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International Journal of Zoology and Animal Biology

ISSN(p): | ISSN(e):2639-216X
Journal Papers (161) Details
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Indexed Journal

1 Conservation of Avian Diversity in India , Yahya HAS*
Biodiversity conservation and climate change are most important contemporary issues. There is a pressing need to tackle these issues with utmost sincerity by biologists, nature conservanists, developmental agencies, religions clergies as well as politicians; otherwise with depleting biodiversity, that also impacts climate changes to larger extent, the mankind would jeopardize its own existence on this planet. Despite rapid decline and deterioration of their prime habitats, the avian diversity in India is quite rich. In this editorial note an overview of Indian ornithology is given in a view to priortise their conservion prospects.
2 Topographic and Morphometric Anatomy of Mental Foramen of Black Bengal goat (Capra hircus) in Bangladesh with its Clinical Implication for Regional Anesthesia , Poddar S*, Faruq AA, Dey T, Kibria ASMG and Uddin MM
The study was conducted to investigate the topographic and morphometric anatomy of mental foramen of Black Bengal goat. Total 20 mandibles from both sex of adult Black Bengal goat were studied. Mental foramen was always present at lateral aspect of the rostal part of body of each mandible with various shape, size and direction. Oval shaped and dorsolaterally directed mental foramen were predominant (85% and 80%) than the round shaped and laterally directed mental foramen (15% and 20%); respectively. The mean distance between lip commissure to mental foramen, base of body of mandible to mental foramen, 1st premolar tooth to mental foramen, lateral incisor tooth to mental foramen and caudal border of ramus of mandible to mental foramen were 2.37±0.09, 0.77±0.04, 1.46±0.09, 2.01±0.05 and 11.81±0.89 cm; respectively. Those topographic and morphometric anatomy of mental foramen of Black Bengal goat may helpful for veterinary surgeon to localize mental foramen easily for regional anesthesia during different surgical intervention of lower jaw.
3 Insects New Source of Allergens for Animals and Human , Kucharski M*
This paper describes non-hymenoptera insects which are a potential source of allergens for sensitive people. Described species can also be a source of allergens to animals. It also presents the possibility of onset of cross-reactivity to allergens of insects and other organisms. It was pointed out the impact of climate change on the migration of insects.
4 Artificial Islands are not Forest Fragments , Bovendorp R*
This opinion debate the difference between forest fragments and artificial islands. Many species can react differently to forest fragments and artificial islands. The knowledge about species movement help us to understand the effects of forest fragmentation on biodiversity changes.
5 Overview of Amphibian Sexual Dimorphism, with Description of New Secondary Sexual Dimorphic Character in Rhacophorid Frogs , Bagaturov MF1* and Bagaturova AA2
In this article, brief notes on sexual dimorphism in anuran amphibians are adduced. A beak-like projection in adult males of larger species of Asiatic rhacophorid frogs (Anura: Rhacophoridae) was found to develop during the breeding period of species of larger sizes, and is herein described, illustrated and discussed.
6 Ocular Morphology of the Japanese Special Natural Monument, the Amami Rabbit (Pentalagus furnessi), an Endemic Species in Amami Oshima , Amagai Y1,2, Muko R2, Matsuda H2,3 and Tanaka A2,4*
Pentalagus furnessi (Amami rabbit) is an endemic rabbit only reside in the southern districts of Japan, and designated as a special natural monument in Japan. While conserving those animals is necessary, basic knowledge regarding their unique features remains unknown. In this study, we analyzed morphological and histological characteristics of the eyes which were obtained from an Amami rabbit died accidentally by a traffic accident. In the Amami rabbit, not tapetum-like structures but both pigmented and non-pigmented areas were observed. In addition, the non-pigmented area was much larger in the Amami rabbit compared to that in the laboratory rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). In the histological analysis, layers of retina were corresponded to the standard vertebrate arrangement, though the sizes of cell nuclei in both the inner and outer granular layers were larger in the Amami rabbit compared to laboratory rabbits. While characteristics of eyes are highly conserved in the family Leporidae, smaller pigmented area in Amami rabbits may reflect the natural selection resulting from their nocturnal lifestyle. Understanding their characteristics further is necessary for conserving the unique and endangered hare in Japan.
7 An Evaluation of the Antioxidants of Phytochemical Origin as a Source of Antihyperglycemic Agents in Controlling Diabetes in Albino Rats , Saramma G*
The present study was aimed at the in-vitro and in-vivo analysis of the antioxidant status of three different plants which are commonly used in traditional medicine in Botswana and to evaluate its antidiabetic activities. The plants used in this study were the aerial parts of Ocimum gratissimum, Momordica balsamina and corms of Hypoxis hemerocallidea. It was further investigated that whether their antihyperglycemic effects are working through the antioxidant system. All the results obtained in different experiments indicate that the antioxidant status of these extracts was positive and the antidiabetic activity is working through this antioxidant system.
8 From Oviparity to Marsupialism: Strange Modes of Reproduction in Amphibians , Exbrayat JM*
Amphibians are among the first vertebrates that have conquered the terrestrial environment. Their way of life is characterized by a compulsory aquatic larval phase and an adult terrestrial phase separated by a metamorphosis. Amphibians remain subservient to the aquatic environment throughout their lives. Several adaptive mechanisms regarding reproductive patterns have been established during biological evolution. Some species are oviparous; others are viviparous or direct-developing. Fertilization can be external or internal. Alongside these conventional breeding methods, some amphibians have developed particular forms of marsupialism or transport of eggs and larvae allowing them to at least partially free themselves from the aquatic environment.
9 Abortive and Teratogenicity of Ethyl Acetate Extract Fraction of Eugenia Jambolana Seed in Pregnant Rats , Sarita M*
The present study was aimed to explore the post-coital contraceptive activity and Teratogenicity effect of ethyl acetate extract fraction of Eugenia Jambolana seed in pregnant rats. In the previous experiments the ethyl acetate extract of Eugenia Jambolana seeds exhibited promising anti-implantation and antiestrogenic activity in female albino rats was examined for the isolation of its active fractions. Two fractions (I and II) were obtained using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) of the extract. Both fractions were subjected for testing post-coital contraceptive activity and Teratogenicity effect in pregnant rats. The fractions were administered orally at the dose level of 100 and 300mg/kg body weight from 10 to 18 days of pregnancy. The fraction I of ethyl acetate seed extract treated rats has showed strong abortifacient activity (100%) at 300mg/kg body weight, but did not show any developmental toxicity and Teratogenicity effect in treated rats. Phytochemical studies of fraction I of ethyl acetate extract revealed the presence of flavonoids and a mixture of compounds. These results suggest that a chromatographic fraction I of ethyl acetate extract of Eugenia Jambolana might be used as a contraceptive in the females.
10 Diversity Functions of Puf Proteins in Protozoan Species , Liang X*
In all eukaryotic cells, the regulation of gene expression is accomplished at both transcriptional and translational levels. At the translational level, control of gene expression is often mediated by cis-acting elements in the 3’ untranslated region (UTR) of the mRNA. This regulation is achieved through a network of RNA binding proteins (RBPs) that have great effect on stability, localization and translatability of their target mRNA. The Puf family RBPs named after Pumilio (Pum) protein in Drosophila melanogaster and fem-3 binding factor (FBF) protein in Caenorhabditis elegans [1,2], represent a highly conserved group of RBPs found in many organisms including animals, plants, fungi and protists [3-5].
11 Ovicidal Efficacy of Silver Nanoparticle against Vectors MOSQUITOS , Veerakumar K*, Govindarajan M1, Murugan K and Kovendan K
Vector control is a critical requirement in epidemic disease situations, as is an urgent need to develop new and improved mosquito control methods that are economical and the environment. Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, in the present study, the Ovicidal activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using Sida acuta plant leaf extract against eggs of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus was determined. The range of concentrations of synthesized AgNPs (20, 40, 60, 80, and 120 μg mL−1) and aqueous leaf extract (75,150,225,300,375 and 450 μg mL−1) were tested against the adults of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus. Eggs were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous leaf extract and synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. Considerable mortality was evident after the treatment of S. acuta for all three important vector mosquitoes. The synthesized AgNPs from S. acuta were highly toxic than aqueous leaf extract to three important vector mosquito species. In this recorded from UV–visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis (EDX), and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These results suggest that synthesized silver nanoparticles are a rapid, eco-friendly, and single-step approach; the AgNPs formed can be potential mosquito Ovicidal agents.
12 Recent Genetic, Breeding and Biotechnology Techniques for Improving Livestock Production , Vijay K*
Techniques of modern biology such as molecular cloning of genes, gene transfer and genetic manipulation of animal are a truth today and are finding their ways into research and development programmes. We need to stay abreast of new techniques because the practice of livestock breeding changes with advances in technology. We modified the way we measure and evaluate animals as we came to understand Mendelian mechanisms and as we developed statistical procedures for dealing with quantitative traits. Biotechnology is offering extraordinary opportunities for increasing livestock production. The significance of biotechnology and its significance are only gradually being accepted. Biotechnology is not new. The Man has used it for thousands of years. These have better possibilities for manipulating biological systems for the advantage of mankind. The intention of this chapter is to review available biotechnology and other technologies with potential application in livestock improvement and to identify those, which have been or may be applied.
13 Diversity and Habitat Selection of Wetland Birds in Nilgiris, South India , Veeramani A*, Vinoth B, Ramakrishnan B, Mohanakrishnan H and Samson A
Wetlands are defined as transitional lands between terrestrial and aquatic eco-systems where the water table is usually at or near the surface or the land is covered by shallow water. Water birds are an important component of most of wetland environment, as these occupy several trophic levels in the food web of wetland nutrient cycles also wetland, birds play a significant cultural and social role in local communities as well as being an important component of wetland ecosystem. The study sites are selected adjacent to Gudalur Taluk of Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu. Bird population was estimated using total count method. Food and feeding behavior was investigated using the observational method. Pond ecosystem is mostly preferred by the water birds followed by river and stream habitats. Overall analysis of the birds sighted in five month periods shown that the cattle egrets were sighted more in number. More number of birds seen in pond followed by river and stream. Very few bird species were seen in agricultural fields. The study proved that if the present ecological characteristics of wetland continue, the birds were unable to inhabit this habitat in the immediate future. Proper awareness regarding the importance of birds to the local people, through different programmes will ultimately help the protection of birds of this region.
14 Consequences of Nanoparticle-Insecticides on Aquatic and Terrestrial Non-Target Organisms: A Review , Amaninder KR*
Insects create great nuisance in different manners and spread various diseases. Mosquitoes are arthropods of medical and veterinary importance as they are the vectors of deadly diseases like malaria, dengue and Zika virus. Many different methods are adopted at various parts of the world to control mosquitoes ae well as other insect pest. But challenges are faced with the adoption of such measures, which leads to resistance of target organism and harmful effects to non-target organisms. Bio-pesticides as well as nanotechnology is considered a potential eco-friendly approach in mosquito control research. Plant-mediated nanotechnology is current most and effective method to control the population of mosquitoes. Furthermore, it is analyzed from the various evidences of ill-effects of nanocomposites to the non-targets organisms including mammals, humans, and aquatic insects.
15 Interaction of Zinc, Cadmium, Copper, Endosulphan and Dimethoate Pesticides on Fresh Water Fish Channa Punctatus , Parkash J*
The aim of the present study to find out the interaction of toxicants and pesticides on fresh water fish Channa Punctatus. We know that chemical mixtures are characteristic of life. The nature of the mixtures varies widely according to the specific chemical present and their concentration with in living system, which is controlled within relatively close limits. 90 healthy fishes divided into 6 groups of 15 each were exposed to LC50 of zinc (18.62mg/I), copper (0.56 mg/I), cadmium (11.8 mg/I) Endosulphan (3 m Il) and Dimethoate (14.84 mg/I) with selected combination separately. The sixth group of 15 fishes was kept in metal free water served as control for each experimental group. 75 fishes were divided into 5 groups of 15 fishes each and were exposed to LC50of zinc (18.62 mg/I), copper (0.56 mg/I), cadmium (11.8 mg/I) Endosulphan (3 m/I) and Dimethoate (14.84 mg/I) with selected combination separately. In this study results shows that in combination of cadmium and copper separately with Endosulfan, no mortality of fish was observed, showing antagonistic effect, while the presence of these two metals together with pesticides became very toxic (synergistic). Interaction between metals was also very toxic to fish except zinc+ cadmium combination where toxicity was reduced. Pesticides combination was found more than additive showing 50% mortality with in 42 hr instead of 48 hr, but even up to 96 hr the combination could not cause 100% mortality which suggests less than additive effect. In this study it is recommended that farmer avoid fish culture near to factories and places where pesticides used by farmer.
16 Biosynthesis of Pyramidical Nanosilver Using Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) and its Efficacy against Anopheles stephensi (Liston) Larvae in Laboratory , Soam P* and Parisa G
We have tested the larvicidal efficacy of AgNPs (Silver nanoparticles) synthesized by using stem extract of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.). The AgNPs synthesized using green bio-reduction methods which is economical as well as ecofriendly. The AgNPs formation was confirmed by UV-VIS spectrophotometer, XRD (X-Ray Diffraction) and SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy). It reveals the geometry including size, shape and morphology of synthesized AgNPs. The biosynthesized AgNPs were spherical, L shaped and Pyramidical shaped, also the average sizes of synthesized silver nanoparticles were found to be 9.59 nm. The larvicidal bioassay further reveals LC50 and LC90 values against I, II and III instars of Anopheles stephensi (Liston) after 24 hr and 48 hr The AgNPs synthesized using stem extract of Andrographis paniculata have potent effect on larvae of Anopheles stephensi. Silver nanoparticles synthesized by stem extract of Andrographis paniculata are effective and economical with its eco-friendly characteristics. For controlling Anopheles stephensi in its larval stage this can be useful in tropical countries having malarial dominance. Further the Pyramidical structure observed in our study can be used in drug delivery for disease like malaria, cancer, dengue, etc.
17 Assessment and Monitoring of Microbial Pollution in Certain Drinking and Bathing Water Ponds in and Around Sivagangai , Mahalakshmi NR* and Durai KR
Microbiological examination of water sample is usually undertaken to ensure that the water is safe to drink and bath in. Many potential pathogens could be associated with the water. In this juncture it is very important to protect and conserve the surface and ground water from the microbial contamination. The successful microbial pollution abatement depends not only on treatment and control but also on efficient monitoring of drinking and bathing water resources. For this, research approaches are very important for providing potable and safe drinking and bathing water to the humanity.
18 Dust Mite Allergy and Lifestyle - Indian Perspective , Goutam KS*
Although the prevalence of allergic diseases are more common in westernized and developed countries, the incidence is increasing at a rapid pace in developing countries like India too, becoming doubled, tripled and even quadrupled in the last few decades. However, data in this regard is still fragmentary except few scattered information in Indian context. In a rough estimate, in India, 250 million people are suffering from one or more allergic manifestations. India is the home to around 15–20 million asthmatics and it is increasing day by day. To offer the patients with best possible diagnosis and treatment, the detection of offending allergens are of prime importance. At the same time, early detection of individuals who are genetically at risk of developing allergy to readily available indoor allergens is also an essential element to adopt effective avoidance strategies and to design appropriate therapies.
19 Coupling Biorational Tactics with Radio-Genetic F1 Sterility Technique for an Effective Integrated Pest Management against Lepidopteran Insects , Seth RK*, Vimal N, Sengupta M, Angmo N, Dhal M K and Seth R
Insect pests belonging to Lepidopteran order species are amongst the most damaging pests of food and fiber crops globally. Lepidopteran pests are often managed imprudently by spraying crops with large amounts of broad-spectrum and often persistent insecticides. In view of the increased occurrence of insecticidal resistance, and their negative impacts on the environment and ecosystems, the need for biorational environment friendly control tactics and eco-compatible Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategy is becoming imperative and crucial. Both the sterile insect technique (SIT), and its refinement, Inherited (F1) Sterility (IS) technique offer a great potential as additional control tactics for integration with other control methods in area-wide IPM approaches against the lepidopteran pests. SIT/IS can only be applied successfully when the released sterile insects effectively compete with their wild counterparts for mating with wild females. There are a number of programmes where the SIT/IS has been used efficiently against key lepidopteran pests, and there is a great potential for further improvement and expansion of the SIT/IS technology to target other economically important lepidopteran pests. Sterile insect programmes (SIT/IS) as a parabiological control may be compatible with other biorational methods of control (viz., mating disruption, use of parasitoids, pathogens and predators, biorational molecules such as hormone mimics/agonists/antagonists, inhibitors for sperm activity, pheromone blockers, metabolic inhibitors, physiological disruptors, etc.) that may fetch enhanced or synergistic potential towards area-wide IPM against the lepidopteran pests, provided the employment of different biorational tactics is well orchestrated with their mode of action and targeted ontogenic stage of the pests.
20 Functional Analysis of Growth in Large White Male Turkeys , Inci H*, Sengul T, Kiraz S and Sengul AY
The Richards and Gompertz functions were used to analyze the growth curves of large white male turkeys. Gompertz function was yt=A*exp (-exp (b-kt)) where; yt is the body weight (g) at age t (weeks), A is asymptotic value and the both parameters b and k adjust slope and point of inflection. On the other hand, Richards function was yt=A*((1+b*exp (-kt)) ^ (-1/n)) where; n is shape parameter determining the position of the inflection point of the curve. The coordinates of the point of inflection are t+=b/k and y+=A/e (e= Eulerian number), t+= (-1/k)*ln│n/b│and y+=A/ for the Gompertz and Richards function, respectively. Body weights were recorded every week from 0 to 18 weeks of age. Data were individually taken from 24 males. Feed and water were supplied ad libitum. Floor space allowance was 0.50 cm2/bird during the study. The coefficient of determination (R2), weight (y+), age (t+) at the inflection point, the ratio of inflection/asymptotic weight (y+/A), degree of maturity (ut=yt/A) in 16th and 18th weeks were the same for both models and were 0.998, 5560 gram, 11.9 day, 0.368, 0.549 and 0.627, respectively
21 The Relationship between the Length and Weight of the Sea Star Pentaceraster Regulus (Muller & Troschel, 1842) , Shanker S*, Vijayanand P, Arockiamary A and Shyni A
The length weight relationship of the starfish Pentaceraster regulus is done in this study. For that some stat fishes were collected and their length was recorded. A total of 764 specimen of starfish (Pentaceraster regulus) ranged from 31 to 184 mm in length were used for the study. This study showed the relationship between length and weight as isometric in P. regulus.
22 ABO Blood Groups and Severity to Plasmodium Falciparum Malaria Infections , Barua P*
Malaria is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in pregnant women and children worldwide. This vectorborne disease is transmitted by female anopheline mosquitoes and caused by five species of the genus Plasmodium; Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, P. malariae, P. knowlesi. Among these disease-causing parasites, P. falciparum is the most virulent species causing the highest number of deaths specially in regions of Sub Saharan Africa and parts of Oceania with much higher transmission intensities than in most of Asia, South and Central America
23 Proceeding of the International Workshop on Awareness for Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity in India (IWACASBI’17) , Sivachandrabose K*
The mega event of Two Days ‘International Workshop on Awareness for Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity in India’ was held in joint collaboration of Thiruvalluvar University and National Biodiversity Authority of India, Government of India, Chennai in the Thiruvalluvar University, Vellore dated 18.09.2017 and 19.09.2017 in a grand success for the beneficial of academicians, student community, public, stakeholders and entrepreneurs, etc on the sake of understanding for the well being of conserving natural resources in our country. The university committee members and the Organizing Secretary Dr. K. Sivachandrabose are very much grateful to the National Biodiversity Authority in India due to for their financial assistance and encouragement to the programme by creating Memorandum of Understanding (MoU).
24 Fruit Aqueous Extract of Brazilian Pepper Tree (Schinus Terebinthifolius, Raddi) on Selected Quality Parameters of Frozen Fresh Pork Sausage , Fabio da Costa Henry*
Consumption of fresh sausages, ham, and mortadella has increased in recent years, mainly because they are simple, quick to prepare. However, the consumption of meat products has been associated with obesity, cancer, and heart disease, raising public health concerns about safety, sanitation, convenience, and flavor of foods [1]. In this sense, two of the main problems in the processing and storage of fresh sausages is the loss of color and lipid peroxidation [2]. Consequently, to improve the quality of meat products and gain the consumer’s preference, the main innovation in the meat producing chain today is the replacement of synthetic preservatives and antioxidant agents by natural products that have the same effect on foods [3].
25 K-Conjecture- The Future of Biology , Kass L*
In all modern-day republics and democracies, science investigations depend upon the support of the general public. These citizens will continue to support future science research if they remain acquainted with and appreciative of its basic methods, capabilities, achievements and aspirations. Science education is needed to inform and excite the public about the findings and benefits gained from scientific study, as well as to prepare the next generation of citizens for careers as practicing scientific professionals. Understanding science is critical for humanity to advance best practice in health, education, industry, and social policy. But through what route is science education best achieved?
26 Heavy Metal Pollution: Copper , Kucuk S*
One of the biggest problems of the world is environmental pollution due to development of technology and increase of population. Heavy metal pollution is one of element of pollution. Heavy metals are released to environment (water and soil) because of industrial, agricultural and mining activities. For example copper sulfate has been used for fungal disease control in viticulture in Portugal and in aquaculture in Turkey. Copper is discovered in the aquatic habitats collecting runoff water from this agricultural area [1]. 
27 Climate Change: Impact of Temperature on Dimethoate (OP) Toxicity and Behavior of Fish and Bivalve , Das VK*
The term “Climate Change” is used to anthropogenic climate change (Global Warming). Anthropogenic Climate Change is created by human activity (increase in CO2 level due to burning of fossil fuel, CO2 released by cement factories, ozone depletion, methane produced through agricultural practices, livestock, animal husbandry etc.), contrary to the changes in climate due to Earth’s Natural processes. Global warming has tremendous impact on functioning of ecosystem resulting in bio-geographical distribution of biota.
28 Alterations in the Activity of Acetylcholine Esterase in the Dragonfly Larvae of Bradinopyga Geminata under the Stress of Selected Textile Dyeing Effluents , Thangaraj A*, Muralidharan S, Senthilkumar S and Moorthi M
Textile dyeing effluents were considered as the major cause of aquatic pollution in India. Many studies on textile dyeing effluents (TDE) have proved that they inflict serious damage to aquatic ecosystems. Mingling of TDE to any water body poses a great threat to aquatic life which needs to be explored. In the present investigation the effluents samples from 6 different textile industries (ST1, ST2, ST3, ST4, ST5 and ST6) of Pallipalayam area of Namakkal district were analyzed and impact on the activity of acetylcholine esterase were estimated in the larvae of B. geminata. It was interpreted from the results that TDE contain a lot of organic and inorganic pollutants comprising metals and chemicals. When the larvae of B. geminata exposed to these pollution loads, the homeostasis was seriously affected in terms of enzymes. It implies that TDE were not properly treated up to the world’s standard norms and proved detrimental to aquatic biota.
29 Trend of Changes in Annual Forest Cover of South West Bengal, India , Mallick PH*
With 21% of India's area under forests, and regular biennial satellite remote monitoring, there is an urgent need for rapid automated detection of forest loss locations. There have been numerous studies monitoring forest health but no single source of reporting data is completely adequate. Currently many state and private forestry agencies and government are implementing Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) for monitoring the changing pattern of vegetation. The area of focus in this paper is south West Bengal covering 6 districts: Bankura, Burdwan, Birbhum, Midnapore (East and West) and Puruliya during 2001-2007. The study reveals that differential change in forest cover of the said districts ranged from unchanged to gradual increase. A substantial forest prevailing in this region vouches for sufficient shelter for the inhabiting animals too.
30 The Biology and Genetics of Electric Organ of Electric Fishes , Khandaker AM*
The electric fish comprises an interesting feature called electric organ (EO) which can generate electricity. In fact, they have an electrogenic system that generates an electric field. This field is used by the fish as a carrier of electric signals for active sensing and communicating with other electric fish [1]. The electric discharge from this organ is used for navigation, communication, and defense and also for capturing prey [2]. The power of electric organ varies from species to species. Some electric fish species can produce strong current (100 to 800 volts), especially electric eel and some torpedo electric rays are highly remarkable [3]. However, the detailed molecular mechanism of electrogenesis is largely unknown.
31 Demography, Activity Pattern, Food and Feeding Habits of Primates in Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu, India , Veeramani A*, Pushpalatha KB, Mohanakrishnan H2, Ramakrishnan B, Santhoshkumar P, Samsan A and Karthick S
The Western Ghats of South India has a highly fragmented population of India's most endangered primate species viz. the lion-tailed macaque (Macaca silenus) and Nilgiri langur (Trachypithecus johnii). The distribution of Common or Hanuman langur (Semnopithecus entellus) extends up to the southern region of the Western Ghats. Peninsular India holds two other primate species, the bonnet macaque (Macaca radiata) and the slender loris (Loris tardigradus). This is the first attempt to conduct the distribution of south Indian primates in and around Gudalur region, The Nilgiris. The study area was perambulated to locate the primates to know the status and distribution of these animals. Data on troop structure, composition and sex ratios were attempted. Behavioral data of primates were collected using focal animal sampling. Comparison of age and sex class of the adult female of all three primates such as bonnet macaque, common langur and Nilgiri langur is higher than the adult males. Similarly comparison of habitat selection shows that bonnet macaque and common langur prefers mostly on plantations followed by moist deciduous habitat. Whereas the Nilgiri langur prefer mostly on shola forests. The result of different activities shows that all these three primates spent most of time on resting activities followed by feeding. Statistical analysis of One-way ANOVA shows that there are significant differences among the three species of primates on Age-sex classes, activity pattern and feeding habits. Detailed studies that combined field surveys and phylogenetic studies are needed to determine the primate distribution and status in the rain forests.
32 Reproductive Consequences in Obese Women , Sharma I1* and Sharma A
Obesity is a medical condition characterized by the presence of excess body fat which leads to various metabolic disorders [1]. Adult obesity is measured in the terms of Body Mass Index (BMI) (WHO Expert Consultation, 2004). A BMI of 19 to 25 is considered to be an ideal weight, while BMI above 25 is taken as overweight and obese. In a report, compiled by the American Institute for Cancer Research and World Cancer Research Fund, every five point increase in the BMI is associated with a six percent increase in the risk of developing ovarian cancer [2].
33 Silkworm Immunity and Hormonal Regulation , Abir A Gad*
Silkworm diseases are the most important disease that inflects heavy loss to crops. Most losses in sericulture can be attributed directly to silkworm diseases. In insects, it relies on both humeral and cellular responses that are mediated via certain recognizing receptors and activation of several pathways. Fat body and hemocytes are the origins for the production and secretion of antimicrobial agents and activators/regulators of cellular response, while cell mediated immunity in insects is performed by hemocytes. Humoral immunity acts as a front-line barrier against invading pathogens. The humoral response includes, the activation of the Phenol oxidase system, which triggers the synthesis of melanin and ii) the production of several immune effectors, such as lysozyme, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs).
34 Microbial Fertilizer Improves Constitutive and Induced Resistance of Tomato against a Generalist Insect , Sharma G, Anjulo MT and Mathur V*
Plants express various constitutive and induced resistance mechanisms that require substantial share of plant nutrients. Microbial fertilizers such as Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria (PSB) are known to enhance nutrient availability to the plant, thereby helping in plant growth. However, it is still unknown whether such a growth compromises plant resistance. In present study, we evaluated the effect of PSB on early as well late responses in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) after damage by Spodoptera litura. We also studied whether these responses translate to resistance mechanisms by analyzing response of insect larvae on damaged plants. Our results indicate that, at early hour both unsupplemented and plants supplemented by PSB showed equal susceptibility towards insect induced oxidative damage. From 48h onwards elevated resistance mechanisms were observed in PSB-supplemented plants, especially increase in trichome numbers and shoot biomass. Moreover, decreased feeding preference of larvae was also observed on the previously damaged PSBsupplemented plants. However, an increased consumption index does indicate increased palatability of the plant, possibly due to high phosphorus availability. Our results thus indicate that PSB administration improves growth as well as induced resistance in tomato.
35 Distribution of Stripe-Necked Mongoose Herpestes Vitticollis by Camera Trapping in Similipal Tiger Reserve, Odisha , Mishra SR*, Paul S and Pati JD
The Presence of Stripe-necked mongoose Herpestes vitticollis in the Similipal Hills, Odisha, India has been confirmed by Camera-Trapping .This record extends the earlier known distribution range of this species, from southern and central Western Ghats in southwest India far to the north of the Eastern Ghats and hence constitutes a biogeographically significant record. Total fourty numbers of Photo captured during the exercise covering the three ranges in Similipal Tiger reserve. Highest (27) numbers of photo captured in Upper barakamuda range followed by (09) numbers in Jenabil Range and (04) numbers in National park range of similipal.
36 Medicinal Plants in the Diet of Golden Langur Trachypithecus geei in Kakoijana Reserve Forest, Western Assam, India. A Bio-Rational for the Search of New Medicines for Human Use? , Roy D* and Nagarajan R
The present study expected to compare the plant food diet of Golden Langur (Trachypithecus geei) inhabiting in Kakoijana Reserve Forest of Western Assam with medicinal plant species used by humans in the surrounding areas of the park as vegetables with medicinal properties. The diet of Golden Langur was studied by direct observation and Scan sampling method along with the plants used as medicine and food by the local tribes, India from March 2013 to April 2015. A group of 9 Golden Langurs of different age and sex classes was observed to feed on 152 different plant species belonging to 55 families. Among the different plant categories, trees accounts for 76%, followed by climber and shrub each 10%, grass 2%, fern and orchid each being 1% and liana 0.7% .The highest percent of food tree species belonged to the family Moraceae (9%) followed by Fabaceae (7%) and Euphorbiaceae (5%). The Langurs primarily fed on young leaves, mature leaves, fruits, seeds, figs, tubers and flowers during the study period. Semi structured interviews showed that 45 plant species used by locals as medicines, 17 species used as vegetables and two are rare medicinal plants of Assam. The diet species of Golden Langur was compared with other areas and discussed. The similarities between the ingestion of plants by primates and their medicinal use by humans provide a bio-rational for the search of bioactive plants in primate diet.
37 Appraisal of Biocidal Effectivity of Some Selected Biochemical and Chemical Formulations against Helicoverpa Armigera (Hubner) in Tomato Crop , Khan RR*, Shaheen T, Majeed S, Ali A, Arshad M, AlMazidi ISS and AlGhafri THA
A large number of field crops are consumed by the Tomato Fruit Borer (TFB), Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) due to its polyphagous behavior. This insect has been reported notorious for causing economic losses in the tomato crop. Chemicals are being used in tomato fields for quick and effective control. Therefore, field trials were performed to evaluate the comparative effectivity of some newer chemical insecticides viz., chlorfenapyr (Pirate® 360SL), chlorantraniliprole (Coragen® 20SC), flubendiamide (Belt® 480SC) and bio-chemical insecticides viz., emamectin benzoate (Proclaim® 1.9EC) and spinosad (Tracer® 240SC) against TFB in the tomato crop. Recommended field rates as provided on the label by the manufacturers were applied under the field conditions. As a result, the insecticide formulation flubendiamide proved to be more effective until the 9th day of insecticidal spray by reducing the pest population up to 92.00 ± 1.74% and 90.02 ± 1.74% after 1st and 2nd insecticidal spray, respectively. However, emamectin benzoate (Proclaim 1.9EC) remained least effective among the selected insecticides and lowest values of 80.02 ± 1.17 and 81.02 ± 1.70% pest reduction were observed after the both spray. None of the insecticide proved to be non-effective against TFB under the field conditions. Hence, these insecticides can be best suited in the IPM program for the pest control.
38 Clinico-Therapeutic Management of Ketosis in a Cow , Sandhya Morwal* and Shantanu Kumar Kuldeep
The clinical case study was carried out in a cow having sign of ketosis, diagnosis based on owner history, clinical symptoms and laboratory findings (Urine and blood sample). Therapeutic management was carried out as per physiological conditions of animal. Cow was treated with Injection of dextrose, corticosteroid, vitamin B-complex parental along with oral gluconeogenic precursors and jaggery. Case was treated successfully and excellent recovery.
39 Peptic Ulcer in Veterinary Medicine: A Mini Review , Ebbo AA*, Bello A, Ismail MS and Magami IM
Ulceration and discontinuity of the gastrointestinal mucosal can be a consequence of several drugs and diseases in small animals. As a result, gastroprotectant therapies are widely used in veterinary patients. Gastrointestinal ulcers can occur independently or as a complication of many systemic diseases hence have a significance importance to clinician in understand the etiological factors, pathophysiology for their effective treatment and early prophylaxis.
40 Diversity and Threats Encountered by Reptilian Fauna along Cauvery Basin, Kumbakonam, Tamil Nadu, India , Veeramani A*1 and Pavithra R
In India, Western Ghats and Eastern Himalayas are rich in herpetofauna. The fascinating ecosystem harbor many endemic herpetofauna. Of the 500 species of reptiles recorded in India, Western Ghats harbour about 156 species and about 93 of them are considered to be endemic to the area. Snakes and other reptile species may prove to be a valuable indicator species in local ecosystems. Hence the present study was taken up to examine the community structure, species richness, diversity and abundance of herpetofauna and to assess the impact on the diversity and density along the Cauvery bank of Kumbakonam region. Visual encountered method was involved searching for herpetofauna in an area or habitat and recording all animals visible on the surface. The opportunistic observations of 11 species of herpetofauna were recorded in the study area includes three species of house lizards, each one species of garden lizard, skink, monitor lizard, 2 species of fresh water turtles and 3 species of snakes. The present study shows that the distribution of reptiles in Cauvery basin of Kumbakonam region is largely determined by temperature, microhabitat availability and various geophysical constraints. Habitat alterations is impacted almost all endemic reptile species of the area.
41 Epidemiological Study of Animal Bites and Rabies in Bandar Astara City in 2017 , Dehgorji NR, Adham D, Abazari M and Mordi Asl E*
Introduction: Rabies is a viral disease that virus is removing from body during an animal’s bite and can cause death. The aim of this study was to determine of the epidemiologic cases of animal bite and rabies in Northern of Iran. Method: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 150 cases in Bandar Astara city in 2017. Data were collected using a researcher-made checklist. For analyze the data we used SPSS 22. Results: In this study, 78% of cases were males and 22% of females. The mean age was 34.25 ± 19.41. Most cases of animal bites occurred at age 50 and older. 49.3% of cases were in the urban and 50.7% in the rural area. Most of animal bites happened by the dog. 97.3% of animals were domesticated. The majority bites were happened in leg 83(55.3%). Conclusion: The results of the study showed that animal bite is still one of the public health problems in the Astara city. Therefore, the necessary measures to prevent and minimize animal bites are necessary.
42 Why All Professional Scientists Should Teach , Kass L*
Should researchers teach or not? George Bernard Shaw once wrote “He who can does; he who cannot, teaches [1].” I was first introduced to that quip in the formulative years of my early Teens. Later, in personal experiences as a professional scientist, I observed that many science faculty members at great universities were hired with minimal, if any, teaching experience or interest. Research prowess, alone, trumped all other qualifications. At most top universities, the teaching of undergraduates was an assigned duty that came with the territory, an unrewarded obligation and not a vocation. A young research scientist who preferred teaching would risk tenure and employment
43 Qualitative Analysis of Drinking Water for Pathogenic Bacteria of District Swabi, Pakistan , Qureshi AW1* and Aiman O2
This research work presents a study on drinking water quality in District Swabi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan, which involved bacteriological analysis of drinking water for the presence of some pathogenic bacteria from different drinking water sources. Total 103 water samples were analyzed in which 95 (92.23%) samples were contaminated with pathogenic bacteria. The contamination was highest for Staphylococcus aureus (88.34%), followed by Salmonella sp. (68.9%) and least contamination was recorded for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (24.27%). Out of 99 bore water samples, over all contamination was 91.9% and 100% for well water. It is concluded that the drinking water of Swabi is contaminated with these pathogenic bacteria and is not safe for drinking purposes. Based on the results it is suggested that authorities should show responsiveness to supply safe water and suitable sanitary facilities to avoid epidemics of infectious diseases in future.
44 Factors Influencing the Diversification of Mating Behavior of Animals , Afzal S*, Shah SS, Afzal T, Javed RZ, Batool F, Salamat S and Raza A
“Mating system” of a population refers to the general behavioral strategy employed in obtaining mates. In most of them one sex is more philopatric than the other. Reproductive enhancement through increased access to mates or resources and the avoidance of inbreeding are important in promoting sex differences in dispersal. In birds it is usually females which disperse more than males; in mammals it is usually males which disperse more than females. It is argued that the direction of the sex bias is a consequence of the type of mating system. Philopatry will favor the evolution of cooperative traits between members of the sedentary sex. It includes monogamy, Polygyny, polyandry and promiscuity. As an evolutionary strategy, mating systems have some “flexibility”. The existence of extra-pair copulation shows that mating systems identified on the basis of behavioral observations may not accord with actual breeding systems as determined by genetic analysis. Mating systems influence the effectiveness of the contraceptive control of pest animals. This method of control is most effective in monogamous and polygamous species. Factors effecting mating system include parental care, territory, spatial distribution of mate, sexual selection, sex difference in life history and temporal variability in sexual receptivity etc. Environmental factors also influence mating system such as temperature.
45 Biological Suppression of Stored Grain Insect Pests , Deb S*
Stored products include all durable agricultural commodities which can be dried and stored in bulk. Due to un-controlled environmental conditions and poor warehousing technology, stored grain infestation is a very serious problem as various life stages of insects cause economic damage and deteriorates the quality of food grains and products. There are number of stored grain insect pests that infest food grains in farmer’s go downs and public warehouses. More than 70 insect pests have been identified which attack stored grains and cereal products in store houses. The overall damage caused by these insect pests worldwide is estimated to be 10-40% annually [1]. Therefore, there is an urgent need to suppress the insect pest population of stored grain/products in order to maintain stored quality and its proper management.
46 Distribution of Lizards of the Absheron Peninsula , Najafov JA* and Hashimov RT
60 species of reptiles live in the Azerbaijan Republic. From them 17 species, or 28.3% are spread on Absheron Peninsula. These species belong to 3 orders, 13 families, 22 genera. Lizards are reptiles belonging to the order Squamata. On Absheron peninsula lizards inhabit a wide variety of biotopes, from garden habitats to sand dunes. Most species of Absheron are diurnal, but Caspian bent-toed geckos comprise a night time fauna in many habitats. Many species, can shed their tails in order to escape from predators. Lizards have many morphological adaptations that suit them to the substrates they inhabit, from specialized toe-pads in vertical rock-face dwellers to fringed-toes in loose-sand runners. Modern scientific study of lizards in Absheron began with the field natural history studies of E.P. Menetriem and E.E. Eichwald in the 19th century
47 Effects of Melatonin on Fetal Growth and Development of Dairy Cows , De Sousa AP*
As the dairy industry improved in technology during the twentieth century, animals were affected by a higher exposure to artificial light at night and this kind of light is comparable with a solar day light. This change in farm management brought damaging consequences to the animals, for example, a reduced production of melatonin in the pineal gland [1]. Melatonin is a hormone with a higher secretion in darkness and lower secretion during exposure to light [2]. It plays a role in the regulation of the circadian rhythm of several biological functions like heart rate and sleep-wake cycle, modulates reproduction, the neuroendocrine system, pregnancy and parturition times, CL function and it is considered an effective antioxidant [2,3]. In mammals, melatonin is produced by pinealocytes, retina and the gastrointestinal tract (GI). The major source of melatonin emanates from the pineal gland, and functions as an endocrine hormone [4].
48 Sensorial Analysis of Organic and Conventional Chicken Eggs (Gallus Gallus Domesticus) , Bianca SS*, Fabiola SF, Caetano B, Marta MMC and Marta VBR
The objective of this study was to evaluate the instrumental color and sensory analysis of four brands of eggs: organic (A and B) and conventional (C and D). The analysis of skin color and yolk was performed using a Minolta® colorimeter and sensory analysis was used to rank the preference of thirty tasters. The instrumental color data were subjected to analysis of variance, and significant differences were subjected to Tukey test to detect between the means (p≤0.05). The data were subjected to the sort Friedman test and multiple comparisons between scores. For instrumental color of the egg yolk for both luminosity and chroma sample C differed from the other samples. In the sensory test, significant difference appeared only for yolk color, which sample C appeared darker than others. For aroma and flavor, was no significant difference between samples. The differences presented by samples for instrumental color and color perceived by sensory analysis didn’t affect the sensory preference and buying intentions between conventional and organic eggs studied.
49 Experimental Animal Models of Fibrosis: Relevance and Considerations for Translational Health Research , Bindu S*
Tissue fibrosis is a set of progressive debilitating diseases which although initiate as a normal wound healing response to an injury, end up with hyperactivated immunological state leading to overwhelming deposition of extra cellular matrix (ECM) components by activated fibroblasts. About 45% deaths in the US are attributed to fibrosis-associated organ damage [1]. Repeated cycles of tissue injury-repair cause molecular dyshomeostasis and chronic inflammation wherein the affected organs suffer stiffening, scarring and consequential functional loss. Fibrosis of major organs including lungs, heart, liver, kidney, intestine and skin largely contributes to the clinical complications of major diseases characterized by multi-organ failure. Various genetic factors are evidently linked to tissue-specific development of fibrosis in humans [2].
50 The Genetics of Skin Color Variation in Farm Animals , Song TZ, Chen XY, Wang GF, Zhou P and Ren HX*
Melanin from melanocytes has a broad spectrum of biological activities, including protection against enzymatic lysis, UV radiation, and damage by oxidants and resistance to drugs by pathogens, protection of insects against bacteria and antiviral protection, etc. Coloration of the hair, skin, and eye in animal depends on the quantity, quality, and distribution of the pigment in tissues. Pigmentation is a variety of phenotypes that is important to husbandry. We reviewed the progress of skin color variation in farm animals to provide insights into the biology of skin pigmentation and melanocyte.
51 Surgico-Therapeutic Management of Wounds and Fractures in Birds Affected Due to Kite Flying , Shantanu Kumar Kuldeep*, Sandhya Morwal and Jayesh Vyas
This paper discussed the management of bird’s body injuries, wounds, and different type of bone fracture occurred during kite festival. Every year sacrifices the health of thousands of birds to the thrill of kite-flying festival. In present study, the highest incidences of kite string injuries were observed in Blue-rock Pigeons (64, 71.11%) followed by Blackeared Kite (9, 10%), Parrot (7, 7.77%), Ring necked dove (4, 4.44%), Crow (4, 4.44%) and Barn owls (2, 2.22%).
52 Nanoparticles and its Risk to Animals , Vaseem H*
Nanotechnology and the use of nano scale materials is a relatively new area of science and technology. The benefits of nanomaterials and nanoparticles are potentially enormous and are still being explored. They have become more and more popular and important in daily life. Nanoparticles (NPs) have many use in various fields like electronics, optics, textiles, medical devices, cosmetics, food packaging, water treatment technology, fuel cells, catalysts, biosensors and agents for environmental remediation [1-3].
53 The Potential use of Semiochemicals in Pest Suppression , Palial S* and Nidhi
Semiochemicals are natural substances produced and used by insects and plants to communicate. The different Semiochemicals based insect management techniques, such as monitoring, mating disruption, mass trapping, attractant, repellent, and push-pull strategies are highlighted. Semiochemicals are divided into two groups naturally secreted (pheromones and allelochemicals) and not secreted (attractants, disrupt ants, repellents, and other Para pheromones). Pheromones include sex, aggregation, alarm and trail pheromones, etc. Monitoring of insects can be done either with kairomones or pheromones baits traps. Mass trapping aims at catching a substantial proportion of the pest population before mating, oviposition or feeding and thus preventing damage to the crop. Mating disruption technique is achieved by the widespread application of synthetic pheromones. The push-pull strategy involves behavioral manipulation of insect pests and their natural enemies by the integration of stimuli that act to make the protected resources unattractive, while luring them towards an attractive resource, from where the pest is subsequently removed. Methods for crop protection based on Semiochemicals show advantages over method based on conventional insecticides. Semiochemicals are considered safe and environmentally friendly molecule due to their natural origin, low persistence in the environment and species-specific, which attribute much to their harmless effect on non-target organisms. However, there are some difficulties in the practical application of Semiochemicals in pest suppression; therefore, applications of Semiochemicals for insect pest management have, however, been limited.
54 Isolation of Chlorpyrifos Degrading Bacteria from Garden Soil , Rajesh M*, Archana B and Samundeeswari M
Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphorus insecticide broadly used for pest control in the urban and domestic area. It plays an important role in agriculture. Because of its persistent usage, it remains in the natural environment for a long period and hard to degrade its intermediate compounds. Microbial degradation is the best way to confiscate its toxicity. The present study reported that the degradation of chlorpyrifos by soil Pseudomonas aeruginosa Soil sample was collected from the garden. After enriching the soil sample with chlorpyrifos pesticide, the bacterial strain was isolated. The isolated bacterium was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and used for chlorpyrifos degradation studies. The efficient production of biosurfactant by Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterium was tested with the experiments. The presence of biosurfactant property increases the rate of degradation of chlorpyrifos by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The efficiency of the bacterial strain on the degradation of different concentration of the chlorpyrifos was studied using 1, 5 and 9 ppm of the chlorpyrifos for 15 days. HPLC analysis showed that there was a reduction in peak area of the different concentrations of pesticide samples (1,5 and 9 ppm) inoculated with the isolated Pseudomonas aeruginosa with that of control pesticide sample without inoculum on different days (5,10 and 15th day). The bacteria effectively degraded the chlorpyrifos in all the concentration when the duration of exposure is increased. From these above studies, it has been concluded that chlorpyrifos can be biodegradable by Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria which can utilize carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous sources from chlorpyrifos pesticide.
55 Tumour Metabolism: An Emerging Therapeutic Target for Cancer Treatment , Sonker P and Kumar A*
Malignant cells are highly proliferative in nature and display invasion and metastatic properties. Hence, they need rapid energy and huge amount of macromolecules for their development and progression. They fulfil their energy and macromolecular demands either by speeding up/down or switching on /off the various metabolic pathways. Therefore, altered tumor cell metabolism is considered as one of the emerging hallmark features of cancer cells. Most of the cancerous cells usually show dependency on glycolysis, glutaminolysis and lipid biosynthetic pathways.
56 Analysis and Comparison of the Ecological Niche of Two Endemic Species of the Genus Diploglossus (Sauria: Diploglossidae) , Velazco-Pérez K* and Estrada-Piñero FN
Of all the Cuban reptile species, lizards have the greatest richness and diversity. Among them, little is known about the natural history of the species of the genus Diploglossus, so that studies on their ecological niche would provide relevant and novel information about their ecology. Because of that, we proposed to characterize the climatically suitable areas of D. delasagra and D. nigropunctatus and to evaluate the niche overlap between them. We compiled information from 123 georeferenced presence records. Bioclimatic variables of WorldClim were used as predictive variables for the generation of ecological niche models in Maxent program. The final averaged models were binarized to generate presence-absence maps with the ArcGis program. The models obtained were evaluated as useful and excellent according to the difference between the training and testing AUC values, reflecting their high predictive capacity. The contribution of the variables to the resulting models varied between the two species, and in both cases the variables derived from temperature were those with the greatest contribution. The climatically suitable areas completely included the areas of known presence and included other areas. The potential distribution areas of the climate niche for both species showed very different distribution patterns, being higher for D. delasagra (221 123.84 km2) and smaller for D. nigropunctatus (6 173.82 km2). The Principal Components Analysis showed a very low niche overlap between the species, being D. delasagra the one with the greatest ecological plasticity and D. nigropunctatus the one with the least, the latter with preference of environments with lower values of seasonality in temperatures and a regime of abundant rainfall all year. The ecological niche breadth was also described using the B1 index in the ENMTools program, and the position and amplitude of the niche along the climatic axes. The Discriminant Analysis showed 95.24% of correct classifications, so there is no overlap between the ecological niches of both species. In conclusion, D. delasagra presents a wide distribution with respect to D. nigropunctatus, restricted to the main mountainous massifs of the east of Cuba, and both niches differ in environmental requirements and amplitude, defined by different variables.
57 Intestinal Bacterial Composition and Characteristics of Wintering Mandarin Duck (Aix Galericulata) in Shiqian Mandarin Duck Lake National Wetland Park, Guizhou Province , Fang ZY*, Wang YY, Ran JR, Xu GH, Wang C, Deng BL and Li H
Intestinal bacteria are closely related to host's nutrition, metabolism and immunity. Therefore, understanding its composition is the basis for understanding health status of the host. In this study, using high-throughput sequencing of V3-V4 variable region of 16S rRNA, 14 fresh feces of Mandarin Ducks form Shiqian Mandarin Duck Lake National Wetland Park, Guizhou Province were examined to analyze composition and characteristics of intestinal bacteria. Results are as follows: 1107760 valid sequences and 74837 OTU are obtained by sequencing. 244 genera, 130 families, 65 orders, 40 classes and 22 phyla of bacteria are detected, among which 166 genera, 107 families, 60 orders, 40 classes and 22 phyla are identified. Firmicutes (45.72%), Proteobacteria (23.71%), Fusobacteria (14.05%) and Bacteroidetes (10.21%) are dominant phyla (93.69%). Fusobacterium (13.95%), Lactobacillus (6.74%), Pseudomonas (4.72%), Akkermansia (4.23%) and Bacteroides (3.98%) are dominant genera. Fusobacterium and Lactobacillus are common in all samples. Alpha diversity indices are significant differences in bacterial groups of samples, which might be related to daily food intake of Mandarin Ducks. However, the specific differences or influencing mechanism needed to be studied on the relationship between host's diet and intestinal bacteria. This study enriches micro ecology contents of Mandarin Duck, and has certain reference value for evaluating the survival and health conditions of Mandarin Ducks.
58 Maternal Toxicity and Ultrastructural Changes of Copper OxyChloride in Pregnant Female Albino Rats , Elalfy MM*, Abd Allah AA, Mahmoud HA, Abomosallam M, Hamed MF and Sleem F
The excess application of COC may have an adverse effect on both animals and human population to better understand the maternal toxicity estimated in pregnant female albino rats, COC administered orally at different doses (1/10 and 1/20 LD50 of COC equivalent to 147 mg/kg bow and 73.5 mg/kg Bw. respectively) daily from day 6th to day 15th of pregnancy with daily observation and weighing. The pregnant dams were sacrificed on day 20th of gestation and blood and tissue samples collected for hematological, biochemical, histopathological, ultrastructural changes examination besides copper residues level determination in the liver tissues. The results showed that there was a significant dose-dependent decrease in the maternal body weight with respect to the control group besides a significant decrease in the metabolic parameters as glucose, total protein, and cholesterol however, there was a significant increase in the liver enzymes, urea and creatinine furthermore there was a severe decrease in the antioxidant biomarkers as SOD, CT, GSH and GST with a significant increase in the level of MDA revealing oxidative stress additionally the results found that the was a sever histopathological and ultrastructural changes in the liver tissue and hepatocytes. Furthermore, the level of copper in the liver tissue increased significantly in treated dams in comparison to control. Such results revealed the potential maternal toxicity of COC fungicide in a dose-dependent manner in female albino rats after the accumulation of copper in the liver tissue that considered as the main target organ.
59 How Far Can The Golden Mussel (Limnoperna Fortunei - Mytilidae) Go With Its Own Foot? , Pereira SM, Colares EP and Vieira JP*
Limnoperna fortunei (golden mussel) displays significant invasive potential and can lead to economic and environmental damage. The aim of this study is to describe the ontogenetical circadian pattern of activity of golden mussel using laboratory experiments. Golden mussels were split into two size groups: small (<15 mm) and large (>=15 mm). The movement pattern of each size group was filmed. Experiments were carried out in two distinct periods: light-dark experiments comprising 9 hours under a bright light followed by 13 hours under a red light and dark-light experiments consisting of 13 hours under a red light followed by 9 hours under a bright light. The variables course and speed were tested using size (small and large) and experiments (light-dark and dark-light) as factors. Both small and large mussels were more active in the first eight hours of the experiments, but no differences were observed regarding course and speed between the experiments. The period of the day did not influence the activity or distance patterns traveled by golden mussels, although small golden mussels presented significantly higher mean course and speed significantly compared to large mussels. Small individuals also displace faster than large individuals, resulting in longer traveled distances.
60 Literature Review: On Crustacean and Monogeneans of Commonly Catched Fish Species in Ethiopia , Kasse GE*
The objective of this study is to review crustacean and monogenean parasites of the fish species. The major diseases associated with fish are parasites, bacteria, viruses and toxic algae that reduces fish production by affecting the normal physiology of fish and if left uncontrolled, it can results in mass mortalities or in some cases, can be serve as source of infection for human and other vertebrates that consumed fish. External protozoa, crustacean and monogenetic trematodes of freshwater fish could be considered as the most prevalent causes of diseases affecting skin and gills causing gill inflammation and distortion of normal anatomy which impairing their respiratory foundation. Freshwater fish infested with skin-inhabiting flukes become lethargic, swim near the surface, and seek the sides of the pond and their appetite windless. There are several treatment options. Drugs or chemicals placed in the water are commonly referred to as "bath" treatments. Drugs delivered orally are generally mixed in the food, and are meant to deliver systemic effects. Maintain a good culture environment and prevent the deterioration of water environment; and use hygienic and nutritious fish feed to boost resistance of the fish stock and to minimize the chance of introducing pathogens into the water body.
61 Impact of Environmental Pollution on Respiratory System of Human and Animals in Angul and Talcher Industrial Areas, Odisha, India: A Case Study , Das L and Patri M*
Industrial growth has been a national issue with leading risk factor towards human health and the environment. The major air pollutants including particle pollution has different toxicological impacts on animals and human health. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) present in particle is known to induce significant respiratory, reproductive and neuropsychiatric complications. To investigate the effect of major particle pollutants, sources of emission, and their impact on human health and to check the toxicological/pathological impact of particulate matter (PM) containing Benzo[a]pyrene like toxicants on increasing rate of respiratory and reproductive diseases. The percentage of different trace element in the atmosphere was measured by monitoring air quality index through high volume sampling method and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy in Angul-Talcher areas. Effect of intratracheal and intraperitonial administration of B[a]P during PND 28 were examined on adult male Wistar rats after 15 days and 30 days of post exposure. Chest X-ray reports of human (Aged 20-60) were collected for acute respiratory diseases, asthma, conjunctivitis and bronchitis. Study showed monthly variation in the elemental content of the flyash samples including B[a]P. Histopathology of lungs and testis showed morphological changes in B[a]P treated rats as compared to the control. Similarly chest X-ray report showed different respiratory symptoms in human residing near Angul-Talcher industrial areas. The indices for PM are above the standard and mostly at dangerous level in TTPS. Thermal emissions are important in causing respiratory and other diseases. The present findings may contribute to building up evidences for environmental exposure and health effects in man and animals.
62 Specific Phase Relationships of Neural Oscillations: A Regulatory Mechanism of Reproduction in Higher Vertebrates , Singh VP*
Reproduction is one of the most important biological phenomenon among the organisms. A detailed knowledge about the mechanism(s) behind reproductive regulation will be helpful for us to understand this phenomenon in a better way. With the help of this knowledge we can generate new ideas which can able us to control the fertility of economically important species.
63 Preliminary Assessment of Water Spinach (Ipomoea Aquatica) and Morning Glory (Ipomoea Asarifolia) Leaves Meals as Non-Conventional Fish Feed Stuffs , Adedokun MA, Ogundiran MA* and Alatise SP
Assessment of nutritional qualities of aquatic weeds grown in Kainji Lake, Nigeria; Water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) and morning glory (Ipomoea asarifolia) leaf-meals was carried out using standard laboratory methods. The nutritive values, mineralization and protein building units for the aquatic weeds were determined as potential fish feedstuffs. The leaf meal of I. aquatica contained crude ash (12.50%), crude fibre (7.62%), crude protein (25.60%), crude lipid (6.33%), and carbohydrate (47.95%), metabolizable energy value of 311.24kcal/g and energy/protein ratio of 12.16. While the nutritive values in I. asarifolia leaf-meal were crude ash (11.50%), crude fibre (8.77%), crude protein (21.90%), crude lipid (5.88%) and carbohydrate (48.05%), metabolizable energy (294.81kcal/g) and energy/protein ratio (13.46). The mineral contents of the leaf-meals of the two species of the Ipomoea were potassium (444 mg/100g), calcium (163mg/100g), Sodium (159.8 mg/100g), phosphorus (86 mg/100g), magnesium (52 mg/100g), copper (5.3 mg/100 g), zinc (4.1 mg/100g), iron (3.2 mg/100g) and manganese (2.3 mg/100g). I. aquatic leaf meal contained 407 mg/100g and 26 mg/100g higher in both indispensable and dispensable amino acids values than I. asarifolia leaf meal. The two aquatic leaves had abundant components of essential amino acids. Empirically, the Ipomoea spp exhibited or showed low methionine contents which are a common occurrence in plant protein. I. aquatic and I. asarifolia leaf meals could be good supplements for some nutrients and natural antioxidants as an alternative for fish feed ingredients.
64 Population and Diversity of Birds in the Kodanadu Area of Nilgiris, Western Ghats of Tamilnadu, South India , Kalaiyarasi G, Rameshkumar C and Subramanian C2
The abundance of birds consisting of 46 species, 8 orders and 25 families were recorded. The maximum number of sightings was obtained in the house sparrow (Passer domestics). The lowest number of sightings (n=4; ER=0.06/km walked) were had in the Great Hornbill (Buceros bicornis) from overall observations. The Encounter Rate was high for house sparrow Passer domesticus (25.9/km) in the rainy season and low for Greater Coucal Centropus sinensis (0.07/km) when compared to other species. The Encounter Rate of birds in the study area in different seasons (Rainy and Summer) were observed with the variations. In summer season, the Encounter Rate was high for house sparrow Passer domesticus (27.25/km) and in the rainy season low for Great Hornbill Buceros bicornis (0.05/km) when compared to other species. The other bird species were moderately found in the ER. In the study area, the diversity index was estimated using the alpha diversity. The overall diversity index (alpha diversity) of birds in the study area was observed low (-1232). The seasonal wise, the index were showed -1372 in summer and-1152 in rainy seasons.
65 The Plasticity of Organisms: Some Examples of the Adaptations of Small Vertebrates to Various Environments All Around the World , Exbrayat JM*
At a time when the decline of biodiversity is serious, many organisms currently live in different biotopes, even the most unexpected. For this, organisms have adapted to all environments, often developing very specialized anatomical and physiological characteristics. Looking at nature when traveling around the world, it is obvious that the adaptations to the environment are specific. In this short review, we propose a trip around the world to meet small vertebrates having acquired anatomical, physiological or reproductive specializations, in order to live at best in environments that are a priori incompatible with life. Some species encountered during this excursion have been studied for a long time by our group, others, with very specialized adaptations; have been studied by other teams. The wealth of these adaptations is currently threatened by climate change. Thus, specializations can sometimes become a handicap for the life of the species. New adaptations will certainly develop in the future, but will species have time to adapt to quickly evolving biotopes?
66 Potential of Fenoxycarb on the Growth Duration and Longevity of Adults of Rice Moth, Corcyra Cephalonica Staint. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Exposed as Second Instar Larvae , Tiwari Sk*
The rice moth, Corcyra cephalonica Stainton is a notorious pest of stored cereals and cereal commodities in Asia, Africa, North America, Europe and other tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Attempts were made to control this lepidopterous pest with the application of an Insect Growth Regulator (IGR) Fenoxycarb, a juvenile hormone analogue which affects the growth and development of the insect, and thus, reducing the pest population in socio-economically and environmentally safe and suitable way. Corcyra cephalonica larvae, at second instar level, were exposed to 0.001, 0.005, 0.01, 0.05, 0.10, 0.50 and 1.00 ppm concentrations of Fenoxycarb. It was observed that increased concentrations of Fenoxycarb caused a significant (P<0.01) enhancement in growth duration, due to its juvenoids action, and an insignificant reduction in adult longevity in both the sexes of this pest, causing adverse effect on adult emergence, so, reduces pest population without harming mammalian population including human being and environment as well as non-target organisms. Thus, it may be concluded that Insect Growth Regulators may be applied as an insecticide for the effective control of Corcyra cephalonica.
67 New Results in Researching the Relationship between Light Trapping of Ostrinia nubilalis Hbn. and Some Features of Night Sky and the Moon in Hungary and USA , Nowinszky L*, Puskas J and Kiss M
This paper treads with the certain features of night sky and the Moon in connection with the success of light trap catch of European Corn-borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner, 1790) in Hungary and Nebraska and North Carolina states of USA between 1959-2006 and 1994-2017. The features were examined as follows: altitude of the Sun’s Arago point above horizon, altitude of the Moon’s Babinet point above horizon, altitude of the Moon above horizon, apparent magnitude of the Moon, illuminated fraction of the Moon and the moonlight. Calculations were made between these factors and the catch data. The results were depicted together with the confidence intervals. We have found that the neutral points of the sky and the features of the Moon that have not yet been investigated. A similar effect can be seen in the results of the light-trap catch of the Ostrinia nubilalis Hbn. both in Hungary and in America.
68 A Computational Model for the Study of Release Call in the Pyrenean High Mountain European Common Frog (Rana Temporaria) , Palanca-Castan N, Miramontes-Sequeiros LC* and Palanca-Soler A
The aim of this study was to develop a computational model to perform a bioacoustic characterization of the release call of a high-mountain population of Rana temporaria. We also wanted to determine the way in which variation in specific anatomical structures, such as the nostrils and mouth cavities, affected call structure. For this purpose, we recorded induced release calls, above- and underwater, of individual frogs all over our research area as well as additional biometric data in the form of photographs, radiographs and video recordings. The data collected were used to create a virtual synthesized call that could replicate them, taking into account the variation introduced by the natural anatomical structures. Our model successfully replicated the recorded calls. We determined the role of mouth cavity acting as a Helmholtz resonator, both above and underwater, which suppressed certain frequency groups in order to highlight those with biological relevance. We also determined the role of the nasal cavities, which acted as a tube resonator amplifying specific frequencies during above-water vocalizations. The nasal cavity remained closed and therefore did not act as a resonator during underwater vocalizations.
69 Population of Eospalax Baileyi Pallas and its Controls with Compound Poison Bait’s , Zhang Y and Yang K*
Pest control is still the important work to manage the grassland in West China. E. baileyi Pallas is the main rodent in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau grassland, so population density of E. baileyi Pallas was continuously investigated from 2015 to 2016 based on the previous works of 2013 and 2014, compound poison baits effects were tested on E. baileyi Pallas. The block-open method was used to survey the population density with three repeat grids. Rapeseed oil and peanut oil was used as attractant to make compound poison, and then determine the compound poison bait effects on E. baileyi Pallas. The density was 37.12 and 35.32 individuals/hm2 in 2015 and 2016, respectively. The results showed that the average feeding rate of rapeseed oil was 76.7%, which was significantly higher than that of peanut oil with 65.12% (P<0.05). The average killing rate of poison bait without attractant was 74.68%, which was significantly lower than the rate of poison bait with attractant (88.85%, P<0.01). The average density of E. baileyi Pallas in Hongyuan County was 36.22 individuals/hm2 which indicated that the pest was highly harmful to the grassland. The effect of D-type kreotoxin poisoning E. baileyi Pallas could be significantly improved with the attractant.
70 Animal Models in Cancer Chemoprevention , Khan MA, Singh D and Siddique HR*
Animal models are currently being used to check the efficacy of chemo preventive/chemotherapeutic agents. This is because the microenvironment of cultivated primary cells isolated from an animal organ/system is markedly different from in vitro systems. Animal models are important to study the interactions between different cell types and drug/ or xenobiotic metabolisms. To study specific cancer type, animal models can be generated either chemically or trans genetically. A number of tumor-specific animal models are available for chemo preventive studies. To examine the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs used for the treatment of various cancers such as prostate, skin, liver, colon etc. are being tested in the different chemically induced or transgenic animal models. However, the validity of animal models in determining the effectiveness of a chemo preventive agent in the human treatment will require the critical evaluation of the positive and negative effects of these agents on human. In this mini-review, we will throw some light on the various small mammalian animal models used in the cancer chemoprevention studies.
71 Zoonotic Hemoparasites of Baboons (Papio Anubis) at the Human-Wildlife Interface in Kenya , Fredrick M*, Danson M, John K, Sanslaus K, David N, Michael G, Suleiman M, Maina N and Mercy A
In Kenya, the encroachment of baboon habitats has led to increased interaction between humans and non-human primates (NHP). This interaction may result in negative consequences such as increased chances of zoonotic parasite transmission. The current study investigated the protozoan hemoparasites (both zoonotic and non-zoonotic) of free ranging baboons (Papio anubis) at two human–baboon interface sites: Tsavo West National Park (TWNP) and Tana River Primate Reserve (TRPR). One hundred and six baboons were trapped, anaesthetized, physically examined, and sampled for blood and ectoparasites. Physical examination revealed lymphadenopathy in all (100%) baboons from Tsavo and 66.7% in Tana. Microscopic examination of blood smears indicated the following prevalence of hemoparasites in TWNP and TRPR baboons respectively; Hepatocystis kochi (70%, 64.4%), Entopolypoides macaci (0%, 4.4%), Babesia microti (0%, 4.4%), and Plasmodium spp. (1.7%, 0%). PCR screening results revealed slightly higher prevalence of hemoparasites in TWNP and TRPR baboons respectively: Hepatocystis kochi (87%, 90%), Babesia (10.8%, 16.7%) and Entopolypoides (8.7%, 5%). There was a significant difference in the prevalences of Entopolypoides macaci and Babesia microti between the two sites (P<0.05). The species of ticks identified included Rhipicephalus simus, Rhipicephalus pulchellus and Hyalomma truncatum. The prevalence of ticks observed in TWNP and TRPR baboons was 28% and 23.3%, respectively. The occurrence of these parasites in the human-baboon interface is important in the light of emerging and re-emerging diseases and zoonoses in human populations.
72 Feeding Strategy of the Snail Kite, (Rosthramus Sociabilis) in the Escobalito Reservoir, Toluviejo (Sucre, Colombia) , Sampedro A*, Camargo K, Fernandez J and Vergara M
The feeding strategy of Rostrhamus sociabilis (Accipitridae: Accipitriformes) is studied in The Escobalito reservoir, Toluviejo municipality, Department of Sucre, Colombia. This kite feeds almost exclusively on aquatic molluscs. The type and daily quantity of the species it uses is hereby analyzed, as is the frequency of the catches throughout the day and the characteristics of that activity. This is the first report of the use of Marissa cornuarietis, in addition to Pomacea sp., by the snail kite. The number of individuals of this species that it consumes is greater than that of Pomacea sp., which could be due to their greater availability and smaller size. Capture frequency is higher in the early hours of the morning and the last hours of the afternoon, with short time intervals between each. These kites ingest more frequently shells of intermediate size of both species.
73 Nootes on Population Status, Breeding Habits and Conservation of Canadian Goose (Branta Canadensis) In Central New Jersey, USA , Yahya HAS*
One of the most common and conspicuous waterfowl in North America Canadian Goose, Branta canadensis is a large brownish bird with prominent black head. Its neck, cheeks and under chin is white, whereas beak, legs, outer wings and outer tail feathers are black. Lower abdomen and vent is also white. Their loud honking calls while on flight are also diagnostic. As given in Encyclopedia Wikipedia this is one of the oldest described birds whose nomenclature was given by Carl Linnaeus himself as back as 1772. There are 11 known subspecies recognized from different geographical locations in the world, of which 4 subspecies are reported from USA. But ornithologists often disagree on certain sub-specific forms. They largely occur in USA and Canada but are also found in different parts of Europe, New Zealand, Argentina, Chili and Falkland Islands.
74 Acoustic Phenotypes of an Alpine European Common Frog Population , Miramontes-Sequeiros LC*, Palanca-Castan N and Palanca-Soler A
In this work we studied the acoustic variability in the induced release call on wild populations of the European common frog Rana temporaria. We used a computational model to analyze the induced release calls in both sexes. Our analysis detected three different acoustic phenotypes: (a) Non-canonical males comprised a large part of the population and were the main cause of the biased sex ratio (Phenotype 2), since (b) canonical males (Phenotype 1) and (c) canonical females (Phenotype 3) had close to a 1:1 ratio. Phenotype 2 were much more abundant in locations were tadpoles were exposed to high water temperatures during their development, suggesting that a masculinizing effect of temperature is responsible for the biased sex ratio, and a likely origin for “pirate” males which search for newly laid clutches to fertilize not fertilized eggs by the “parental” males.
75 Biological Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Anisomeles Indica and their Mosquito Efficacy , Veera Kumar K* and Govindarajan M
Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. The use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. The use of synthetic mosquitocides often leads to high operational costs and adverse non-target effects. Recently, plant borne compounds have been proposed for rapid extracellular biosynthesis of mosquitocidal nanoparticles. However, the impact of these nano mosquitocides against biological control agents of mosquito larval populations has been poorly studied. The present study was carried out to establish the larvicidal potential of leaf extracts of Anisomeles indica and synthesized silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract against late third instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of plant extracts and synthesized AgNPs for 24 hours. The results were recorded from UV–visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energydispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis support the biosynthesis and characterization of AgNPs. The maximum efficacy was observed in synthesized AgNPs against the larvae of An. stephensi (lethal concentration (LC50)=25.67 μg/mL; LC90 50.09 μg/ mL), Ae.aegypti (LC50=27.40 μg/mL; LC90 53.05 μg/mL), and Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50=29.67 μg/mL; LC90 57.28 μg/mL), respectively. No mortality was observed in the control. This is the first report on mosquito larvicidal activity of plant-synthesized nanoparticles. Thus, the use of A.indica to synthesize silver nanoparticles is a rapid, ecofriendly, and a single-step approach and the Ag NPs formed can be potential mosquito larvicidal agents.
76 Occurrence of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus in Emerging Tertiary Care Hospital, Veraval, Gujarat, India , Sujithra M, Vanik D, Sivaraman GK* and Koya KM
The present study was carried out to monitor the incidence of MRSA as an emerging pathogen in health care setting. In total of 36 clinical samples from men, women and children and also hand swabs of nursing staff and surrounding environment of GirSomnath District, Veraval Civil Hospital, Gujarat were collected and examined for the presence of MRSA. The collected samples were screened for the presence of MRSA and assessing their antimicrobial susceptibility testing, minimum inhibitory concentration as per CLSI (2017) guideline. The incidence rate of MRSA was found as 52.78%. The results indicate that the highest level of resistance was found to Penicillin (100%) and the least level of resistance was found to Tigecycline (4%). About 24% isolates were positive for mecA gene. The lack of health care facility (antimicrobial testing), poor hygienic practices, and awareness among the patient and healthcare workers may be plays a significant role in the presence of MRSA in the health care setting.
77 Management of Isolated Elephant Population in Idukki Wildlife Sanctuary, Kerala, India-Problems and Prospects , Veeramani A*, Balasubramanian M and Ramesh Babu M
Idukki Wildlife Sanctuary (WLS) forms part of fragmented patches of forests along the Western edge of the High Ranges. Fragmentation resulted in isolation of elephant population in Idukki WLS which is cut off from other populations. A total of 23 herds of elephants were sighted during the study period within Idukki WLS and the adjacent Ayyappankovil and Nagarampara Ranges of Kottyam Division. About twenty percent of the total herds seen were of bigger herd size (ranging from 8 to 10 individuals). There was no significant seasonal variation in the proportion of solitary elephants in the study area (X2 (1, 0.01) = 2.53). Observations on population structure of elephants in Idukki reveals that the adult females constituted the major age class of the population (67.92%) followed by equal proportion of sub-adult females (7.55%). The proportion of adult males constituted 7.55% and the sub-adult males formed 3.77%. Estimation of elephants using dung count method carried out in the Idukki WLS revealed that the density of 1.072 elephants/km2. Observation on habitat utilization of elephants revealed that they mainly prefer the savannah grassland and moist deciduous habitats since it has more forage than the evergreen habitat. The study also explored the possibility of connecting the population of elephants in Idukki with the adjacent elephant population. Animals such as wild boar, elephant, monkeys, porcupine and sambar involve in crop damage in the human settlements within and adjacent areas of Idukki WLS. Crops such as tapioca, colacasia, yam, coconut, plantain, paddy, arecanut are found to be damaged by these animals. Cattle (goat, poultry and rabbit) lifting by wild dog from the human habitation were reported. To avoid humanwildlife conflict, timely payment of compensation, erecting/strengthening barriers such as trench, solar power fence and bio-fencing with planting of agave, Caesalpinia sappan, Plumbago sp. is suggested.
78 Food and Feeding Behaviour of Kingfishers (Family: Alcedinidae) in Selected Water Bodies in Osun State, Nigeria , Oguntimehin BE*, Akinpelu AI and Oyelade OJ
Many countries are experiencing different health challenges as a result of polluted water caused by industrial pollution and contamination by agricultural run-off. Pollution also kills the fishes that kingfishers feed on thereby limiting the fish population. This study identified the species of kingfishers present around some selected water bodies (Opa, Akinrinade, Osinmo, and Osu Reservoirs) in Osun State, Nigeria. It also determined the food and feeding preferences of various species of kingfishers in the selected reservoirs. These were with a view to determine the food and feeding ecology of kingfishers in Osun State. A total of 2,215 individuals and 5 species of kingfishers were observed in the field during the sampling period. The mean comparison of the species across the sites revealed that Opa Reservoir had the highest (63.83±12.90) abundance of species, followed by Akinrinade Reservoir with (57.5±11.18) while Osu Reservoir had the lowest (11.33±6.12).The species abundance in Opa and Akinrinade Reservoirs were not significantly (p>0.05) different from each other but significantly (p<0.05) different from Osu reservoir. Also, species abundance in Osinmo and Akinrinade Reservoirs were not significantly (p>0.05) different from each other but significantly (p<0.05) different from Osu Reservoir. This study showed that kingfishers preyed on several species which comprised of insects (dragonfly, grasshopper, damselfly, butterfly, and ants), water snail and fish (tilapia, fry of tilapia, barbus).
79 Biochemical and Pathological Features of Postmortem Time Interval of Natural Brain Death Induced in Albino Rats , Elalfy MM*, Ragheb HR, Hamed MF and Sleem FR
Previously we studied certain biochemical markers of postmortem time interval (PMI) in brain stem induced death in albino rats in first 30 hours after death. PMI is very important in forensic medicine for both criminal and civil conditions. We investigate histopathology, biochemical markers of enzymology and trace minerals in brain stem death model in albino rats. In the current study, we found a time dependent reduction in cholesterol and calcium level while LDH, CPK, sodium, potassium, total protein, albumin and chloride were increased as a result of tissue degradation. Notably, triglycerides are only fluctuated chemicals in blood sera suffered postmortem changes even is the highest point near 72 hours. Histopathological changes in heart, lung and brain were also time dependent except that brain suffers sever hemorrhage at the time of death onset due to increase intracranial pressure after injection of hypotonic solution in the dura mater. On conclusions, level cholesterol and trace mineral could correlate to postmortem time interval on natural induced death.
80 Potential Effects of Climate Change on the Distribution of Endemic Lizards (Squamata: Sauria) in Cuba , Velazco-Pérez K* and Mancina CA
Climate change has modified the distribution and abundance of numerous species. Being ectotherms, reptiles are especially susceptible to this phenomenon, which worldwide threatens almost 40 % of known species of lizards. Its impact on the herpetofauna of Cuba has been little studied. Therefore, we estimate the possible effects of climate change on the distribution of 46 endemic lizard species. To modelling the climatic niche of the species with the MaxEnt program, we used 3 698 presence records and 17 WorldClim bioclimatic variables. For transferring to the future, we used two climate scenarios with RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5, at two times periods (2050 and 2070). We assumed vulnerability as the potential reduction of future areas of climatic suitability (ACS) compared to current ones. We superimposed the distributions to detect sites of greater potential richness and those of greater exposure to climate change. We evaluated the models obtained as useful and excellent according to the AUC values, reflecting their high predictive capacity. The most extensive current ACS corresponded to Anolis equestris (98 213 km2), and the smallest to A. quadriocellifer (3 074 km2). With the most alarming scenario (RCP 8.5), a loss of more than 30 % of the ACS and a greater probability of extinction in their current areas of occupation was predicted in almost 85 % of the species by 2070. Mesophilic species showed greater vulnerability, losing 30.8 to 100 % of their future ACS for the RCP 8.5 scenario. The trend in all projections was the reduction of ACS, mainly in the West and Center regions. The greater richness of lizards, and the greater gain and stability of future ACS, corresponded to the main mountainous massifs of the country, so that these regions could act as climatic refuges against the conditions of climate change. However, the little dispersal capacity of these species and low landscape connectivity resulting from anthropic activities could limit the future colonization of available habitats.
81 Feeding on Lettuce and Mulberry Leaves Increases Silk Productivity and Biometrics of the Mulberry Silkworm Bombyx Mori , Idriss M and Gad AA*
During the present study, two different host plants (lettuce and mulberry) were used for feeding 5th instar larvae of Bomby mori. In the case of treatment (T0), B. mori 5th instar larvae were daily fed on 4 meals of mulberry leaves (control treatment), while in treatment (T1), larvae were fed on 10 meals of lettuce leaves: 4 meals at the 1st day, 3 meals at the 2nd day, 2 meals at the 3rd day and a meal at the 4th day; the rest of the fourth daily meals were mulberry leaves. (T2), larvae were fed on 6 meals of lettuce leaves: 3 meals at the 1st day, 2 meals at the 2nd day and a meal at the 3rd day; the rest of the fourth daily meals were mulberry leaves. (T3) larvae were fed on 3 meals of lettuce leaves: 2 meals at the 1st day and a meal at the 2nd day; the rest of the fourth daily meals were mulberry leaves. (T4), larvae were fed on a meal of lettuce leaves at the 1st day: the rest of the fourth daily meals were mulberry leaves. (T5), larvae were daily fed on a meal of lettuce leaves and 3 meals of mulberry leaves. (T6), larvae were daily fed on 4 meals of lettuce leaves. The present results revealed that T5 significantly increased the larval weight as compared with the other treatments (T0, T1, T2, T3, and T4). While T2 significantly increased the mean of pupal, cocoon, cocoon shell and silk gland weights by about 46.2 %, 44.6 %, 37.6 % and 55.7% respectively as compared with the T0. The effect of feeding of B. mori 5th instar larvae on lettuce leaves on total and different haemocyte counts of B.mori last larval instar was also determined.
82 The Importance of Cockroaches , Cardoso da Silva LDO*
Cockroaches, including termites from epifamily Termitoidea (order Blattodea), have the second largest number of species compared to other Polyneoptera, approximately 7,570 described species, of which 4,641 are cockroaches [1]. Linnaeus, et al. [2] considered cockroaches within the order Coleoptera, in a single genus called Blatta, which in Latin means bookworm. The same author added that cockroaches in Russia and Finland consume bread as well as clothing, forcing residents to leave their homes and return only in the middle of winter, when cockroaches perish from the cold [3]. According to the authors, perhaps this is why cockroaches are popularly referred to as pests, but these insects are not as malignant as they are portrayed in movies, magazines, and the popular imagination. In fact cockroaches do better than we think.
83 Experimental Biologist Perspective on Inhabiting Other Worlds , Kass L*
Humans and Earth’s entire biota will become extinct if they do not inhabit another world. This transference will require substantial support, long-term planning, S.T.E.M. and social applications, along with more clear-eyed determination than humanity has yet exhibited. Some of these more difficult challenges involve changing the way humans view themselves. This introspection will include honest assessments of our biological limitations as well as our dependence upon other life-forms. We will need to redefine ourselves as a family and act decisively upon that new definition. This work outlines a difficult yet realistic approach towards our long-term survival as a species, the only one on Earth most capable of preserving its biota and itself. The conclusions deduced here are contrasted with current concepts on this topic that do not adequately incorporate biology as it has evolved for billions of years on Earth. The perspective expressed within may appear radical when comparing it to alternate viewpoints that do not adequately incorporate biology, its evolution, and its limitations.
84 New Data on the Distribution and Conservation Status of the Two Endemic Scrapers in the Turkish Mediterranean Sea Drainages (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) , Kaya C*, Kucuk F and Turan D
In the scope of this study, exact distribution of the two endemic Capoeta species in the Turkish Mediterranean Sea drainages was presented. Fishes were caught with pulsed DC electro-fishing equipment from 28 sampling sites throughout Turkish Mediterranean Sea drainages between Göksu River and stream Boğa. The findings of the study demonstrate that Capoeta antalyensis inhabits in Köprüçay and Aksu rivers, and streams Boğa and Gündoğdu, all around Antalya. Capoeta caelestis widely distributed in coastal stream and rivers between Stream Dim (Alanya) in the west and Göksu River (Silifke) in the east. Metric and meristic characters were collected from the fish samples which obtained in the field for Capoeta caelestis and Capoeta antalyensis, and museum material for Capoeta damascina. In this way, morphologic features of the species revealed and Capoeta caelestis compared with Capoeta damascina to remove the hesitations about the validity of the species. The conservation status of Capoeta antalyensis was recommended to uplist from Vulnerable to Endangered.
85 The Phosphoprotein Gene from Canine Distemper Virus as Target in Viral Detection , Mateo F, Cespedes PF and Navarro C*
The Canine Distemper Virus (CDV) is the causal agent of a severe multisystem disease of dogs and other carnivorous species. Canine Distemper (CD) is a highly contagious disease that can reach high morbidity and mortality. The wide spectrum of clinical signs makes the clinical diagnosis of the disease difficult and requires confirmation through laboratory tests. The molecular detection of CDV has advantages in the diagnosis of the disease. In the present work, the technique of Polymerase Chain Reaction-nested version-previous reverse transcription (n-RT-PCR) for the detection of the viral phosphoprotein gene (P gene) was implemented. As positive controls, RNA from vaccinal strains and samples positive to other CDV genes was used by RT-PCR. As negative controls, RNA was used from dog samples without clinical signs of the disease and as control of reactants, nuclease-free water. Subsequently, the technique was used in 10 field samples of dogs with clinical suspicion of the disease, detecting the viral genome in 100% of the samples analyzed, generating a band close to 430 bp, corresponding to the targeted target sequence of the phosphoprotein gene of the CDV. The amplification products were characterized by their great intensity and sharpness, not observing nonspecific amplification bands. Finally, the sequencing of the products obtained from the n-RT-PCR was performed, obtaining a high percentage of nucleotide identity with respect to the nucleotide sequences of the P gene stored in the GenBank®. This allowed establishing that the n-RT-PCR implemented in this Title Memory allows the detection of CDV. The implementation of this technique will allow the antemortem detection of the virus and, therefore, facilitate the diagnosis and early treatment of the disease.
86 Importance of Secondary Plant Metabolites in Plant Protection against Agricultural Insect Pests , Sharaby A*
Pest management is facing the economic and ecological challenge worldwide due to the human and environmental hazards caused by majority of chemical pesticides. Identification of novel effective insecticidal compounds is essential to combat increasing resistance buildup. Secondary plant metabolites have long been as good alternatives to the chemical insecticides for insect pest managements because it reputedly pose little threat to environment or human health. A number of plant have been considered for use as insect antifeedants, repellents, growth regulators (IGRs) and toxicants. In the context of agricultural pest management, secondary plant metabolism are best suited for use in organic food production in industrialized countries but can play a much greater role in the production and postharvest protection of food in developing countries. Improvement in the understanding of plant allele chemical mechanisms of activity offer new prospects for using these substances in crop protection. Essential oils and plant extracts proved to be safe available alternatives to the synthetic pesticides in plant protection in field and during storage. En-capsulation of essential oils inside nano-particle is a new technology of formulation increasing persistence of the active ingredients, achieve high stability of efficacy, which used as delivery systems and considered as a promising strategy to deliver essential oils in agriculture.
87 The Non-Coding RNAs Involved in Physiology and Pathology of Skin Melanocyte and Melanoma , Ren H, Chen X, Wang G, Sun X, Jiang J, Zhang L, Dong X, Li J, Fu L, Zhou P, Wu Y and Song T*
The non-coding RNAs consist of the major of transcripts in genome in higher plants and animals, and they modulate gene expression at multiple levels to affect the growth, development, physiology, and disease in organisms. Recent findings demonstrate that the non-coding RNAs play important roles in physiology and pathology of melanocyte and melanoma. We reviewed the progress in non-coding RNAs (microRNA and long non-coding RNA) involved in pigmentation to provide insights into the melanocyte and melanoma biology.
88 House Dust Mite Allergy in Kolkata Metropolis in Response to Change in Lifestyle , Saha GK*
House dust allergy is a fairly common problem among sensitive individuals, resulting in various types of allergic manifestations like allergic rhinitis, atopic eczema, bronchial asthma etc. Although the prevalence of allergic diseases is more common in westernized and developed countries, the incidence is increasing at a rapid pace in developing countries like India too. However, data in this regard is still fragmentary except few scattered information in Indian context. In a rough estimate, in India, 250 million people are suffering from one or more allergic manifestations and the country is the home to around 15-20 million asthmatics. To offer the patients with best possible diagnosis and treatment, the detection of offending allergens are of prime importance. At the same time, early detection of individuals who are genetically at risk of developing allergy to readily available indoor allergens is also an essential element to adopt effective avoidance strategies and to design appropriate therapies. House dust is a complex mixture of substances of plant and animal origin and consists of animal and human dander, debris from wool, feathers, hairs, insects, cotton, silk, jute and synthetic fibers, carpets, beddings, furniture and upholstery, fungal spores, bacteria, microorganisms and shedding from other house hold articles and long been known to cause sneezing and wheezing in sensitive subjects. However, the exact nature of the principal allergen in house dust was unknown for quite a long time. It is now well documented that the mites of the genus Dermatophagoides are the most potent allergens in house dust responsible for allergic manifestations. During last more than 30 years, studies on different aspects of house dust mite allergy have been carried out on Kolkata population including entomological, clinical and immunological findings. The study indicates that the house dust sample contains an allergen, secreted and excreted by the house dust mites and inhalation of this allergen along with dust particles initiates allergic manifestations. The genus Dermatophagoides alone constituted 60% of the total acarine fauna, predominated by D. pteronyssinus (47%) followed by D. farinae and interestingly both the mite species coexisted in the same habitat. Seasonal trend indicates mite counts was higher in pre-monsoon and minimum during winter and areabundant in beds than elsewhere in the house and mostly associated with pillows, blankets, mattresses, padded furniture and carpeted floors etc. and preferably feed on human dander. The study indicates that more than 80 % allergic asthma patients residing in Kolkata metropolitan areas are sensitive to dust mites, especially genus Dermatophagoides Spp. as evident from skin prick test and detection of allergen specific IgE antibodies by Immuno Cap system. It is assumed that changes in life style including diet and dietary habits, acquisition of western lifestyle, low standard of indoor environment, increasing air pollution and over all intolerable psychological stress are blamed for such an increased occurrence and frequent recurrences of allergic manifestations in Kolkata metropolitan areas. Increase use of padded furniture, sofa sets, heavy curtains, wall to wall carpeting, blankets without any cover instead of traditional quilt, use of foam mattress instead of conventional cotton mattress and soft toys favour the growth and multiplication of house dust mites, which ultimately increases the chances and duration of exposure to those indoor allergens. In more than 70% cases these may be attributed to the metamorphic change in lifestyle.
89 Assessment of Impact of Different Preservation Methods on the Nutritional Composition of Catfish Heteropneustes fossilis , Samim AR, Vaseem H* and Kumari P
The present study is designed to investigate the effect of different preservation methods on the proximal composition of Heteropneustes fossilis. Fish were subjected to freezing, oven drying and sun drying for seven days. Various nutritive components like protein, lipid, moisture, ash, glucose and triglycerides were investigated in all preserved as well as fresh fishes. Alteration in all these components were observed after preservation when compare to the fresh fishes. Protein content decreased in all preserved fish in comparison to fresh fish. Least amount of fat was present in fresh fish and highest was obtained in sun dried ones. Maximum moisture was recorded in fresh fish while it decreased in all preserved fish. In case of ash content, it was least in fresh fishes and highest in sun dried fishes. Glucose and triglycerides also showed alterations with maximum glucose in fresh fish and highest triglycerides in sun dried fish. From this study it is suggested that fresh fishes maintained its maximum nutrient content, therefore they should be preferably consumed over preserved fishes.
90 Influence of Vitamin B2, Ascorbic Acid and Melatonin on Ovarian Activities, Reproductive Performance of Ewes during the Summer Season under Subtropical Conditions , El Shahat KH*, Waheed MM, Khalifa TAA, Sallam AA and El Saidy BE
The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of different treatments (vitamin B2, ascorbic acid and melatonin) on ewes' fertility rates during summer under the local environmental conditions. The study was carried out on 42 mature cross ewes (3/8 Finnish X 5/8 Rahamani). Ewes were allocated into 4 groups: the first group (G1; n=11) injected with 2mL saline for 3 wk., served as control. The second (G2; n=10) and third group (G3; n=11) were injected intramuscular daily for 3 wk with 2 mL (15mg) of vitamin B2 and ascorbic acid, respectively. Ewes of the fourth group (G4; n=10) received twice daily subcutaneous injections of 0.5 mg melatonin at 8AM and 4PM at the dorsal surface of the ear for 3 wk. All treated groups (G2, G3, and G4) received 1g zinc chloride and 2.5mg chromium (Merck Millipore, USA) in form of 6 ml oral drench once per week for 3 weeks. All animals were checked for the onset of estrus 2 times daily using an intact ram and ewes were bred via natural mating using 3 rams. Laparoscopic examinations were carried out throughout the study for detection of ovulation rates. Results revealed that ascorbic acid resulted in a significantly (P<0.05) decreased mean interval (days) from treatment to estrus as compared with the control group (15.73±1.83 vs. 22.64±2.50, respectively). A remarkable improvement in the lambing rate in G2, G3 and G4 treated groups than in the G1 (80.0, 90.9, and 90.0 vs. 72.7%, respectively) was also observed. The ovulation rate was significantly (P < 0.05) elevated in G4 than that in G2 and G1 (1.60±0.16 vs. 1.20±0.13 and 1.14±0.00, respectively). The follicular development did notvary among groups. In conclusion, vitamin B2, ascorbic acid and melatonin have a beneficial effect on the reproductive performance of ewes during summer under subtropical conditions.
91 Assessment of Cocoon Production of Eudrilus eugeniae through Bioconversion of Distillery Solid Waste with Elephant Dung , Moorthi M*, Senthilkumar A and Srimathi R
The dumping of organic wastes from the distillery industries leads serious threats to environment. The organic wastes disposal cause unpleasant odour, soil pollution, and distribution of vector borne diseases in human beings and highly infectious viral diseases which affects different animals. Bioconversion of distillery solid waste with elephant dung has been renowned and efficient technology used for reducing pollutants, making noble fertilizer and maintaining pollution free environment. The present study aimed at the bioconversion of distillery sludge combined with elephant dung using earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae Lin. and assessment the cocoon production. The three treatment combinations (T1-SD, T2- ED and T3-SED) were selected and introduced the earthworm E. eugeniae for bioconversion. The physico-chemical characteristics were subjected for the initial day and final day (60 days).The results showed that the values of pH, electrical conductivity, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium, total calcium and total magnesium were increased with a declining trend of total organic carbon and C/N ratio from its initial value. From the results it was inferred that the organic wastes were effectively converted into a nutrient loaded vermicompost. The cocoon production of E. eugeniae was observed in all the treatments at different time intervals (0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days) were the higher level of cocoon production in SED combinations 114+38 to 152±9.2.Vermi- bioconversion is a appropriate method of using worms to transform organic waste into a nutrient-rich fertilizer, a healthy and a soil remediation from the pollution.
92 Birds and Mammals of the Wakha Valley in Northern India , Raza M*, Namgail T and Khan A
Ladakh in northern India harbours a diverse assemblage of birds and mammals. The species in the region show close affinity with the Palaearctic bio-geographic realm. We conducted a survey on mammals and birds in the Wakha Valley of Kargil district in Ladakh in 2013. This area remains virtually unknown in terms of its biodiversity. During the survey, we recorded mammalian herbivores like the Asiatic ibex Capra ibex siberica, Ladakh urial Ovis vignei vignei and long-tailed marmot Marmota caudata. Mammalian carnivores included the charismatic snow leopard Panthera uncia, Tibetan wolf Canis lupus chanko, Himalayan brown bear Ursus arctos isabellinus and red fox Vulpes v. montana. Avifauna comprised 45 species belonging to 19 families and five orders. Most of the bird species were of the order Passeriformes (36 species). Forty nine percent of the species were resident, while the rest were migratory that visit the area in summer as well as in winter. Bird species were mostly observed in riverine habitats. This is the first documentation of the diversity of birds and mammals in the Wakha valley of Ladakh.
93 An In Vivo and In Vitro Trial on Layer Chicken Breed Susceptibility and Yolk Sac Infection to Escherichia Coli and Evaluation of the Immune Response in Bishoftu Poultry Farms, Central Ethiopia , Melese K and Urge B*
Chicken colibacillosis is a bacterial disease of great concern in the layer industry causing substantial animal and economic losses worldwide. Yolk sac infection of chicks which result in high mortality in the first week of age. A challenge test was carried out to evaluate the susceptibility of three chicken breeds to E. coli pathogenic strain. Thus, a total of 48 day-old Horo, Fayoumi and Koekoek chicken breeds were allotted into the treatment and Control groups Containing 8 birds each. An experimental infection with E. coli pathogenic strain was given (104c.f.u/0.1 ml) intra yolk sac to treatment group on day-one of experiment, while the control group was kept as non-injected. The studied parameters involved examination of yolk sac weight, yolk sac, and body weight ratio and antibody titer against Newcastle disease virus (NDV). The study revealed that there was no statistically significant difference between Horo, Fayomi and Koekoek breeds in infection. However, intra yolk infection with E. coli pathogenic strain result in gross pathological change of the yolk sac, increased yolk sac body weight ratio, increased yolk sac weight and the transfer of maternal immunity in serum was not changed. In conclusion local and exotic breeds of chickens are highly susceptible to E. coli. Therefore, vaccination and therapeutic treatment should be properly used and supplementary management practices should be adopted in the farm.
94 Global Warming and the Physiology of Ectothermic Animals: The Case of Three Mexican Lizards , Fajardo V*, Gonzalez Morales JC, Rivera-Rea J and Bastiaans E
Global warming has a direct impact on the geographic distribution and abundance of reptiles, and it can even lead to their extinction. Theoretical models project that many lizards could migrate along an altitudinal gradient, however, this prediction does not take into account lack of oxygen or hypoxia as a constraint factor for migration. We discuss possible morpho physiological traits that could affect whether ectotherms can migrate from lower to higher altitudes, despite the potential negative effects of hypoxia. It is fundamental that climate change research considers the vulnerability of ectotherms facing global warming, not only in terms of their thermal biology, but also considering their physiology
95 Insecticidal Potency of Aqueous Extracts of Seeds and Leaves of Harmal Peganum Harmala (Zygophyllaceae) on Juveniles of Calliptamus Barbarus (Orthoptera: Calliptaminae): Contact and Ingestion Effects , Rouibah M*
This work is a study on the insecticidal effect of aqueous extracts of seeds and leaves of Harmal Peganum harmala on both of two larvae L2 and L3 of barbarian locust Calliptamus barbarus (Orthoptera: Acrididae). GCP analysis revealed the presence of 1 2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, diisooctyl ester as the most frequently constituents found in the plant. Treatments on C. barbarus have been performed by two ways: contact and ingestion. Contact allowed us to obtain a cumulative mortality rate (after 3 days of treatments) which was 90% for a highest dose (2.4 g/l ) with an LD 50 of 0.67 g /l for AqE seeds and 50% of mortality with 3.01g / l for leaves. By ingestion and after 6 days of treatments, the cumulative mortality rate for the dose of 2.4 g/l and the LD 50 of AqE seeds were respectively 90% and 0.45 g /l. For leaves, these were 70% and 0.85 g /l. The comparative effect of contact and ingestion tests between the two “bioactive extract” by their respective LD 50 show that seeds AqE are more effective than leaves. This difference in mortality rate is due mainly to the variation in the contents in the various organs of the plant more important in seeds than leaves. Concerning the modes of action we noted that after 3 days of contact treatment, a result (90%) similar to that recorded 6 days after ingestion treatment is obtained for seeds. This difference in mortality time is interpreted by the faster mode of penetration by contact than by ingestion.
96 First Description of Ecomorphotypes in Seal Subfamilies , Koretsky I, Alexander A and Rahmat SJ*
The Family Phocidae consists of four subfamilies, with ecomorphs known only in representatives of the subfamily Phocinae. This study demonstrates that ecological and morphological characters of the other three subfamilies (Cystophorinae, Devinophocinae, Monachinae) do not fit precisely into the previously described ecomorphs for Phocinae. These groupings are based on recent seals, but can also be extrapolated to fossil seals based on morphology and probable ecological preferences. The separation of taxa by combining morphological, ecological and dietary data is extremely important for demonstrating similarities and differences in both fossil and modern representatives of seals of the Family Phocidae, straying away from normal alpha and beta systematics that group species based only on taxonomic relationships. Due to the fragility of cranial remains, the three most commonly found bones (mandible, humerus, femur) are used to group species. Modern seals have specific morphological features and ecological distinctions (diving depths, environment, diet, body size) similar to those of fossil species, providing a rationale for associating the many dissociated fossil elements. For the first time, seals of all phocids subfamilies are divided into their corresponding ecomorphs
97 Analysis of Peasant Farmers in Rabbit Production in Sokoto State, Nigeria , Abubakar SA, Bello A*, Muazu A, Magaji D, Manga BM and Ali MB
The study evaluated the analysis of peasant farmers in rabbit production in Sokoto south local government area in Sokoto state, Nigeria. The procedure involved multi stage sampling techniques of the sample size and the use of questionnaire was employed. The entire respondents were rabbit farmers. This study examined current trend on small and ultra-smallholder rabbits units in Sokoto south of Sokoto state Nigeria. The methodology combined questionnaire survey with onfarm monitoring and recording of data in relations to socio-economic characteristics of rabbits keepers, management, constraints and marketing outlets .the result obtained was presented in frequency and percentage table. The study shows that 70% were male while 30% were female. The study also review that 44%, 36%, 12% and 8%represent the ages of rabbits farmers of 25-35years, 36-45years, 46-45years and 56years and above respectively within the study area, it was also review that 64%, 20%, and 16% represent the marital status which includes that of single married and widow. the distributions of years of farmers experience in rabbits production is also represented by 20%, 40%, 10%, and 30% of 1- 6years, 7-12years and 19 years and above of experience respectively. It also reveals that the source of breeding stocks by the farmers, i.e. from own stock, other farmers, market and research institutions which was represented by 40%, 20%, 36% and 4% respectively. And with respect to housing many farmer place their cage outside the house (70%) and also the major disease experience by the farmer is manage (52%) which serves as one of constrains facing the rabbit farmer meanwhile mating of does follows seasonal pattern due to seasonal heat stress. About (52%) farmer noted that does perceptivity and conception rates were markedly low during the dry season. From this study it highly recommended that the farmer should put down the use of personal experience in putting the animal and the extension agent should reach out to the rabbit farmers for proper and adequate information and the farmer should make used of stocks from the research institute for stocks replacement/breeding.
98 Fungal Pectinase Production Optimization and its Application in Buffaloe’s Diets Degradation , El Garhy GM, Azzaz HH, Abd El Mola AM and Mousa GA*
Pectinase production for improving buffalo’s diets digestion is the main objective of this work. Effects of fungal strains and different cultivation conditions on pectinase production have been studied. In vitro batch culture technique was used for investigate impact of the produced pectinase compared with commercial pectinase (SMIZYME®) on rumen fermentation parameters and diet degradation. Penicillium chrysogenum exhibited the highest pectinase activity at 3 days of incubation period, initial pH 4 of the growth medium, yeast extract as a sole nitrogen source and pomegranate peel as a carbon source at a concentration of 15 % (W/V). Three (g/kg) of the both enzymes supplementation significantly increased treated diet’s dry matter (DM), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) degradability with increase total gas production (TGP) and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) concentration. The enlargement of pectinase production locally will lead to animal production improvement, encourage self-reliance and reduce the cost of enzymes importation
99 A Comprehensive Key for Identification of the “Swarming Conehead” Ruspolia Differens Serville, 1838 (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) Occurring in the Afro-Tropical Region , Matojo ND*
This work reviewed the behavioural, morphological and molecular characteristics of the long-horned grasshopper Ruspolia differens Serville or “senene” in Swahili name (Orthoptera Tettigoniidae), as apparent in literature. On that basis, the work has generated a comprehensive key for identification of this species. As widely known, this insect native to Afro-tropical region where it is widely edible and it has a characteristic swarming behaviour that strikingly occurs during rainy season. Also, it has colour polymorphism with a total of six key sympatric colour forms, sex dimorphism with males possessing longer antennae and a unique pair of active tongue-like metathoracic flaps whereas the females have a corresponding pair of vestigial metathoracic nodules. Furthermore, the species has a pair of distinct subequal black markings on the mid and hind tibia near the knee joint and a white inter-ocular oval mark that appears like a simple eye. Its sister species which is Ruspolia nitidula Scopoli as verified by molecular phylogenetics is exclusively solitary, mostly greenish and Palearctic ranging in Asia, Europe and Northern Africa. Since swarming behaviour is a foremost diagnostic feature differentiating R. differens from other coneheads, it is worthwhile to demarcate the species with a common name “Swarming Conehead” adding to the existed names.
100 Evaluation Abu-Dleek Sheep Leathers Properties , Nasr AI*, Azzam AH and Abdelsalam MM
Abu-Dleek sheep are from animal hair producers and live under arid conditions and hot climate. This study aims to evaluate the physical and chemical properties of Abu-Dleek tanned leathers. Fifteen sheep skins were collected and divided into three tanning groups; chrome tanning, vegetable tanning with quebracho and vegetable tanning with mimosa. After tanning, all tanned leathers were tested physically and chemically. Data showed increments in tensile strengh, tearing strengh, bursing stretch, permeabiliy of water vapor, pH and ash values of chrome tanned leathers versus vegetable tanned leathers. The results declared the superurity of the chrome tanned leathers’ quality, while quebrcho tanned leathers’ quality was surpased mimosa tanned leathers. It could be concluded the convenient of Abu-Dleek tanned leathers to be used in a wide range of manufacuring purposes like garments, bags and lining.
101 Role of Laser and Consciousness on the Nanoparticles: A Bio-Assay Study of Zinc Oxide Nano Particle against Culex quinquifasciatus (Say) , Gulwani D and Prakash S*
Can human consciousness affect nano synthesis? Can an observer’s effect be observed during experimentation? This is a significant question for future science. In nano-biotechnology, we can incorporate the uses of biological entities in the synthesis of nanoparticles. We have observed that the gel extract of Aloe barbadensis Mill. Integrated with Zinc oxide Nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) can actively act against Culex quinquifasciatus (Say) larvae. This is validated by the characterization of synthesized ZnO NPs via UV-Vis Spectroscopy, XRD and DLS analysis techniques. The efficacy test of synthesized ZnO NPs has been performed against different instars of Culex larvae. By increasing dose concentration of nanoparticles, % mortality also increased. It is also attempted to study how the amalgamation of Laser and Human consciousness can affect the geometry of nanoparticles, therefore by further experimentation we can predict about subtler energy levels of human attention which can also modify nano synthesis.
102 Editorial Opinion on the Article: First Record of Ectrodactyly and Polymelia in the Paradox Frog Pseudis Paradoxa (Linnaeus, 1758) From Northern Brazil , Diana C*
The article deals with a case of polymelia and ectrodactylia discovered for the first time in paradox frog in the Eastern Amazon. In the actual context of the continuous growth of the human impact on the environment worldwide it raises questions about the causes of these deformities which have to be investigated.
103 First Record of Polymelia in the Paradox Frog Pseudis Paradoxa (Linnaeus, 1758) from Northern Brazil , Oliveira-Souza AE, Pedro Henrique G de Lima, Afonso DD, Santana MMS, Pinheiro RT, Pedroso-Santos F, Sanches PR* and Costa-Campos CE
During herpetofaunal monitoring studies on ESEC Maraca-Jipioca we found an individual Pseudis paradoxa exhibiting morphological abnormality. We diagnose abnormality following current etiology in herpetological literature and tested movement of member affected by touching. The anuran presented polymely in the right hand with duplicated radio-ulna linked to a pair of fully formed fingers. Since ESEC Maracá-Jipioca is a coastal island with very low anthropogenic impact, we think abnormality observed is more linked to endogenous factors or parasite infection, which is a common cause for polymely.
104 Response of a Freshwater Fish Exposed to a Single Dose of Biofertilizer , Nath S* and Sardar A
The study was carried out to observe the effect of this biofertilizer (MOC) on the Body Muscle Protein (BMP) of Channa punctatus having average length 15.26±0.52cm and weight 28.85±5.028gm. At sub lethal concentration (0.42g.l-1), fishes were exposed for prolonged period and muscle protein was measured on 0, 7th, 14th, 21th and 28th days respectively. Five fishes were sacrificed after each day of exposure to estimate the amount of protein concentration in the muscle following Folin-phenol reagent method. A significant (p<0.05) increase in BMP was observed with the advance of days treatment. After an initial fall, the rise in the BMP concentration, indicating the experimental fish were suffered initially and ultimately victorious and able to increase the protein level in their body.
105 Evaluation of Fentonʼs Reagent Toxicity to Biomphalaria Alexandrina Snails , Abdel Wareth MTA*
Fentonʼs reagent is considered a promising disinfecting agent as it has antimicrobial activity. In the present study, effective antifungal Fenton concentrations were investigated on Biomphalaria alexandrina snails as bio indicators of toxicity. Generally, they resulted in low mortality rate of snails, as only 20% mortality was recorded after 60 min of exposure. Also the activities of two antioxidant enzymes; catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in snails’ tissues were investigated at different time intervals. Although the activities of both enzymes were different from control group, there was not a pronounced enhancement or inhibition. In conclusion, certain Fenton concentrations can be used as inexpensive and environmentallyfriendly disinfecting agents as they are safe on snails which are good bioindicators of toxicity.
106 Diagnosis and Therapeutic Management of Theileriosis in Cattle Calves , Savita, Dhuria D* and Nayak TC
The present investigation was carried out among ten cross-bred Cattle calves of age between 1-5 months which were presented to Veterinary Clinical Complex of College of Veterinary and Animal Science, Bikaner with the history of anorexia, high fever, diarrhoea and tick infestation. Upon clinical examination pale mucous membrane, enlarged prescapular lymph nodes and increase in respiration rate and pulse rate were found. Blood samples were collected from jugular vein in vacutainers containing EDTA for haemogram. Microscopic examination of Giemsa stained thin blood smears revealed piroplasms in erythrocytes and lymph node aspirate smears revealed presence of schizonts (Koch’s blue bodies) in lymphocytes. Upon haematological examination it revealed that the decrease in haemoglobin, total erythrocyte count, packed cell volume and lymphocytes, however increase in total leukocyte count and neutrophils. After confirmation of Theileriosis in calves Buparvaquone was administered at the dose rate of 1ml/20kg body weight via intramuscular route. Eight calves were very well responded to the treatment but two calves were eventually died due to severe anaemia.
107 Cannonball Jellyfish (Stomolophus Meleagris) in Mexico , Ibarra Morales LE*
The fishing and aquaculture situation emphasize the sector in the fulfillment of the Agenda 2030 and the Objectives of Sustainable Development; as well as the initiatives of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations regarding the importance and data improvement in terms of capture fisheries. An important challenge for the application of the Agenda 2030 is the understanding the sustainability difference between the developed countries and the developing countries, which has happened due to the increase of economic interdependence, in combination with a limited ability of management and governance in the developing countries.
108 Use of Habitat and Activity Patterns of Pionus menstruus and Amazona farinosa (Aves: Psitacidae) in a Tropical Dry Forest in Toluviejo, Sucre, Colombia , Herrera IM, Sampedro AC*, Jaraba FC and Olmos PM
To determine the use of the habitat and the patterns of daily activity of two species of psittacids, present in a tropical dry forest in a town in the Montes de María, we make direct observations through point counts, advantageous points and intensive search, in 24 samplings between March and July 2017, between 05:30 and 18:30 hrs. We recorded 421 individuals of Pionus menstruus in 148 sightings and 517 of farmed Amazona in 235 sightings. The largest number of individuals of Pionus menstruus appears in April and May, while the largest number of individuals of Amazona farinosa was observed in July (X = 48.26, p <0.001, 4 df). The proportion of sightings of these species in zones I and II was similar, but in zone III the number of individuals sighted by A. farinosa was much higher than that of P.menstruus (X2 = 44.718, p <0.001, 2 df). Both species showed greater activity between 0600 and 0700 and between 1600 and 1800, corresponding to lower values of temperature, wind speed and light intensity than those registered at noon. Most of the sightings occurred during flight for both species. To feed, perch, groom and converse, the parrots used 13 species of trees; among them, Amazona farinosa used 11 to perform three or four activities and Pionus menstruus only used six species to perform three of the activities we observed. The frequency of sighted parrots is related to the availability of ecosystem resources, without any evidence of competition between species.
109 Fish as Indicators for Environmental Monitoring and Health Risk Assessment Regarding Aquatic Contamination with Pesticides , Yancheva V*, Stoyanova S, Velcheva I and Georgieva E
The proximity of water basins to anthropogenic sources of pollution affecting the state of nature also determines the need to study the ecosystems existing there. Fish are used as reliable indicators of pollution of the aquatic environment. Changes in the fish body make it possible to determine the toxicity of the contaminated water and the potential danger posed by anthropogenic substances that have entered it. In this regards, biomarkers are important assessment tools as they provide specific information on the biological effects of a particular toxicant. They can be used for monitoring purposes, as well as to clarify the link between the effects on the organism and the concentration of the contaminant in health risk assessment.
110 Morphometric and Meristic Variations of Glossogobius Sparsipapillus along the Coastline in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam , Nguyen THD, Nguyen HTT, Canh TC, Nguyen YTN and Dinh QM*
This study contributed to the variation of morphometric and meristic measurements of Glossogobius sparsipapillus, a target catching fish in the Mekong Delta. A total of 583 individuals (293 males and 290 females) were collected during dry and wet seasons (April 2019 to January 2020) at three studied sites from Vinh Hau, Hoa Binh, Bac Lieu to Dien Hai, Dong Hai, Bac Lieu and Tan Thuan, Dam Doi, Ca Mau. The analysis results showed that total length and body weight of this species varied with seasons and studied sites, but not genders. The variations of fish length and weight of males and females depended on seasons but not studied sites. The interaction of site and season variables influenced the change of fish length and weight. The results supplied additional knowledge for fish identification and ecological adaptation understanding in the study regions.
111 Feeding Experiences of Paulownia Spp. Leaves: Potential Forage Source for Domestic Animals , Akos Bodnar*, Jozsef Steier, Rubina T Szabo, Peter Poti, Istvan Egerszegi and Ferenc Pajor
Paulownia spp. is a very adaptable, fast growing and multi-purpose agroforestry tree. This species is a genus of Asian hardwood trees which have been cultivated there for the past 3000 years. They are native to much of China, south to northern Laos and Vietnam, and long cultivated elsewhere in eastern Asia, notably in Japan and Korea. Paulownia plays a very critical role in providing timber, fuel wood, fodder and food in many countries of the World. Besides its fast-growing nature and several utilization opportunities, Paulownia leaves have similar feeding value to other forage crops. Due to previous studies, it has been reported that Paulownia leaves are suitable for feeding to domestic animals.
112 Fruit Fly: An Ideal Model for Studying Obesity Related Disorders , Seth R* and Burman R
Obesity and obesity-associated metabolic disorders are becoming modern world health epidemic. Several nutrition labs across the globe are trying to understand the development and progression of this disorder and are employing several models for studying the complex nature of the disease progression.
113 The Occurrence and Diversity of Intestinal Digenetic Trematodes in Stray Cats, Felis Catus, In Egypt , El-Dakhly Kh M, Aboshinaf ASM, Mahrous LN* and Gharib AF
Stray cats act as good indicators of fish-borne trematodes in the environment. Large populations of stray cats, Felis catus, are widespread in Giza, Egypt. Therefore, a total of 47 stray cats from some urban districts in Giza, Egypt were necropsied during the period from December 2018 to April 2019 and their intestines were examined for the detection of digenetic trematodes. Six cats were parasitized with 7 species of trematodes with an overall prevalence of 12.77%. Recovered species were belonging to heterophyids (Heterophyes heterophyes, Pygidiopsis summa, Procerovum varium, Ascocotyle sp.), cyathocotylids (Prohemistomum vivax and Mesostephanus appendiculatus), and echinostomatid (Echinochasmus liliputanus) in prevalences of 6.38% (3/47), 2.13% (1/47), and 6.38% (3/47), respectively. Mixed infections with heterophyids were noticed in two infected cats. Meanwhile, a mixed infection with H. heterophyes and the echinostomatid was recorded in one cat. Moreover, all trematode-infected cats had concomitant infections with cestode and/or nematode parasites. Therefore, veterinarians and authorized agencies must consider great hygienic measures and sanitary control programs to avoid the potential risk and zoonotic importance of such parasites.
114 Bioaccumulation of Zinc in Fresh Water Fish Channa Punctatus Exposed to Mixture of Pollutants , Prakash J*
In the present study groups of fishes exposed for 96 hr to zinc+cadmium, zinc+copper, zinc+endosulfan, zinc+cadmium+copper+endosulfan and zinc+cadmium+copper+dimethoate combinations and it has been observed that the interaction between one metal with another metal can be antagonistic or synergistic. In some cases no interaction among them was noticed. Experiments on fish have shown that some effects of metals may be prevented by the simultaneous administration of other metals .The metal concentration decreased as compared to fishes exposed to zinc alone. Bioaccumulation of zinc decreased when the fish were exposed to zinc+cadmium combination. Results clearly show that the level of accumulation of zinc in different tissues (Muscle, liver, Gills , Kidney) and blood in the two types of exposures (individual and group exposure) varied in order Gills>Blood>Kidney >Liver>Muscle.
115 Horse Breeds of Nepal , Bhatta BR*, Kafle A, Shrestha S and Kaphle K
This article is a review on the horse breeds of Nepal. The contents in this article is obtained from google books, blogs, online articles and conference papers. Information about indigenous horse breeds on Nepal is limited and papers on this topic has not been published yet which made the review task challenging. In Nepal, six types of horse and pony breeds is known of indigenous origin: Jumli, Chyanta, Tanghan, Terai, Tattu and Bhotia. Most area of the country is covered with Hill and mountains where horses are commonly used for transportation, cart-pulling, riding, carrying goods and bricks. They are also used for trekking or as pet animals and during festivals like marriages, Ghode Jatra, Yartung festival. Being a developing country as well as from religious point of view, horse rearing is found common in certain parts of Nepal. However, lack of breeding programme, conservation and poor nutrition has resulted in the decline of horse population in Nepal. Therefore, proper study, research and conservation strategies on these local horse breeds is necessary.
116 A Review on the Status of Sambhar Wetland Bird Tragedy , Jhajhria A*
Sambhar Lake is India’s largest inland salt lake. It is a shallow Ramsar wetland Subject to seasonal fluctuations. The site is important for a variety of wintering water birds, including large numbers of flamingos. Human activities consist of salt production and livestock grazing. It is also an Important Bird Area (IBA) due to migratory avifaunal population, especially flamingo and waterfowl. Presence of salt-tolerant algae makes the lake one of the most important wintering areas for flamingos. The specialized algae and bacteria growing in the lake provide striking water colors and support the lake ecology that, in turn, sustains the migrating waterfowl. Current conservational threats owing to the drastic reduction in water spread and anthropogenic pressures were major concerns till Oct.2019. The death of thousands of birds was detected on 11th November 2019 which belonged to 25 different species. Majority of were migratory birds and a few local species The main cause identified was avian botulism. The paper reviews the cause and efforts taken to revive it as a safe wetland.
117 First Record of the Nest Orientation of Apis Dorsata in Relation to Cell Tower , Pattazhy S*
This study is aimed to study the nest orientation of Apis dorsata in relation to cell tower in the Kariavattom panchayat of Thiruvananthapuram district, Kerala. The distributions and orientation of nests were observed around 5 km of cell tower using a survey method. Results showed that 60 nests (40 active nests, 20 abandoned combs) of A. dorsata were found. Tree species used as nesting sites were Ficus sp.(Moraceae), Adenanthera sp.(Fabaceae), Spondias pinnata (Anacardiaceae), Artocarpus sericoarpus (Moraceae), Alstonia scholaris (Apocynaceae), Knema cinerea (Myristicaceae) and Litsea mappacea (Lauraceae).The nests in trees were found in 3-11 meters (5 nests), 11-25 meters (20 nests), and 20-35 meters on buildings (35 nests). Maximum nets on building were noted on the top of Greenfield International Stadium (30 nests). Most of the bee nests were oriented towards South east direction and minimum towards south west direction on buildings and trees. In the South east direction maximum bee hive orientation was noted both on trees and buildings where radiation exposure from cell towers was minimum (0.20 w/m2 ) whereas in the South west direction minimum bee hive orientation was recorded where the radiation exposure was maximum (9.20w/m2 ).
118 Snow is not an Enemy, but a Building Material for the Roadway , Khalidullin Oleg*
Snowfalls and blizzards block roads and create massive congestion on city streets and long-distance routes. Considering the processes of road surface formation during snowfall, it can be noted that snow during the fall is light fluffs, which, at an indefinite time, with different intensities, at different temperatures, stacked in layers, gradually by the wheels of cars, are compacted into a slippery tuberous canvas. The rubber tread, rolling through the freshly deposited layers, compresses the snow, forming a rut. The resulting trail adheres firmly to the asphalt. Almost all cars go on the trail, therefore the wheels of the following cars condense mainly the same track. On inactive roads, leaving the track during overtaking or detour leads to smoothing and compaction of the freezing walls of the track.
119 Drake Equation Revised Fermi Paradox Resolved Tarian Criterion Related , Kass L*
The Drake Equation and its somewhat related Fermi Paradox do not seem to have ever had the benefit from the perspectives of any professional experimental biologist. This is surprising since both formulations involve biology and have been around for over 60 years. The educational background of Frank D. Drake is in astronomy and astrophysics [1]. Those authors most closely associated with the Fermi Paradox include Konstantin Tsiolkovsky (rocket science and astronautics), Enrico Fermi (physics), Michael H. Hart (astrophysics), and Frank J Tipler (mathematical physicist and cosmologist) [2-5]. None of these contributors to the Drake Equation and the Fermi Paradox seem to have had any training, advanced education, nor experimental research experience in biology. This work intends to remedy that shortcoming. But why are perspectives from professionals actively engaged in experimental biology needed to sort through problems associated with astrobiology such as the Drake Equation and the Fermi Paradox?.
120 Effects of Dietary Aloe barbadensis (Aloeaceae) Leaves on the Intestinal Microbes of African Catfish (Clarias Gariepinus Burchell 1822) , Adegbesan SI* and Obasa SO
Effects of Aloe barbadensis leaves-paste were examined in Clarias gariepinus fingerlings. Fish were fed diet supplemented with the leaves-paste to determine the effects of the leaves on the intestinal microbes of C. gariepinus fingerlings. Its effects on some growth parameters were also assessed. Experiment was conducted in 40-litre freshwater-filled plastic tanks. 120 C. gariepinus fingerlings (2.33±0.07g) were fed with 40% crude protein diets containing three concentrations of A. barbadensis leavespaste: ABL1-1%; ABL2-2%; ABL3-3%, and control-0% ad libitum twice daily for 12 weeks. Mean weight gain and percentage weight gain increased (p<0.05) as the concentration of A. barbadensis increased. Apparent net protein utilization was highest in ABL1 and decreased as inclusion level increased among fish fed the leaves. Survival rate decreased as concentration of paste increased. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in the total bacterial counts (TBC) in A. barbadensis leaves-paste supplemented diets and the control having the highest TBC (23.67 ± 0.88 x 105 CFU/ml). No growth of total fungal counts (TFC) was observed in ABL1 and there was a reduction in TFC as the concentration increased in the other supplemented diets, and the control having the highest TFC (7.67 ± 0.44 x 105 CFU/ml) The study concluded that 1% A. barbadensis leavespaste could effectively improve the growth performance, nutrient utilization, survival and thus reducing the microbial load of cultured C. gariepinus.
121 Bovine Mastitis and Post-Dipping: A Review of the Milk Quality , Amaral Alves ESD, Da Silva JM*, Vilela da Silva PC, Dos Santos MT, De Medeiros ES and Carvalho dos Santos TM
The largest commercial cattle herd in the world is in Brazil. It is estimated that there are 177 million animals, of which 35 million located represent dairy cattle. Dairy activity plays an important role in the Brazilian economy, however it is noticed that the problems related to the poor quality of milk occur due to numerous factors, among them, the lack of knowledge of the importance of hygiene of milking, equipment and milkers, in addition to the acquisition of healthy animals, diagnosis and control of mastitis. Mastitis is a pathology of great economic loss for dairy cattle worldwide. The development of an effective mastitis control program in the herd implies some important measures. In particular for producing milk with quality and quantity, a healthy udder is essential and, for this, the utmost care must be taken in the pre and post-dipping. Some quality parameters are increasingly used to detect flaws in management practices, serving as a reference in the valorization of raw materials. Due to the complexity of these factors, some methods of checking milk quality were developed, such as microbiological examination, California Mastitis Test (CMT) and Somatic Cell Count (SCC).
122 Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Malaria Control among FUTO Students , Mgbemena IC*, Nzenwa DC and Nwannah AL
This study to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of malaria control among students of Federal University of Technology of Owerri living in and outside the campus, was carried out between July and September 2018. A total of 160 students were randomly sampled with the use of structured questionnaires as well as giemsa stained thin and thick films to determine the prevalence of malaria. Among this number, 25% (40/160) of the students were infected with Plasmodium falciparium. The highest prevalence of 52% (13/25) was recorded among students living in the school hostel. Based on the questionnaire analysis, 96.25% of the students indicated mosquito bite as the cause of malaria, while 3.13% of them said malaria is caused by too much consumption of oil. There is a great disparity on the knowledge of the method of diagnosis with a total of 29.38% of the students preferring self-diagnosis, 17.5% stated microscopy, 11.88% RDT, while a greater percentage of them 41.25% do not have idea about any method of diagnosis. For control measures, 46.9% of the students do not practice any control measure against malaria. A whopping 56.9% of the students’ population takes antimalarial only when they are diagnosed. Some of the students do not fancy the relevance of going for laboratory diagnosis. Based on that, a total of 29.38% of the students rated that it is “barely important” going to laboratory, while 10.63% rated “not important”, although a good number (60%) believes on the importance of going for laboratory diagnosis by rating “very importance”. However, there seems to be a high level of knowledge about the cause of malaria among the students but the attendant knowledge of diagnosis and practice of control measures are lacking, as a result, this could impact negatively on the health of the students. Greater awareness is needed in order to improve knowledge on the importance of laboratory diagnosis and malaria control which can take care of their attitudes towards malaria. Attitude basically is always influenced by beliefs and existing bodies of knowledge.
123 The Human Being Shall Change His Conception of Development , Sampedro Marin AC*
All the individuals that make up the wildlife species have the same need as the human species to feed, reproduce and survive in the environment to which they are adapted. It is these morphological, physiological and behavioral adaptations that prevent the natural resources that everyone uses from diminishing and becoming extinct. However, man has not evolved in the same way and it has not been the force, the claws, the dentition or the presence of enzymes capable of digesting cellulose, which has allowed us to evolve to what we currently are, but, the development of a highly complex brain capable of undertaking tasks that no other species could perform.
124 Short Body Mackerel (Rastrelliger Brachysoma) in the Java Sea, Indonesia , Indaryanto FR*
Between 1961 and 2016, the average annual increase in global food fish consumption (3.2 percent) outpaced population growth (1.6 percent). In per capita terms, food fish consumption grew from 9.0 kg in 1961 to 20.2 kg in 2015, at an average rate of about 1.5 percent per year [1]. Indonesia has a very large potential of fish biological resources. Biological resources according to the Law of the Republic of Indonesia No. 5 of 1994 include genetic resources, organisms or parts thereof, populations or biotic components of other ecosystems with benefits or value that are tangible or potential for humanity.
125 Nucleolar Organizer Region (NOR) Polymorphism in Relation to Interspecific and Intraspecific Variability in Some Indian Anurans-A Review , Banerjee SN*
The amphibians being originated from Crossopterygian fishes in the late Devonian constitute one of the most interesting groups of vertebrates. Indian subcontinent is rich in amphibian fauna but the cytogenetical studies in this field are scanty. The present review has been oriented to analyse the nucleolar organizer region polymorphism in some Indian anuran bufonids, ranids and rhacophorid. Conventional staining of mitotic metaphase stages revealed that three Bufonid species studied possess symmetrical karyotypes with 2n=22 and NF=44. The four ranid species and a single sp. of Rhacophorus studied possess symmetrical karyotypes with 2n=26 and NF=52. Nucleolar organizer region or secondary constriction (SC) region staining by HCl-trypsin digestion and silver impregnation technique revealed that the number and position of NORs are variable not only among the different species but also in different individuals of the same species. Considerable variation in the length of NOR or SC has been noted in different specimens of the same species. An uneven distribution of NOR has also been found in Bufo stomaticus where males possess one NOR bearing chromosome in the chromosome pair # 5 and female with two NOR bearing chromosome that is in the chromosome pair # 7. The NOR polymorphism in relation to interspecific and intraspecific variability in the size and number is interesting which would be of cytotaxonomic value to trace the phylogenetic relationship among the different species.
126 The Cytotoxic Combined Effects of Mixtures of Copper Oxychloride and Chlorfenapyr in HepG2 Cells and Postnatal Model of Toxicity in Female Sprague Dawley rats and its Pups , Elalfy MM*, Abomosallam MS, Sleem FR, Abbass EA, Mahmoud H, Abd Allah AA and Elhadidiy MG
Previously, we reported that each chlorfenapyr, insecticide, or copper oxychloride, fungicide, had cytotoxic, maternal and developmental toxicity. Here, we want to better understand the combined effect of mixtures of both pesticides in rats’ dams and its pups and also in HepG2 cells. The results revealed the cytotoxicity of mixtures of both pesticides in rats’ dams and its offspring’s through induction of biochemical alteration (elevation of liver enzymes activities, creatinine, and cholesterol) , oxidative stress (increases the level of MDA oxidants and reduction of GSH, GST, sod1, catalase induction) and histopathological changes in different organs likes liver, brain, kidney and spleen. Also, both pesticides induced cell death in HepG2 cells and enhanced oxidative stress evidence by increasing the level of MDA and reduction of the level of SOD1 and GSH in cultivated and treated tissue culture. Taken collectively, the mixtures of chlorfenapyr and copper oxychloride had cytotoxic effects on in-vivo and in-vitro cell lines.
127 Impact Change Climate on the Milk Production in the Dairy Goats , Yamani HA* and Koluman N
Background: Milk production is considered one of the main pillars in building the livestock sector. When faced with one of the challenges, such as summer heat stress, which may change its course to the deterioration of milk backwards, reduce production and decrease the efficiency and quality of milk, so it was urgent to draw attention to investigated the related between environmental parameters and the milk production of hot season and milking season (spring and summer) period. The goal of recently study investigated effect heat stress on milk production in the dairy goat’s data set (2017- 2018) containing 65 Saanen, 73Alpin and 22 Boer (in the age of 1-2 year). Result: Milk analysis recorded daily maximum and minimum temperature- humidity index. Generally THI was 70.1, 82.7 in the spring and summer. General the average daily milk production was 0.7, 1.1, 0.7 for Alpine, Saanen and Boer respectively during spring and 0.9, 1.6, 0.7 for Apline, Saanen and Boer consequently during summer. Conclusion: In small ruminant (dairy goat) change in climate as increase ambient temperature caused heat stress and negatively effect on the milk production.
128 Effect of Extracts of Ocimum Gratissmum L. (Scent Leaves) on Some Mosquitoe Genera in Makurdi Metropolis, Benue Nigeria , Victor Ugochukwu OBISIKE* Ameh Godswill OMALE and Elizabeth U AMUTA
Ocimum gratisimum is a plant with so many uses-culinary, medicinal, pesticidal, insecticidal, aesthetic. This research was designed to find out repellence, knockdown and knock-dead activity of hot and cold aqueous and ethanol crude extracts against mosquitoes of three genera-Culex, Aedes and Anopheles sp. Ocimum gratisimum leaves were harvested from different locations in Makurdi. Leaves were picked, washed, and dried crispy for seven (7) days under shade. Crispy dried leaves were grinded into fine powder. The powdered was weighed and divided into four equal parts. Each part was subjected to hot and cold aqueous and ethanol extraction. Extracts were concentrated with rotatory evaporator. Concentrates where allowed to dry in the open at room temperature. 2, 3 and 5g of extracts were weighed and used to make different concentrates; each in 5ml of Absolute ethanol. These concentrates were tested against lab bred mosquitoes for repellency, knockdown and mortality, using the World Health Organization Pesticide Evaluation Scheme. The results showed complete repellence to all extract types, increased knock down with increased concentration and variable mortalities to the different extract methods. Based on these, Ocimum gratissimum extracts can be used locally and as an alternative to synthetic chemicals in the production biodegradable and eco-friendly mosquito repellent, and “mosquitocidal” formulations.
129 The Methodology of Regressive Objective Regression According to the New SARSCoV-2 COVID-19 Pandemic in the Municipality of Santa Clara and Cuba , Fimia Duarte R*
Since the beginning of civilization, infectious diseases have affected humans. The early history of these diseases was characterized by sudden and unpredictable outbreaks, often of epidemic proportions, so that the current situation that the planet is experiencing because of the new coronavirus is a trigger more product of multiple factors, with a high share derived from anthropogenic activity. Two major epidemics have been described, the severe acute coronavirus respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV) in 2002 and the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERSCoV) in 2012, until the appearance in China of SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19 (Coronavirus Infection Disease) in December 2019, which will be referred to as the coronavirus.
130 Mathematical Modeling of Population Dynamics of the Aedes Aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Mosquito with Some Climatic Variables in Villa Clara, Cuba , Fimia Duarte R*
Millions of people suffer from infections transmitted by arthropod vectors; among them, culicids are undoubtedly the most important in terms of hygiene and health, because they are one of the priority health problems in almost all tropical and subtropical regions. The objective of the study was to establish a forecast model among some meteorological variables for the focus of the Aedes aegypti mosquito species, during the period from 2007 to 2017 in the province of Villa Clara, Cuba.
131 The History of Cytogenetic Investigations of Spiders in Turkey , Kumbicak Z*
Spiders are an ancient group of animals that probably originated in the Devonian period about 400 million years ago. Over time, they have adapted to major changes in climate and fauna and have become widespread on all continents, living in almost any terrestrial habitat. It is known that approximately 50000 spider species belonging to 120 families worldwide, today. and this number increases almost every day due to new records are being given from many countries. Despite the high diversity of species, the number of cytogenetic studies on spiders is very scarce. Upto now, 868 species belonging to the 74 families were investigated by cytogenetically. Although more than a thousand species of spiders in Turkey, the Cytogenetic studies are insufficient. Thus, spiders are the most richest group of arachnids among arthropods. In this study cytogenetic studies on spiders in Turkey were reviewed.
132 Toll like Receptors: An Insight Role against the Pathogen , Das A and Chaudhuri TK*
Host defense against the invading microbial antigens are recognized by the immune system. The present study focuses on the frequency distribution and phylogenetic relationship of ten human TLR genes among four populations in the North Bengal region of India and also aimed to study the frequency and distribution of TLR genes in the patients of Rheumatoid arthritis, Typhoid fever and in HIV. It has been documented from population based study that TLR8 and TLR9 are having very high frequency among Rajbanshi in respect of other three populations. In Gurkha population TLR4 and TLR5 are showing the highest frequencies. On the other hand, in Rabha population, the frequency of TLR4 is highest, whereas in Muslim population TLR3, TLR5 and TLR7 are showing the highest frequencies. This study has also documented the phylogenetic relationship of the four populations and found that convergent evolution has occurred among the population in respect of their TLR genes. In case of the rheumatoid arthritis frequency of TLR1, TLR6 and TLR8 are highest among patients. Relative risks are also high for TLR4, TLR6, TLR7, TLR8 and TLR9. Odd ratio is very high for TLR1, TLR4, TLR6, TLR8 and TLR9. TLR1, TLR5 and TLR6 are highly up-regulated among typhoid patients whereas TLR8 (0.809) and TLR9 (0.865) are very high among HIV patients. Odd ratio is observed very high in case of both typhoid and HIV increased multiple times between patients and control group. It can be concluded that the results will not only help to understand the genetic background of the studied ethnic populations in respect to their TLR genes, but also shade light on the association with the TLR genes with the above mentioned diseases.
133 Identification of Bacterial Species from Injured Cuticle of Mud Crab, Scylla serrata , Velayutham M* and Munysamy A
Crustacean aquaculture production is one of the major economic activities worldwide with prime importance in the developing countries. Infectious diseases from viral, bacterial, and in some cases, fungal origin affecting the crustacean aquaculture production due to intensification of farming activities. The microbial population of 11 x 10-5 to 215 x 10-3 CFU were observed in the scraps of naturally injured/wounded cuticle of mud crab, Scylla serrata. Three predominant bacterial species were identified including Bacillus sp., Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the scraps based on the series of biochemical analysis as well 16s rDNA sequence analysis. These findings may provide the baseline to reveal the pathogenecity of host specific and invading pathogenic bacteria in the cultivable crustaceans.
134 Global Use of Face Masks for Victory against Covid-19 , Pandit S, Pal K and Mitra B*
The use of the face mask always reduces the transmission of COVID-19 rapidly. This article is written on some things those are related COVID-19 and absolutely face mask. Here we discussed little about transmission process of COVID-19, filtering materials of masks, benefits of using masks, thoughts of people using mask, Governments policies about concerning of mask and route of the transmission of COVID-19 by presymptomatic and asymptomatic individuals. There are specific two general ways to reduce the pandemic; first, maintaining the social distance, frequent hand washing, self isolation. Second, use the face mask properly in public and maintain the proper guideline. It is proved that mask wearing reduces the transmission of the virus by reducing transmission of harmful infected droplets. Here we give protection to our health by using low cost intervention tool like mask. So, we should request people to wear mask and maintain the proper guideline and absolutely it will reduce the spread of the disease.
135 Ecosystem Roles of Birds: A Review on Birds’ Conservation Insight , Deng GT* and Yimam IA
Ecosystem service refers to any service which is provided by the ecosystem to sustain the livelihood of mankind. These services may be offered directly or indirect through several complex ways. The utilization of these services implies dependency of humans on ecological resources. The MEA identified four broad categories of ecosystem services, namely; provisioning, regulation, supporting and cultural services. Among several services in the ecosystem, birds provide an interesting wide range of ecosystem services that sustain human life. For instance they have incredible value in pest control, seed dispersal, pollination, nutrient cycling, soil formation, ecotourism and many other services. These services provided by birds are further categorized as marketable and nonmarketable values depending on their monetization process. However, the decline of birds’ population worldwide means these birds’ ecosystem services are also declining. The services birds’ provide are of great significant ecologically and economically, but remain unaccounted because of insufficient information. Therefore, this review article is aimed to clearly affirm the ecosystem roles of birds and their benefits to human to foster their conservation. Research driven policies fostering lasting conservation of avifauna; conservation, restoration and management of their habitats and control of illegal birds’ trade are highly needed. The attempts of conserving and maintaining healthy birds population and their habitats would preserve diverse ecosystem services by benefiting many different living species and finally human wellbeing.
136 Albizia Lebbeck Stem Bark Aqueous Extract as Alternative to Antibiotic Feed Additives in Broiler Chicks Diets: Performance and Nutrient Retention , Alagbe JO*, Shittu and David AA
A study was conducted to examine the effect of Albizia lebbeck stem bark aqueous extract (ATSM) as alternative feed additives in broiler chicks diets: performance and nutrient retention. Three hundred and seventy five (350) one-day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks of mixed sex were used for the experiment, the animals were reared in a deep litter poultry house and distributed into five treatment containing 75 birds each, each treatment was further divided into 5 replicates consisting of 15 birds each in a completely randomized design. Birds in treatment 1 (T1) were fed 0% ATSM, T2 were fed Oxytetracycline at 1.20 g per litre of water, T3, T4 and T5 were given ATSM at 10 ml, 20 ml and 30 ml per litre of water respectively. Clean feed and water were provided ad libitum throughout the experiment which lasted for 56 days. The result obtained revealed that there was average daily gain, average daily feed intake and feed: gain was influenced by the dietary treatments (P<0.05). Birds in T5 had the highest weight gain (2424.2 g) followed by T4 (2371.3 g), T3 (2119.4 g), T2 (2053.1 g) and T1 (1686.0 g) respectively. High mortality was recorded in T1 (7.1 %) while T2 had 1.4 %; none was recorded in T3, T4 and T5. Nutrient retention were significantly (P<0.05) different among the treatments. T5 had the highest dry matter (85.66 %) followed by T4 (85.08 %), T3 (77.56 %), T2 (73.40 %) and T1 (72.45 %) respectively. It was concluded that ATSM can be fed to broiler chicks at 30 ml/litre without any deleterious effect on the performance and nutrient retention of birds.
137 Histopathological Studies of Gills, Liver and Gonads of Clarias gariepinus and Oreochromis niloticus Collected from Rivers Ureje and Ogbese in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria , Fagbuaro O*, Ola-Oladimeji FA, Ekundare OV and Abolaji TR
This study investigated the histopathology of the gills, liver and gonads of Clarias gariepinus and Oreochromis niloticus collected from Rivers Ureje and Ogbese in Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State. Samples were prepared and examined according to standard procedures. Histological alterations were then observed in the gills, liver or gonads of most fish from these rivers, including circulatory disturbances such as telangiectasia and epithelial lifting, hyperplasia of mucous cells and epithelial cells between secondary lamellae, structural alterations in the form of fusion and branching of primary and secondary lamellae, and regressive changes in the form of intracellular alterations within gill epithelial cells. The results of this study indicated that Clarias gariepinus and Oreochromis niloticus from the two rivers are indeed responding to some stressors which should be monitored and regulated to ensure sustainable living and conservation of aquatic biodiversity and maintenance of human health.
138 Effect of the Shearing Date on Wool Growth on Native Pasture in Merino Sheep , Fernandez Abella D*, Irabuena O, Sterla S and Hernandez Ruso Z
Wool growth rate has been studied in 30 Merino Australian adult wethers divided into three groups according to shearing dates: September, October and November. Differences in fleece weight were observed between shearing dates with heavier weight in October and November (5.50; 5.60 Kg) respect to September (4.95 Kg). Marked seasonal rate in wool growth was observed, reached its maximum in summer and minimum in winter. Annual wool growth average was 11.8g day-1 for September and 13.1g day-1 for October-November (p<0.05). Annual variation of pasture production explains wool growth determining changes in body weight and its interaction with shearing date. The maximum percent clean wool yield was found in summer and minimum in winter. Staple length follows the same tendency as wool growth, whereas the diameter was independent and same in the three groups (20.18; 20.42 and 20.57 micron, September, October and November, respectively). Wool growth is affected by nutrition, photoperiod and temperature, wherever in our conditions the major factor is the quality and quantity of native pasture is very important to know wool growth rate as well as the best shearing moment in order to improve wool production.
139 Conservation of Biological Diversity. The Road to Survival , Sampedro Marin AC*
Among scholars it is common to hear that, from now on, the evolution of modern man will depend above all on the environmental pressure of a social type, since the natural selection that we suffer is relaxed, due to the achievements made in health and other forms of protection from environmental factors. This has allowed us to survive in conditions very different from those of other living organisms and has also made us believe that we are indestructible.
140 The Pathophysiology and Neurobehavioral Effects of Chlorfenapyr Insecticide in Lactating Female Sprague Dawley Rats and in HepG2 Cell Line , Elalfy MM*, Abomosallam MS, Hamed MF, Elhadidy MG, Elazab ST and Mandour R
Chlorfenapyr (CFP) is good candidate insecticide for control of vectors blood borne diseases like malaria. As little information about CFP toxicity and possibility of its residue’s presence in food stuffs, milk and environment, we explore the postnatal toxic effects of CFP in female Sprague dawley rats and its pups. CFP was given orally at doses of 0,54 and 108 mg/kg to female albino rats immediately at first day after delivery till 21 days of lactation. All dams and its pups were weighted, euthanized and blood was separated for serum separation and tissues were preserved either at 4c as tissue homogenate for measurements of oxidant/antioxidants levels or in buffered formalin for histopathological examination. The highest dose of CFP induced hepatorenal toxicity in dams and its pups with evidence of increase liver enzymes and creatinine level when compared to control groups. Also, CFP displayed histopathological changes in liver, kidney, brain and spleen tissues of dams as well as rats’ pups after 21 days of treatment. The toxic effects resulted from secretion of CFP in milk and increased the free radicals’ production and oxidants like MDA in tissues of rats’ pups. Also, CFP had a cytotoxic effect on HepG2 cells indicated by induction of oxidative stress and lethality to cell line. Taken collectively, chlorfenapyr is a good candidate insecticide in vector control but had a cytotoxic effect in female albino rats, its pups, and in HepG2 cells.
141 Growth Performance, Caeca Microbial Population and Immune Response of Starter Broiler Chicks Fed Aqueous Extract of Balanites Aegyptiaca and Alchornea Cordifolia Stem Bark Mixture , Musa B*, John OA, Adegbite MB and OmokoreEA
A total of Two hundred and fifty (250), 1-day old (Cobb) broiler chicks with mixed sex were used to evaluate the the growth performance, caeca microbial population and immune response of starter broiler chicks fed aqueous extract of Balanites aegyptiaca and Alchornea cordifolia stem bark mixture (BACM). Birds were reared on a deep litter system and randomly divided into five treatment with five replicates consisting of 10 birds each in a completely randomized design. Treatment 1 (T1) were given basal diet + 0 % BACM, T2, T3, T4 and T5 were fed 20, 40, 60 and 80 ml/liter BACM respectively. The experiment lasted for 28 during which clean feed and water were offered ad libitum. The results obtained revealed that the average weight gain (AWG), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and mortality were influenced by the dietary treatments (P<0.05). Birds in T5 had the highest AWG and FCR (1159.3 g, 1.57) followed by T4 (1070.2 g, 1.70), T3 (1047.4 g, 1.74), T2 (981.1 g, 1.86) and T1 (850.7 g, 2.14) respectively. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SDA), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), malonyldialdehyde (MLA) and antibody titres against Newcastle and gumboro disease were significantly affected by BACM (P<0.05). Caeca microbial population of Escherichia coli and Lactobacilli were significantly different among the treatments (P<0.05). E. coli count in T1 were higher compared to other treatments (P<0.05), Lactobacilli population increased in T2, T3, T4 and T5 compared to T1. It was concluded that BACM can be fed to broiler chicks at 80 ml/litre without any negetive effect on the performance and immune response of birds.
142 Pituitary Dependent Hyperadrenocorticism in a Golden Lion Tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia) , Stoneburg SK*, Langan JN, Adkesson MJ, Chinnadurai SK, Drees R, Woodburn DB and Colegrove KM
There is a scarcity of information regarding endocrine disease in New World primates (NWP). While diabetes has been described, there is little other published information about endocrinopathies in NWP. Hyperadrenocorticism (Cushing’s disease) is a syndrome of persistent hypercortisolemia which can be caused by pituitary overproduction of adrenocorticotropic hormone, functional adrenocortical neoplasms and iatrogenic steroid administration. Although Cushing’s disease is one of the most common endocrinopathies in domestic dogs, this syndrome has not been reported in NWP. A 15-yr-old, intact, female golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia) was evaluated for progressive, bilaterally symmetric alopecia and weight loss. Computed tomography imaging revealed a 0.5 cm, slightly dome-shaped, contrast enhancing mass arising from the pituitary fossa. Based on this animal’s age, size, and response in another non-human primate, medical treatment with ketoconazole, rather than surgical or radiation treatment was initiated. The animal was euthanized due to a marked decline in its condition after the CT scan and postmortem examination confirmed a pituitary pars inter media adenoma and adrenal cortical hyperplasia consistent with Cushing’s disease. This is the first report of spontaneous hyperadrenocorticism secondary to a pituitary neoplasia in a NWP and contributes valuable information that will help aid in diagnosis and management of endocrine disease in this and other non-human primate species.
143 Expansion of the Distribution of Touit Stictopterus (Psitacidae) for the Central Cordillera, Colombia , Ronald Mauricio PH*, Vargas J and Certuche K
We present a new record of T. stictopterus for Colombia, in the Tolima department, expanding the distribution of the species 423.9 km to the north, over the central mountain range.
144 Innovative Approaches for Comparative Genomics Study of Rattus Rattus and Rattus Norvegicus via Computational Biology: Statistical & Structural Functions , Agrawal SP*
Comparative genomic in large scale is integrated approach that compares species from their genetic structures to identify similarities and differences their genomes and their functional structures of the genes via this approach we identified the potential functionally of the genomes of the different species that’s scientific approach to identified the differential structures prediction of two different species on behalf of computation biology. Basic objective of this study is to identify the genomic diversity between the two species (Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus) on behalf of statistical & functional analysis via computational biology. We also briefly used the currently available computational tools in comparative genomics such as algorithms for genome-scale sequence alignment, gene identification, and non-homology-based function prediction. Recently, comparative genomic sequence analysis has been used to help in the functional assignment of genes in a non-similarity-based manner. These comparative genomic approaches depend on the basic factors of the genes that are functionally related genes and closely associated across genomes in some form.
145 Influence of Geomagnetic M-Index on Light-Trap Catch of Macrolepidoptera Species Selected from Different Families and Subfamilies , Nowinszky L*, Puskás J and Kiss M
The study deals with the number of Macrolepidoptera species caught by light-trap, in connection with the geomagnetic M-index. We found close correlation between the nightly sum values of geomagnetic M-index and relative catch of Macrolepidoptera species separated from different families and subfamilies caught by light-traps of the Hungarian Forestry Light-Trap Network. Three behaviours were identified, but these behaviours do not depend on the taxonomic location of the species. We suggest that the geomagnetic M-indices provide more trouble-free spatial orientation of moths.
146 The Nutritional Care and Feeding Behavior of an Adult Female Lion (Panthera Leo) in Mvog-Betsi Zoo in Yaounde, Centre Region, Cameroon , Maurice ME*, Keafon MC, Namuene KS, Divine E and Veronique M
Lions are iconic species of wildlife, both loved and feared. While they do not have the striking color patterns of a jaguar or the cultural significance of a tiger, the striking mane and complex social structure make them unique among all the wild cats. The objective of this research was to examine the nutritional care and feeding behavior of the lion in Mvog-Betsi Zoo. Data collection was done for a period of 3 months, 6 days each week, from 7:00am-6:00pm. Hygiene of both the feeding and nonfeeding environment (animal enclosure), food-type, feeding behavior, and feeding position were recorded in the data sheet. The results of the study showed a significant link between feeding behavior, hygiene of enclosure, food-type, feeding position, and feeding time, r = 0.350 P<0.05, r = 0.276 P<0.05, X2 = 5.962 df=2, P<0.05, and r = 0.302, P<0.05 respectively. The animal enclosure was 70% dirtier than clean, though the animal still fed in this enclosure, it was remarked with an unprecedented aggressive behavior. Also, beef and chicken were more accessible in the meat market, 60% and 40% respectively, facilitating the management of animal feeding. Interestingly, the behavior of lying while in captive feeding was dominant over standing, 87% and 13% respectively. Aggressive behavior was the most observed feeding behavior and recorded 60%, while walking was the least, 13%. Additionally, a significant association was recorded between the hygiene conditions of non-feeding environment on the animal position and behavior, X2 = 18.592 df=2, P=0.000 and X2 = 4.617 df = 6, P<0.05 respectively. Furthermore, the animal displayed a spectrum of behaviors during the non-feeding periods, and the behaviors were resting, moving, roaring, and auto-grooming, recording an observation of 66%, 15%, 10%, and 9% respectively. The adult female lion of Mvog-Betsi Zoo is principally fed with only cattle meat and chicken, however, feeding this animal with a whole animal carcass like a sheet, goat, etc. is very important at least once monthly to simulate a healthy wild feeding.
147 New Apameini Species from Asia (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) , Gyulai P*
The diagnosis and description of a new genus (Burmahabitans gen. n.) and three new species (Photedes macroductus sp. n., Sesamia waziristana sp. n. and Burmahabitans chinsilvicola sp. n.) of Apameini are presented and illustrated with 10 color imagines and 10 genitalia figures.
148 Management System of Fish Populations Artificial Reproduction Based on Neuroendocrinological Research , Pavel G*
By means of ecological-histophysiological and experimental full-system studies using morphometric methods of light-, electron microscopy and immunocytochymistry the participation of hypothalamichupophysial neurosecretory system (HHNS) in fish reproduction was firstly established. At the beginning of spawning migrations of sturgeon and salmon fish there is activation of synthesis of neurohormonal products (nonapeptide neurohormones) in neurosecretory cells of the preoptic nucleus and transport them to neurohypophysis, where, however, their mass accumulation occurs.
149 Diversity and Distribution of Butterflies and their Conservation in Cauvery Delta Region, Tamil Nadu, India , Veeramani A* and Vetriselvi A
Butterflies are one of the beneficial insects as they serve as pollinators and indicators of environmental quality and are also appreciated for their aesthetic value. They play a pivotal role in determining the stability of an ecosystem since their numbers can fluctuate drastically with even slight changes in temperature, weather conditions, degradation or pollution. This study is one of the first attempts to conduct and fulfill the lacuna through the investigations on the diversity of butterflies at the basin of Cauvery in Kumbakonam region using transect counting method. Collection of specimen was made for taking photographic documentation. A total of 24 species of butterflies were collected from members of the family Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Lycaenidae and Hesperiidae respectively. The study provides useful information about their diversity as well as baseline data for upcoming researchers. Global warming is one of the serious threats to the butterflies and conservation of this lepidopteron fauna is unavoidable.
150 The Birds of Cameroon: The Dynamism of the Cameroonian Avifauna Revealed by Several Bird Surveys in the Centre Region of Cameroon in the Heart of the Congo Basin Forest, Case of Migratory Birds , Nguembock B*
In this review of several new birds identified in the Centre region of Cameroon, one of the six countries that make up the Congo Basin Forest, we focus on migratory birds. Bird migration appears to be one of the most fascinating biological phenomena relying on various major determinants which may explain that the migration is not always a round trip. Based on these major determinants that structure the bird migration, it results that mainly four possible hypotheses may be retained which could explain the discovery of these new migratory birds in this region: an energy failure, the insufficient learning of migratory routes, the beginning of adaptation of certain male individuals to their wintering range and the adaptation of some migratory birds to high temperatures.
151 Expression and Purification of the Recombinant OmpL1 Protein for Potential Vaccine Production against Leptospirosis , Nguyen Tuan Hung, Nguyen Van Huy, Nguyen Duc Hieu, Dang Thi Quynh, Vo Thi Bich Thuy* and Nghiem Ngoc Minh
Leptospirosis is a popular zoonosis caused by pathogenic strains of the Leptospira. OmpL1 is the outer membrane protein present in most pathogenic Leptospira strains and consider an important factor in the immunogenicity response. We describe here a simple procedure for generating recombinant OmpL1 protein resistant to Leptospira. OmpL1102-316 recombinant was cloned on Escherichia coli strain DH10b and expressed in strain BL21. The purification has performed by an affinity-linked NiSepharose column with His-tag attached to this protein. The recombinant protein OmpL1 induced immunological memory in laboratory rats, suggesting a potential recombinant vaccine production for using in against Leptospirosis in animals.
152 Chironomid Farming is the Future of Tomorrows Fish Production Industries , Nath S*
Different aquatic invertebrates are used to understand the quality of water of the aquatic body. Chironomids are considered as the most suitable invertebrate for this purpose with time. This insect has an important position in the aquatic food chain as well as a food web, because of its occupancy as a secondary consumer in the aquatic ecosystem. This insect has a benthic habitat and used the sedimentary and benthic debris as food. They also make their tube with these materials. Chironomids are also known as bloodworm, due to hemoglobin present in the body fluid and give them red in appearance.
153 Studies On the Physico-Chemical Parameters of Bore Well, Well, Pond and Tap Waters in Kambarajapuram Village of Vellore District, Tamil Nadu (India) , Sivachandrabose K* and Dhanalakshmi S
Present study was aimed to see the water quality of pond water, well water, bore well water and tap water of Kambarajapuram village, Thiruvalam, Vellore district. Water samples for the present study collected in Kambarajapuram village were analyzed for physical parameters such as Appearance, Odour, Turbidity, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) and Electrical conductivity mic mho/cm and chemical parameters such as pH, Alkalinity, Total hardness, Mg, Fe, Na, K, Mn, NH3, NO2, NO3, Cl, F, So4, PO4 and Tidy’s test content using standard methods as given by APHA and their results are depicted in table 1. The acceptable limit mentioned in the text represents the standard for drinking water quality according to WHO. Among these four water samples compared, the TDS and electrical conductivity contents were seemed to be lower in pond water as 481 and 687 and in tap waters as 382 and 545 than other two waters of well water as 1128 and 1611 and bore well water as 1062 and 1517, respectively. Other parameters were found to be fluctuated. Result of the study indicated that pond and tap waters were seemed to be suitable for potable purpose. It is concluded from this study that the fluctuation of physico-chemical variations in all the four waters of Kambarajapuram village in Thiruvalam area showed suitable for irrigation and drinking purpose. In the present study, low level of fluoride content in a range of 0.02-0.04 showed harmful effect for dental caries and its related effects as reported by many investigators.
154 Finding a Research Problem is a Really Big Problem in Traditional Universities and Academic Institutions , Rajashekara S*
Our Indian constitution provides the equality of education for everyone in the fundamental rights and duties. An affectionate student–guide (supervisor) relation permits cooperative and understanding communication. The students should be encouraged for wildlife biologists and researchers to carry out research and conservation activities on flora and fauna by direct and small research funding/ grants for their works. A coordination of satisfying the candidates for performing original work on basic science, then research paper writing to inspire a group for novel thinking, reasoning and scientific authors.
155 The Richness and Diversity of Avifauna in Protected Areas of Croatia, National, Nature Parks and Ecological Network , Lukac G*
Of the total area of Croatia, 56.598 km2, 6,106 km2 are protected in category of national (8) and nature parks (12), which makes 10.9% of the entire territory of Croatia, or 7% if the sea area is taken into account. Based on literature data and data from our own research for these areas, a list of 291 bird species have been recorded in all eight national parks, 348 bird species in 12 nature parks. This is 86% of all known birds species recorded so far out of 402 species recorded in our country [1,2].
156 Changes in the Distribution of Certain Mediterranean and Continental Bird Species on the Eastern Adriatic Coast with the Regard to Climate Change and Warming (Croatia) , Lukac G*
In the last few decades, there have been changes in the distribution of certain bird species in Croatia, which are spreading to the north-east from the Mediterranean due to climate change and warming, or reverse from the continental areas to the Mediterranean. Position of Croatia along the eastern Adriatic coast and National Parks in Croatia with the Velebit Nature Park (Figure 1).
157 The Role of Humic Acids in Aquaculture: A Review , Coban N, Sahin T*, Yilmaz S and Ergun S
Water conditions that offer balanced values are ideal environments for fish. Sudden or fluctuating changes in water parameters such as pH, oxygen, and especially temperature interact and destabilize other relevant parameters and cause stress to the fish. When fish encounter such stressful situations, their defense mechanisms do not work properly, which makes them easily susceptible to pathogenic microorganisms and secondary infections. Because such an impact that affects the physical condition, physiological state, and behavioral status of fish, deteriorates general welfare. Various antibiotics and similar medications have been used in controlling or eliminating stress-related diseases to overcome such adverse conditions. However, despite the proper use of these medications, various measures have been taken and the use of some antibiotics has been limited or stopped, as the efficiency of treatments decreased over time, and some antibiotics caused antibiotic-resistant bacteria in fish. As an alternative approach, the use of various natural or synthetic substances has become popular and widespread today in commercial and experimental applications to take preventive measures against pathogens and provide a solid background to fish welfare. Humic acids, one of the substances belonging to the natural environment of fish are among the natural and organic components used for this purpose. Since humic substances are part of the natural habitat of fish, the defense mechanism of fish does not recognize this foreign matter as a threat, so that the fish maintain its usual activities without any reaction. Humic acids that generally known to have positive effects on many organisms, also enhance some vital parameters of fish such as healing of lesions, inhibiting pathogen load, boosting the immune system, and promoting growth when used as a feed additive. Moreover, humic acids have been reported to reduce inverse effects of stress on physiological and histopathological parameters of fish, toxic effects of heavy metals and organic pollutants, and to repair the disease-based injuries faster. In this review, the latest knowledge on the effects of humic substances on two of the primary problems of aquaculture systems, which are fish diseases and relevant pathogens, is discussed.
158 Preliminary Length-Weight Relationship and Cytogenetic Studies of Periplaneta americana (Insecta: Blattodea) , Ola-Oladimeji FA, Oziegbe M, Oteyola AO* and Kayode TE
This study was carried out to reveal the length-weight relationship, sex ratio and chromosome number of Periplaneta americana. One hundred specimens of P. americana were collected from different locations around Ekiti State University environment. For sex ratio and the length-weight relationship between male and female P. americana, seventy specimens were examined for sex ratio and length-weight relationship between male and female P. americana, while thirty specimens were observed for cytogenetic study. Meiotic chromosomes of male P. americana were prepared from their testes using standard methods and photomicrographs of the chromosomes were taken. From this study, the sex ratio was 1.3: 1 (male to female), there was no significant difference (P>0.05) after comparing the mean total length and the mean body weight, and also the mean forewing length versus mean body weight. The total length and body weight of male P. americana showed a negative correlation (r=-0.2149) while the females P. americana were positively correlated (r=0.1086) between the total length and body weight. However, negative correlation (r=-0.0412) was also observed between total length and body weight in all the specimens collected. For the forewing length and body weight relationship, a positive correlation was observed in male (r=0.1367), female (r=0.2453) and total population (r=0.5167). Also, the meiotic metaphase chromosome showed 16 bivalents and 1 univalent, although no secondary constitution was observed. Therefore, the total and forewing length of P. americana can be used to determine their weight.
159 A Review on the Poisonous Spiders of Australia , Bhouyain AM*
A review of the poisonous spiders of Australia is made depending on the published and unpublished articles, books, and other information available on internet. Total 15 species of spiders have been identified as most dangerous and poisonous species in Australia. Some of these spiders are deadly poisonous can kill a person with their small quantity of venom with in few hours. The classification, morphology, and ecological behavior are the content of this article. The images also incorporated from Wikipedia.
160 Study on Biochemical Profile of Improved Cattle at Various Stage of Lactation in Rupandehi District of Nepal , Gautam M*
Objective: To determine the reference value of biochemical parameters of improved cattle of Rupandehi district of Nepal. Methodology: The sampling was done from the various commercial farm of Rupandehi district of Nepal. A total of 53 improved cattle (apparently healthy) were selected from farmers. It was cross sectional purposive sampling. Those cattle were divided into various predefined groups: 1. Dry periods (last 3 weeks of pregnancy) 2. Early lactating (calving to 3 weeks) 3. Mid lactating (2-4 months) and 4. Late lactation (after 4months). The serum analysis was done by using manually operated refractometer for total protein and Calorimeter with the available reagent in the market for all other parameter. Statistical analysis was done by using SPSS-20 using one way ANOVA. The data was presented as mean±standard error (SE). Result: Total protein was significantly different (P<0.05) at various stage of lactation with highest in III stage, globulin was significantly different (P<0.05) at various stage of lactation with highest value in II stage and BUN was also significantly different (P<0.05) at various stage of lactation with highest value in III stage. The parameters like albumin, SGPT, SGOT, ALP, Creatinine, Calcium and Phosphorous were non- significantly different (P>0.05) among various stage of lactation. Conclusion: This result demonstrated the reference value of various biochemical parameters of improved cattle at various stage of lactation of Rupandehi district which could be used by veterinarian as a base for Evidence based Veterinary Medicine.
161 Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) in Mexico , Angel Virgilio DM*, Paula GA, Miriam Noemi BJ, José Efraín RB and Jacinto Alberto LP
The turkey, Meleagris gallopavo, is native to America. This species of bird is found all over Mexican national territory. The different climates in Mexico and the method of domestication are the main factors that have caused variability in the genotypes and plumage colors of these turkeys. In some rural areas, turkey raising is typically done by housewives, who use food waste or mixed feed blend with nixtamalized corn; in daytime, turkeys are released into the backyard where they eat herbs or insects. Unfortunately, the breeding of these birds has been drastically reduced, due to the loss of Mexican traditions.