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International Journal of Zoology and Animal Biology

Journal Papers (95) Details Call for Paper Manuscript submission Publication Ethics Contact Authors' Guide Line
1 Conservation of Avian Diversity in India , Yahya HAS*
Biodiversity conservation and climate change are most important contemporary issues. There is a pressing need to tackle these issues with utmost sincerity by biologists, nature conservanists, developmental agencies, religions clergies as well as politicians; otherwise with depleting biodiversity, that also impacts climate changes to larger extent, the mankind would jeopardize its own existence on this planet. Despite rapid decline and deterioration of their prime habitats, the avian diversity in India is quite rich. In this editorial note an overview of Indian ornithology is given in a view to priortise their conservion prospects.
2 Topographic and Morphometric Anatomy of Mental Foramen of Black Bengal goat (Capra hircus) in Bangladesh with its Clinical Implication for Regional Anesthesia , Poddar S*, Faruq AA, Dey T, Kibria ASMG and Uddin MM
The study was conducted to investigate the topographic and morphometric anatomy of mental foramen of Black Bengal goat. Total 20 mandibles from both sex of adult Black Bengal goat were studied. Mental foramen was always present at lateral aspect of the rostal part of body of each mandible with various shape, size and direction. Oval shaped and dorsolaterally directed mental foramen were predominant (85% and 80%) than the round shaped and laterally directed mental foramen (15% and 20%); respectively. The mean distance between lip commissure to mental foramen, base of body of mandible to mental foramen, 1st premolar tooth to mental foramen, lateral incisor tooth to mental foramen and caudal border of ramus of mandible to mental foramen were 2.37±0.09, 0.77±0.04, 1.46±0.09, 2.01±0.05 and 11.81±0.89 cm; respectively. Those topographic and morphometric anatomy of mental foramen of Black Bengal goat may helpful for veterinary surgeon to localize mental foramen easily for regional anesthesia during different surgical intervention of lower jaw.
3 Insects New Source of Allergens for Animals and Human , Kucharski M*
This paper describes non-hymenoptera insects which are a potential source of allergens for sensitive people. Described species can also be a source of allergens to animals. It also presents the possibility of onset of cross-reactivity to allergens of insects and other organisms. It was pointed out the impact of climate change on the migration of insects.
4 Artificial Islands are not Forest Fragments , Bovendorp R*
This opinion debate the difference between forest fragments and artificial islands. Many species can react differently to forest fragments and artificial islands. The knowledge about species movement help us to understand the effects of forest fragmentation on biodiversity changes.
5 Overview of Amphibian Sexual Dimorphism, with Description of New Secondary Sexual Dimorphic Character in Rhacophorid Frogs , Bagaturov MF1* and Bagaturova AA2
In this article, brief notes on sexual dimorphism in anuran amphibians are adduced. A beak-like projection in adult males of larger species of Asiatic rhacophorid frogs (Anura: Rhacophoridae) was found to develop during the breeding period of species of larger sizes, and is herein described, illustrated and discussed.
6 Ocular Morphology of the Japanese Special Natural Monument, the Amami Rabbit (Pentalagus furnessi), an Endemic Species in Amami Oshima , Amagai Y1,2, Muko R2, Matsuda H2,3 and Tanaka A2,4*
Pentalagus furnessi (Amami rabbit) is an endemic rabbit only reside in the southern districts of Japan, and designated as a special natural monument in Japan. While conserving those animals is necessary, basic knowledge regarding their unique features remains unknown. In this study, we analyzed morphological and histological characteristics of the eyes which were obtained from an Amami rabbit died accidentally by a traffic accident. In the Amami rabbit, not tapetum-like structures but both pigmented and non-pigmented areas were observed. In addition, the non-pigmented area was much larger in the Amami rabbit compared to that in the laboratory rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). In the histological analysis, layers of retina were corresponded to the standard vertebrate arrangement, though the sizes of cell nuclei in both the inner and outer granular layers were larger in the Amami rabbit compared to laboratory rabbits. While characteristics of eyes are highly conserved in the family Leporidae, smaller pigmented area in Amami rabbits may reflect the natural selection resulting from their nocturnal lifestyle. Understanding their characteristics further is necessary for conserving the unique and endangered hare in Japan.
7 An Evaluation of the Antioxidants of Phytochemical Origin as a Source of Antihyperglycemic Agents in Controlling Diabetes in Albino Rats , Saramma G*
The present study was aimed at the in-vitro and in-vivo analysis of the antioxidant status of three different plants which are commonly used in traditional medicine in Botswana and to evaluate its antidiabetic activities. The plants used in this study were the aerial parts of Ocimum gratissimum, Momordica balsamina and corms of Hypoxis hemerocallidea. It was further investigated that whether their antihyperglycemic effects are working through the antioxidant system. All the results obtained in different experiments indicate that the antioxidant status of these extracts was positive and the antidiabetic activity is working through this antioxidant system.
8 From Oviparity to Marsupialism: Strange Modes of Reproduction in Amphibians , Exbrayat JM*
Amphibians are among the first vertebrates that have conquered the terrestrial environment. Their way of life is characterized by a compulsory aquatic larval phase and an adult terrestrial phase separated by a metamorphosis. Amphibians remain subservient to the aquatic environment throughout their lives. Several adaptive mechanisms regarding reproductive patterns have been established during biological evolution. Some species are oviparous; others are viviparous or direct-developing. Fertilization can be external or internal. Alongside these conventional breeding methods, some amphibians have developed particular forms of marsupialism or transport of eggs and larvae allowing them to at least partially free themselves from the aquatic environment.
9 Abortive and Teratogenicity of Ethyl Acetate Extract Fraction of Eugenia Jambolana Seed in Pregnant Rats , Sarita M*
The present study was aimed to explore the post-coital contraceptive activity and Teratogenicity effect of ethyl acetate extract fraction of Eugenia Jambolana seed in pregnant rats. In the previous experiments the ethyl acetate extract of Eugenia Jambolana seeds exhibited promising anti-implantation and antiestrogenic activity in female albino rats was examined for the isolation of its active fractions. Two fractions (I and II) were obtained using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) of the extract. Both fractions were subjected for testing post-coital contraceptive activity and Teratogenicity effect in pregnant rats. The fractions were administered orally at the dose level of 100 and 300mg/kg body weight from 10 to 18 days of pregnancy. The fraction I of ethyl acetate seed extract treated rats has showed strong abortifacient activity (100%) at 300mg/kg body weight, but did not show any developmental toxicity and Teratogenicity effect in treated rats. Phytochemical studies of fraction I of ethyl acetate extract revealed the presence of flavonoids and a mixture of compounds. These results suggest that a chromatographic fraction I of ethyl acetate extract of Eugenia Jambolana might be used as a contraceptive in the females.
10 Diversity Functions of Puf Proteins in Protozoan Species , Liang X*
In all eukaryotic cells, the regulation of gene expression is accomplished at both transcriptional and translational levels. At the translational level, control of gene expression is often mediated by cis-acting elements in the 3’ untranslated region (UTR) of the mRNA. This regulation is achieved through a network of RNA binding proteins (RBPs) that have great effect on stability, localization and translatability of their target mRNA. The Puf family RBPs named after Pumilio (Pum) protein in Drosophila melanogaster and fem-3 binding factor (FBF) protein in Caenorhabditis elegans [1,2], represent a highly conserved group of RBPs found in many organisms including animals, plants, fungi and protists [3-5].
11 Ovicidal Efficacy of Silver Nanoparticle against Vectors MOSQUITOS , Veerakumar K*, Govindarajan M1, Murugan K and Kovendan K
Vector control is a critical requirement in epidemic disease situations, as is an urgent need to develop new and improved mosquito control methods that are economical and the environment. Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, in the present study, the Ovicidal activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using Sida acuta plant leaf extract against eggs of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus was determined. The range of concentrations of synthesized AgNPs (20, 40, 60, 80, and 120 μg mL−1) and aqueous leaf extract (75,150,225,300,375 and 450 μg mL−1) were tested against the adults of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus. Eggs were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous leaf extract and synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. Considerable mortality was evident after the treatment of S. acuta for all three important vector mosquitoes. The synthesized AgNPs from S. acuta were highly toxic than aqueous leaf extract to three important vector mosquito species. In this recorded from UV–visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis (EDX), and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These results suggest that synthesized silver nanoparticles are a rapid, eco-friendly, and single-step approach; the AgNPs formed can be potential mosquito Ovicidal agents.
12 Recent Genetic, Breeding and Biotechnology Techniques for Improving Livestock Production , Vijay K*
Techniques of modern biology such as molecular cloning of genes, gene transfer and genetic manipulation of animal are a truth today and are finding their ways into research and development programmes. We need to stay abreast of new techniques because the practice of livestock breeding changes with advances in technology. We modified the way we measure and evaluate animals as we came to understand Mendelian mechanisms and as we developed statistical procedures for dealing with quantitative traits. Biotechnology is offering extraordinary opportunities for increasing livestock production. The significance of biotechnology and its significance are only gradually being accepted. Biotechnology is not new. The Man has used it for thousands of years. These have better possibilities for manipulating biological systems for the advantage of mankind. The intention of this chapter is to review available biotechnology and other technologies with potential application in livestock improvement and to identify those, which have been or may be applied.
13 Diversity and Habitat Selection of Wetland Birds in Nilgiris, South India , Veeramani A*, Vinoth B, Ramakrishnan B, Mohanakrishnan H and Samson A
Wetlands are defined as transitional lands between terrestrial and aquatic eco-systems where the water table is usually at or near the surface or the land is covered by shallow water. Water birds are an important component of most of wetland environment, as these occupy several trophic levels in the food web of wetland nutrient cycles also wetland, birds play a significant cultural and social role in local communities as well as being an important component of wetland ecosystem. The study sites are selected adjacent to Gudalur Taluk of Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu. Bird population was estimated using total count method. Food and feeding behavior was investigated using the observational method. Pond ecosystem is mostly preferred by the water birds followed by river and stream habitats. Overall analysis of the birds sighted in five month periods shown that the cattle egrets were sighted more in number. More number of birds seen in pond followed by river and stream. Very few bird species were seen in agricultural fields. The study proved that if the present ecological characteristics of wetland continue, the birds were unable to inhabit this habitat in the immediate future. Proper awareness regarding the importance of birds to the local people, through different programmes will ultimately help the protection of birds of this region.
14 Consequences of Nanoparticle-Insecticides on Aquatic and Terrestrial Non-Target Organisms: A Review , Amaninder KR*
Insects create great nuisance in different manners and spread various diseases. Mosquitoes are arthropods of medical and veterinary importance as they are the vectors of deadly diseases like malaria, dengue and Zika virus. Many different methods are adopted at various parts of the world to control mosquitoes ae well as other insect pest. But challenges are faced with the adoption of such measures, which leads to resistance of target organism and harmful effects to non-target organisms. Bio-pesticides as well as nanotechnology is considered a potential eco-friendly approach in mosquito control research. Plant-mediated nanotechnology is current most and effective method to control the population of mosquitoes. Furthermore, it is analyzed from the various evidences of ill-effects of nanocomposites to the non-targets organisms including mammals, humans, and aquatic insects.
15 Interaction of Zinc, Cadmium, Copper, Endosulphan and Dimethoate Pesticides on Fresh Water Fish Channa Punctatus , Parkash J*
The aim of the present study to find out the interaction of toxicants and pesticides on fresh water fish Channa Punctatus. We know that chemical mixtures are characteristic of life. The nature of the mixtures varies widely according to the specific chemical present and their concentration with in living system, which is controlled within relatively close limits. 90 healthy fishes divided into 6 groups of 15 each were exposed to LC50 of zinc (18.62mg/I), copper (0.56 mg/I), cadmium (11.8 mg/I) Endosulphan (3 m Il) and Dimethoate (14.84 mg/I) with selected combination separately. The sixth group of 15 fishes was kept in metal free water served as control for each experimental group. 75 fishes were divided into 5 groups of 15 fishes each and were exposed to LC50of zinc (18.62 mg/I), copper (0.56 mg/I), cadmium (11.8 mg/I) Endosulphan (3 m/I) and Dimethoate (14.84 mg/I) with selected combination separately. In this study results shows that in combination of cadmium and copper separately with Endosulfan, no mortality of fish was observed, showing antagonistic effect, while the presence of these two metals together with pesticides became very toxic (synergistic). Interaction between metals was also very toxic to fish except zinc+ cadmium combination where toxicity was reduced. Pesticides combination was found more than additive showing 50% mortality with in 42 hr instead of 48 hr, but even up to 96 hr the combination could not cause 100% mortality which suggests less than additive effect. In this study it is recommended that farmer avoid fish culture near to factories and places where pesticides used by farmer.
16 Biosynthesis of Pyramidical Nanosilver Using Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) and its Efficacy against Anopheles stephensi (Liston) Larvae in Laboratory , Soam P* and Parisa G
We have tested the larvicidal efficacy of AgNPs (Silver nanoparticles) synthesized by using stem extract of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.). The AgNPs synthesized using green bio-reduction methods which is economical as well as ecofriendly. The AgNPs formation was confirmed by UV-VIS spectrophotometer, XRD (X-Ray Diffraction) and SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy). It reveals the geometry including size, shape and morphology of synthesized AgNPs. The biosynthesized AgNPs were spherical, L shaped and Pyramidical shaped, also the average sizes of synthesized silver nanoparticles were found to be 9.59 nm. The larvicidal bioassay further reveals LC50 and LC90 values against I, II and III instars of Anopheles stephensi (Liston) after 24 hr and 48 hr The AgNPs synthesized using stem extract of Andrographis paniculata have potent effect on larvae of Anopheles stephensi. Silver nanoparticles synthesized by stem extract of Andrographis paniculata are effective and economical with its eco-friendly characteristics. For controlling Anopheles stephensi in its larval stage this can be useful in tropical countries having malarial dominance. Further the Pyramidical structure observed in our study can be used in drug delivery for disease like malaria, cancer, dengue, etc.
17 Assessment and Monitoring of Microbial Pollution in Certain Drinking and Bathing Water Ponds in and Around Sivagangai , Mahalakshmi NR* and Durai KR
Microbiological examination of water sample is usually undertaken to ensure that the water is safe to drink and bath in. Many potential pathogens could be associated with the water. In this juncture it is very important to protect and conserve the surface and ground water from the microbial contamination. The successful microbial pollution abatement depends not only on treatment and control but also on efficient monitoring of drinking and bathing water resources. For this, research approaches are very important for providing potable and safe drinking and bathing water to the humanity.
18 Dust Mite Allergy and Lifestyle - Indian Perspective , Goutam KS*
Although the prevalence of allergic diseases are more common in westernized and developed countries, the incidence is increasing at a rapid pace in developing countries like India too, becoming doubled, tripled and even quadrupled in the last few decades. However, data in this regard is still fragmentary except few scattered information in Indian context. In a rough estimate, in India, 250 million people are suffering from one or more allergic manifestations. India is the home to around 15–20 million asthmatics and it is increasing day by day. To offer the patients with best possible diagnosis and treatment, the detection of offending allergens are of prime importance. At the same time, early detection of individuals who are genetically at risk of developing allergy to readily available indoor allergens is also an essential element to adopt effective avoidance strategies and to design appropriate therapies.
19 Coupling Biorational Tactics with Radio-Genetic F1 Sterility Technique for an Effective Integrated Pest Management against Lepidopteran Insects , Seth RK*, Vimal N, Sengupta M, Angmo N, Dhal M K and Seth R
Insect pests belonging to Lepidopteran order species are amongst the most damaging pests of food and fiber crops globally. Lepidopteran pests are often managed imprudently by spraying crops with large amounts of broad-spectrum and often persistent insecticides. In view of the increased occurrence of insecticidal resistance, and their negative impacts on the environment and ecosystems, the need for biorational environment friendly control tactics and eco-compatible Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategy is becoming imperative and crucial. Both the sterile insect technique (SIT), and its refinement, Inherited (F1) Sterility (IS) technique offer a great potential as additional control tactics for integration with other control methods in area-wide IPM approaches against the lepidopteran pests. SIT/IS can only be applied successfully when the released sterile insects effectively compete with their wild counterparts for mating with wild females. There are a number of programmes where the SIT/IS has been used efficiently against key lepidopteran pests, and there is a great potential for further improvement and expansion of the SIT/IS technology to target other economically important lepidopteran pests. Sterile insect programmes (SIT/IS) as a parabiological control may be compatible with other biorational methods of control (viz., mating disruption, use of parasitoids, pathogens and predators, biorational molecules such as hormone mimics/agonists/antagonists, inhibitors for sperm activity, pheromone blockers, metabolic inhibitors, physiological disruptors, etc.) that may fetch enhanced or synergistic potential towards area-wide IPM against the lepidopteran pests, provided the employment of different biorational tactics is well orchestrated with their mode of action and targeted ontogenic stage of the pests.
20 Functional Analysis of Growth in Large White Male Turkeys , Inci H*, Sengul T, Kiraz S and Sengul AY
The Richards and Gompertz functions were used to analyze the growth curves of large white male turkeys. Gompertz function was yt=A*exp (-exp (b-kt)) where; yt is the body weight (g) at age t (weeks), A is asymptotic value and the both parameters b and k adjust slope and point of inflection. On the other hand, Richards function was yt=A*((1+b*exp (-kt)) ^ (-1/n)) where; n is shape parameter determining the position of the inflection point of the curve. The coordinates of the point of inflection are t+=b/k and y+=A/e (e= Eulerian number), t+= (-1/k)*ln│n/b│and y+=A/ for the Gompertz and Richards function, respectively. Body weights were recorded every week from 0 to 18 weeks of age. Data were individually taken from 24 males. Feed and water were supplied ad libitum. Floor space allowance was 0.50 cm2/bird during the study. The coefficient of determination (R2), weight (y+), age (t+) at the inflection point, the ratio of inflection/asymptotic weight (y+/A), degree of maturity (ut=yt/A) in 16th and 18th weeks were the same for both models and were 0.998, 5560 gram, 11.9 day, 0.368, 0.549 and 0.627, respectively
21 The Relationship between the Length and Weight of the Sea Star Pentaceraster Regulus (Muller & Troschel, 1842) , Shanker S*, Vijayanand P, Arockiamary A and Shyni A
The length weight relationship of the starfish Pentaceraster regulus is done in this study. For that some stat fishes were collected and their length was recorded. A total of 764 specimen of starfish (Pentaceraster regulus) ranged from 31 to 184 mm in length were used for the study. This study showed the relationship between length and weight as isometric in P. regulus.
22 ABO Blood Groups and Severity to Plasmodium Falciparum Malaria Infections , Barua P*
Malaria is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in pregnant women and children worldwide. This vectorborne disease is transmitted by female anopheline mosquitoes and caused by five species of the genus Plasmodium; Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, P. malariae, P. knowlesi. Among these disease-causing parasites, P. falciparum is the most virulent species causing the highest number of deaths specially in regions of Sub Saharan Africa and parts of Oceania with much higher transmission intensities than in most of Asia, South and Central America
23 Proceeding of the International Workshop on Awareness for Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity in India (IWACASBI’17) , Sivachandrabose K*
The mega event of Two Days ‘International Workshop on Awareness for Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity in India’ was held in joint collaboration of Thiruvalluvar University and National Biodiversity Authority of India, Government of India, Chennai in the Thiruvalluvar University, Vellore dated 18.09.2017 and 19.09.2017 in a grand success for the beneficial of academicians, student community, public, stakeholders and entrepreneurs, etc on the sake of understanding for the well being of conserving natural resources in our country. The university committee members and the Organizing Secretary Dr. K. Sivachandrabose are very much grateful to the National Biodiversity Authority in India due to for their financial assistance and encouragement to the programme by creating Memorandum of Understanding (MoU).
24 Fruit Aqueous Extract of Brazilian Pepper Tree (Schinus Terebinthifolius, Raddi) on Selected Quality Parameters of Frozen Fresh Pork Sausage , Fabio da Costa Henry*
Consumption of fresh sausages, ham, and mortadella has increased in recent years, mainly because they are simple, quick to prepare. However, the consumption of meat products has been associated with obesity, cancer, and heart disease, raising public health concerns about safety, sanitation, convenience, and flavor of foods [1]. In this sense, two of the main problems in the processing and storage of fresh sausages is the loss of color and lipid peroxidation [2]. Consequently, to improve the quality of meat products and gain the consumer’s preference, the main innovation in the meat producing chain today is the replacement of synthetic preservatives and antioxidant agents by natural products that have the same effect on foods [3].
25 K-Conjecture- The Future of Biology , Kass L*
In all modern-day republics and democracies, science investigations depend upon the support of the general public. These citizens will continue to support future science research if they remain acquainted with and appreciative of its basic methods, capabilities, achievements and aspirations. Science education is needed to inform and excite the public about the findings and benefits gained from scientific study, as well as to prepare the next generation of citizens for careers as practicing scientific professionals. Understanding science is critical for humanity to advance best practice in health, education, industry, and social policy. But through what route is science education best achieved?
26 Heavy Metal Pollution: Copper , Kucuk S*
One of the biggest problems of the world is environmental pollution due to development of technology and increase of population. Heavy metal pollution is one of element of pollution. Heavy metals are released to environment (water and soil) because of industrial, agricultural and mining activities. For example copper sulfate has been used for fungal disease control in viticulture in Portugal and in aquaculture in Turkey. Copper is discovered in the aquatic habitats collecting runoff water from this agricultural area [1]. 
27 Climate Change: Impact of Temperature on Dimethoate (OP) Toxicity and Behavior of Fish and Bivalve , Das VK*
The term “Climate Change” is used to anthropogenic climate change (Global Warming). Anthropogenic Climate Change is created by human activity (increase in CO2 level due to burning of fossil fuel, CO2 released by cement factories, ozone depletion, methane produced through agricultural practices, livestock, animal husbandry etc.), contrary to the changes in climate due to Earth’s Natural processes. Global warming has tremendous impact on functioning of ecosystem resulting in bio-geographical distribution of biota.
28 Alterations in the Activity of Acetylcholine Esterase in the Dragonfly Larvae of Bradinopyga Geminata under the Stress of Selected Textile Dyeing Effluents , Thangaraj A*, Muralidharan S, Senthilkumar S and Moorthi M
Textile dyeing effluents were considered as the major cause of aquatic pollution in India. Many studies on textile dyeing effluents (TDE) have proved that they inflict serious damage to aquatic ecosystems. Mingling of TDE to any water body poses a great threat to aquatic life which needs to be explored. In the present investigation the effluents samples from 6 different textile industries (ST1, ST2, ST3, ST4, ST5 and ST6) of Pallipalayam area of Namakkal district were analyzed and impact on the activity of acetylcholine esterase were estimated in the larvae of B. geminata. It was interpreted from the results that TDE contain a lot of organic and inorganic pollutants comprising metals and chemicals. When the larvae of B. geminata exposed to these pollution loads, the homeostasis was seriously affected in terms of enzymes. It implies that TDE were not properly treated up to the world’s standard norms and proved detrimental to aquatic biota.
29 Trend of Changes in Annual Forest Cover of South West Bengal, India , Mallick PH*
With 21% of India's area under forests, and regular biennial satellite remote monitoring, there is an urgent need for rapid automated detection of forest loss locations. There have been numerous studies monitoring forest health but no single source of reporting data is completely adequate. Currently many state and private forestry agencies and government are implementing Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) for monitoring the changing pattern of vegetation. The area of focus in this paper is south West Bengal covering 6 districts: Bankura, Burdwan, Birbhum, Midnapore (East and West) and Puruliya during 2001-2007. The study reveals that differential change in forest cover of the said districts ranged from unchanged to gradual increase. A substantial forest prevailing in this region vouches for sufficient shelter for the inhabiting animals too.
30 The Biology and Genetics of Electric Organ of Electric Fishes , Khandaker AM*
The electric fish comprises an interesting feature called electric organ (EO) which can generate electricity. In fact, they have an electrogenic system that generates an electric field. This field is used by the fish as a carrier of electric signals for active sensing and communicating with other electric fish [1]. The electric discharge from this organ is used for navigation, communication, and defense and also for capturing prey [2]. The power of electric organ varies from species to species. Some electric fish species can produce strong current (100 to 800 volts), especially electric eel and some torpedo electric rays are highly remarkable [3]. However, the detailed molecular mechanism of electrogenesis is largely unknown.
31 Demography, Activity Pattern, Food and Feeding Habits of Primates in Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu, India , Veeramani A*, Pushpalatha KB, Mohanakrishnan H2, Ramakrishnan B, Santhoshkumar P, Samsan A and Karthick S
The Western Ghats of South India has a highly fragmented population of India's most endangered primate species viz. the lion-tailed macaque (Macaca silenus) and Nilgiri langur (Trachypithecus johnii). The distribution of Common or Hanuman langur (Semnopithecus entellus) extends up to the southern region of the Western Ghats. Peninsular India holds two other primate species, the bonnet macaque (Macaca radiata) and the slender loris (Loris tardigradus). This is the first attempt to conduct the distribution of south Indian primates in and around Gudalur region, The Nilgiris. The study area was perambulated to locate the primates to know the status and distribution of these animals. Data on troop structure, composition and sex ratios were attempted. Behavioral data of primates were collected using focal animal sampling. Comparison of age and sex class of the adult female of all three primates such as bonnet macaque, common langur and Nilgiri langur is higher than the adult males. Similarly comparison of habitat selection shows that bonnet macaque and common langur prefers mostly on plantations followed by moist deciduous habitat. Whereas the Nilgiri langur prefer mostly on shola forests. The result of different activities shows that all these three primates spent most of time on resting activities followed by feeding. Statistical analysis of One-way ANOVA shows that there are significant differences among the three species of primates on Age-sex classes, activity pattern and feeding habits. Detailed studies that combined field surveys and phylogenetic studies are needed to determine the primate distribution and status in the rain forests.
32 Reproductive Consequences in Obese Women , Sharma I1* and Sharma A
Obesity is a medical condition characterized by the presence of excess body fat which leads to various metabolic disorders [1]. Adult obesity is measured in the terms of Body Mass Index (BMI) (WHO Expert Consultation, 2004). A BMI of 19 to 25 is considered to be an ideal weight, while BMI above 25 is taken as overweight and obese. In a report, compiled by the American Institute for Cancer Research and World Cancer Research Fund, every five point increase in the BMI is associated with a six percent increase in the risk of developing ovarian cancer [2].
33 Silkworm Immunity and Hormonal Regulation , Abir A Gad*
Silkworm diseases are the most important disease that inflects heavy loss to crops. Most losses in sericulture can be attributed directly to silkworm diseases. In insects, it relies on both humeral and cellular responses that are mediated via certain recognizing receptors and activation of several pathways. Fat body and hemocytes are the origins for the production and secretion of antimicrobial agents and activators/regulators of cellular response, while cell mediated immunity in insects is performed by hemocytes. Humoral immunity acts as a front-line barrier against invading pathogens. The humoral response includes, the activation of the Phenol oxidase system, which triggers the synthesis of melanin and ii) the production of several immune effectors, such as lysozyme, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs).
34 Microbial Fertilizer Improves Constitutive and Induced Resistance of Tomato against a Generalist Insect , Sharma G, Anjulo MT and Mathur V*
Plants express various constitutive and induced resistance mechanisms that require substantial share of plant nutrients. Microbial fertilizers such as Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria (PSB) are known to enhance nutrient availability to the plant, thereby helping in plant growth. However, it is still unknown whether such a growth compromises plant resistance. In present study, we evaluated the effect of PSB on early as well late responses in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) after damage by Spodoptera litura. We also studied whether these responses translate to resistance mechanisms by analyzing response of insect larvae on damaged plants. Our results indicate that, at early hour both unsupplemented and plants supplemented by PSB showed equal susceptibility towards insect induced oxidative damage. From 48h onwards elevated resistance mechanisms were observed in PSB-supplemented plants, especially increase in trichome numbers and shoot biomass. Moreover, decreased feeding preference of larvae was also observed on the previously damaged PSBsupplemented plants. However, an increased consumption index does indicate increased palatability of the plant, possibly due to high phosphorus availability. Our results thus indicate that PSB administration improves growth as well as induced resistance in tomato.
35 Distribution of Stripe-Necked Mongoose Herpestes Vitticollis by Camera Trapping in Similipal Tiger Reserve, Odisha , Mishra SR*, Paul S and Pati JD
The Presence of Stripe-necked mongoose Herpestes vitticollis in the Similipal Hills, Odisha, India has been confirmed by Camera-Trapping .This record extends the earlier known distribution range of this species, from southern and central Western Ghats in southwest India far to the north of the Eastern Ghats and hence constitutes a biogeographically significant record. Total fourty numbers of Photo captured during the exercise covering the three ranges in Similipal Tiger reserve. Highest (27) numbers of photo captured in Upper barakamuda range followed by (09) numbers in Jenabil Range and (04) numbers in National park range of similipal.
36 Medicinal Plants in the Diet of Golden Langur Trachypithecus geei in Kakoijana Reserve Forest, Western Assam, India. A Bio-Rational for the Search of New Medicines for Human Use? , Roy D* and Nagarajan R
The present study expected to compare the plant food diet of Golden Langur (Trachypithecus geei) inhabiting in Kakoijana Reserve Forest of Western Assam with medicinal plant species used by humans in the surrounding areas of the park as vegetables with medicinal properties. The diet of Golden Langur was studied by direct observation and Scan sampling method along with the plants used as medicine and food by the local tribes, India from March 2013 to April 2015. A group of 9 Golden Langurs of different age and sex classes was observed to feed on 152 different plant species belonging to 55 families. Among the different plant categories, trees accounts for 76%, followed by climber and shrub each 10%, grass 2%, fern and orchid each being 1% and liana 0.7% .The highest percent of food tree species belonged to the family Moraceae (9%) followed by Fabaceae (7%) and Euphorbiaceae (5%). The Langurs primarily fed on young leaves, mature leaves, fruits, seeds, figs, tubers and flowers during the study period. Semi structured interviews showed that 45 plant species used by locals as medicines, 17 species used as vegetables and two are rare medicinal plants of Assam. The diet species of Golden Langur was compared with other areas and discussed. The similarities between the ingestion of plants by primates and their medicinal use by humans provide a bio-rational for the search of bioactive plants in primate diet.
37 Appraisal of Biocidal Effectivity of Some Selected Biochemical and Chemical Formulations against Helicoverpa Armigera (Hubner) in Tomato Crop , Khan RR*, Shaheen T, Majeed S, Ali A, Arshad M, AlMazidi ISS and AlGhafri THA
A large number of field crops are consumed by the Tomato Fruit Borer (TFB), Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) due to its polyphagous behavior. This insect has been reported notorious for causing economic losses in the tomato crop. Chemicals are being used in tomato fields for quick and effective control. Therefore, field trials were performed to evaluate the comparative effectivity of some newer chemical insecticides viz., chlorfenapyr (Pirate® 360SL), chlorantraniliprole (Coragen® 20SC), flubendiamide (Belt® 480SC) and bio-chemical insecticides viz., emamectin benzoate (Proclaim® 1.9EC) and spinosad (Tracer® 240SC) against TFB in the tomato crop. Recommended field rates as provided on the label by the manufacturers were applied under the field conditions. As a result, the insecticide formulation flubendiamide proved to be more effective until the 9th day of insecticidal spray by reducing the pest population up to 92.00 ± 1.74% and 90.02 ± 1.74% after 1st and 2nd insecticidal spray, respectively. However, emamectin benzoate (Proclaim 1.9EC) remained least effective among the selected insecticides and lowest values of 80.02 ± 1.17 and 81.02 ± 1.70% pest reduction were observed after the both spray. None of the insecticide proved to be non-effective against TFB under the field conditions. Hence, these insecticides can be best suited in the IPM program for the pest control.
38 Clinico-Therapeutic Management of Ketosis in a Cow , Sandhya Morwal* and Shantanu Kumar Kuldeep
The clinical case study was carried out in a cow having sign of ketosis, diagnosis based on owner history, clinical symptoms and laboratory findings (Urine and blood sample). Therapeutic management was carried out as per physiological conditions of animal. Cow was treated with Injection of dextrose, corticosteroid, vitamin B-complex parental along with oral gluconeogenic precursors and jaggery. Case was treated successfully and excellent recovery.
39 Peptic Ulcer in Veterinary Medicine: A Mini Review , Ebbo AA*, Bello A, Ismail MS and Magami IM
Ulceration and discontinuity of the gastrointestinal mucosal can be a consequence of several drugs and diseases in small animals. As a result, gastroprotectant therapies are widely used in veterinary patients. Gastrointestinal ulcers can occur independently or as a complication of many systemic diseases hence have a significance importance to clinician in understand the etiological factors, pathophysiology for their effective treatment and early prophylaxis.
40 Diversity and Threats Encountered by Reptilian Fauna along Cauvery Basin, Kumbakonam, Tamil Nadu, India , Veeramani A*1 and Pavithra R
In India, Western Ghats and Eastern Himalayas are rich in herpetofauna. The fascinating ecosystem harbor many endemic herpetofauna. Of the 500 species of reptiles recorded in India, Western Ghats harbour about 156 species and about 93 of them are considered to be endemic to the area. Snakes and other reptile species may prove to be a valuable indicator species in local ecosystems. Hence the present study was taken up to examine the community structure, species richness, diversity and abundance of herpetofauna and to assess the impact on the diversity and density along the Cauvery bank of Kumbakonam region. Visual encountered method was involved searching for herpetofauna in an area or habitat and recording all animals visible on the surface. The opportunistic observations of 11 species of herpetofauna were recorded in the study area includes three species of house lizards, each one species of garden lizard, skink, monitor lizard, 2 species of fresh water turtles and 3 species of snakes. The present study shows that the distribution of reptiles in Cauvery basin of Kumbakonam region is largely determined by temperature, microhabitat availability and various geophysical constraints. Habitat alterations is impacted almost all endemic reptile species of the area.
41 Epidemiological Study of Animal Bites and Rabies in Bandar Astara City in 2017 , Dehgorji NR, Adham D, Abazari M and Mordi Asl E*
Introduction: Rabies is a viral disease that virus is removing from body during an animal’s bite and can cause death. The aim of this study was to determine of the epidemiologic cases of animal bite and rabies in Northern of Iran. Method: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 150 cases in Bandar Astara city in 2017. Data were collected using a researcher-made checklist. For analyze the data we used SPSS 22. Results: In this study, 78% of cases were males and 22% of females. The mean age was 34.25 ± 19.41. Most cases of animal bites occurred at age 50 and older. 49.3% of cases were in the urban and 50.7% in the rural area. Most of animal bites happened by the dog. 97.3% of animals were domesticated. The majority bites were happened in leg 83(55.3%). Conclusion: The results of the study showed that animal bite is still one of the public health problems in the Astara city. Therefore, the necessary measures to prevent and minimize animal bites are necessary.
42 Why All Professional Scientists Should Teach , Kass L*
Should researchers teach or not? George Bernard Shaw once wrote “He who can does; he who cannot, teaches [1].” I was first introduced to that quip in the formulative years of my early Teens. Later, in personal experiences as a professional scientist, I observed that many science faculty members at great universities were hired with minimal, if any, teaching experience or interest. Research prowess, alone, trumped all other qualifications. At most top universities, the teaching of undergraduates was an assigned duty that came with the territory, an unrewarded obligation and not a vocation. A young research scientist who preferred teaching would risk tenure and employment
43 Qualitative Analysis of Drinking Water for Pathogenic Bacteria of District Swabi, Pakistan , Qureshi AW1* and Aiman O2
This research work presents a study on drinking water quality in District Swabi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan, which involved bacteriological analysis of drinking water for the presence of some pathogenic bacteria from different drinking water sources. Total 103 water samples were analyzed in which 95 (92.23%) samples were contaminated with pathogenic bacteria. The contamination was highest for Staphylococcus aureus (88.34%), followed by Salmonella sp. (68.9%) and least contamination was recorded for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (24.27%). Out of 99 bore water samples, over all contamination was 91.9% and 100% for well water. It is concluded that the drinking water of Swabi is contaminated with these pathogenic bacteria and is not safe for drinking purposes. Based on the results it is suggested that authorities should show responsiveness to supply safe water and suitable sanitary facilities to avoid epidemics of infectious diseases in future.
44 Factors Influencing the Diversification of Mating Behavior of Animals , Afzal S*, Shah SS, Afzal T, Javed RZ, Batool F, Salamat S and Raza A
“Mating system” of a population refers to the general behavioral strategy employed in obtaining mates. In most of them one sex is more philopatric than the other. Reproductive enhancement through increased access to mates or resources and the avoidance of inbreeding are important in promoting sex differences in dispersal. In birds it is usually females which disperse more than males; in mammals it is usually males which disperse more than females. It is argued that the direction of the sex bias is a consequence of the type of mating system. Philopatry will favor the evolution of cooperative traits between members of the sedentary sex. It includes monogamy, Polygyny, polyandry and promiscuity. As an evolutionary strategy, mating systems have some “flexibility”. The existence of extra-pair copulation shows that mating systems identified on the basis of behavioral observations may not accord with actual breeding systems as determined by genetic analysis. Mating systems influence the effectiveness of the contraceptive control of pest animals. This method of control is most effective in monogamous and polygamous species. Factors effecting mating system include parental care, territory, spatial distribution of mate, sexual selection, sex difference in life history and temporal variability in sexual receptivity etc. Environmental factors also influence mating system such as temperature.
45 Biological Suppression of Stored Grain Insect Pests , Deb S*
Stored products include all durable agricultural commodities which can be dried and stored in bulk. Due to un-controlled environmental conditions and poor warehousing technology, stored grain infestation is a very serious problem as various life stages of insects cause economic damage and deteriorates the quality of food grains and products. There are number of stored grain insect pests that infest food grains in farmer’s go downs and public warehouses. More than 70 insect pests have been identified which attack stored grains and cereal products in store houses. The overall damage caused by these insect pests worldwide is estimated to be 10-40% annually [1]. Therefore, there is an urgent need to suppress the insect pest population of stored grain/products in order to maintain stored quality and its proper management.
46 Distribution of Lizards of the Absheron Peninsula , Najafov JA* and Hashimov RT
60 species of reptiles live in the Azerbaijan Republic. From them 17 species, or 28.3% are spread on Absheron Peninsula. These species belong to 3 orders, 13 families, 22 genera. Lizards are reptiles belonging to the order Squamata. On Absheron peninsula lizards inhabit a wide variety of biotopes, from garden habitats to sand dunes. Most species of Absheron are diurnal, but Caspian bent-toed geckos comprise a night time fauna in many habitats. Many species, can shed their tails in order to escape from predators. Lizards have many morphological adaptations that suit them to the substrates they inhabit, from specialized toe-pads in vertical rock-face dwellers to fringed-toes in loose-sand runners. Modern scientific study of lizards in Absheron began with the field natural history studies of E.P. Menetriem and E.E. Eichwald in the 19th century
47 Effects of Melatonin on Fetal Growth and Development of Dairy Cows , De Sousa AP*
As the dairy industry improved in technology during the twentieth century, animals were affected by a higher exposure to artificial light at night and this kind of light is comparable with a solar day light. This change in farm management brought damaging consequences to the animals, for example, a reduced production of melatonin in the pineal gland [1]. Melatonin is a hormone with a higher secretion in darkness and lower secretion during exposure to light [2]. It plays a role in the regulation of the circadian rhythm of several biological functions like heart rate and sleep-wake cycle, modulates reproduction, the neuroendocrine system, pregnancy and parturition times, CL function and it is considered an effective antioxidant [2,3]. In mammals, melatonin is produced by pinealocytes, retina and the gastrointestinal tract (GI). The major source of melatonin emanates from the pineal gland, and functions as an endocrine hormone [4].
48 Sensorial Analysis of Organic and Conventional Chicken Eggs (Gallus Gallus Domesticus) , Bianca SS*, Fabiola SF, Caetano B, Marta MMC and Marta VBR
The objective of this study was to evaluate the instrumental color and sensory analysis of four brands of eggs: organic (A and B) and conventional (C and D). The analysis of skin color and yolk was performed using a Minolta® colorimeter and sensory analysis was used to rank the preference of thirty tasters. The instrumental color data were subjected to analysis of variance, and significant differences were subjected to Tukey test to detect between the means (p≤0.05). The data were subjected to the sort Friedman test and multiple comparisons between scores. For instrumental color of the egg yolk for both luminosity and chroma sample C differed from the other samples. In the sensory test, significant difference appeared only for yolk color, which sample C appeared darker than others. For aroma and flavor, was no significant difference between samples. The differences presented by samples for instrumental color and color perceived by sensory analysis didn’t affect the sensory preference and buying intentions between conventional and organic eggs studied.
49 Experimental Animal Models of Fibrosis: Relevance and Considerations for Translational Health Research , Bindu S*
Tissue fibrosis is a set of progressive debilitating diseases which although initiate as a normal wound healing response to an injury, end up with hyperactivated immunological state leading to overwhelming deposition of extra cellular matrix (ECM) components by activated fibroblasts. About 45% deaths in the US are attributed to fibrosis-associated organ damage [1]. Repeated cycles of tissue injury-repair cause molecular dyshomeostasis and chronic inflammation wherein the affected organs suffer stiffening, scarring and consequential functional loss. Fibrosis of major organs including lungs, heart, liver, kidney, intestine and skin largely contributes to the clinical complications of major diseases characterized by multi-organ failure. Various genetic factors are evidently linked to tissue-specific development of fibrosis in humans [2].
50 The Genetics of Skin Color Variation in Farm Animals , Song TZ, Chen XY, Wang GF, Zhou P and Ren HX*
Melanin from melanocytes has a broad spectrum of biological activities, including protection against enzymatic lysis, UV radiation, and damage by oxidants and resistance to drugs by pathogens, protection of insects against bacteria and antiviral protection, etc. Coloration of the hair, skin, and eye in animal depends on the quantity, quality, and distribution of the pigment in tissues. Pigmentation is a variety of phenotypes that is important to husbandry. We reviewed the progress of skin color variation in farm animals to provide insights into the biology of skin pigmentation and melanocyte.
51 Surgico-Therapeutic Management of Wounds and Fractures in Birds Affected Due to Kite Flying , Shantanu Kumar Kuldeep*, Sandhya Morwal and Jayesh Vyas
This paper discussed the management of bird’s body injuries, wounds, and different type of bone fracture occurred during kite festival. Every year sacrifices the health of thousands of birds to the thrill of kite-flying festival. In present study, the highest incidences of kite string injuries were observed in Blue-rock Pigeons (64, 71.11%) followed by Blackeared Kite (9, 10%), Parrot (7, 7.77%), Ring necked dove (4, 4.44%), Crow (4, 4.44%) and Barn owls (2, 2.22%).
52 Nanoparticles and its Risk to Animals , Vaseem H*
Nanotechnology and the use of nano scale materials is a relatively new area of science and technology. The benefits of nanomaterials and nanoparticles are potentially enormous and are still being explored. They have become more and more popular and important in daily life. Nanoparticles (NPs) have many use in various fields like electronics, optics, textiles, medical devices, cosmetics, food packaging, water treatment technology, fuel cells, catalysts, biosensors and agents for environmental remediation [1-3].
53 The Potential use of Semiochemicals in Pest Suppression , Palial S* and Nidhi
Semiochemicals are natural substances produced and used by insects and plants to communicate. The different Semiochemicals based insect management techniques, such as monitoring, mating disruption, mass trapping, attractant, repellent, and push-pull strategies are highlighted. Semiochemicals are divided into two groups naturally secreted (pheromones and allelochemicals) and not secreted (attractants, disrupt ants, repellents, and other Para pheromones). Pheromones include sex, aggregation, alarm and trail pheromones, etc. Monitoring of insects can be done either with kairomones or pheromones baits traps. Mass trapping aims at catching a substantial proportion of the pest population before mating, oviposition or feeding and thus preventing damage to the crop. Mating disruption technique is achieved by the widespread application of synthetic pheromones. The push-pull strategy involves behavioral manipulation of insect pests and their natural enemies by the integration of stimuli that act to make the protected resources unattractive, while luring them towards an attractive resource, from where the pest is subsequently removed. Methods for crop protection based on Semiochemicals show advantages over method based on conventional insecticides. Semiochemicals are considered safe and environmentally friendly molecule due to their natural origin, low persistence in the environment and species-specific, which attribute much to their harmless effect on non-target organisms. However, there are some difficulties in the practical application of Semiochemicals in pest suppression; therefore, applications of Semiochemicals for insect pest management have, however, been limited.
54 Isolation of Chlorpyrifos Degrading Bacteria from Garden Soil , Rajesh M*, Archana B and Samundeeswari M
Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphorus insecticide broadly used for pest control in the urban and domestic area. It plays an important role in agriculture. Because of its persistent usage, it remains in the natural environment for a long period and hard to degrade its intermediate compounds. Microbial degradation is the best way to confiscate its toxicity. The present study reported that the degradation of chlorpyrifos by soil Pseudomonas aeruginosa Soil sample was collected from the garden. After enriching the soil sample with chlorpyrifos pesticide, the bacterial strain was isolated. The isolated bacterium was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and used for chlorpyrifos degradation studies. The efficient production of biosurfactant by Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterium was tested with the experiments. The presence of biosurfactant property increases the rate of degradation of chlorpyrifos by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The efficiency of the bacterial strain on the degradation of different concentration of the chlorpyrifos was studied using 1, 5 and 9 ppm of the chlorpyrifos for 15 days. HPLC analysis showed that there was a reduction in peak area of the different concentrations of pesticide samples (1,5 and 9 ppm) inoculated with the isolated Pseudomonas aeruginosa with that of control pesticide sample without inoculum on different days (5,10 and 15th day). The bacteria effectively degraded the chlorpyrifos in all the concentration when the duration of exposure is increased. From these above studies, it has been concluded that chlorpyrifos can be biodegradable by Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria which can utilize carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous sources from chlorpyrifos pesticide.
55 Tumour Metabolism: An Emerging Therapeutic Target for Cancer Treatment , Sonker P and Kumar A*
Malignant cells are highly proliferative in nature and display invasion and metastatic properties. Hence, they need rapid energy and huge amount of macromolecules for their development and progression. They fulfil their energy and macromolecular demands either by speeding up/down or switching on /off the various metabolic pathways. Therefore, altered tumor cell metabolism is considered as one of the emerging hallmark features of cancer cells. Most of the cancerous cells usually show dependency on glycolysis, glutaminolysis and lipid biosynthetic pathways.
56 Analysis and Comparison of the Ecological Niche of Two Endemic Species of the Genus Diploglossus (Sauria: Diploglossidae) , Velazco-Pérez K* and Estrada-Piñero FN
Of all the Cuban reptile species, lizards have the greatest richness and diversity. Among them, little is known about the natural history of the species of the genus Diploglossus, so that studies on their ecological niche would provide relevant and novel information about their ecology. Because of that, we proposed to characterize the climatically suitable areas of D. delasagra and D. nigropunctatus and to evaluate the niche overlap between them. We compiled information from 123 georeferenced presence records. Bioclimatic variables of WorldClim were used as predictive variables for the generation of ecological niche models in Maxent program. The final averaged models were binarized to generate presence-absence maps with the ArcGis program. The models obtained were evaluated as useful and excellent according to the difference between the training and testing AUC values, reflecting their high predictive capacity. The contribution of the variables to the resulting models varied between the two species, and in both cases the variables derived from temperature were those with the greatest contribution. The climatically suitable areas completely included the areas of known presence and included other areas. The potential distribution areas of the climate niche for both species showed very different distribution patterns, being higher for D. delasagra (221 123.84 km2) and smaller for D. nigropunctatus (6 173.82 km2). The Principal Components Analysis showed a very low niche overlap between the species, being D. delasagra the one with the greatest ecological plasticity and D. nigropunctatus the one with the least, the latter with preference of environments with lower values of seasonality in temperatures and a regime of abundant rainfall all year. The ecological niche breadth was also described using the B1 index in the ENMTools program, and the position and amplitude of the niche along the climatic axes. The Discriminant Analysis showed 95.24% of correct classifications, so there is no overlap between the ecological niches of both species. In conclusion, D. delasagra presents a wide distribution with respect to D. nigropunctatus, restricted to the main mountainous massifs of the east of Cuba, and both niches differ in environmental requirements and amplitude, defined by different variables.
57 Intestinal Bacterial Composition and Characteristics of Wintering Mandarin Duck (Aix Galericulata) in Shiqian Mandarin Duck Lake National Wetland Park, Guizhou Province , Fang ZY*, Wang YY, Ran JR, Xu GH, Wang C, Deng BL and Li H
Intestinal bacteria are closely related to host's nutrition, metabolism and immunity. Therefore, understanding its composition is the basis for understanding health status of the host. In this study, using high-throughput sequencing of V3-V4 variable region of 16S rRNA, 14 fresh feces of Mandarin Ducks form Shiqian Mandarin Duck Lake National Wetland Park, Guizhou Province were examined to analyze composition and characteristics of intestinal bacteria. Results are as follows: 1107760 valid sequences and 74837 OTU are obtained by sequencing. 244 genera, 130 families, 65 orders, 40 classes and 22 phyla of bacteria are detected, among which 166 genera, 107 families, 60 orders, 40 classes and 22 phyla are identified. Firmicutes (45.72%), Proteobacteria (23.71%), Fusobacteria (14.05%) and Bacteroidetes (10.21%) are dominant phyla (93.69%). Fusobacterium (13.95%), Lactobacillus (6.74%), Pseudomonas (4.72%), Akkermansia (4.23%) and Bacteroides (3.98%) are dominant genera. Fusobacterium and Lactobacillus are common in all samples. Alpha diversity indices are significant differences in bacterial groups of samples, which might be related to daily food intake of Mandarin Ducks. However, the specific differences or influencing mechanism needed to be studied on the relationship between host's diet and intestinal bacteria. This study enriches micro ecology contents of Mandarin Duck, and has certain reference value for evaluating the survival and health conditions of Mandarin Ducks.
58 Maternal Toxicity and Ultrastructural Changes of Copper OxyChloride in Pregnant Female Albino Rats , Elalfy MM*, Abd Allah AA, Mahmoud HA, Abomosallam M, Hamed MF and Sleem F
The excess application of COC may have an adverse effect on both animals and human population to better understand the maternal toxicity estimated in pregnant female albino rats, COC administered orally at different doses (1/10 and 1/20 LD50 of COC equivalent to 147 mg/kg bow and 73.5 mg/kg Bw. respectively) daily from day 6th to day 15th of pregnancy with daily observation and weighing. The pregnant dams were sacrificed on day 20th of gestation and blood and tissue samples collected for hematological, biochemical, histopathological, ultrastructural changes examination besides copper residues level determination in the liver tissues. The results showed that there was a significant dose-dependent decrease in the maternal body weight with respect to the control group besides a significant decrease in the metabolic parameters as glucose, total protein, and cholesterol however, there was a significant increase in the liver enzymes, urea and creatinine furthermore there was a severe decrease in the antioxidant biomarkers as SOD, CT, GSH and GST with a significant increase in the level of MDA revealing oxidative stress additionally the results found that the was a sever histopathological and ultrastructural changes in the liver tissue and hepatocytes. Furthermore, the level of copper in the liver tissue increased significantly in treated dams in comparison to control. Such results revealed the potential maternal toxicity of COC fungicide in a dose-dependent manner in female albino rats after the accumulation of copper in the liver tissue that considered as the main target organ.
59 How Far Can The Golden Mussel (Limnoperna Fortunei - Mytilidae) Go With Its Own Foot? , Pereira SM, Colares EP and Vieira JP*
Limnoperna fortunei (golden mussel) displays significant invasive potential and can lead to economic and environmental damage. The aim of this study is to describe the ontogenetical circadian pattern of activity of golden mussel using laboratory experiments. Golden mussels were split into two size groups: small (<15 mm) and large (>=15 mm). The movement pattern of each size group was filmed. Experiments were carried out in two distinct periods: light-dark experiments comprising 9 hours under a bright light followed by 13 hours under a red light and dark-light experiments consisting of 13 hours under a red light followed by 9 hours under a bright light. The variables course and speed were tested using size (small and large) and experiments (light-dark and dark-light) as factors. Both small and large mussels were more active in the first eight hours of the experiments, but no differences were observed regarding course and speed between the experiments. The period of the day did not influence the activity or distance patterns traveled by golden mussels, although small golden mussels presented significantly higher mean course and speed significantly compared to large mussels. Small individuals also displace faster than large individuals, resulting in longer traveled distances.
60 Literature Review: On Crustacean and Monogeneans of Commonly Catched Fish Species in Ethiopia , Kasse GE*
The objective of this study is to review crustacean and monogenean parasites of the fish species. The major diseases associated with fish are parasites, bacteria, viruses and toxic algae that reduces fish production by affecting the normal physiology of fish and if left uncontrolled, it can results in mass mortalities or in some cases, can be serve as source of infection for human and other vertebrates that consumed fish. External protozoa, crustacean and monogenetic trematodes of freshwater fish could be considered as the most prevalent causes of diseases affecting skin and gills causing gill inflammation and distortion of normal anatomy which impairing their respiratory foundation. Freshwater fish infested with skin-inhabiting flukes become lethargic, swim near the surface, and seek the sides of the pond and their appetite windless. There are several treatment options. Drugs or chemicals placed in the water are commonly referred to as "bath" treatments. Drugs delivered orally are generally mixed in the food, and are meant to deliver systemic effects. Maintain a good culture environment and prevent the deterioration of water environment; and use hygienic and nutritious fish feed to boost resistance of the fish stock and to minimize the chance of introducing pathogens into the water body.
61 Impact of Environmental Pollution on Respiratory System of Human and Animals in Angul and Talcher Industrial Areas, Odisha, India: A Case Study , Das L and Patri M*
Industrial growth has been a national issue with leading risk factor towards human health and the environment. The major air pollutants including particle pollution has different toxicological impacts on animals and human health. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) present in particle is known to induce significant respiratory, reproductive and neuropsychiatric complications. To investigate the effect of major particle pollutants, sources of emission, and their impact on human health and to check the toxicological/pathological impact of particulate matter (PM) containing Benzo[a]pyrene like toxicants on increasing rate of respiratory and reproductive diseases. The percentage of different trace element in the atmosphere was measured by monitoring air quality index through high volume sampling method and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy in Angul-Talcher areas. Effect of intratracheal and intraperitonial administration of B[a]P during PND 28 were examined on adult male Wistar rats after 15 days and 30 days of post exposure. Chest X-ray reports of human (Aged 20-60) were collected for acute respiratory diseases, asthma, conjunctivitis and bronchitis. Study showed monthly variation in the elemental content of the flyash samples including B[a]P. Histopathology of lungs and testis showed morphological changes in B[a]P treated rats as compared to the control. Similarly chest X-ray report showed different respiratory symptoms in human residing near Angul-Talcher industrial areas. The indices for PM are above the standard and mostly at dangerous level in TTPS. Thermal emissions are important in causing respiratory and other diseases. The present findings may contribute to building up evidences for environmental exposure and health effects in man and animals.
62 Specific Phase Relationships of Neural Oscillations: A Regulatory Mechanism of Reproduction in Higher Vertebrates , Singh VP*
Reproduction is one of the most important biological phenomenon among the organisms. A detailed knowledge about the mechanism(s) behind reproductive regulation will be helpful for us to understand this phenomenon in a better way. With the help of this knowledge we can generate new ideas which can able us to control the fertility of economically important species.
63 Preliminary Assessment of Water Spinach (Ipomoea Aquatica) and Morning Glory (Ipomoea Asarifolia) Leaves Meals as Non-Conventional Fish Feed Stuffs , Adedokun MA, Ogundiran MA* and Alatise SP
Assessment of nutritional qualities of aquatic weeds grown in Kainji Lake, Nigeria; Water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) and morning glory (Ipomoea asarifolia) leaf-meals was carried out using standard laboratory methods. The nutritive values, mineralization and protein building units for the aquatic weeds were determined as potential fish feedstuffs. The leaf meal of I. aquatica contained crude ash (12.50%), crude fibre (7.62%), crude protein (25.60%), crude lipid (6.33%), and carbohydrate (47.95%), metabolizable energy value of 311.24kcal/g and energy/protein ratio of 12.16. While the nutritive values in I. asarifolia leaf-meal were crude ash (11.50%), crude fibre (8.77%), crude protein (21.90%), crude lipid (5.88%) and carbohydrate (48.05%), metabolizable energy (294.81kcal/g) and energy/protein ratio (13.46). The mineral contents of the leaf-meals of the two species of the Ipomoea were potassium (444 mg/100g), calcium (163mg/100g), Sodium (159.8 mg/100g), phosphorus (86 mg/100g), magnesium (52 mg/100g), copper (5.3 mg/100 g), zinc (4.1 mg/100g), iron (3.2 mg/100g) and manganese (2.3 mg/100g). I. aquatic leaf meal contained 407 mg/100g and 26 mg/100g higher in both indispensable and dispensable amino acids values than I. asarifolia leaf meal. The two aquatic leaves had abundant components of essential amino acids. Empirically, the Ipomoea spp exhibited or showed low methionine contents which are a common occurrence in plant protein. I. aquatic and I. asarifolia leaf meals could be good supplements for some nutrients and natural antioxidants as an alternative for fish feed ingredients.
64 Population and Diversity of Birds in the Kodanadu Area of Nilgiris, Western Ghats of Tamilnadu, South India , Kalaiyarasi G, Rameshkumar C and Subramanian C2
The abundance of birds consisting of 46 species, 8 orders and 25 families were recorded. The maximum number of sightings was obtained in the house sparrow (Passer domestics). The lowest number of sightings (n=4; ER=0.06/km walked) were had in the Great Hornbill (Buceros bicornis) from overall observations. The Encounter Rate was high for house sparrow Passer domesticus (25.9/km) in the rainy season and low for Greater Coucal Centropus sinensis (0.07/km) when compared to other species. The Encounter Rate of birds in the study area in different seasons (Rainy and Summer) were observed with the variations. In summer season, the Encounter Rate was high for house sparrow Passer domesticus (27.25/km) and in the rainy season low for Great Hornbill Buceros bicornis (0.05/km) when compared to other species. The other bird species were moderately found in the ER. In the study area, the diversity index was estimated using the alpha diversity. The overall diversity index (alpha diversity) of birds in the study area was observed low (-1232). The seasonal wise, the index were showed -1372 in summer and-1152 in rainy seasons.
65 The Plasticity of Organisms: Some Examples of the Adaptations of Small Vertebrates to Various Environments All Around the World , Exbrayat JM*
At a time when the decline of biodiversity is serious, many organisms currently live in different biotopes, even the most unexpected. For this, organisms have adapted to all environments, often developing very specialized anatomical and physiological characteristics. Looking at nature when traveling around the world, it is obvious that the adaptations to the environment are specific. In this short review, we propose a trip around the world to meet small vertebrates having acquired anatomical, physiological or reproductive specializations, in order to live at best in environments that are a priori incompatible with life. Some species encountered during this excursion have been studied for a long time by our group, others, with very specialized adaptations; have been studied by other teams. The wealth of these adaptations is currently threatened by climate change. Thus, specializations can sometimes become a handicap for the life of the species. New adaptations will certainly develop in the future, but will species have time to adapt to quickly evolving biotopes?
66 Potential of Fenoxycarb on the Growth Duration and Longevity of Adults of Rice Moth, Corcyra Cephalonica Staint. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Exposed as Second Instar Larvae , Tiwari Sk*
The rice moth, Corcyra cephalonica Stainton is a notorious pest of stored cereals and cereal commodities in Asia, Africa, North America, Europe and other tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Attempts were made to control this lepidopterous pest with the application of an Insect Growth Regulator (IGR) Fenoxycarb, a juvenile hormone analogue which affects the growth and development of the insect, and thus, reducing the pest population in socio-economically and environmentally safe and suitable way. Corcyra cephalonica larvae, at second instar level, were exposed to 0.001, 0.005, 0.01, 0.05, 0.10, 0.50 and 1.00 ppm concentrations of Fenoxycarb. It was observed that increased concentrations of Fenoxycarb caused a significant (P<0.01) enhancement in growth duration, due to its juvenoids action, and an insignificant reduction in adult longevity in both the sexes of this pest, causing adverse effect on adult emergence, so, reduces pest population without harming mammalian population including human being and environment as well as non-target organisms. Thus, it may be concluded that Insect Growth Regulators may be applied as an insecticide for the effective control of Corcyra cephalonica.
67 New Results in Researching the Relationship between Light Trapping of Ostrinia nubilalis Hbn. and Some Features of Night Sky and the Moon in Hungary and USA , Nowinszky L*, Puskas J and Kiss M
This paper treads with the certain features of night sky and the Moon in connection with the success of light trap catch of European Corn-borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner, 1790) in Hungary and Nebraska and North Carolina states of USA between 1959-2006 and 1994-2017. The features were examined as follows: altitude of the Sun’s Arago point above horizon, altitude of the Moon’s Babinet point above horizon, altitude of the Moon above horizon, apparent magnitude of the Moon, illuminated fraction of the Moon and the moonlight. Calculations were made between these factors and the catch data. The results were depicted together with the confidence intervals. We have found that the neutral points of the sky and the features of the Moon that have not yet been investigated. A similar effect can be seen in the results of the light-trap catch of the Ostrinia nubilalis Hbn. both in Hungary and in America.
68 A Computational Model for the Study of Release Call in the Pyrenean High Mountain European Common Frog (Rana Temporaria) , Palanca-Castan N, Miramontes-Sequeiros LC* and Palanca-Soler A
The aim of this study was to develop a computational model to perform a bioacoustic characterization of the release call of a high-mountain population of Rana temporaria. We also wanted to determine the way in which variation in specific anatomical structures, such as the nostrils and mouth cavities, affected call structure. For this purpose, we recorded induced release calls, above- and underwater, of individual frogs all over our research area as well as additional biometric data in the form of photographs, radiographs and video recordings. The data collected were used to create a virtual synthesized call that could replicate them, taking into account the variation introduced by the natural anatomical structures. Our model successfully replicated the recorded calls. We determined the role of mouth cavity acting as a Helmholtz resonator, both above and underwater, which suppressed certain frequency groups in order to highlight those with biological relevance. We also determined the role of the nasal cavities, which acted as a tube resonator amplifying specific frequencies during above-water vocalizations. The nasal cavity remained closed and therefore did not act as a resonator during underwater vocalizations.
69 Population of Eospalax Baileyi Pallas and its Controls with Compound Poison Bait’s , Zhang Y and Yang K*
Pest control is still the important work to manage the grassland in West China. E. baileyi Pallas is the main rodent in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau grassland, so population density of E. baileyi Pallas was continuously investigated from 2015 to 2016 based on the previous works of 2013 and 2014, compound poison baits effects were tested on E. baileyi Pallas. The block-open method was used to survey the population density with three repeat grids. Rapeseed oil and peanut oil was used as attractant to make compound poison, and then determine the compound poison bait effects on E. baileyi Pallas. The density was 37.12 and 35.32 individuals/hm2 in 2015 and 2016, respectively. The results showed that the average feeding rate of rapeseed oil was 76.7%, which was significantly higher than that of peanut oil with 65.12% (P<0.05). The average killing rate of poison bait without attractant was 74.68%, which was significantly lower than the rate of poison bait with attractant (88.85%, P<0.01). The average density of E. baileyi Pallas in Hongyuan County was 36.22 individuals/hm2 which indicated that the pest was highly harmful to the grassland. The effect of D-type kreotoxin poisoning E. baileyi Pallas could be significantly improved with the attractant.
70 Animal Models in Cancer Chemoprevention , Khan MA, Singh D and Siddique HR*
Animal models are currently being used to check the efficacy of chemo preventive/chemotherapeutic agents. This is because the microenvironment of cultivated primary cells isolated from an animal organ/system is markedly different from in vitro systems. Animal models are important to study the interactions between different cell types and drug/ or xenobiotic metabolisms. To study specific cancer type, animal models can be generated either chemically or trans genetically. A number of tumor-specific animal models are available for chemo preventive studies. To examine the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs used for the treatment of various cancers such as prostate, skin, liver, colon etc. are being tested in the different chemically induced or transgenic animal models. However, the validity of animal models in determining the effectiveness of a chemo preventive agent in the human treatment will require the critical evaluation of the positive and negative effects of these agents on human. In this mini-review, we will throw some light on the various small mammalian animal models used in the cancer chemoprevention studies.
71 Zoonotic Hemoparasites of Baboons (Papio Anubis) at the Human-Wildlife Interface in Kenya , Fredrick M*, Danson M, John K, Sanslaus K, David N, Michael G, Suleiman M, Maina N and Mercy A
In Kenya, the encroachment of baboon habitats has led to increased interaction between humans and non-human primates (NHP). This interaction may result in negative consequences such as increased chances of zoonotic parasite transmission. The current study investigated the protozoan hemoparasites (both zoonotic and non-zoonotic) of free ranging baboons (Papio anubis) at two human–baboon interface sites: Tsavo West National Park (TWNP) and Tana River Primate Reserve (TRPR). One hundred and six baboons were trapped, anaesthetized, physically examined, and sampled for blood and ectoparasites. Physical examination revealed lymphadenopathy in all (100%) baboons from Tsavo and 66.7% in Tana. Microscopic examination of blood smears indicated the following prevalence of hemoparasites in TWNP and TRPR baboons respectively; Hepatocystis kochi (70%, 64.4%), Entopolypoides macaci (0%, 4.4%), Babesia microti (0%, 4.4%), and Plasmodium spp. (1.7%, 0%). PCR screening results revealed slightly higher prevalence of hemoparasites in TWNP and TRPR baboons respectively: Hepatocystis kochi (87%, 90%), Babesia (10.8%, 16.7%) and Entopolypoides (8.7%, 5%). There was a significant difference in the prevalences of Entopolypoides macaci and Babesia microti between the two sites (P<0.05). The species of ticks identified included Rhipicephalus simus, Rhipicephalus pulchellus and Hyalomma truncatum. The prevalence of ticks observed in TWNP and TRPR baboons was 28% and 23.3%, respectively. The occurrence of these parasites in the human-baboon interface is important in the light of emerging and re-emerging diseases and zoonoses in human populations.
72 Feeding Strategy of the Snail Kite, (Rosthramus Sociabilis) in the Escobalito Reservoir, Toluviejo (Sucre, Colombia) , Sampedro A*, Camargo K, Fernandez J and Vergara M
The feeding strategy of Rostrhamus sociabilis (Accipitridae: Accipitriformes) is studied in The Escobalito reservoir, Toluviejo municipality, Department of Sucre, Colombia. This kite feeds almost exclusively on aquatic molluscs. The type and daily quantity of the species it uses is hereby analyzed, as is the frequency of the catches throughout the day and the characteristics of that activity. This is the first report of the use of Marissa cornuarietis, in addition to Pomacea sp., by the snail kite. The number of individuals of this species that it consumes is greater than that of Pomacea sp., which could be due to their greater availability and smaller size. Capture frequency is higher in the early hours of the morning and the last hours of the afternoon, with short time intervals between each. These kites ingest more frequently shells of intermediate size of both species.
73 Nootes on Population Status, Breeding Habits and Conservation of Canadian Goose (Branta Canadensis) In Central New Jersey, USA , Yahya HAS*
One of the most common and conspicuous waterfowl in North America Canadian Goose, Branta canadensis is a large brownish bird with prominent black head. Its neck, cheeks and under chin is white, whereas beak, legs, outer wings and outer tail feathers are black. Lower abdomen and vent is also white. Their loud honking calls while on flight are also diagnostic. As given in Encyclopedia Wikipedia this is one of the oldest described birds whose nomenclature was given by Carl Linnaeus himself as back as 1772. There are 11 known subspecies recognized from different geographical locations in the world, of which 4 subspecies are reported from USA. But ornithologists often disagree on certain sub-specific forms. They largely occur in USA and Canada but are also found in different parts of Europe, New Zealand, Argentina, Chili and Falkland Islands.
74 Acoustic Phenotypes of an Alpine European Common Frog Population , Miramontes-Sequeiros LC*, Palanca-Castan N and Palanca-Soler A
In this work we studied the acoustic variability in the induced release call on wild populations of the European common frog Rana temporaria. We used a computational model to analyze the induced release calls in both sexes. Our analysis detected three different acoustic phenotypes: (a) Non-canonical males comprised a large part of the population and were the main cause of the biased sex ratio (Phenotype 2), since (b) canonical males (Phenotype 1) and (c) canonical females (Phenotype 3) had close to a 1:1 ratio. Phenotype 2 were much more abundant in locations were tadpoles were exposed to high water temperatures during their development, suggesting that a masculinizing effect of temperature is responsible for the biased sex ratio, and a likely origin for “pirate” males which search for newly laid clutches to fertilize not fertilized eggs by the “parental” males.
75 Biological Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Anisomeles Indica and their Mosquito Efficacy , Veera Kumar K* and Govindarajan M
Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. The use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. The use of synthetic mosquitocides often leads to high operational costs and adverse non-target effects. Recently, plant borne compounds have been proposed for rapid extracellular biosynthesis of mosquitocidal nanoparticles. However, the impact of these nano mosquitocides against biological control agents of mosquito larval populations has been poorly studied. The present study was carried out to establish the larvicidal potential of leaf extracts of Anisomeles indica and synthesized silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract against late third instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of plant extracts and synthesized AgNPs for 24 hours. The results were recorded from UV–visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energydispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis support the biosynthesis and characterization of AgNPs. The maximum efficacy was observed in synthesized AgNPs against the larvae of An. stephensi (lethal concentration (LC50)=25.67 μg/mL; LC90 50.09 μg/ mL), Ae.aegypti (LC50=27.40 μg/mL; LC90 53.05 μg/mL), and Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50=29.67 μg/mL; LC90 57.28 μg/mL), respectively. No mortality was observed in the control. This is the first report on mosquito larvicidal activity of plant-synthesized nanoparticles. Thus, the use of A.indica to synthesize silver nanoparticles is a rapid, ecofriendly, and a single-step approach and the Ag NPs formed can be potential mosquito larvicidal agents.
76 Occurrence of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus in Emerging Tertiary Care Hospital, Veraval, Gujarat, India , Sujithra M, Vanik D, Sivaraman GK* and Koya KM
The present study was carried out to monitor the incidence of MRSA as an emerging pathogen in health care setting. In total of 36 clinical samples from men, women and children and also hand swabs of nursing staff and surrounding environment of GirSomnath District, Veraval Civil Hospital, Gujarat were collected and examined for the presence of MRSA. The collected samples were screened for the presence of MRSA and assessing their antimicrobial susceptibility testing, minimum inhibitory concentration as per CLSI (2017) guideline. The incidence rate of MRSA was found as 52.78%. The results indicate that the highest level of resistance was found to Penicillin (100%) and the least level of resistance was found to Tigecycline (4%). About 24% isolates were positive for mecA gene. The lack of health care facility (antimicrobial testing), poor hygienic practices, and awareness among the patient and healthcare workers may be plays a significant role in the presence of MRSA in the health care setting.
77 Management of Isolated Elephant Population in Idukki Wildlife Sanctuary, Kerala, India-Problems and Prospects , Veeramani A*, Balasubramanian M and Ramesh Babu M
Idukki Wildlife Sanctuary (WLS) forms part of fragmented patches of forests along the Western edge of the High Ranges. Fragmentation resulted in isolation of elephant population in Idukki WLS which is cut off from other populations. A total of 23 herds of elephants were sighted during the study period within Idukki WLS and the adjacent Ayyappankovil and Nagarampara Ranges of Kottyam Division. About twenty percent of the total herds seen were of bigger herd size (ranging from 8 to 10 individuals). There was no significant seasonal variation in the proportion of solitary elephants in the study area (X2 (1, 0.01) = 2.53). Observations on population structure of elephants in Idukki reveals that the adult females constituted the major age class of the population (67.92%) followed by equal proportion of sub-adult females (7.55%). The proportion of adult males constituted 7.55% and the sub-adult males formed 3.77%. Estimation of elephants using dung count method carried out in the Idukki WLS revealed that the density of 1.072 elephants/km2. Observation on habitat utilization of elephants revealed that they mainly prefer the savannah grassland and moist deciduous habitats since it has more forage than the evergreen habitat. The study also explored the possibility of connecting the population of elephants in Idukki with the adjacent elephant population. Animals such as wild boar, elephant, monkeys, porcupine and sambar involve in crop damage in the human settlements within and adjacent areas of Idukki WLS. Crops such as tapioca, colacasia, yam, coconut, plantain, paddy, arecanut are found to be damaged by these animals. Cattle (goat, poultry and rabbit) lifting by wild dog from the human habitation were reported. To avoid humanwildlife conflict, timely payment of compensation, erecting/strengthening barriers such as trench, solar power fence and bio-fencing with planting of agave, Caesalpinia sappan, Plumbago sp. is suggested.
78 Food and Feeding Behaviour of Kingfishers (Family: Alcedinidae) in Selected Water Bodies in Osun State, Nigeria , Oguntimehin BE*, Akinpelu AI and Oyelade OJ
Many countries are experiencing different health challenges as a result of polluted water caused by industrial pollution and contamination by agricultural run-off. Pollution also kills the fishes that kingfishers feed on thereby limiting the fish population. This study identified the species of kingfishers present around some selected water bodies (Opa, Akinrinade, Osinmo, and Osu Reservoirs) in Osun State, Nigeria. It also determined the food and feeding preferences of various species of kingfishers in the selected reservoirs. These were with a view to determine the food and feeding ecology of kingfishers in Osun State. A total of 2,215 individuals and 5 species of kingfishers were observed in the field during the sampling period. The mean comparison of the species across the sites revealed that Opa Reservoir had the highest (63.83±12.90) abundance of species, followed by Akinrinade Reservoir with (57.5±11.18) while Osu Reservoir had the lowest (11.33±6.12).The species abundance in Opa and Akinrinade Reservoirs were not significantly (p>0.05) different from each other but significantly (p<0.05) different from Osu reservoir. Also, species abundance in Osinmo and Akinrinade Reservoirs were not significantly (p>0.05) different from each other but significantly (p<0.05) different from Osu Reservoir. This study showed that kingfishers preyed on several species which comprised of insects (dragonfly, grasshopper, damselfly, butterfly, and ants), water snail and fish (tilapia, fry of tilapia, barbus).
79 Biochemical and Pathological Features of Postmortem Time Interval of Natural Brain Death Induced in Albino Rats , Elalfy MM*, Ragheb HR, Hamed MF and Sleem FR
Previously we studied certain biochemical markers of postmortem time interval (PMI) in brain stem induced death in albino rats in first 30 hours after death. PMI is very important in forensic medicine for both criminal and civil conditions. We investigate histopathology, biochemical markers of enzymology and trace minerals in brain stem death model in albino rats. In the current study, we found a time dependent reduction in cholesterol and calcium level while LDH, CPK, sodium, potassium, total protein, albumin and chloride were increased as a result of tissue degradation. Notably, triglycerides are only fluctuated chemicals in blood sera suffered postmortem changes even is the highest point near 72 hours. Histopathological changes in heart, lung and brain were also time dependent except that brain suffers sever hemorrhage at the time of death onset due to increase intracranial pressure after injection of hypotonic solution in the dura mater. On conclusions, level cholesterol and trace mineral could correlate to postmortem time interval on natural induced death.
80 Potential Effects of Climate Change on the Distribution of Endemic Lizards (Squamata: Sauria) in Cuba , Velazco-Pérez K* and Mancina CA
Climate change has modified the distribution and abundance of numerous species. Being ectotherms, reptiles are especially susceptible to this phenomenon, which worldwide threatens almost 40 % of known species of lizards. Its impact on the herpetofauna of Cuba has been little studied. Therefore, we estimate the possible effects of climate change on the distribution of 46 endemic lizard species. To modelling the climatic niche of the species with the MaxEnt program, we used 3 698 presence records and 17 WorldClim bioclimatic variables. For transferring to the future, we used two climate scenarios with RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5, at two times periods (2050 and 2070). We assumed vulnerability as the potential reduction of future areas of climatic suitability (ACS) compared to current ones. We superimposed the distributions to detect sites of greater potential richness and those of greater exposure to climate change. We evaluated the models obtained as useful and excellent according to the AUC values, reflecting their high predictive capacity. The most extensive current ACS corresponded to Anolis equestris (98 213 km2), and the smallest to A. quadriocellifer (3 074 km2). With the most alarming scenario (RCP 8.5), a loss of more than 30 % of the ACS and a greater probability of extinction in their current areas of occupation was predicted in almost 85 % of the species by 2070. Mesophilic species showed greater vulnerability, losing 30.8 to 100 % of their future ACS for the RCP 8.5 scenario. The trend in all projections was the reduction of ACS, mainly in the West and Center regions. The greater richness of lizards, and the greater gain and stability of future ACS, corresponded to the main mountainous massifs of the country, so that these regions could act as climatic refuges against the conditions of climate change. However, the little dispersal capacity of these species and low landscape connectivity resulting from anthropic activities could limit the future colonization of available habitats.
81 Feeding on Lettuce and Mulberry Leaves Increases Silk Productivity and Biometrics of the Mulberry Silkworm Bombyx Mori , Idriss M and Gad AA*
During the present study, two different host plants (lettuce and mulberry) were used for feeding 5th instar larvae of Bomby mori. In the case of treatment (T0), B. mori 5th instar larvae were daily fed on 4 meals of mulberry leaves (control treatment), while in treatment (T1), larvae were fed on 10 meals of lettuce leaves: 4 meals at the 1st day, 3 meals at the 2nd day, 2 meals at the 3rd day and a meal at the 4th day; the rest of the fourth daily meals were mulberry leaves. (T2), larvae were fed on 6 meals of lettuce leaves: 3 meals at the 1st day, 2 meals at the 2nd day and a meal at the 3rd day; the rest of the fourth daily meals were mulberry leaves. (T3) larvae were fed on 3 meals of lettuce leaves: 2 meals at the 1st day and a meal at the 2nd day; the rest of the fourth daily meals were mulberry leaves. (T4), larvae were fed on a meal of lettuce leaves at the 1st day: the rest of the fourth daily meals were mulberry leaves. (T5), larvae were daily fed on a meal of lettuce leaves and 3 meals of mulberry leaves. (T6), larvae were daily fed on 4 meals of lettuce leaves. The present results revealed that T5 significantly increased the larval weight as compared with the other treatments (T0, T1, T2, T3, and T4). While T2 significantly increased the mean of pupal, cocoon, cocoon shell and silk gland weights by about 46.2 %, 44.6 %, 37.6 % and 55.7% respectively as compared with the T0. The effect of feeding of B. mori 5th instar larvae on lettuce leaves on total and different haemocyte counts of B.mori last larval instar was also determined.
82 The Importance of Cockroaches , Cardoso da Silva LDO*
Cockroaches, including termites from epifamily Termitoidea (order Blattodea), have the second largest number of species compared to other Polyneoptera, approximately 7,570 described species, of which 4,641 are cockroaches [1]. Linnaeus, et al. [2] considered cockroaches within the order Coleoptera, in a single genus called Blatta, which in Latin means bookworm. The same author added that cockroaches in Russia and Finland consume bread as well as clothing, forcing residents to leave their homes and return only in the middle of winter, when cockroaches perish from the cold [3]. According to the authors, perhaps this is why cockroaches are popularly referred to as pests, but these insects are not as malignant as they are portrayed in movies, magazines, and the popular imagination. In fact cockroaches do better than we think.
83 Experimental Biologist Perspective on Inhabiting Other Worlds , Kass L*
Humans and Earth’s entire biota will become extinct if they do not inhabit another world. This transference will require substantial support, long-term planning, S.T.E.M. and social applications, along with more clear-eyed determination than humanity has yet exhibited. Some of these more difficult challenges involve changing the way humans view themselves. This introspection will include honest assessments of our biological limitations as well as our dependence upon other life-forms. We will need to redefine ourselves as a family and act decisively upon that new definition. This work outlines a difficult yet realistic approach towards our long-term survival as a species, the only one on Earth most capable of preserving its biota and itself. The conclusions deduced here are contrasted with current concepts on this topic that do not adequately incorporate biology as it has evolved for billions of years on Earth. The perspective expressed within may appear radical when comparing it to alternate viewpoints that do not adequately incorporate biology, its evolution, and its limitations.
84 New Data on the Distribution and Conservation Status of the Two Endemic Scrapers in the Turkish Mediterranean Sea Drainages (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) , Kaya C*, Kucuk F and Turan D
In the scope of this study, exact distribution of the two endemic Capoeta species in the Turkish Mediterranean Sea drainages was presented. Fishes were caught with pulsed DC electro-fishing equipment from 28 sampling sites throughout Turkish Mediterranean Sea drainages between Göksu River and stream Boğa. The findings of the study demonstrate that Capoeta antalyensis inhabits in Köprüçay and Aksu rivers, and streams Boğa and Gündoğdu, all around Antalya. Capoeta caelestis widely distributed in coastal stream and rivers between Stream Dim (Alanya) in the west and Göksu River (Silifke) in the east. Metric and meristic characters were collected from the fish samples which obtained in the field for Capoeta caelestis and Capoeta antalyensis, and museum material for Capoeta damascina. In this way, morphologic features of the species revealed and Capoeta caelestis compared with Capoeta damascina to remove the hesitations about the validity of the species. The conservation status of Capoeta antalyensis was recommended to uplist from Vulnerable to Endangered.
85 The Phosphoprotein Gene from Canine Distemper Virus as Target in Viral Detection , Mateo F, Cespedes PF and Navarro C*
The Canine Distemper Virus (CDV) is the causal agent of a severe multisystem disease of dogs and other carnivorous species. Canine Distemper (CD) is a highly contagious disease that can reach high morbidity and mortality. The wide spectrum of clinical signs makes the clinical diagnosis of the disease difficult and requires confirmation through laboratory tests. The molecular detection of CDV has advantages in the diagnosis of the disease. In the present work, the technique of Polymerase Chain Reaction-nested version-previous reverse transcription (n-RT-PCR) for the detection of the viral phosphoprotein gene (P gene) was implemented. As positive controls, RNA from vaccinal strains and samples positive to other CDV genes was used by RT-PCR. As negative controls, RNA was used from dog samples without clinical signs of the disease and as control of reactants, nuclease-free water. Subsequently, the technique was used in 10 field samples of dogs with clinical suspicion of the disease, detecting the viral genome in 100% of the samples analyzed, generating a band close to 430 bp, corresponding to the targeted target sequence of the phosphoprotein gene of the CDV. The amplification products were characterized by their great intensity and sharpness, not observing nonspecific amplification bands. Finally, the sequencing of the products obtained from the n-RT-PCR was performed, obtaining a high percentage of nucleotide identity with respect to the nucleotide sequences of the P gene stored in the GenBank®. This allowed establishing that the n-RT-PCR implemented in this Title Memory allows the detection of CDV. The implementation of this technique will allow the antemortem detection of the virus and, therefore, facilitate the diagnosis and early treatment of the disease.
86 Importance of Secondary Plant Metabolites in Plant Protection against Agricultural Insect Pests , Sharaby A*
Pest management is facing the economic and ecological challenge worldwide due to the human and environmental hazards caused by majority of chemical pesticides. Identification of novel effective insecticidal compounds is essential to combat increasing resistance buildup. Secondary plant metabolites have long been as good alternatives to the chemical insecticides for insect pest managements because it reputedly pose little threat to environment or human health. A number of plant have been considered for use as insect antifeedants, repellents, growth regulators (IGRs) and toxicants. In the context of agricultural pest management, secondary plant metabolism are best suited for use in organic food production in industrialized countries but can play a much greater role in the production and postharvest protection of food in developing countries. Improvement in the understanding of plant allele chemical mechanisms of activity offer new prospects for using these substances in crop protection. Essential oils and plant extracts proved to be safe available alternatives to the synthetic pesticides in plant protection in field and during storage. En-capsulation of essential oils inside nano-particle is a new technology of formulation increasing persistence of the active ingredients, achieve high stability of efficacy, which used as delivery systems and considered as a promising strategy to deliver essential oils in agriculture.
87 The Non-Coding RNAs Involved in Physiology and Pathology of Skin Melanocyte and Melanoma , Ren H, Chen X, Wang G, Sun X, Jiang J, Zhang L, Dong X, Li J, Fu L, Zhou P, Wu Y and Song T*
The non-coding RNAs consist of the major of transcripts in genome in higher plants and animals, and they modulate gene expression at multiple levels to affect the growth, development, physiology, and disease in organisms. Recent findings demonstrate that the non-coding RNAs play important roles in physiology and pathology of melanocyte and melanoma. We reviewed the progress in non-coding RNAs (microRNA and long non-coding RNA) involved in pigmentation to provide insights into the melanocyte and melanoma biology.
88 House Dust Mite Allergy in Kolkata Metropolis in Response to Change in Lifestyle , Saha GK*
House dust allergy is a fairly common problem among sensitive individuals, resulting in various types of allergic manifestations like allergic rhinitis, atopic eczema, bronchial asthma etc. Although the prevalence of allergic diseases is more common in westernized and developed countries, the incidence is increasing at a rapid pace in developing countries like India too. However, data in this regard is still fragmentary except few scattered information in Indian context. In a rough estimate, in India, 250 million people are suffering from one or more allergic manifestations and the country is the home to around 15-20 million asthmatics. To offer the patients with best possible diagnosis and treatment, the detection of offending allergens are of prime importance. At the same time, early detection of individuals who are genetically at risk of developing allergy to readily available indoor allergens is also an essential element to adopt effective avoidance strategies and to design appropriate therapies. House dust is a complex mixture of substances of plant and animal origin and consists of animal and human dander, debris from wool, feathers, hairs, insects, cotton, silk, jute and synthetic fibers, carpets, beddings, furniture and upholstery, fungal spores, bacteria, microorganisms and shedding from other house hold articles and long been known to cause sneezing and wheezing in sensitive subjects. However, the exact nature of the principal allergen in house dust was unknown for quite a long time. It is now well documented that the mites of the genus Dermatophagoides are the most potent allergens in house dust responsible for allergic manifestations. During last more than 30 years, studies on different aspects of house dust mite allergy have been carried out on Kolkata population including entomological, clinical and immunological findings. The study indicates that the house dust sample contains an allergen, secreted and excreted by the house dust mites and inhalation of this allergen along with dust particles initiates allergic manifestations. The genus Dermatophagoides alone constituted 60% of the total acarine fauna, predominated by D. pteronyssinus (47%) followed by D. farinae and interestingly both the mite species coexisted in the same habitat. Seasonal trend indicates mite counts was higher in pre-monsoon and minimum during winter and areabundant in beds than elsewhere in the house and mostly associated with pillows, blankets, mattresses, padded furniture and carpeted floors etc. and preferably feed on human dander. The study indicates that more than 80 % allergic asthma patients residing in Kolkata metropolitan areas are sensitive to dust mites, especially genus Dermatophagoides Spp. as evident from skin prick test and detection of allergen specific IgE antibodies by Immuno Cap system. It is assumed that changes in life style including diet and dietary habits, acquisition of western lifestyle, low standard of indoor environment, increasing air pollution and over all intolerable psychological stress are blamed for such an increased occurrence and frequent recurrences of allergic manifestations in Kolkata metropolitan areas. Increase use of padded furniture, sofa sets, heavy curtains, wall to wall carpeting, blankets without any cover instead of traditional quilt, use of foam mattress instead of conventional cotton mattress and soft toys favour the growth and multiplication of house dust mites, which ultimately increases the chances and duration of exposure to those indoor allergens. In more than 70% cases these may be attributed to the metamorphic change in lifestyle.
89 Assessment of Impact of Different Preservation Methods on the Nutritional Composition of Catfish Heteropneustes fossilis , Samim AR, Vaseem H* and Kumari P
The present study is designed to investigate the effect of different preservation methods on the proximal composition of Heteropneustes fossilis. Fish were subjected to freezing, oven drying and sun drying for seven days. Various nutritive components like protein, lipid, moisture, ash, glucose and triglycerides were investigated in all preserved as well as fresh fishes. Alteration in all these components were observed after preservation when compare to the fresh fishes. Protein content decreased in all preserved fish in comparison to fresh fish. Least amount of fat was present in fresh fish and highest was obtained in sun dried ones. Maximum moisture was recorded in fresh fish while it decreased in all preserved fish. In case of ash content, it was least in fresh fishes and highest in sun dried fishes. Glucose and triglycerides also showed alterations with maximum glucose in fresh fish and highest triglycerides in sun dried fish. From this study it is suggested that fresh fishes maintained its maximum nutrient content, therefore they should be preferably consumed over preserved fishes.
90 Influence of Vitamin B2, Ascorbic Acid and Melatonin on Ovarian Activities, Reproductive Performance of Ewes during the Summer Season under Subtropical Conditions , El Shahat KH*, Waheed MM, Khalifa TAA, Sallam AA and El Saidy BE
The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of different treatments (vitamin B2, ascorbic acid and melatonin) on ewes' fertility rates during summer under the local environmental conditions. The study was carried out on 42 mature cross ewes (3/8 Finnish X 5/8 Rahamani). Ewes were allocated into 4 groups: the first group (G1; n=11) injected with 2mL saline for 3 wk., served as control. The second (G2; n=10) and third group (G3; n=11) were injected intramuscular daily for 3 wk with 2 mL (15mg) of vitamin B2 and ascorbic acid, respectively. Ewes of the fourth group (G4; n=10) received twice daily subcutaneous injections of 0.5 mg melatonin at 8AM and 4PM at the dorsal surface of the ear for 3 wk. All treated groups (G2, G3, and G4) received 1g zinc chloride and 2.5mg chromium (Merck Millipore, USA) in form of 6 ml oral drench once per week for 3 weeks. All animals were checked for the onset of estrus 2 times daily using an intact ram and ewes were bred via natural mating using 3 rams. Laparoscopic examinations were carried out throughout the study for detection of ovulation rates. Results revealed that ascorbic acid resulted in a significantly (P<0.05) decreased mean interval (days) from treatment to estrus as compared with the control group (15.73±1.83 vs. 22.64±2.50, respectively). A remarkable improvement in the lambing rate in G2, G3 and G4 treated groups than in the G1 (80.0, 90.9, and 90.0 vs. 72.7%, respectively) was also observed. The ovulation rate was significantly (P < 0.05) elevated in G4 than that in G2 and G1 (1.60±0.16 vs. 1.20±0.13 and 1.14±0.00, respectively). The follicular development did notvary among groups. In conclusion, vitamin B2, ascorbic acid and melatonin have a beneficial effect on the reproductive performance of ewes during summer under subtropical conditions.
91 Assessment of Cocoon Production of Eudrilus eugeniae through Bioconversion of Distillery Solid Waste with Elephant Dung , Moorthi M*, Senthilkumar A and Srimathi R
The dumping of organic wastes from the distillery industries leads serious threats to environment. The organic wastes disposal cause unpleasant odour, soil pollution, and distribution of vector borne diseases in human beings and highly infectious viral diseases which affects different animals. Bioconversion of distillery solid waste with elephant dung has been renowned and efficient technology used for reducing pollutants, making noble fertilizer and maintaining pollution free environment. The present study aimed at the bioconversion of distillery sludge combined with elephant dung using earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae Lin. and assessment the cocoon production. The three treatment combinations (T1-SD, T2- ED and T3-SED) were selected and introduced the earthworm E. eugeniae for bioconversion. The physico-chemical characteristics were subjected for the initial day and final day (60 days).The results showed that the values of pH, electrical conductivity, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium, total calcium and total magnesium were increased with a declining trend of total organic carbon and C/N ratio from its initial value. From the results it was inferred that the organic wastes were effectively converted into a nutrient loaded vermicompost. The cocoon production of E. eugeniae was observed in all the treatments at different time intervals (0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days) were the higher level of cocoon production in SED combinations 114+38 to 152±9.2.Vermi- bioconversion is a appropriate method of using worms to transform organic waste into a nutrient-rich fertilizer, a healthy and a soil remediation from the pollution.
92 Birds and Mammals of the Wakha Valley in Northern India , Raza M*, Namgail T and Khan A
Ladakh in northern India harbours a diverse assemblage of birds and mammals. The species in the region show close affinity with the Palaearctic bio-geographic realm. We conducted a survey on mammals and birds in the Wakha Valley of Kargil district in Ladakh in 2013. This area remains virtually unknown in terms of its biodiversity. During the survey, we recorded mammalian herbivores like the Asiatic ibex Capra ibex siberica, Ladakh urial Ovis vignei vignei and long-tailed marmot Marmota caudata. Mammalian carnivores included the charismatic snow leopard Panthera uncia, Tibetan wolf Canis lupus chanko, Himalayan brown bear Ursus arctos isabellinus and red fox Vulpes v. montana. Avifauna comprised 45 species belonging to 19 families and five orders. Most of the bird species were of the order Passeriformes (36 species). Forty nine percent of the species were resident, while the rest were migratory that visit the area in summer as well as in winter. Bird species were mostly observed in riverine habitats. This is the first documentation of the diversity of birds and mammals in the Wakha valley of Ladakh.
93 An In Vivo and In Vitro Trial on Layer Chicken Breed Susceptibility and Yolk Sac Infection to Escherichia Coli and Evaluation of the Immune Response in Bishoftu Poultry Farms, Central Ethiopia , Melese K and Urge B*
Chicken colibacillosis is a bacterial disease of great concern in the layer industry causing substantial animal and economic losses worldwide. Yolk sac infection of chicks which result in high mortality in the first week of age. A challenge test was carried out to evaluate the susceptibility of three chicken breeds to E. coli pathogenic strain. Thus, a total of 48 day-old Horo, Fayoumi and Koekoek chicken breeds were allotted into the treatment and Control groups Containing 8 birds each. An experimental infection with E. coli pathogenic strain was given (104c.f.u/0.1 ml) intra yolk sac to treatment group on day-one of experiment, while the control group was kept as non-injected. The studied parameters involved examination of yolk sac weight, yolk sac, and body weight ratio and antibody titer against Newcastle disease virus (NDV). The study revealed that there was no statistically significant difference between Horo, Fayomi and Koekoek breeds in infection. However, intra yolk infection with E. coli pathogenic strain result in gross pathological change of the yolk sac, increased yolk sac body weight ratio, increased yolk sac weight and the transfer of maternal immunity in serum was not changed. In conclusion local and exotic breeds of chickens are highly susceptible to E. coli. Therefore, vaccination and therapeutic treatment should be properly used and supplementary management practices should be adopted in the farm.
94 Global Warming and the Physiology of Ectothermic Animals: The Case of Three Mexican Lizards , Fajardo V*, Gonzalez Morales JC, Rivera-Rea J and Bastiaans E
Global warming has a direct impact on the geographic distribution and abundance of reptiles, and it can even lead to their extinction. Theoretical models project that many lizards could migrate along an altitudinal gradient, however, this prediction does not take into account lack of oxygen or hypoxia as a constraint factor for migration. We discuss possible morpho physiological traits that could affect whether ectotherms can migrate from lower to higher altitudes, despite the potential negative effects of hypoxia. It is fundamental that climate change research considers the vulnerability of ectotherms facing global warming, not only in terms of their thermal biology, but also considering their physiology
95 Insecticidal Potency of Aqueous Extracts of Seeds and Leaves of Harmal Peganum Harmala (Zygophyllaceae) on Juveniles of Calliptamus Barbarus (Orthoptera: Calliptaminae): Contact and Ingestion Effects , Rouibah M*
This work is a study on the insecticidal effect of aqueous extracts of seeds and leaves of Harmal Peganum harmala on both of two larvae L2 and L3 of barbarian locust Calliptamus barbarus (Orthoptera: Acrididae). GCP analysis revealed the presence of 1 2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, diisooctyl ester as the most frequently constituents found in the plant. Treatments on C. barbarus have been performed by two ways: contact and ingestion. Contact allowed us to obtain a cumulative mortality rate (after 3 days of treatments) which was 90% for a highest dose (2.4 g/l ) with an LD 50 of 0.67 g /l for AqE seeds and 50% of mortality with 3.01g / l for leaves. By ingestion and after 6 days of treatments, the cumulative mortality rate for the dose of 2.4 g/l and the LD 50 of AqE seeds were respectively 90% and 0.45 g /l. For leaves, these were 70% and 0.85 g /l. The comparative effect of contact and ingestion tests between the two “bioactive extract” by their respective LD 50 show that seeds AqE are more effective than leaves. This difference in mortality rate is due mainly to the variation in the contents in the various organs of the plant more important in seeds than leaves. Concerning the modes of action we noted that after 3 days of contact treatment, a result (90%) similar to that recorded 6 days after ingestion treatment is obtained for seeds. This difference in mortality time is interpreted by the faster mode of penetration by contact than by ingestion.