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Annals of Immunology And Immunotherapy

ISSN(p): | ISSN(e):2691-5782
Journal Papers (37) Details
Indexed Journal

1 Identification of Important Key Regulators in Cervical Cancer Network , Asmita Das* and Kapil Jangra
Cervical cancer is a major cause of death in women. The total number of genes that are associated with cervical cancer is 3099. We created a PPI network and then studied the topological properties of the network that gave evidence that the network is scale free, the degree distribution obeys power law and have some nodes (vertices) that play a crucial role during cancer progression. The aim of this project was to identify these nodes (also called key regulators) and the strategy used for this, is based on Barabasi-Albert model (which is a bottom up approach).The model suggested that the network we created, is evolved in nature by growth and preferential attachment concept, and have hub nodes. Finally, we concluded that there are seven important key regulators (viz. CDK2, E2F1, CDKN1A, CDKN2A, TP53, PTGS2 and CTNNB1) that are present in our network, which implies that if we are able to delete these key regulators, the whole network would collapse. So, by understanding the complex functionality and regulation of these fundamental key regulators, we can identify the diagnostic biomarkers and can develop early detection techniques and therapy for cervical cancer.
2 Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma Gondii in Saudi Autoimmune Disease Patients , Ismail KA*, Zaini R, Gharib AF, Hagag HM, Hassan AF, Alzahrani S, Aied A, Alhomaidi F, Mohammed N, Abdulaziz S and Aljumaihe S
Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is considered as one of the highly resistant intracellular parasite mainly found in the central nervous system (CNS), however, it can persist in multiple tissues in the body. Moreover, T. gondii is causing disseminated infections among patients with autoimmune diseases. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in autoimmune disease Saudi patients. Ninety patients suffer from different autoimmune diseases and forty five healthy controls were subjected to determination of anti T. gondii immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody seropositivity using commercially available Enzyme-linked Immuno sorbent assay kits (ELISA). The results showed that the seropositivity rate of anti T. gondii IgG antibodies was 22.2% the results are statistically significant. These statistically significant results support the association between T. gondii infection and different autoimmune diseases and suggest the usefulness of performing serological test for detection of infection by toxoplasma, so it is recommended early detection of Toxoplasma in autoimmune diseases patients to prevent any complications.
3 Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome in a 12-YearOld Boy with Mixed Connective Tissue Disease , Qureshi S*
Reversible posterior encephalopathy syndrome is a clinic radiologic entity characterized by headaches, altered mental status, seizures, and visual loss and is associated with white matter vasogenic edema predominantly affecting the posterior occipital and parietal lobes of the brain. We herein, present a rare complication of mixed connective tissue disease. A 12-year old boy presented with generalized tonic clonic fits, aphasia, fever and generalized body swelling since 2 weeks. His labs showed hypercholestremia, hypoalbuminemia and massive proteinuria. Renal biopsy revealed secondary membranous glomerulopathyand and he developed posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. His anti RNP and anti-smooth muscle came back positive. Evaluation by magnetic resonance scan of the brain showed that the child had hyper intense signal in the parieto-occipital regions. All signs of PRES started resolving after seven days of supportive treatment evidenced by subsequent radiological evaluation. PRES and secondary membranous glomerulopathyshould be kept in mind in any connective tissue disease that is on prolonged immunosuppressive therapy.
4 Is Routine Screening for TORCH Infection in Antenatal Women with Bad Obstetric History Worthwhile! , Fatima S*
Recent published data on seroprevalence and incidence of TORCH infection in pregnant women from developing countries shows a highly variable picture. So, in this scenario is routine TORCH screening of all bad obstetric history cases [BOH] worth? The topic is highly debatable. There are no strict local guidelines regulating its use. However, some developed nations have brought into practise mandatory infectious disease screening procedures during pregnancy like one by ACOG, HSE Ireland, NHS England and FOGSI which are really helpful in disease control and prevention. Problems arises when no guidelines exist or when they are not adhered to for diagnosis and management of the same. Fallacies are noted in the test request, timing, method and type of specimen used for testing and interpretation of test results. This review article intends to through light and brings out important facts associated with TORCH testing which will be of help to laboratory specialist and clinicians. And hopes in future will reduce the number of undue investigations and extra financial burden to the patient and his family when affordability is a big concern.
5 Assessment of the Level of Interferon-Gamma in the Pathogenesis of Psoriasis , Gharib AF*, Althobaity AS, ALnemari SH, Alharthy RS, Aljohany RS, Alsufyani RM, Hagag HM, Khalifa M, Khamis AA and Ismail KA
Background: Psoriasis is a chronic autoimmune condition characterized by infiltration of keratinocytes by inflammatory cells that cause scaling on the skin surface. Psoriasis is considered now as T cell-mediated disease. INF- γ is considered a key cytokine in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Objectives: To evaluate the level of IFN gamma in order to recognize its role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis and its relation to the severity of the disease. Materials and Methods: We investigated the level of serum IFN-γ in 40 patients with psoriasis and in 25 healthy controls by ELISA Kit. We used the PASI score to assess the severity of psoriasis. Results: The serum levels of IFN-γ were elevated in all patients with psoriasis but not in all healthy controls. Also, the serum levels of IFN-γ were correlated with the severity of disease in psoriatic patients. Conclusion: The level of IFN-γ can be used as a useful estimate of the severity of the disease and may be used in daily practice as prognostic follow-up marker.
6 Is there any Relationship between Body Weight and Urine Ketones? , Qadir MI and Hussain HS*
The objective of this study was to correlate normal body weight with urine ketones. When there is insufficient level of glucose in our body, body use fats as an alternate source of energy. The substance produced is known as ketones, this will be shown in our blood and urine. If the patients are diabetics, then urine contain ketones means we are not producing insulin. There is another condition in which we are not diabetics but can develop ketones. Life of a patient or an individual is highly affected by its weight. Cardiac vascular diseases are all due to the overweight than to normal. Pulmonary disorders are also the results of overweight. People were asked to collect their urine in a container and then we imposed the dipstick method and analyzed the results for the ketones in the urine and noted the readings of the people. A questionnaire was prepared and asked the people about weight and ketones presence in their urine. All the experiments were conducted when the persons were at normal conditions. None of them is using any medicines or certain kind of drugs. The data described us that there was not a scientific relationship between the human body weight and urine ketones. It was inferred that there was no relationship between the body weight and normal ketones in urine.
7 The Importance of Immunology Knowledge for the Health Sciences Students and Physicians , Marcano-Lozada M*
When I was a sophomore medicine student, I had the first real contact with immunology, the second most fear subject of the second year of the med studies (behind physiology), but I never suspect the importance of this subject in my formation as a doctor and in the day-to-day practice in general medicine and then as a Medical Microbiology Specialist.
8 Can Computational Design Replace Human Design of Antimicrobial Peptides? , Cheng JTJ*
Resistance to small molecule antibiotics has posed a major threat to healthcare due to lack of available next generation antibiotics. Particularly, the infamous “superbugs” infections are not only difficult to treat, but also present high reoccurring rates and persistent biofilm problems, causing complication in treatment and prevention in community, hospital, as well as other setting.
9 Are Extracellular Vesicles Reliable Biomarkers in Multiple Sclerosis? , Amoruso A, Allegretta C and Avolio C*
During the last decades growing attention has been given to extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by the cells as new specialized structures for intercellular communication without direct cell contact. EVs are small membrane vesicles, commonly distinguished in microvesicles (MVs) (100-1000nm in diameter) and exosomes (EXOs) (40-100nm in diameter), which differ in size, content and mechanism of formation [1]. They are involved in different biological processes, including neuroinflammation.
10 The Combined Effect of STAT3 and NF-Κb Inhibitors (The Last Links of the Cholinergic Anti-Inflammatory Pathway) on Mouse Mortality and Blood Concentration of Proinflammatory Cytokines in Sepsis , Zabrodskii PF*
Experiments on random-bred albino mice showed that the inhibitor of the transcription factor STAT3 (S3I-201) and the NF-Kb inhibitor (BAY 11-7082) significantly reduced the mortality of mice from experimental sepsis (intraperitoneal administration of E. coli) in 4 and 24 h after modeling by reducing blood levels of Proinflammatory cytokines TNFα, IL-1β, and IL-6. The combined actions of STAT3 and NF-Kb inhibitors (the last links of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway) have an additive effect.
11 Immunomodulatory Effects of Cholera Toxin B Subunit and Peptide LKEKK , Navolotskaya EV*
The review analyzed data on Immunomodulatory action of cholera toxin B subunit (CT-B) and the synthetic peptide LKEKK that corresponds to residues 16-20 in thymosin-α1 and 131-135 in interferon-α2 on the functional, NO-synthase and guanylate cyclase activity of T and B lymphocytes, of macrophage-like cell line RAW 264.7. According to the data presented, CT-B and the peptide bind to the cholera toxin receptor of the target cell with high affinity and trigger the following cascade of intracellular reactions: activation of inducible NO synthase → increase in NO production → increase in soluble guanylate cyclase activity → increase in the cyclic guanosine-3’,5’-monophosphate level.
12 Therapeutic Apheresis in Renal Diseases with Immunologic Origin , Bambauer R* and Schiel R
Since the mid-1970s, when membrane modules became available, plasma separation techniques have gained in importance especially in the past few years. Systemic autoimmune diseases based on an immune pathogenesis produce autoantibodies and circulating immune complexes, which cause inflammation in the tissues of various organs. In most cases, these diseases have a poor prognosis without treatment. Therapeutic apheresis (TA) in combination with immunosuppressive therapies has led to a steady increase in survival rates over the last 40 years. The different diseases can be treated by various apheresis methods such as therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) with substitution solution, or with online plasma or blood purification using adsorption columns, which contain biological or non-biological agents. Here, the authors provide an overview of the most important pathogenic aspects indicating that TA can be a supportive therapy in systemic autoimmune diseases such as renal disorders.
13 A Fewer Drops out Diagnosis Affects a Person’s Sexual Functioning: Rare Lesion from Thin to Thick Late Wake up Principal from Amravati University Behavioural Survey , Hajare R*
Tongue has represented your health. While it is not true that tongue is the strongest muscle body it is definitely one of the most unique: The tongue can be a harbinger for the health of your entire body. According to researcher tongue and mouth tissues are more transparent than skin in the game so medical providers can more easily see signs of a medical condition beneath the surface. The tongue and mouth are a great place to look for signs of disease before a patient develops symptoms tongue is loaded with sensory nerves, making it more sensitive than other parts of the body. The tongue has used for everyday functions like speech, eating, and drinking, sucking a penis from a mouth.
14 COVID-19 Infection in Elderly, Adverse Outcomes and Annihilation of the Longevity Dream , Vinod Nikhra*
The SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Older Adults: The Covid-19 pandemic is impacting the elderly people in drastic ways. As a novel disease, it often presents with higher morbidity and adverse outcomes including mortality in the elderly. As a special age group, they face a significantly high risk for contracting the infection and developing severe illness due to physiological changes with aging and potential underlying health conditions. Clinical Spectrum and Course of COVID-19: The clinical spectrum of COVID-19 varies from asymptomatic or paucisymptomatic presentation to a moderate to severe state characterized by respiratory failure necessitating mechanical ventilation and ICU support. Further, those developing critical clinical condition manifest complications like sepsis, septic shock, and multiple organ dysfunction syndromes. The elderly people are more likely to develop a severe and critical illness as compared to the younger age groups. The Host Factors for COVID-19 in Elderly: In general, the elderly men display a higher mortality than women, especially if there are one or more underlying chronic health conditions. The age-related decline in physiological functions, attributable to reduced organ reserve and gradual functional decline in various organs in the elderly, is the key factor. In addition, the aging associated alterations in the immune response, the immune senescence accompanied by subclinical pro-inflammatory state and inflamm-aging, expose the elderly to higher infectivity and a severe form of illness. There is significantly reduced ACE2 expression with aging in the elderly age group in both genders, which is further reduced in the elderly with hypertension, heart disease and diabetes. The SARS-CoV-2 binding to ACE2 may exaggerate the pro inflammatory milieu, predisposing this age group with the reduced ACE2 expression, to greater disease severity and mortality. There are certain socio-economic reasons, as well. The elderly people are prone to experience a drop in the quality of life and neglected healthcare, which compromise their health in general and when exposed to Covid-19. Conclusion Annihilation of Longevity Dream: The aging is a complex process and affects virtually all organs of the body. A vast body of knowledge can now explain the changes that take place with aging at molecular and cellular level. The possibility of aging slowly and living longer, and lengthy-healthy life is alluring. As the life expectancy has increased with the improved lifestyle, progress in healthcare and technology have made possible to slow aging and achieve significant longevity. But, the high morbidity and mortality in the elderly with Covid-19 shows us that aging weakens the physiological systems and compromises function of various organs especially in those with the underlying conditions like diabetes and heart disease. The older adults or elderly age group, in light of its vulnerability to Covid-19 associated infectivity, disease severity, unfavorable prognosis and worsened mortality, now face the loss of the longevity dream.
15 COVID-19 Pandemic is not Apocalypse, is Strong Warning , Athari SS*
Human health and security is important dimension of human life and are essential instruments to human survival, livelihood and dignity. Health and security are closely related and the health significance in achieving human security is evidenced by the fact. Natural disasters, such as earthquakes, tsunamis, hurricanes, volcano eruptions, drought, floods, landslides, forest fires, etc.
16 Characterization of the Genetic Basis of Unresponsiveness to BCG- Vaccinated Sudanese Health Workers in Khartoum State , Abdallah HMA, Bolad AK, El Elobied A, Babikir AM, Osman AF and EL Hussien AM
Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic disease caused by M. tuberculosis. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that Mycobacterium tuberculosis infects a one third of the world’s human population and kills two million people each year. The number of active infection was 14.4million, in Sudan the indicator of 1% corresponds to an approximate incidence of 50cases of pulmonary symptoms smear-positive TB/100,000 population. We attempt to characterize the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) among Healthcare Workers (HCWs) in Khartoum State who have vaccinated with BCG and failed to show any response to the vaccine and Tuberculin Skin Test. One-hundred thirty-seven HCWs were screened by conventional methods (microscopy, TST, HIV test and Chest X-Ray), all subjects were apparently healthy and allocated according to the TST results into three groups (strong TST-positive, moderate TST-positive, and negative groups). Link regards to HLA genotypes distribution, the present study educated that alleles associated with TB-exposed group DRB1*0701, DRB1*1501, DQB1*0501 and DQB1*0301. DRB1*0701 and DQB1*0301 with high frequency among strong TST-positive group, DRB1*0701 and DQB1*0601 alleles were with high frequency among moderate TST-positive group and DRB1*0701, DRB1*1501, DQB1*0601 alleles were with high frequency among TST-negative group. Some of these alleles (DRB1*1501, DQB1*0701, DQB1*0301 were shown exclusively in TB-exposed subjects (100%). It seems that they act as susceptibility genes to TB. Moreover, DRB1*0201 and DQB1*01 and DRB1*0301 alleles were found to be associated with control group. Subjects of the study group were divided into three sub-groups based on the ethnic group; Nilotic, Kordufan and Darfur, and Nile Nubian groups. DRB1*03, DRB1*13, DQB1*01, DQB1*04, DQB1*02 and DQB1*06 were exclusively found in the Nilotic tribes (100%). While DRB1*07 was exclusively found in Kordufan and Darfur tribes (100%), DRB1*15 allele was found to be higher (53.3%) among Nubian tribes but further investigation using large sample size is recommended to verify these findings.
17 Sars-Cov-2 Rapid Antibody Tests: Interest and Limits , Naamoune S*, Salah S, Ait Ali Yahia CT and Radi H
Since the onset of COVID 19 outbreak last December 2019, several groups of scientists have tried to characterize the novel coronavirus’s structure, to develop fast immunoassays, easier to use in order to control the current situation. Nowadays, hundreds of serological immunoassays are commercialized; therefore, we aim to compare four POCT according to their particularities, sensitivities and specificities too. However, some limits have been observed. Consequently, it is highly important to establish strict recommendations for their indication of use.
18 Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors Therapy in Prostate Cancer: Lessons Learnt , Prabhakar S and Chandok M
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) therapy has rapidly changed the treatment landscape for a number of cancers but resulted in only marginal success in prostate cancer (PCa). In order to bring about durable clinical benefit of immune check point inhibitor therapy in prostate cancer, it is critical to understand the current status of ICIs therapy for PCa and reasons for low/negligible outcomes. This article summarizes the current status of ICIs therapy in PCa and discusses how ICIs therapy can result in the successful treatment of a specific subset of PCa patients. In this article, we review how immunotherapy and different combination therapies are paving their way by incorporating the strategies of converting the “cold” PCa tumor into “hot”, role of genomic landscape of PCa in influencing the outcome of ICIs therapy, what are the promising novel biomarker candidates, which can guide the patient selection for ICIs therapy and help in monitoring the efficacy of treatment. This article highlights that ICIs therapy hold a promising future in subset of PCa patients.
19 Agreement of the Point of Care Test (POCT) Boditech iCHROMA™ Covid-19 IgG Antibody Assay with the Abbott Architect SARSCoV-2 IgG Antibody Assay , M Bass, J Bolodeoku*, E Stevenson, C Anyaeche, TK Kim and V Retnasingham
Background: The Boditech iCHROMA™ point of care immunoassay analyser has a Covid-19 antibody assay for the qualitative determination of IgG/IgM antibodies in human whole blood/serum/plasma. It is helpful as an aid in the screening of early mild asymptomatic or acute patients for identifying Covid-19 infection with high sensitivity. Objectives: To determine the clinical agreement (sensitivity and specificity) of the Boditech iCHROMA™ Covid-19 antibody assay and the Abbott Architect SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay for the qualitative detection of IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 in human serum and plasma. Results: Of the 50 plasma samples, 20 (40%) of the plasma samples assayed were reported as positive by both the Abbott Architect SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay and the Boditech iCHROMA™ Covid-19 IgG antibody assay. The remaining 30 (60%) of the plasma samples were reported as negative by Abbott Architect SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody assay. However, the Boditech iCHROMA™ Covid-19 IgG antibody assay, reported only 27 of the 30 (90%) samples as negative. Conclusion: There was an overall agreement of 95%, with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 90% of the Boditech iCHROMA™ Covid-19 IgG antibody assay and the Abbott Architect SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay
20 Study of Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life (RCQOL) in Children with Asthma and Allergic Rhinitis , Lahiri K, Reddy M and Najmuddin F*
Introduction: Allergic Rhinitis (AR) is a non-infectious epidemic which can be prevented and controlled effectively with good quality of life in compliant children following the conventional inhalational therapies diligently. Paediatric Rhino-conjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (PRQLQ), devised by Professor Elizabeth Juniper is a validated questionnaire consisting of 23 parameters in 5domains. It is one of the best possible ways to judge the clinical severity and improvement in the affected children. Aims and Objectives: To study the clinical profile in childhood Asthma and Allergic Rhinitis. Material and Methods: The study included 30patients in the age group of 6to12years diagnosed with Allergic Rhinitis. The Quality of Life was analysed using Paediatric Rhino-conjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (PRQLQ). Results: Cough featured in (90%) of the subjects followed by sneezing, rhinorrhoea and nose block. Allergic shiners were seen in (63%) children followed by Deviated Nasal Septum (DNS) in (46.7%) and Inferior turbinate hypertrophy (ITH) in (40%) cases. The Quality of Life parameters revealed nasal symptoms (100%), Practical problems (80%) and Activity limitations (70%). Majority of the subjects had mild affection (66.7%) in different domains of PRQLQ. Asthma was the most common comorbidity (90%) and family history of Allergic Rhinitis featured in (66.7%) cases. Conclusion: All the domains of PRQLQ have to be critically evaluated in childhood AR. The questionnaire would aid in clinical assessment, therapeutic alterations and over all well-being of the child.
21 Genetic Variation in TNF-α, its Relation with Inflammatory Biomarkers and Susceptibility to Rheumatoid Arthritis , Gharib AF, Elsawy HW, Ismail KA*, Alshehri AA, Fadel SW, Alharthi MM, Alqurashi NS, Al Ajmani SH and Khalifa AM
Background: Tumor necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α) is encoded and controlled by TNF-α gene, which is involved in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) susceptibility. This research aimed to identify genetic variations of TNF-α (G308A) and to establish its association with inflammatory markers in Rheumatoid Arthritis predisposition. Methods: In the present study, fifty RA patients and fifty volunteers were involved and evaluated for the C-reactive protein, rheumatoid factor, and TNF-α were estimated by ELISA, Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) by Wintergreen method and for TNF-α-308 G>A polymorphism by polymerase chain reaction with amplification refractory mutation system (PCR-ARMS). Results: The CRP, RF, ESR and TNF-α were significantly elevated in RA patients relative to controls. The serum level TNF-α was also significantly elevated in female patients and in patients ≥50 years. Analysis of TNF-308 gene polymorphism revealed that GG genotypes were more prevalent in RA patients than in the healthy individuals and that GG genotype may be a potential factor to RA. The G allele was more common in RA than in the control. Elevated TNF-α serum levels were significantly associated the GG genotype and functional disability in RA patients. Conclusion: TNF-α promoter 308polymorphism GG genotype may be considered as a risk factor for RA and the TNF-α serum level was significantly related to the functional disability in the disease.
22 Epidemiological Characterization of the Infection by Treponema Pallidum in Pregnant Women in Beira City, Sofala, Mozambique , Guido N*, Miguel N, Célio A, Hilario M and Izaidino M
Introduction: Syphilis is one of several diseases that can be transmitted during pregnancy and childbirth, which can lead to complications during pregnancy and in the newborn. This is especially so when the pregnant woman is not diagnosed or treated properly and in a timely manner. Methodology: Data from 262 pregnant women prospectively included, aged 18-41years, attended at the Ponta Gêa Health Centre for antenatal clinics has been analyzed from January to September of 2016. In the prospective study, a rapid treponemal and a non-treponemal test were performed. A structured questionnaire was used to collect socio demographic and clinical variables, which was developed from the literature review. Results: The prevalence of active syphilis was 11.8%; the majority of reactive pregnant women were aged 18-25years (55.4%), (61.3%) of pregnant women were treated with doses below those recommended; only a small number of the partners were treated successfully. The highest seroprevalence of syphilis was found in housewives (77%), in those who attended primary education (71.6%) in those who had a monthly income of 1000- 3000 MZN (70.3%), in those with two or more pregnancies (55.7%) and living with someone has husband and wife (63.5%). The syphilis/HIV co-infection rate was high. Conclusion: According to the results obtained in this study, urgent measures are needed to assess the problems encountered and to improve the screening approach, treatment and monitoring of syphilis during pregnancy in order to prevent the cases of congenital syphilis.
23 Latent Growth Curve Model Evaluation of Illicit Substance and Tobacco Use among Young Adults in Cumberland County, North Carolina , Mongkuo MY*, Mongkuo MYB and Lucas N
Aim: Young adulthood is a period when individuals experiment health risk substances such as illicit substance and tobacco use that may predispose them to sexually transmitted diseases. Minority young adults living in HIV prevalent urban communities are notably more likely to engage in these behaviors. In the United States, minority young adults over-represented with HIV infection. To resolve this problem, the United States Congress has invested over $100million in grants. In the United States, few studies have examined illicit substance and tobacco use among this vulnerable population. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of a comprehensive HIV prevention program (CIHPP) on illicit substance and tobacco use among minority young adults living in a high prevalence of HIV infection urban community. Methods: The data of illicit substance and tobacco use was collected using a survey of a random sample of minority young adults who participated in the CIHPP. for12-months. Change in illicit substance and tobacco use during 24 months of minority young adults' participation in CIHPP was recorded. The data was analyzed using the latent growth curve (LGC) model within the framework of the structural equation modeling procedure. The evaluation included the change in the intercept and slope of the Mean, Variance, covariance, and predictor variable in three waves for 24months. Result: The average score for illegal substance use of 5.411 decreased significantly over the 24months. Young adults exhibited a low rate of increase in their illicit use substance over the 24months. This finding indicates that the CIHPP was effective in decreasing the substance use of young adults under study. There were significant inter individual differences in the original score of illicit substance use between the young adults at the beginning of the implementation of the CIHPP and its change over time, as the as the minority young adult progressed from the beginning of the CIHPP intervention through the 24 months. Using gender as a predictor of change showed no difference between male and female young adults. For tobacco use, the average score for tobacco (16.631) decreased significantly over the three 24months. There was no meaningful difference between minority young adult males and minority young adult females in illicit substances use at the beginning of CIHPP. However, during CIHPP intervention, minority young adult’s males had an increase in the rate of change in tobacco use than minority young adult females. The mean estimate for tobacco use indicates that the average score for tobacco use increased significantly over the three 12-months periods. The covariance between the intercept and slope factor for tobacco use was statistically significant. Minority young adult males exhibited a higher rate of tobacco use than their female counterparts over the 24 months. This finding suggests that the Comprehensive, integrated HIV prevention program was not effective in decreasing the tobacco use of the minority young adults studied, The variance estimate relatedto the intercept and slope for tobacco use is statistically significant (p=.001) suggesting that there were vast inter-individual differences both at the beginning of CIHPP and the rate of change of tobacco use between the minority young adults at the beginning of the implementation of the CIHPP and its rate of change over time, as the young adult progressed from the beginning of the CIHPP intervention through the 24months. Such evidence provides sturdy support for further investigation of variability or heterogeneity related to the growth trajectory. Specifically, the incorporation of time-invariant of change into the model can explain the young adults' tobacco use variability. This incorporation involves testing the latent growth curve model with the demographic or static variable as a time-invariant predictor of change. This study incorporated gender in the LGC model as a predictor of change. The prediction module with gender as predictor found that there was no meaningful difference in illicit substance and tobacco use between minority young adult males and females.
24 Interleukin-2 Family Members and their Role in Demyelinating Disease , Bhopale MK*
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) has a family which includes IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, IL-15 and IL-21 cytokines. This family group of an IL-2 cytokine plays important, but different roles in neurologically related demyelinating disease studied in multiple sclerosis (MS) and it’s experimentally induced rodent models. IL-2 play role in strong T-cell expansion and participates in the maintenance of T-regs cells, but also keep in the stimulation and proliferation of pathogenic T cells. IL-4 induces differentiation of naïve helper T cells (Th0) to Th2 cells. IL-7 promotes Th1 cell differentiation. IL-9 is a hematopoietic growth factor for major pathogenic Th17 cells in EAE. IL-15 is necessary for memory CD8+ T cells and plays a negative regulatory role through CD8+ CD122+ T cells in reducing Th17-mediated inflammation. IL-21 has potent regulatory effects on the natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T cells. IL-21 activates CD4+ and up-regulates the Th2 and Th17 subsets of T helper cells. Based on different roles of each family member in demyelinating disease, bio-agents and therapeutic agents have been attempted in an experimental model to study their role in demyelinating disease is described in the present review.
25 Resurgence and Recurrent Outbreaks of COVID-19: Prospects for Assimilation of hCoV-19 into Human Genome , Nikhra V*
The Outbreaks and Resurgence: The disease which reportedly began in the Chinese city Wuhan in November-December 2019, soon spread to various parts of the world, and was named and declared a pandemic disease by WHO. While the European countries were recovering from the epidemic, the disease took hold in the USA, the South American countries, Arabian countries, and South Asian countries, predominantly affecting India. Presently, most of the European countries are witnessing resurgence and recurrent outbreaks of COVID-19. Spread and Evolving New Insights: Whereas there is workplace-related infection rise as people are returning to their offices, in other places the outbreaks are related to the people crowding and partying care-freely and trying to resort back to their earlier way of life. The reopening the educational facilities across the continents may make matters worse. Impact on Health and Healthcare: Most cases of COVID-19 infections go unnoticed and are followed by self-recovery. But what may appear good from the clinical perspective, appears to complicate epidemiological efforts to contain the outbreak. With the evolving information about the disease, there seem to be certain possible outcomes such as control and containment, or the persistence of the disease as global endemic accompanied with outbreaks and resurgent episodes. Gnetic Factors Linked to Disease Severity: With the COVID-19 pandemic, not all infected patients develop a severe respiratory illness. Further, there is a large variation in disease severity, which may be due to the genetic factors underlying the variable response to the virus. It is becoming clear that apart from the advanced age and pre-existing conditions, certain genetic constituent factors render some patients more vulnerable to the more severe forms of the diseases. Integration of Virus into Human Genome: A significant part of the human genome is derived from viruses especially the RNA viruses. In fact, about 8 percent of the human genome is made up of endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), which are viral gene sequences that have become a permanent part of the human lineage after they infected our ancient ancestors. With this background, an emerging novel concept holds that if COVID-19 persists for several generations, its genetic material is projected to be integrated or assimilated into human genome. The involved mechanisms are conceptualised through the transposons or transposable elements of the SARS-CoV-2.
26 Case Report of Rare cause of Acute Hemolytic Anemia in Saudi Patient (Babesiosis) , Fathy FM, Albeladi M, Alluhaybi R, Ismail KA* and Khalifa OM
Babesiosis is one of the protozoan zoonotic diseases its presentation rang from asymptomatic to severe clinical conditions, with severe hemolysis. Immune status of the host and the species of the parasite has impact on the clinical presentations of the infected patient our patient is presented here; the patient was admitted from a countryside with severe anemia and a deterioration in his general condition, he was admitted to intense care unit and received blood transfusion, in addition to antimicrobial treatment in form of azithromycin and Ceftriaxon, his condition improve and released from ICU on the second day and discharge from hospital after improvement on the seventh day
27 Risk of Sexually Transmitted Infections and HIV in Adolescence , Alfaro AC*
Introduction adolescents represent a vulnerable group exposed to sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS. It is a stage in which they are subjected to constant changes in physical, mental and social development and risk factors such as ignorance, early sex, drug addiction, social inequality, gender and myths contribute to this exposure. Objective: To delve into the characteristics of adolescents that put them at risk of acquiring an STI-HIV/AIDS. Methods: A bibliographic review was carried out where the databases included in the LILACS, EBSCO and HINARI services were consulted, and very good coverage was achieved, both in Cuba, Latin America and the Caribbean, and in the rest of the world. Conclusions: This review article on the risks to which adolescents are subjected to acquiring an STI-HIV/AIDS is put in the hands of all personnel involved in working with adolescents. For the family doctor in particular for being a staff closely linked to the community, allowing them to be in better conditions to detect these behaviors thus contributing to exercise and undertake prevention actions that will allow us to achieve the objectives of our Ministry of Public Health in relation to with this indicator.
28 COVID-19: Exploring the Disease Transmission Dynamics , Nikhra V*
The Immuno-Thrombo-Inflammatory Disease: COVID-19 is an acute immuno-thrombogenic inflammatory viral disease manifested by dysfunctions related to multiple organs involved in its pathogenesis. Its incidence and prevalence is related to environmental viability of the virus, various transmission factors associated with the agent and the host, possible modes of transmission, period of infectiousness, and composition and susceptibility of the population. Whereas respiratory route is dominant mode of transmission, transmission through direct contact and fomite transmission do occur. SARS-CoV-2: Understanding the Agent Factors: Understanding of SARS-CoV-2 or hCoV-19 structural components is important for understanding the dynamics of the disease transmission and propagation. The virus has a lipid shell, a singlestranded RNA genome containing 29891 nucleotides, spike, envelope, and membrane and hemagglutinin-esterase dimer proteins. The SARS-CoV-2 structural components have been related to the COVID-19 pathogenic mechanisms. The Kinetics of Transmission and Propagation: Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 to cause COVID-19 requires that a minimum but unknown dose of replication-competent virus be delivered to an appropriate anatomical site in a susceptible and vulnerable host. A combination of various agent (viral), host, and environmental factors influence the transmission and course of the disease. Fear, Confusion, and Impact on Mass Behavior: The un-relented spread of COVID-19 pandemic is a major public health concern threatening general and mental health and safety of the human life all over the globe. The associated anxiety and emotional stress levels are often high. The healthcare professionals, too, suffer with various concerns like long and strenuous working hours, being able to provide competent medical care, their safety at the workplace and taking the infection home to their family, and uncertainty about their organizational support for their personal and family needs. Conclusion: The Lessons for Pandemic Control: The human subjects produce respiratory droplets ranging from 0.1 to 1000µm. Depending on droplet size, inertia, gravity, and evaporation factors, the emitted droplets and aerosols disperse in air. There are two obvious transmission pathways: the airborne inhalation and contracting through the contaminated surfaces. It appears that the contaminated surfaces may play less significant role as compared to the infected airborne droplets and the aerosol in the disease transmission.
29 COVID-19 Vaccine Development: The Need, the Fast-track, and the Concerns , Nikhra V
The Nemesis-SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic: Leaving in its wake millions of infections, accompanied by an immense magnitude of morbidity and multitude of mortality, and an unfathomable economic toll, the COVID-19 pandemic has led to a global impact. A vaccine is urgently needed to prevent the disease, thwart the complications and avert deaths resulting from transmission of the infection. The Hubris-Vaccine Development: While most of the platforms of vaccine candidates have focused on the spike (S) protein and its variants as the primary antigen of COVID 19 infection, various techniques involved include nucleic acid technologies (RNA and DNA), non-replicating viral vectors, peptides, recombinant proteins, live attenuated viruses, and inactivated viruses. There are novel vaccine technologies being developed for COVID 19 using next-generation strategies for precision and flexibility for antigen manipulation on SARS-CoV-2 infection mechanisms. The Elpis-Updates and Prospects: There were nine different technology platforms under research and development to create an effective vaccine against COVID 19. Although there are no licensed vaccines against COVID-19 yet, there are various potential vaccine candidates under development and advanced clinical trials. Out of them, few having undergone phase III clinical trials, may soon be available for use among the high-risk groups following emergency use authorization. Conclusion-Hopes and Concerns: The hope of benefiting from the vaccine to the extent that it may be the only way to tide over and control the COVID-19 pandemic is accompanied by the likely fear of adverse effects and opposition in public for COVID-19 vaccination, including the vaccine hesitancy. Further, there is concern among scientific circles that vaccine may have opposite of the desired effect by causing antibody-dependent disease enhancement.
30 Relating the SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein to Infectivity, Pathogenicity, and Immunogenicity in COVID-19 , Nikhra V*
Introduction: SARS-CoV-2 Life Cycle: The disease which reportedly began in Chinese city Wuhan in November-December 2019 manifesting as severe respiratory illness, soon spread to various parts of the world, and was named COVID-19, and declared a pandemic by WHO. The life cycle of SARS-CoV-2 begins with membrane fusion mediated by Spike (S) protein binding to the ACE2 receptors. Following viral entry and release of genome into the host cell cytoplasm there occurs replication and transcription to generate viral structural and non-structural proteins. Finally, VLPs are produced and the mature virions are released from the host cell. Immunogenicity of the Spike Protein: The S protein is considered the main antigenic component among structural proteins of SARS-CoV-2 and responsible for inducing the host immune response. The neutralising antibodies (nAbs) targeting the S protein are produced and may confer a protective immunity against the viral infection. Further, the role of the S protein in infectivity also makes it an important tool for diagnostic antigen-based testing and vaccine development. The S-specific antibodies, memory B and circulating TFH cells are consistently elicited following SARS-CoV-2 infection, and COVID-19 vaccine shots in clinical trials. The Emerging SARS-CoV-2 Variants: The early genomic variations in SARS-CoV-2 have gone almost unnoticed having lacked an impact on disease transmission or its clinical course. Some of the recently discovered mutations, however, have impact on transmissibility, infectivity, or immune response. One such mutation is the D614G variant, which has increased in prevalence to currently become the dominant variant world-over. Another, relatively new variant, named VUI-202012/01 or B.1.1.7 has acquired 17 genomic alterations and carries the risk of enhanced infectivity. Further, its potential impact on vaccine efficacy is a worrisome issue. Conclusion: The Unmet Challenges: COVID-19 as a disease and SARS-CoV-2 as its causative organism, continue to remain an enigma. While we continue to explore the agent factors, disease transmission dynamics, pathogenesis and clinical spectrum of the disease, and therapeutic modalities, the grievous nature of the disease has led to emergency authorizations for COVID-19 vaccines in various countries. Further, the virus may continue to persist and afflict for years to come, as future course of the disease is linked to certain unknown factors like effects of seasonality on virus transmission and unpredictable nature of immune response to the disease.
31 Are we Hierarchically Definitive Multicellular Organisms or Governing Bodies Consisting of Multiple Independent Multicellular Systems? , Cheng JTJ*
Traditionally, a multicellular organism could be viewed as an organismal system consisting of one or more groups of cells that are specialized in different functions. Examples include commonly known circulatory, respiratory, nervous, endocrine, musculoskeletal, reproductive, and immune systems, to name a few. In this traditional point of view, each group of specialized cells acts as a dependent system within the organism as an independent whole being. Each system serves to support the well-being of the whole organism.
32 The Effect of Novel Proprietary Test Formulation for Immunomodulatory activity by Assessing the CD Biomarkers and Colon Microscopy in TNBS-induced Ulcerative Colitis (UC) Rats Model , Trivedi MK and Jana S
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory action of Biofield Energy Healing (the Trivedi Effect®) Treatment to the animals and to the novel proprietary test formulation in tri-nitro benzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced male Sprague Dawley rats. The test formulation consists of minerals (zinc, magnesium, iron, and copper) and vitamins (B6 , B12, and D3 ). Each ingredient of the test formulation was divided into two parts. One part was denoted as the control without any Biofield Energy Healing Treatment, while the other part was defined as the Biofield Energy Treated sample, which received the Biofield Energy Healing Treatment by a renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Mr. Mahendra Kumar Trivedi. Additionally, three group of animals were also received Biofield Energy Treatment per se under similar conditions. The cellular biomarkers like cluster of differentiation-4 (CD4+ ), CD8+ , and CD28+ , biochemistry and hematology along with histopathologic profile were evaluated. The percentage of CD4+ count was increased by 8.87% in the G6 (Biofield Energy Treatment per se at day -15) group as compared to the untreated test formulation (G4) group. While the expression of CD8+ count was increased by 10.12% and 13.01% in the G6 and G7 (Biofield Energy Treated test formulation at day -15) groups, respectively as compared with the disease control (G2) group. Moreover, the level of CD28+ was significantly (p≤0.001) increased by 15.50% in the G5 (Biofield Energy Treated test formulation) group compared to the G2 group. In hematological analysis, platelet count was increased in the G7 by 8% compared with the G4. The level of uric acid was decreased by 40.47%, 13.8%, and 14.28% in the G6, G8 (Biofield Energy Treatment per se to animals plus Biofield Energy Treated test formulation at -15 day), and G9 (Biofield Energy Treatment per se to animals plus untreated test formulation) groups, respectively as compared with the G4 group. Histopathologic findings of all the tested groups did not show any abnormal findings with respect to the safe and nontoxic treatment strategies, which indicated that, the test formulation and Biofield Energy Treatment per se ameliorates colon inflammation in the TNBS-induced colitis rats by decreasing histopathologic lesions. Overall, the experimental data concluded that the Biofield Energy Treated test formulation showed considerable improved cellular and humoral immune response as compared with the untreated test formulation. Thus, the Trivedi Effect®-Biofield Energy Healing Treatment per se and the test formulation considerable improved cellular immune response, immunomodulatory effect, and gut health function.
33 How Oncogenic Viruses Exploit p62-Mediated Selective Autophagy for Cancer Development , Shunbin Ning and Ling Wang*
The 2016 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to Dr. Yoshinori Ohsumi for his discoveries of mechanisms for autophagy. Autophagy is a fundamental and conserved cellular program essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis
34 Evolving COVID-19 Pandemic: The Lurking Dangers and Pillars of Hope , Nikhra V*
Introduction-The Unrestrained Pandemic: The emergence of the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 in December 2019, has had led to COVID-19 pandemic with devastating consequences. COVID-19, as the disease has unique clinical manifestations which are distinctive, yet bizarre. As the pandemic is spreading, the virus is continuing to evolve. In fact, this process of evolution is a continuum, allowing the virus to adapt to its environment by selecting mutations that make it replicate and transmit more efficiently. Lurking Dangers-The Evolving Variants: So far, Sars-CoV-2 has infected over million people worldwide and taken on many thousands of mutations. Most of those changes are slow and inconsequential evolutionary dead ends, but can potentially become more transmissible, more virulent, or more resistant to immune response to become unresponsive to the vaccines. Keeping ahead of the pace at which variants are evolving and influencing disease transmission and severity will be key issue for the coming phase of the pandemic. The Pillars of Hope-The Covid-19 Vaccines: The vaccination remains the most effective tool for protecting from COVID-19. New insights into the functioning of the immune system have made possible the rapid development of new vaccines to combat the raging pandemic and the pathogen and its variants. The vaccines provide us with much-needed hope for the COVID-19 prophylaxis as well as tools to limit the disease severity. World over, the major challenge is to provide equitable access to effective vaccines for masses. Conclusion-The Future Covid-19 Scenario: The researchers as well as medical community agree that the vaccination should be continued with the available vaccines. In general, the vaccines induce a more powerful immune response than a natural infection and the mass immunization is crucial to curb the spread of infection, break the transmission-infection cycle and retard the evolution of new variants as well. The on-going COVID-19 pandemic is a reminder of the need to prioritise health over other aspects of human life, as well.
35 Are Peptides Truly Less Important than Proteins, or are Peptides and Proteins Mutually Inclusive of Each other? , Cheng JTJ*
In today’s research world, peptides and related functions are mostly undermined, undervalued, underappreciated, and sometimes maybe marginalized. It could be mainly due to the fact that peptides are shorter in amino acid length (less sequence conservation or variation), less structured (more random structures i.e., many do not form defined secondary structures), single-functioned (not as dual or even multifunctional), more direct-action oriented (less indirect and consequently more complex effects, e.g., signaling cascade events), and less global impacts (e.g., peptidomes are far less characterized than proteomes to date, due to either lack of interest or lack of available and validated tools and methods).
36 Estimation of Sex Hormone, Blood Profiling, and Histopathological Analysis after Treatment with the Biofield Energy Treated Proprietary Test Formulation in Unpredictable Chronic Stress (UCS)- Induced Sprague Dawley Rats , Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D and Jana S*
The present study aimed to evaluate the haematology, biochemistry, testosterone level, and histopathological analysis of Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment (the Trivedi Effect®) based test formulation in the unpredictable chronic stress (UCS) male Sprague Dawley (SD) rat model. The novel test formulation was composition of minerals (magnesium, zinc, copper, calcium, selenium, and iron), vitamins (ascorbic acid, pyridoxine HCl, alpha tocopherol, cyanocobalamin, and cholecalciferol), Panax ginseng extract, β-carotene, and cannabidiol isolate. All the test formulation constituents were divided into two parts; one portion was defined as the untreated test formulation, while the other portion of the test formulation and the animals received Biofield Energy Healing Treatment by a renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Mr. Mahendra Kumar Trivedi. Haematology parameters such as red blood corpuscles (RBC) count was significantly (p≤0.001) improved by 6.61% and 9.37% in the Biofield Energy Treated Test formulation to the untreated rats (G5) and Biofield Energy Treatment per se to the rats (G6) groups, respectively as compared with the G2 group. The red blood cell distribution width (RDW-CV) level was significantly (p≤0.001) increased by 14.04%, 12.49%, and 11.85% in the 15 days pre-treatment of Biofield Energy Treated test formulation (G7), 15 days pre-treatment of Biofield Energy Treated test formulation to the Biofield Energy Treatment per se to rats (G8), and untreated test formulation to the Biofield Energy Treated rats (G9) groups, respectively as compared with the G2 group. The level of platelet count was significantly increased by 13.60% (p≤0.001) and 10.94% in the G6 and G9 groups, respectively as compared with the G2 group. Biochemical blood profile showed improved parameters with respect to magnesium, calcium, creatinine, phosphorus, uric acid, blood urea, sodium, potassium, and chloride level. Similarly, testosterone level was significantly increased by 476.39% (p≤0.05), 142.86%, 181.93%, and 234.46% (p≤0.05) in the G5, G6, G8, and G9 groups, respectively as compared with the untreated test formulation (G4) group. Overall, the data suggested that Biofield Energy Treatment per se showed significant improved blood profile along with preventive measure on the animal. Overall, the results showed the significant improve the human body immune responses, enhance resistance towards diseases, allergies, lethargic conditions, energy booster action, and its various immune deficiency diseases along with its associated complications/ symptoms can be preventive using Biofield Energy Treatment per se and/or Biofield Energy Treated Test formulation groups.
37 Why and how should we use Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning, and Deep Learning Approaches Differently on COVID-19 Coronavirus and Other Pathogens Research? , Cheng JTJ*
Artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning (ML), and deep learning (DL) have become increasingly popular tools and research methodology in many scientific research fields. Examples include improving prediction models by integrating mechanistic immunological information into machine learning