cheng Huang*, Guifeng Zhang, Meng-Jen Yang and Xiong xin Lei
A new regenerative collagen particle with extra-cellular matrix (ECM) was designed and prepared from porcine dermal. A specific tissue-cutting machine was designed to prepare extra thin tissue membranes, which could be used for preparing the regenerative collagen particles with ECM. Furthermore, a novel procedure combining supercritical carbon dioxide fluids technology and protease treatments at low temperatures was employed. Characteristics of the resulting regenerative collagen particles with ECM were observed by determining morphology, thermal property and mechanical property for clinic application of medical devices
21 Method of Reconstruction the Intact Surface for Surgical Accesses , Avrunin OG, Husham Farouk IS* and Tymkovych M
The aim of this work lies in designing software used for preoperative planning of the surgical access risk. In order to obtain a realistic and useful simulation we focused our study on the physical modeling of the brain targeting and on the maneuvers of the surgical instruments. A new method of intact surface construction, which will assist in accurate neurosurgical planning, was discussed. Moreover, the three-dimensional model and its visualization were described. This visualization method allows of combining the calculated data about the surgical intervention risks with the geometrical data describing patient's head. Therefore, this methodology will help to build an intelligent system that has the ability of selection the best approach of surgical intervention access. The current technique is based on geometrical synthetic object creation, this object “in next stages of the surgical planning approach” would be applied directly to the data describing the risks of surgical access, and this in turn will allow estimating the real risk value of the surgical access. The advantage of this method is that the creation of the object is based on surgical access approach. The best surgical access is based on finding the smallest distance of surgical intervention toward the target, taking into the account the reduction of brain tissue damage. The method of the intact vertex can significantly reduce the amount of memory overloading, also a method of filtration used to extract artifacts resulting in unreal vertices, caused in rendering errors and memory overloading, was used. Also, using data describing the correlation between the object vertices allows arifacts filtration without any need for additional transformations. All that improves the rendering procedure and the accuracy of the surgical intervention by 30%.
22 Is there any Effect of Blood Glucose Level on Finger Biting? , Qadir MI and Qureshi HN*
To interact glucose level of blood with finger biting was the goal of present research. 130 subjects took part in present research, where their glucose level of blood calculated. The normal glucose level in blood is in between 100 to 140mg/dl. The hyperglycemia is known as high glucose level while hypoglycemia is known as low glucose level. The biting of fingers in the mouth with teeth is known as finger biting. It also refer as onychophagia. There were 130 students take part in this research and they measured their sugar level by using glucose meter. Then they correlate the glucose level with finger biting. It was concluded from the present study that glucose level of blood has no impact on finger biting.
23 Is there any Relation of Normal Body Temperature with Stress Eating? , Qadir MI and Qureshi HN*
The relation of normal body temperature with stress eating was aim of present research. 125 subjects took part in present research, where their normal body temperature measured. Thermometer is widely used to measure body temperature. The normal temperature of body is in between 36.5–37.5°C (97.7–99.5°F). The overeating during stress and tension is called stress tension. The unhealthy and junk foods are also connected with stress eating. The 125 students take part in this study. They measured their body temperature by thermometer and check that there is any relation of temperature with stress eating. This was resulted from current study that normal body temperature has no effect on stress eating.
24 Pattern of Medication Prescribing and Factors Associated with Meeting of Target Blood Pressure among Persons with Hypertension in Federal Police Referral Hospital, Ethiopia , Tariku Shimels*, Silesh Tadesse, Melesse Abebaw, Tariku Tesfaye and Arebu I Bilal
Introduction: Hypertension is one of the highly growing chronic health challenges worldwide causing a significant number of deaths and cardiovascular complications. The prevalence of the condition in Ethiopia was estimated to be 19.5% with an urban and rural subgroup proportion of 25.7% and 14.7% respectively. This study was conducted to assess the pattern of prescribing antihypertensive medications and factors associated with BP target meeting among persons with hypertension in Federal Police Referral Hospital. Method: An institution based cross sectional study was conducted from 15th October 2016 to 15th January 2017. A systematic random sampling technique was employed in selecting the study participants. Data was collected using a semi-structured interview of study participants and visiting medication records. SPSS version 20 was used for data entry and analysis. Results: Of the 330 subjects required to be included in the study, 318 (96.4%) fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were considered for further analysis. Diuretics were the top prescribed class of antihypertensive agents accounted by 201(63.2%) of the subjects. Hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, was the most frequent. Next highly utilized classes of drugs included; calcium channel blockers among 172 (54.1%) subjects followed by angiotensin converting enzymeinhibitors prescribed for 153 (48.1%) participants. Target meeting for the systolic and diastolic blood pressure accounted for 142 (44.7%) and 140(44%) of the study subjects respectively. Overall target meeting of the two variables was attained by 103(32.4%) of the participants. Conclusion: Diuretics were the class of drugs most frequently prescribed succeeded by CCBs and ACEIs. The result of this study has also shown that overall BP target meeting among the subjects was suboptimal. Multivariate binary logistic regression has shown that gender, duration of therapy and dietary adherence were associated with BP target meeting.
25 Dose-Dependent Effect of Short-Term Repeated Exposure to Amitraz on Some Reproductive Parameters in Male Albino Rats , Seriki SA*, Adebayo OF and Mbakwe PN
Amitraz is a pesticide used in agriculture and public health to control insects, weeds, animals, and vectors of disease. Although the use of pesticides is of benefit in general, abuse of the pesticides is harmful due to their potential toxicity to humans and animals. Present study examined the effect of the pesticide on the male reproductive parameters of the male albino rats. 20 rats were grouped into four. Group 1 was control, Group 2 was given low dose Amitraz, Group 3 was median dose, and Group 4 was high dose. The administration was for a period of 21 days. Results showed that Amitraz has dose dependent toxicity effect on the reproductive parameter of the rat. Amitraz is toxic to the reproductive parameters of the albino rat, and could lower sperm concentration, sperm motility, and sperm morphology. By implication, Amitraz is toxic to the reproductive system and could cause infertility in male.
26 Immobilization of Heparin on Bacterial Nanocellulose Hydrogels Induces Tubulogenesis of Human Endothelial Cells , Reis EMD*, Berti FV, Colla G, Cesca K, Souza VHD, Neta VWV, Meyer AC and Porto LM
Models that mimic the angiogenesis initial processes, as adhesion, migration, proliferation and tubulogenesis, are extremely valuable for investigating the action of new anti-cancer drugs. There still is a need for an angiogenesis model that reflects in vivo environment. To address this challenge, we developed a 3D matrix well-defined based on covalently immobilization of heparin (HEP) on bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) hydrogels. Successful immobilization was confirmed by qualitative and quantification analysis. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were seeded on bottom and top surfaces of BNC and BNC-HEP hydrogels and cells behavior were analyzed. The bottom surfaces of BNC-HEP hydrogels were able to support cell adhesion and promote proliferation and tubulogenesis formation. Results here presented indicate that the tubulogenesis process could be controlled by physico-chemical properties of the developed hydrogel. The interaction between the bioactive molecule, heparin, and the particular microstructure of BNC induced tubulogenenic behavior of HUVECs in vitro.
27 Flexible Endoscopy and Cervical Dysplasia Grade 1 and 2 , Anter SS*
by flexible endoscopy obtaining five images: First image obtaining using white light the second and third image obtaining by blue, green narrow band image respectively by the special technique of endoscopy the fourth image was obtaining after that acetic acid was applied lastly, the iodine stain is applied and the fifth image was recorded after end of examination the five image were recorded and reviewed to be studied in correlation with cytology and histopathology results to be obtaining accurate diagnosis for CIN1.
28 Autophagy: Vanquisher of the "Unseen Dangers" in Neurodegenerative Diseases? , Koon AC*
Aggregation of misfolded proteins is a hallmark of many neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases. Clearance of misfolded proteins in the cell relies on the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and the autophagy-lysosome system. Since their discoveries, the UPS and autophagy were once thought to be independent of each other in terms of components, mechanisms and substrate selectivity. The UPS was believed to be responsible for degrading soluble proteins, whereas autophagy for degrading insoluble protein aggregates. However, recent studies have demonstrated that the insoluble protein aggregates may not be cytotoxic. By contrast, after deaggregation, multimers and microaggregates may still be present in the cell causing cytotoxicity. The UPS is incapable of degrading these soluble and semi-soluble species, and the vital task of degradation these toxic species rests upon the autophagy-lysosome system. Therefore, apart from degrading the visible protein aggregates, autophagy is also responsible for eliminating these “invisible dangers” to protect the cell in neurodegenerative diseases.
29 Apple Fruit as a Source of Health Beneficial Compounds , Sabaz AK*
Fruits are well known for their high value in human health. Epidemiological studies indicate that consumption of fruits, vegetables and their products are inversely related to carcinogenesis, coronary heart disease, mortality, and aging processes [1]. It has been suggested that this reduction is not only due to increased levels of vitamins and fibers, but that other compounds, such as phenolic compounds, also appear to play an important role in the overall antioxidant capacity of fruits and vegetables
30 Nanotechnology Combating Fight against Cancer , Khalid R*, Sabir L, Qurat ul ain Haider, Aslam S and Ameer S
Cancer is a major cause of death worldwide. Cancer spread through multiple steps that make it an incurable disease. Earlier different conventional methods are used such as radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy to treat cancer. In conventional also affects the normal body cells. To overcome this problem different new approaches are applied that help to diagnose and treat cancer. With the advancement of techniques, new technique emerges called cancer nanotechnology that helps to diagnose and treat cancer by using different drug delivery system. Cancer nanotechnology uses different nanoparticles or nano vectors as a carrier to treat the disease. These nano-carriers for drug delivery include liposomes, polymers, dendrimers, micelles, carbon nano-tube, quantum dots, etc. Active and passive targeting helps to target the drug and easily recognize the site of the tumor. The aim of this paper is to provide information about how cancer nanotechnology helps in combating the fight against cancer. And also the use of different drug delivery systems to treat and recognize cancer.
31 Epilepsy: A Stigma More than Disease , Shoukat M and Iqbal RK
Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder that occurs from ancient times and accompanying with convulsions or seizures. Epilepsy has revealed a genetic basis. Epilepsy which is considered as a neurodevelopmental disorder has reduced the life expectancy and associated with various stigmatized attitudes or beliefs. Epilepsy and seizures can develop in any person both in male and female at any age. Head trauma and brain strokes are the major causes of epilepsy in adults. Epilepsy accompanied by changes in behavior, personality, and cognition. Several aspects of epilepsy can affect the brain and behavior. Stigma is a reality for a lot of people with a mental disorder. It is a mark of disgrace which sets a person apart from others. Negative attitudes and beliefs create prejudice which leads to negative actions and discrimination. Stigma and social exclusions are stereotyped characteristics of epilepsy. Someone with a mental illness known to be a dangerous and senseless rather than saying in poor health conditions. There are no effective cures for an epileptic people. Besides, many epileptic therapies or cures are still available for the diagnosis and prevention of people with epilepsy. Epilepsy treatment entails how epilepsy is treated and which techniques and antiepileptic drugs are used.
32 Delirium: An Acute Confusional State , Shoukat M and Iqbal RK*
Delirium is a frequent ineffectiveness in brain functioning. It is a disturbance in attention and awareness that develops over a short period of time and it is a neurocognitive disorder. Delirium provides an idiosyncratic chance for a better understanding of the neurocognitive reserve. Acute illness considered as a basis of delirium and it is usually activated by head trauma and recent surgeries. Delirium like dementia is clearly remarkable by a general disability in which a condition of being unable to perform as a consequence of physical and mental unfitness. It has also been observed that delirium can increase the rate of development of dementia. Unfortunately, the development of delirium or acute brain dysfunction is considered a non-essential component of a critical or unfavorable disease. The agitation and inactivity that is occurred in a delirium can increase the risk or danger of complications. Delirium is a major cause and the problem of hospitalization and should be considered a medical crisis. For these reasons its identification, prescription, and effective treatment are essential. For delirium treatment, the most common antipsychotic drugs are used. Emerging pharmacological strategies which include various antipsychotics drugs for addressing delirium should be combined with non-pharmacological approaches which are designed as a first line interventions.
33 Traditional Chinese Medicine Herbs and Gut Microbiota , Zheng-Yuan Su*, Zi-Han Lin, Pei-Ju Chen and Yen-Chen Tung
The gut microbiota plays an important role in the human body, for example, they are responsible for the metabolism of some dietary factors. Many diseases are related to the imbalances in the gut microbiota. Accumulating evidence shows that traditional Chinese medicine herbs may prevent or treat some diseases through interacting with gut microbiota. Oral administration of Chinese herbs may change the composition of intestinal flora, and the ingredients in Chinese herbs can be catalyzed into bioactive metabolites by some intestinal microbes, resulting in their pharmacological effects. However, the interaction between Chinese herbs and gut microbiota remains unclear. One of the main challenges is the complexity and diversity of the components of Chinese herbs and intestinal flora. Recently, the correction among diseases, gut microbiota, and Chinese herbs through many methodologies are studied by using novel methods and techniques, such as high-throughput gene sequencing, real-time quantitative PCR, and metabolomics analysis as well as the multivariate data statistics. In the future, the clarified mechanism will open a new avenue for the prevention or treatment of diseases by taking Chinese herbs which regulate the composition of gut microbiota, which may achieve the goals of the personalized medicine.
34 Plant Noncoding RNAs Identification and Characterization - A Short Review , Paul P* and Dhandapani V
Advances in sequencing technologies have facilitated multitudinal research analysis. Ample number of genes, transcriptional factors, gene families and genes associated to agronomical traits has been discovered. Similarly, several noncoding RNA (ncRNA) transcripts have also been identified which are researchers interest these days. RNA molecules that are not translated to a protein molecule are marked as ncRNA. They are categorized based on their size to small and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA). Several ncRNAs have been identified in plants and animals, however many among them are yet to be characterized or proven with any biological roles. In this review we discuss the advancement of ncRNA research in plants and focus in their identification, types and characterization with the available resources.
35 Analysis of Different Data Sets of the Same Clinical Trial May Yield Different Results , Yusuf EM*
In a randomized clinical trial (RCT), analysis of different data sets of the same clinical trial may change the meaningfulness of the difference between the study groups depending on which data sets are compared. Possible data sets are intention to treat (ITT), per protocol or on treatment (PP), as treated (AT). The specific conditions that may cause the greatest likelihood of affecting the outcome, depending on the choice of data sets compared should be further investigated.
36 Biofield Energy Therapy: Role in Multiple Organ Health Specific Biomarkers in Cell-Based Assay , Sakina Aleemah Ansari, Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Mayank Gangwa and Snehasis Jana*
The major cause of high rate of mortality is the multiple organ dysfunction among critical care healthcare services. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the impact of the Biofield Energy Treated test formulation using standard and specific cell lines related with vital organs functioning. The test formulation and the specific cell media was divided into two parts; one part was untreated (UT) and other part received the Biofield Energy Treatment remotely by a renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Sakina Aleemah Ansari, USA and labeled as the Biofield Energy Treated (BT) test formulation/media. The test formulation was tested against various activities using cell line assay in their specific medium (Med). The test formulation was tested for cell viability, and the results showed that the test formulation at tested concentrations was found safe and non-toxic. Cytoprotective activity showed improved cellular restoration by 105.4% (at 25 µg/mL), 32.8% (at 25 µg/mL), and 151.8% (at 10 µg/mL) in the UT-Med + BT-TI, BT-Med + UT-TI, and BTMed + BT-TI groups respectively, as compared to the untreated test group in the human cardiac fibroblasts cells (HCF) cells, while improved restoration of cell viability by 22.4% (at 25.5 µg/mL), 67.1% (at 10 µg/mL), and 72.9% (at 10 µg/mL) in the UT-Med + BT-TI, BT-Med + UT-TI, and BT-Med + BT-TI groups respectively, as compared to the untreated test group in HepG2 cells. Cellular restoration in A549 cells was improved by 9.3%, 70.4%, and 14.1% at 0.1, 1, and 25.5 µg/mL respectively, in the BT-Med + UT-TI group, while 3% and 4.6% improved cellular restoration was reported at 10 and 25.5 µg/mL respectively, at BT-Med + BT-TI groups as compared to the untreated test group. ALP activity in Ishikawa cells was significantly increased by 68.4%, 41.1%, and 18.8% at 0.1, 10, and 50 µg/mL respectively, in the UT-Med + BTTI group, while in MG-63 cells showed maximum increased ALP activity by 92.7%, 84.5%, and 93.2% respectively in the UT-Med + BT-TI, BT-Med + UT-TI, and BT-Med + BT-TI group respectively, at 50 µg/mL as compared to the untreated group. The maximum percent cellular protection of HCF (heart) cells (decreased of LDH activity) was significantlyincreased by 51.6%, 88.7%, and 53.7% in the UT-Med + BT-TI, BT-Med + UT-TI, and BT-Med + BT-TI groups respectively, at 10 µg/mL as compared to the untreated group. Alanine amino transferase (ALT) activity was reported in terms of percent cellular protection of HepG2 (liver) cells. The test data showed improved HepG2 cells protection (represents decreased ALT activity) by 33%, 90.2%, and 72.1% in the UT-Med + BT-TI, BT-Med + UT-TI, and BT-Med + BT-TI groups respectively, at 25 µg/mL as compared to the untreated test group. Percentage cellular protection of A549 (lungs) cells (represents increased of SOD activity) was increased by 21.5% at 25.5 µg/mL in the UT-Med + BT-TI, while 33.4%, 25.8%, and 21.5% at 1, 10, and 25.5 µg/mL respectively, in the BT-Med + UT-TI group, and 12.8% increased SOD activity at 25.5 µg/mL in the BT-Med + BT-TI groups as compared to the untreated group. Serotonin level was significantly increased 137.4% (at 0.1 µg/mL), 65.4% (at 0.1 µg/mL), and 77.3% (at 10 µg/mL) in the UT-Med + BT-TI, BT-Med + UTTI, and BT-Med + BT-TI groups, respectively compared to untreated test group in human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y). However, the relative quantification (RQ) of vitamin D receptor (VDR) was significantly increased by 24.2% (at 1 µg/mL), 213.7% (at 10 µg/mL), and 328.7% (at 10 µg/mL) in the UT-Med + BT-TI, BT-Med + UT-TI, and BT-Med + BT-TI groups, respectively as compared to the untreated in MG-63 cells. Thus, the data concluded that The Trivedi Effect® would be significantly useful for improving multiple organs health, which can be used for many coronary artery diseases, arrhythmias, congenital heart disease, cardiomyopathy, cirrhosis, liver cancer, hemochromatosis, asthma, chronic bronchitis, cystic fibrosis, osteoporosis, etc.
37 More than Meets the Eye: An Interesting Case of Cardiac Tamponade , Clarke CA*
This interesting case highlights the presentation of a 68-year-old Latino male with coronary artery disease and coronary artery bypass graft surgery eight years who presented with non-specific respiratory symptoms. At the time of his initial evaluation he was noted to have persistent bigeminy and a 5 beat run of ventricular tachycardia. During his hospital stay he was again noted to have marked arrhythmias, with a 40 beat run of ventricular tachycardia. Urgent echocardiogram was obtained and revealed significant pericardial effusion compressing his right ventricle. On cardiac catheterization patient was found to have a patent graft but trasudative pericardial fluid causing tamponade and arrhythmia both which completely resolved after drainage. Learning Objective 1: Recognize ventricular arrhythmias as an atypical presentation of pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade. Learning Objective 2: Appreciate the utility of echocardiogram in elucidating etiologies of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia.
38 Lovastatin as a Treatment of Cardiovascular and Neurological Disorders , Mussina K, Akhmetova A and Tokay T*
There is evidence that statins which are mainly used in treatments of dyslipidemia can be used for attenuating symptoms of cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Lovastatin and other statins are known to function through inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase which is involved in the majority processes such as cell differentiation, proliferation and migration. Recently it was revealed that lovastatin is effective in the reducing total and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, lowering the risks of post-surgical complications and mitigation of anticancer drugs’ side effects. Moreover, there are other combinations with other drugs to treat cardiovascular diseases. In addition, antiinflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of lovastatin diminish neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Especially, combination treatment of lovastatin and rolipram in suboptimal doses is considered to be the most promising approach for protecting neuronal axons from demyelination and promoting neuro repair in MS. Although lovastatin demonstrates promising option for treatment of cardiovascular and neurological diseases, more clinical trials and studies in vivo and in vitro are required.
39 Bacteriological Quality of Some Local Herbal Drugs Sold In Port Harcourt, Nigeria and Antibacterial Susceptibility of Isolates Compared with Clinical Isolates , Amala Smart Enoch* and Alaye Diane
The world is witnessing an unprecedented rise in the use of herbal medicines. In Nigeria some individuals solely believe in the curative ability of local herbal drugs for the treatment of different forms of ailment. Most local herbal drugs are advertized to cure more than an aliment such as infections and hepatitis, diabetes and gastroenteritis, malaria, general body pain and weakness etc. The preparation and packaging of these local herbal medications are not carried out under appropriate hygienic conditions and they could be prone to contamination by potential pathogenic bacteria. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the bacteriological quality of some local herbal drugs marketed in some parts of Port Harcourt Rivers State Nigeria and their antimicrobial activity compared to some orthodox antimicrobial agents. Materials and Methods: Ten (10) different local herbal drugs were purchased from hawkers, examined for bacteriological quality and antibacterial activities. Each of the sample for bacteriological examination were diluted serially in sterile peptone water by pipeting 1mL of the neat to 9ml of sterile peptone water in a test tube and subsequently diluted to 105 and 0.01mL of the last dilution 105 were cultured on Nutrient and MacConkey agar plates. Susceptibility testing were carried out with the isolated bacteria. The susceptibility was compared with that of already identified clinical isolates of E. coli and S. aureus. Results: The results obtained showed E. coli (69.9%), S. aureus (18.9%), Klebsiella sp. (3.7%) and Bacillus sp. (7.5%) respectively. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the isolated bacteria from the local herbal drugs were 100% resistant to the orthodox drugs tested against them, whereas the clinical isolates tested were 50% susceptible to the orthodox drugs. The bacteria isolated from herbal drugs and the isolates from clinical specimens were 100% resistant to the local herbal drugs. Conclusion: The bacteriological qualities of the local herbal drugs marketed in some parts of Port Harcourt were poor due to improper hygiene during processing and packaging. Bacterial isolates from the local herbal drugs were resistant tothe local herbal drugs and the orthodox drugs. Contaminated local herbal drugs might serve as means of transmitting infections and medium for exchanging resistant genes by the contaminating bacteria. The antibacterial property of herbal drugs may have been altered by the activities of bacteria
40 Isolation and Characterization of New Compound and its Antibacterial Activities from Stem-Bark Extract of Barringtonia Asiatica , Isaac John Umaru*, Hauwa A Umaru and Kerenhappuch I Umaru
Objective: This investigation involves the extraction, isolation, and characterization of chemical constituents from a Barringtonia family plant, Barringtonia asiatica followed by Antibacterial, cytotoxicity and evaluation of its antioxidant principles. Methods: The dried stem-bark powders were subjected to sequential soaking with polar and nonpolar solvents and extraction using rota-vap. Dichloromethane extract reveals the presence of significant amount of phytochemicals. The dichloromethane extract was subjected to isolation using column chromatographic analysis with solvents such as, dichloromethane, chloroform, hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. Further, the isolated compound was subjected to thin layer chromatography technique and spectral analysis such as infrared, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, FT-IR, and mass spectroscopy. The antibacterial using agar disc method. Results: The compound was isolated in hexane: ethyl acetate (9:1) and dichloromethane: ethyl acetate in the solvent system in the ratio of 9:1 and 7:3, respectively using column chromatographic technique. On the basis of phytochemical, chromatographic, and spectral analysis, the isolated compounds were identified as Nerolidiol and Heneicosane. Conclusion: This compound was isolated for the first time from the stem-bark of Barringtonia asiatica. The in vitro antioxidant assay of isolated compounds has shown a dose-dependent increase in free radical scavenging activity using DPPH, the antibacterial and artemia salina cytotoxicity testing showed a significant result. The chromatographic separation led to the isolation of Nerolidiol (1) and Heneicosane (2). Their structures were determined by 1H-NMR, 13CNMR, IR and MS data analysis as well as by comparison of their data with the published values
41 Therapeutic Toxicity of Sunshine Vitamin with Zeitgeber Times , Tanveer AK
Vitamin D is a vitamin found in fewer amounts in most of world population. More than 40% American adults and 65% Pakistani population have deficiency of this vitamin [1]. It is synthesized in skin. Ultraviolet radiations penetrate into the epidermis when a body is exposed to sunlight. Body photolysis pro vitamin D3 to pre vitamin D3 and ultimately to vitamin D3 [2]. Therefore, it is also called as “the sunshine vitamin”. It is an essential component of our optimal health.
42 Phytochemical Constituents and Antidiarrhoeal Activities of Ethanolic Extract of Maesobotrya barteri (Bush Cherry) Leaves in Albino Rats , Friday I*, Bassey EE and Okwakpam Felicia Nmeazi
Maesobotrya barteri, commonly known as bush cherry is used in orthodox medicine for the treatment of different ailments including diarrhoea. Hence, this study was designed to investigate the phytochemical compositions, acute toxicity (LD50) and the effect of ethanolic extract of Maesobotrya barteri leaves as an antidiarrhoeal agent. Castor oil was used to induce diarrhoea in albino rats. 500mg/kg, 1000mg/kg and 2000mg/kg extracts of M. barteri were used to protect the rats against castor oil induced diarrhoea. The quantitative phytochemical screening of M. barteri revealed the presence of flavonoids, Saponin, Phenol, alkaloid, oxalate and phytate at the concentrations of 101.06ug/g, 21.32ug/g, 7.42ug/g, 1.75ug/g, 1.50ug/g and 0.57ug/g respectively. No experimental animal used to determine the LD50 up to 5000mg/kg extract died. The result of the anti-diarrhoeal property of M. barteri after pretreatment with the extract showed a considerable dose – dependent decrease in the production of diarrhoeal faeces, reduced the rate of defecation and the onset of diarrhoea in albino rats. The inhibition of diarrhoea by
43 Method Transfer and Full Method Validation, Partial Validation in cGMP Environment , Sai Raghuveer Chava*, Jingbo Liu and Sajid Bashir
This paper describes the current method transfer and method validation process following FDA guidance and ICH guidelines in a cGMP environment. The analytical method validation and transfer have been playing a key role in Phase 1 to Phase 3 projects. This paper discusses the method validation and method transfer based on the phase of relevance in the GMP environment. It also describes the number of validation or qualification steps required for the method transfer. When the analytical methods are utilized to generate results about the characteristics of drug-related samples it is essential that the results are trustworthy. They may be utilized as the basis for decisions relating to administering the drug to patients. Analytical method validation required during drug development and manufacturing and these analytical methods is fit for their intended purpose. To comply with the requirements of GMP pharmaceutical industries should have an overall validation policy that documents how validation will be performed. The purpose of this validation is to show that processes involved in the development and manufacture of the drug, production, and analytical testing can be performed in an effective and reproducible manner. This review article provides guidance on how to perform validation characteristics for the analytical method which are utilized in pharmaceutical analysis.
44 Staining Interactions of Bixa Orellana (Annatto) Seed Extracts with Tissues of Wistar Rats , Okorie Nnaemeka, Avwioro OG, Fasogbon Samuel A*,Abubakar Usman, Adeluwoye Adekunle O, Agada Uchechukwu N, Okoro Godwin O
Introduction: Bixa orellana is an ancestral multi use plant popularly known as Achiote or lipstick tree in view of its reddish – orange dye on its seeds, Central and South American populations used these seeds to color their bodies and lips, B. orellana is the only species of Bixaceae family. Aim: The aim of this study was to stain the organs such as skin, liver, kidney, brain, intestines, and bone marrow of a wistar rats with solutions of Bixa orellana (Annatto) seed extracts. Methods: The study design was experimental research, the seeds of Bixa orellana were extracted in distilled water, absolute ethanol and acetone, using maceration methods and the fractions of the extracts were determined using column chromatography while preliminary, the solutions of the extracts were used to stain tissues listed above at varying pH to establish staining interactions of the crude extracts and fractions eluted from the column chromatography. Results: The most significant staining interaction were observed in ethanol solution of bixa extract, followed by acetone and distilled water and staining were also observed at column fraction(9-26), with background yellowish appearance in all the staining solutions which was contrast to controls (haematoxylin and eosin) stained sections and no staining reaction was observed in blood smear of wistar rat. The staining interactions of great quality was observed at pH 5.0 and 7.5, despite its staining ability it was neither superior to eosin nor a substitute to giemsa stain due to the yellowish background appearance and its complete inactivity on blood smear.Conclusion: Bixa orellana dye extracts can be grouped under compound dyes or neutral dyes due to its interaction at both pH 5.0 and 7.5 and cannot be used as substitute for Giemsa stain.
45 What is Compared in a Clinical Trial? , Emin Mehmet Yusuf*
In a randomized clinical trial (RCT), there are universally accepted rules of thumb for choice of alpha (α: 0.05) and power (1-β: 0.80). These choices require consideration and need to be anything but automatic. Next level of consideration should be given to what we actually chose to compare: the value / effect of the intervention per se or that of the intervention strategy. There is a subtle difference which hinges on which dataset we analyze. Possible data sets are intention to treat (ITT), per protocol or on treatment (PP), as treated (AT). And on the highest level, are we interested in how likely we are to observe the data (that suggests the intervention has some effect) in the event that the null hypothesis (that our intervention has no effect) is, in fact, true or as an entirely different construct, how likely is it that the intervention has some effect given our observed data? These are fundamental questions that we appear to decide on, when we chose alpha (α: 0.05) and power (1-β: 0.80) automatically, without giving them the thought process they deserve.
46 ELF1-Like Protein of Physarum Polycephalum ELF1 (PELF1) Act as a DNA Binding Protein, P14-3-3 Interacted Protein and Regulates DNA Structure , Varatharajan GR, Li LF, Zhu K, Zhang JH, Tang JN, Qu JL and Liu SD*
The function of transcription extension factor 1 (elf1) protein was mainly studied by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but it was rarely reported in low eukaryotes. In addition, the role of Physarum ELF1 (PELF1) and PELF1/Physarum 14-3-3 (P14-3-3) protein interaction is poorly understood. Q-PCR analysis of the PELF1 mRNA levels indicates that it involved DNA structure formation. Further, confirmed that the DNA binding site of PELF1 is located within 1 to 22 amino acids from the N-terminus. The site of the interaction between PELF1 and P14-3-3 is located on the 40-RDAGI-44 aa peptide at the corner of the βA→βB of the C4 zinc finger domain. Key peptides and amino acids affecting PELF1 binds to DNA. Electrophoretic mobility shift analysis (EMSA) results showed that PELF is faster than P14-3-3/PELF1 complex when they binding to PardC. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed that both PELF1/DNA complex and P14-3-3/PELF1/DNA complex aggregated, but P14-3-3/PELF1/DNA complex aggregated most. ITC (Isothermal Titration Calorimetry) showed that P14-3-3/PELF1 complex binds PardC DNA 10 times higher than PELF1 binds to PardC DNA. Finally, our data not only represent the first report of PELF1 regulation of DNA structure formation, but also enhance our understanding of PELF1 as a DNA binding protein and PELF1/P14-3-3 interaction
47 Role of Regular Exercise in Preventing Recurrent Malaria Attacks in Male and Female , Seriki SA*, Adebayo OF and Enne EV
The entire human body is generally affected by exercise. Exercise affects the physiology of every system leading to various changes which generally affect the health of the body. Malaria on the other hand is one of the diseases with the most mortality rates especially in Nigeria and Africa, killing millions every year. As lethal as malaria is, no vaccine has been produced for it. Other preventive measures that improve individual’s natural immunity against attacks are still the most effective ways of tackling the disease in the face of failing Artemisinin Combination Therapy (ACT) approved by the World Health Organisation (WHO) to manage patients attacked by the disease. This study examines the role of regular exercise on malaria occurrence among selected male and females. It was to determine whether or not regular exercise reduces the frequency of malaria occurrence? Sixty (60) healthy subjects were selected and divided into two equal groups of regularly exercising subjects and nonexercising subjects with each group consisting of an equal number of male and female subjects. The study was for a period of twelve (12) weeks with the subjects checked every two weeks to see if there was an incidence of malaria. The subjects then filled a questionnaire to ascertain other factors like duration of exercise. At the end of the study period, the non-exercising group showed a higher frequency of malaria attack in both the male and female subjects compared to their regularly exercising counterparts; the non-exercising female subjects had a mean frequency of malaria occurrence of 1.2 compared to 0.4 for the regularly exercising subjects, while the non-exercising male subjects had a mean frequency of malaria occurrence of 0.7 compared to 0.3 of the regularly exercising male subjects. The study showed that regular exercise reduces the frequency of malaria occurrence in individuals.
48 Rapid, Automated Tissue Processing Techniques for Small Biopsies Can be used to Produce Quality Sections for Diagnostic Reporting in Histopathology , Finall AI*, Parris O and Jones E
Surgical histopathologists are currently working in a context of high demand and requirement for fast turnaround times to report small diagnostic biopsies. Use of automated rapid cycle processing could improve turnaround times for reporting small biopsies. There are few papers in the medical literature describing detailed assessment of staining quality in verification of automated rapid cycle processing methods. This study assessed quality of immunohistochemical and haematoxylin and eosin staining of 62 paired endometrial biopsy samples processed using standard overnight cycles compared with rapid cycles of either 2, 3 or 4 hours duration. We found that small biopsies adequately fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin were of sufficient staining quality for use in diagnostic reporting if they were processed for 3 or 4 hours. Five samples in our 2-hour group were of insufficient staining quality for full microscopic evaluation and histopathological diagnosis. As such, the 2-hour method was rejected. Rapid cycles of three hours duration will be adopted in our laboratory for processing small samples. Prospective monitoring of report turnaround times will be needed to assess impact on future outcomes for patients.
49 Invitro Impact of Diallyl Disulphide (Dads) on the Biochemical Components of the Cell Envelope of Staphylococcus Aureus Atcc 25293 , Farheen Fatima1 and Kashinath RT2
Diallyl Disulphide (DADS) is a phytochemical found in the plants of the genus Allium. It is the principal organosulphuric component of distilled garlic oil. Many medicinal benefits like antimicrobial, antiviral and insecticidal are attributed this compound. However the biochemical explanation for such an action remains unexplored. This current study strives to explore the explanation for antimicrobial activity of the compound using the most common skin inhabitant Gram positive bacteria, commonly causing nosocomial infections- Staphylococcus aureus. The Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC), Minimum Bactericidal (MBC) Concentration of DADS, its effect on growth curve and time kill curve of S. aureus has been established. In the current study S. aureus was cultured in the broth containing 1/8 MIC of DADS. The staphylococcal cells were harvested; biochemical components were extracted and quantitated using appropriate biochemical analytic tests. The biochemical components focused on were of those abundantly present and those that contribute to the materialization of the staphylococcal cell envelope total lipids, total lipid phosphorous and total carbohydrates. The biochemical component extracts of S. aureus tested revealed significant reduction in the total lipids (70%), total lipids phosphorous (50%) and total carbohydrates (34%). This reduction in the components may be attributed to the hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic properties of DADS and could further lead to changes in the anabolic processes. Since the cell envelope of the bacterial cell is primarily made up of lipids, phospholipids and peptidoglycan (a carbohydrate polymer). The evident reductions in the studied components indicate reflective impact of DADS on the cell envelope of S. aureus. This study can be extrapolated in innovation of a new phytochemical-antibiotic against the life threatening multidrug resistant human pathogens.
50 Management Skill to Successful Make in an Extra-Marital Affair: Rare Chance to Meet Fact File Study of Transformed in Pharmacy Colleges in Formerly Pune University , Rahul H*
A woman who sleeps with a man she just met signals that she has low self-esteem or that she is actually only using him for sex.
51 β-type Ti Alloys for Biomedical Applications , Yavuz HI and Yamanoglu R*
In the world market, medical products emerge as a sector that directly concerns people’s life quality and related activities. The medical product industry continues to grow rapidly in the world, especially in developed countries in line with the advances in technology, along with the elderly population and welfare level. In this context, biomedical implants constitute an important branch of the medical product industry. Among the materials preferred for implant production, the metallic biomaterials are very popular due to their superior mechanical properties. Ti and Ti alloys, among the metallic biomaterials, draw more attention considerably compared to stainless steel and Co-Cr alloys due to their characteristic features such as high specific strength and superior corrosion resistance, low density and low modulus of elasticity. Although the elastic modulus of titanium and its alloys is low compared to the other metallic biomaterials, it remains higher than bone. β-type Ti alloys have been developed to prevent the stress shielding effect caused by the elastic modulus mismatch and sterilization of the biomaterials used in the body from toxic alloy elements. In this article, the effect of the use of β-type Ti alloys, which are extremely prospective materials and open to development, in the body on host organisms, and the efficiency of the developed alloys have been investigated.
52 Promising Drug Design Strategies: Intrinsically Disordered Proteins , Michaux C*, Mignon J and Perpète EA
In contrast to the classical paradigm “one sequence - one structure - one function” that a given protein sequence corresponds to a well-defined three-dimensional (3D) structure and an associated function, it was discovered in the 1990s that an increasing number of proteins can be functional in the absence of a stable 3D-structure
53 An Improved Protocol for the Expression and Purification of Tetracycline Monooxgenase: An Enzyme Involved in Antibiotic Resistance , Jennifer Bernal, Zainab Ojutiku, Adriana Cordero, AshLee Martinez, Kayle Berkey and Kevin Francis*
Tetracyclines are an important group of antibiotics used in agricultural and clinical settings. They function by binding to the 30S subunit of the prokaryotic ribosome to effectively halt translation. The emergence of tetracycline resistant strains of pathogenic bacteria has threatened the continued use of the drug. One mechanism of tetracycline resistance is the degradation of the drug by the flavin dependent enzyme tetracycline monooxygenase (TetX). Only a limited number of studies of the enzyme have been conducted to date due to the limited amounts of pure protein that can be obtained from current protocols (~6 mg/L of cell culture). The current report describes the development of optimized expression and purification protocols to obtain larger amounts of pure, soluble enzyme suitable for detailed kinetic studies to deduce its chemical mechanism. During the initial phase of this work the pET22a+ plasmid with the gene encoding for TetX was used to transform either DH5α or Rosetta (DE3) pLysS Escherichia coli cells. Expression trials of these cell lines in which both the temperature and times of incubation with isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyrandoside were then carried out. Of the conditions tested, optimal expression of TetX was found with a 20 h induction period at 30 °C using E. coli DH5α cells. Ammonium sulfate precipitation trials were then conducted where it was concluded that a 20 fold purification of the enzyme is achieved through treatment with 40% saturation of salt and collection of the supernatant after centrifugation. A nickel affinity chromatographic protocol was also developed, which purified the enzyme to high levels as judged by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the specific activity of the purified sample. The expression and purification protocol developed here resulted in ~36 mg/L of cell culture, which is a 6-fold improvement over published protocols.
54 Field Performance of BAU-Biofungicaide for Management of Narrow Brown Leaf Spot and Bacterial Leaf Blight Disease of Rice CV. BRRI Dhan29 , Field Performance of BAU-Biofungicaide for Management of Narrow Brown Leaf Spot and Bacterial Leaf Blight Disease of Rice CV. BRRI Dhan29
Potent (0.1%) and BAU-Biofungicide (2%) revealed the significant reduction both in disease severity and incidence of narrow brown leaf spot disease, and the lowest disease severity and incidence of bacterial leaf blight disease were 3.00% and 5.83%, respectively in BRRI dhan29 in 2012 year. BAU-Biofungicide (Trichoderma based preparation), extract of garlic (Allium sativum) and neem (Azadirachta indica), Bavistin DF (Carbandazim) and Potent 250 EC (Propiconazole) were evaluated in controlling narrow brown leaf spot and bacterial leaf blight disease (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. Oryzae) under field condition for producing seed quality and controlling seed borne pathogen of rice cv BRRI dhan29 during 2012 and 2013 years. Maximum normal seedling (87.67%) and 37.49% higher increase in vigour index on seed quality test of harvested seeds were observed with BAU-Biofungicide (3%) over control. BAU-Biofungicide (2 and 3%) and Potent 250 EC (0.1%) were found to be effective in controlling seed borne pathogens. BAU-Biofungicide has also been attributed as profound contribution on quality seed production of harvested seed of BAU-Biofungicide sprayed plot.