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Mental Health And Human Resilience International Journal

ISSN(p): | ISSN(e):2578-5095
Journal Papers (49) Details
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1 Interstitial Cystitis Client, CC: Treated With STSH over Skype: From Irvine, CA to Pine Brook, New Jersey , Sidman J* and Roohk V
We report successful treatment of acute interstitial cystitis (IC) with Short-Term Sidman Hypnotherapy (STSH).We previously reported successful long-term treatment of IC using STSH with more than five years permanence based on follow-up interviews with the client.The previous case study was published in the peerreview Journal of Reproductive Medicine, Vol.54, No.8, in August 2009
2 Relational Ethics and Nurses-Client Relationship in Nursing Practice: Literature Review , Upasen R*
Background: This review focuses on exploring the concept of the nurse-client relationship as it may be informed by relational ethics. Relational ethics is a new approach to ethical practice in health care and can be a framework for nurses and other health professionals in considering how to help patients and families. Purpose: To review the basic elements of relational ethics prior to summarizing the existing literature related to the nurse-client relationship in psychiatric and mental health settings. Methods: Qualitative studies and other research were identified by using the PubMed, CINAHL, ScienceDirect, Academic search databases, and by hand search in the library. The search limited to the period 2000-2016. The exception to this is the inclusions of some articles that are considered as classic in this area of nurse-client relationship and ethics. Results: 45 studies that met the final inclusion criteria were selected to analyze theme. The argument is then made that relational ethics can inform therapeutic nurse-client relations in important ways and that it constitutes important knowledge for psychiatric and mental health nurses. The existing literature, however, does not identify strategies that support the practice of relational ethics in this way. This article described how relational ethics is a powerful guide to ethical and effective nursing practice. Conclusion and Recommendation: There is a growing need to better understand relational ethics within the nurseclient relationship in order to identify ways to support encountered situations.
3 Organizational Support as Increment in Employee Resilience: A Comparative Study among Public and Private Employees , Haider I and Abid M*
Despite the fact that getting attention in clinical psychology, so far only a few known about the employee resiliency in organizational contexts. This study aimed to investigate the correlational aspects of organizational support and employee resilience. It was also determined the organizational support as predictor of employee resilience. 129 employees were selected through purposive sampling from private and public sectors. Employees were asked to fill two scales perceived organizational support scale and employee resilience scale along with demographic sheet. Results showed positive correlation between the organizational support and employee resilience. Regression analysis revealed that organizational support has impact on employee resilience. Finding depicts the significant differences on organizational support among public and private employees but no differences were founded on employee resilience. Implication were discussed.
4 A Short Review of Factors and Interventions for Reducing Depression , Stoyanova S*
This short review of some factors and interventions for reducing depression is focused on the role of multiple agents and activities in different kinds of relationships and various types of environment. It aims to reveal the complex co-action of such factors, not to point out the primary importance of one or few of them. Some research findings regarding the efficiency of some psychotherapeutic, school, family, community and activity-focused interventions for recovery from depression are described and summarized.
5 Promoting Campus Mental Health Literacy , Nsereko ND* and Basa V
Mental health service provision, service utilization and supervision are hinged on mental health literacy in the effort to promote mental health wellbeing of an individual or a given community. This article examines the facets of university mental health wellbeing and the loopholes in the annual status reports of the National Council for Higher Education in Uganda that neglect the aspect of the institutions’ mental health
6 Gender Sensitivity, Mental Health Care Provision and Minority Communities in Ireland: A Realist Analysis , Bergin M*, Wells JSG and Owen S
The Irish Government has adopted “Gender Mainstreaming” as a strategy to promote equal opportunities between women and men in its National Development Plan. While current mental health policy addresses the principle of partnership and social inclusiveness as a way forward for mental health service provision, it still does not explicitly deal with the notion of gender and gender sensitivity. For some minority groups a lack of trust is a key issue that affects their uptake and meaningful use of services resulting in inadequate and gender insensitive care provision. Aim: The aim of this paper is to describe and analyse service providers’ views in relation to the gender sensitivity of mental health care provision particularly as it relates to minority (Traveller and gay) communities. Method: A qualitative social realist design was used guided by Layder’s adaptive theory and ontological theory of the social world – ‘social domains theory’. In-depth interviews with twenty eight service providers were conducted within one mental health service in Ireland. Data was analysed using NVivo software. Results: The findings are presented in relation to tolerance and responsiveness of service providers towards the gay and Traveller communities. Service providers suggested that prejudices were held in relation to both indigenous and immigrant minority groups and this impacted upon care provision. Categorical intersectional understandings of gender were used by service providers to describe Travellers. Conclusion: Belonging to a minority group was a potential or actual threat to gender sensitive care and service providers managed such threats within a lay socialisation context. Arguably, a move towards developing gender-sensitive mental health care provision requires greater collaboration, education and understandings in relation to minority groups, their cultural differences and gendered identities.
7 Love, Joy and Delight! , Paul Wilkins*
Your mind and emotion hold the key They’re the things to set you free What ‘er the day What ‘er the night Fulfill yourself with love, joy and delight
8 Quality of Life and Psychological Aspects of Diabetes , Nafiaa H*, Benchikhi L and Ouanass A
Diabetes occupies an important rank among chronic diseases. Its prevalence and severity increase significantly of both somatic and psychic consequences that impairs people’s quality of life. According to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), in 2035, diabetes will affect 592 million people making it one of the leading causes of disability and death world wide. The prevalence of diabetes will increase then from 8.3% to 10.1% of the global population. The frequent use of insulin injections, the blood sugar control and treatment of hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia are all elements that are part of a diabetic daily life. This affects badly the psychological health. During recent decades, clinicians and researchers have gradually explored the psychological aspects of diabetes. A study in France of a sample of 50 diabetic patients found that 88% of participants reported that their life would be better if they were not diabetic. The items of quality of life most affected are: the overall quality of life, diet, psychological aspect, body image and self-esteem. As for health, diabetics often report physical and mental limitation, loss of energy, reduced social activities and entertainment, a frequency of occurrence of neuropathic pain and therefore an impaired general condition. The counseling can improve diabetic quality of life, treatment compliance, limit the patient’s disability and help maintain its autonomy. The psychological effects can be kind of depression, anxiety, addictive behavior, personality disorders with regression, relationship difficulties and even suicidalideation. Psycho education is the most important step of diabetic patient counseling: explain the disease to the patient’s family, its etiology, development, prognosis, therapeutic principles and possible side effects of treatment. Further more, a device that aims to improve self-esteem, to protect against the effects caused by the illness, and the perception that the subject has need to be developed. These negative effects are expressed in physical forms, physiological, or behavioral, evolving in terms of the degree of acceptance and disease control. This program will prevent and limit the effects of stress experienced daily, and there by improve the quality of life of diabetic patients.
9 Predictive Psychiatric Disorders among Children and Adolescents Attending Pediatric Outpatient Department of a Tertiary Hospital in Dhaka , Mallik CI* and RadwanRB
Introduction: Psychiatric morbidity is now a burning issue in Bangladesh and the children and adolescents of Bangladesh are suffering increasingly. Psychiatric disorders are more common in children with chronic and acute pediatric disorders. Considerable numbers of children attending in pediatric outpatient department suffer from emotional and behavioral disorders. Objectives: The study had been designed to find out the proportion of emotional, conduct, hyperactivity and social difficulties among the children and adolescents attending pediatric outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital. Method: This was a quantitative, cross-sectional and descriptive study and was carried out from May 2016 to June 2016 in pediatric outpatient department of a prime tertiary level hospital of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Purposive and consecutive sampling technique had been used and sample size was 100. Both male and female children aged 4 to 18 years were included. Semi-structured questionnaire containing socio-demographic and other relevant clinical information and validated parent version of Bangla Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) for screening psychopathology had been applied to the consented parents or caregivers of the respondents. Version 15.0 of the SPSS had been used for statistical analysis. Results: Mean age of the subjects was 8.17 years. Majority (80%) of the subjects were 4 to 10 years. The male female ratio was1.3:1. Any form of predictive psychiatric disorder was 12%. Among them 9% was ADHD, 5% Emotional disorder and 5% was of Conduct disorder. Proportion of any predictive psychiatric disorder was significantly higher in adolescents than in children (25% Vs 8.8%). All the categories of psychiatric disorders were also highly prevalent in the adolescents. Overall, 20% of the cases had peer problem and they were significantly present in the cases with predictive psychiatric disorder.Conclusion: This study supports the other findings in of predicting psychiatric disorders among the pediatric outpatients attendee population that would ultimately help in applying suitable screening procedure and importance of identification and subsequent management of psychiatric conditions.
10 The Perfect Storm: Difficulties in the Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia in Transitional Age Youth , Vanessa M Schmidt* and Ravi Shankar
Background: Early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) is defined as schizophrenia symptom onset occurring prior to age 18.However, due to comorbid psychiatric conditions, substance use and the nonspecific nature of early psychosis, there is often a significant delay in accurate diagnosis and treatment. In addition, services available to those within the transitional-age community, defined as youth between the ages of 16-25, are often limited, and the interface between child and adult mental health services poorly defined. This deficit directly affects the establishment of clinical programs designed to provide early intervention for psychotic disorders. Case Presentation: A 17-year old male presented with paranoia, delusional thought content and disorganized behavior. The patient had previously been diagnosed with substance-induced psychosis due to similar presentations in the setting of cannabis use. However, following a 4-month incarceration with no psychiatric care, the patient demonstrated significant decompensation and an increase in duration of psychotic symptoms. Although the patient had previously demonstrated positive response to oral Aripiprazole, and had a well-documented history of medication non-compliance, insurance declined coverage of transition to Abilify Maintena due to patient age. Subsequently, the patient was initiated on oral Haloperidol. Following several episodes of dystonia, Haloperidol was slowly titrated based on response and tolerability, and transitioned to Haloperidol-Decanoate after several weeks. The patient gradually demonstrated clinical improvement in mood, behavior and delusional thought. Outpatient services were limited by current legal status, as the patient had been tried as an adult under state law. Management generally available through Children’s Division and the Juvenile Office were restricted. Following multiple meetings between both inpatient and outpatient providers, the patient was scheduled for Intensive Case Management Services through a local community behavioral health provider and subsequently discharged. Discussion: This case presents the obstacles frequently encountered in the diagnosis, treatment and outpatient management of EOS, specifically those within the transitional age community. Though services remain limited, a growing awareness of this disparity has resulted in the development of multiple early-intervention programs, as well as government-funded research initiatives designed to address the needs specific to this population.
11 Saving the Lost Generation of Syria , Kanawati Y*
The war in Syria has reached intolerable levels of human suffering and despair. Hundreds of thousands of Syrians have been killed, hundreds of thousands have been trapped in besieged areas, and tens of thousands have been tortured. Children living through wars and conflict suffer many consequences including post-traumatic stress symptoms, psychosomatic symptoms, depression, anxiety, disturbed play, and behavioral, emotional, and sleep problems, suicide risk, substance use and physical health risks. This paper sheds some light on the best practices for trauma recovery, including Psychological treatments to Syrian refugees carriedon by SAMS (Syrian American Medical Society).
12 Black Minds Matter Baltimore Rising: Summoning the Village , Shepherd JJ*
Baltimore Rising: Summoning the Village Call to Action Series was conceived and implemented July 2015 through June 2016 as a result of two Calls to Action meetings convened by the Black Mental Health Alliance immediately following the 2015 Baltimore uprisings as a result of the death of Freddie Gray.
13 Comparing Social Climate Perceptions of Staff and Juveniles with Sexual Behavior Problems , Johnson TL, Underwood LA*, Dailey FLL, Williams C and Crump Y
Increases in research on juvenile sexual behavior problems have created a need for more evidence-based treatment.Furthermore, literature shows that the social climate of a treatment facility is an important variable, yet more empirical data exploring how it impacts juveniles with sexual behavior problems in secure care facilities is needed.This study evaluated the perceived social climate of both staff and juveniles in two secure care facilities; as measured by a onetime administration of the Ward Atmosphere Scale (WAS).The total sample consisted of 56 subjects, of which35 were adjudicated male juveniles with sexual behavior problems (n=35) and 21 were staff (n=21).Overall, the staff and juveniles’ social climate perceptions were found to be significantly different in the System Maintenance higher order domain of the WAS.Additionally, preliminary data analysis discovered that the two sites were statistically significantly different for the WAS subscales of Order and Organization, Support, Involvement, as well as the higher order domains of System Maintenance and Relationship.Finally, the theoretical and practical implications, strengths and limitations, recommendations for future research and practices for this study are discussed.
14 Burnout in Medical Students: The Impact of Lifestyle and Health Behaviours in Development of Burnout , Medeiros JT* and Leite S
Background/Objective: There is an increased impact of burnout among medical students, with prevalence above 50%. Despite the contribution of demographic and personal factors, aspects related to the learning environment seem to be the most influential; therefore many organizational strategies have been developed. Studies have described associations between burnout and lifestyles or health behaviours, especially in doctors and residents. The aim of this work is to review the studies that directly investigate this relationship in medical students, to understand what behaviours can be adopted to prevent and reduce burnout. Methods: A MEDLINE and Google Scholar review of the recent medical literature from January 2007, through September 2017, was conducted, using combinations of terms: burnout, burnout syndrome, and medical students. Results: 10 cross-sectional studies, survey-based were included. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was the screening instrument more used to evaluate burnout. Dysfunctional sleeping habits, low levels of physical activity, alcohol abuse/dependence, social activities involvement and being an ex-smoker were associated with higher risk of burnout. Music-related activities were correlated with better outcomes. Reading and dietary behaviour had an unclear association. Conclusions: The use of different versions of the MBI and different criteria to evaluate common behaviours make these findings difficult to generalize. Strategies based on sleep education (sleeping 7-9 hours per night), increasing physical exercise, moderating alcohol consumption and practicing music-related activities may be helpful to prevent and reduce burnout. Further studies are required to better understand these relationships.
15 Treatment with Psychotropic Drugs in Oncology: Relevance Attributed to Possible Side Effects , Poças A*, Albuquerque E and Mónico L
Oncology patients are exposed to stress events associated with the diagnosis and treatment of cancer that can lead to significant losses in their quality of life. These patients may have significant psychiatric comorbidities and most of the times they are treated with chemotherapy which may have neuropsychiatric side effects or interact with psychotropic drugs. Patient’s opinion and the shared therapeutic decision are the core of contemporary medicine. To know the preferences of the patients it is necessary to question them about this subject. We apply questionnaires to 83 oncology patients with mental health problems asking about the relevance they attributed to possible side effects of treatment with psychotropic. Regarding gender, there were no statistically significant differences in the relevance attributed to possible side effects of psychotropic drugs, except in the greater importance attributed by men to possible changes in sexual life and drug interactions. Those with higher educational levels attributed greater importance to some of the possible side effects of psychotropic drugs; as such schooling was positively associated with the relevance attributed to sleepiness, changes in sexual life and altered consciousness. We found that patients with long-term pathologies (Psychosis or Sleep Disorders) tend to attribute greater importance to a possible weight gain than patients with Adjustment Disorders. In patients who were still on antineoplastic treatment we verified that greater relevance was attributed to possible drug interactions. The different relevance attributed to the possible side effects of psychotropic drugs emphasizes the importance of paying attention to the specificities of each patient allowing the clinicians a more adequate therapeutic option.
16 Mental Disorders and Psychosocial Functioning , Redondo de Freitas L*
The term psychosocial deficiency is characterized by the classification of a problem in the mental functions of an individual, which may be one or more limitations of the capacities of consciousness, learning, social interaction, temperament, energy and impulse, bonding, personality, memory, concentration, language, perception, according to the classification of mental functions by the CIF. The impacts of a mental disorder on a person’s life are often devastating and only with the support of multiprofessional staff and good family and psychosocial support are it possible to control and overcome. However, the marks that the rupture of a state of health regarded as normal, for the transition in a diagnosed mental disorder frame bring in themselves a historical context of losses, frustrations and fragilities that are sometimes stigmatizing and excluding. Individuals with chronic and persistent mental disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and severe depression, present functional and intellectual impairments that compromise their ability to perform activities and performance. The promotion of the Brazilian Inclusion Law to people with severe mental disorders, recognizing them as people with psychosocial disabilities, provides an opportunity for people with mental disorders to have their fundamental rights and guarantees, equality of access and participation that favor the process of inclusion and psychosocial rehabilitation for the strengthening of autonomy, quality of life and community bonds.
17 Development of the Pilot Resilience Scale (Employees, Leaders and Teams) , Barcenilla González MÁ*, Del Rey-Mejías ÁL, Duran-Cutilla M, González-Peñas J, Huete MA and Merchán-Naranjo J
Background: In the context of resilience, the pilot resilience scale in Spanish was developed to assess resilience for workers, leaders and teams. Method: The factorial structure of the scale was tested using exploratory and confirmatory factors analysis with a Colombian multi-occupational employee sample (N= 53). Results: The reliability (internal consistency) of the scales was assessed with Cronbach’s alpha: Total pilot resilience scale (0.94), individual resilience sub-scale (0.86), leadership resilience sub-scale (0.95) and team resilience sub-scale (0.84). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) determines a structure of 5 factors that explain 46% of variance. Total: 75 items. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) forced to 3 factors and selecting the items up to 99% representativeness of the variability. Total: 41 items. The items were reviewed by experts in work psychology. Final pilot resilience scale includes items the highest statistical weight EFA of 5 factors and all items of CFA (removing repeated items). Conclusions: Total 62 items to be validated in a wide sample of workers in Colombia to develop a reliable instrument to measure resilience.
18 Neuropsychiatric Challenges in the Era of Direct-Acting Antivirals: A Case-Report , Peixoto I*
In the advent of new all-pill treatments for chronic hepatitis C virus infection, there is a myriad of clinical challenges in the management of the psychiatric implications and side effects of such therapies, especially in the patient with major psychiatric disorder, which is a very frequent comorbidity. We describe, for the first time, the clinical case of a patient diagnosed with schizophrenia manifesting clinical decompensation associated with the start of a sofosbuvir-containing treatment regimen. We aim to illustrate and provide a discussion about the clinical challenges and psychiatric management issues posed by a patient with a major mental disorder under a sofosbuvir-containing antiviral regimen for HCV infection
19 Acute-Onset Stuttering as a Lateralizing Neurologic Sign? , Jesus J*, Carvalho A, Ribeiro M, Veloso M and Barros P
Introduction: Stuttering has been defined as speech dysfluency characterized by involuntary repetitions and prolongations in syllables and words sounds. Acquired stuttering can have a neurogenic etiology, usually following dominant hemisphere stroke. Case report: A 55-year-old right-handed woman, with history of multiple vascular risk factors and target-organ damage - bilateral atherosclerotic carotid disease, symptomatic on the right, for which she was submitted to endarterectomy six years before and three-vessel coronary artery disease treated by percutaneous coronary intervention three years earlier - recurred to emergency department for acute-onset speech disorder at wake-up. On admission she presented stuttering, with preserved naming/repetition/comprehension, and a previously known left claw hand, possibly secondary to posttraumatic ulnar neuropathy (NIHSS 1). Cranial computed tomography (CT) showed non-recent ischemia in corticosubcortical right fronto-parietal region, without acute ischemic signs; angio-CT displayed occlusion of left common carotid artery with patency of ipsilateral internal carotid artery (ICA) and right ICA stenosis >80%. She received an antiplatelet loading dose and was admitted to our stroke unit. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed the non-recent infarction in the right anterior/middle cerebral artery watershed area, surrounded by foci of acute ischemia with restriction to water diffusion. A symptomatic right ICA re-stenosis was assumed; she started double antiplatelet therapy and was submitted to carotid angioplasty with stenting. Conclusion: Acquired stuttering is more often reported after dominant hemisphere and subcortical lesions, rather than in cortical speech and motor regions. However, this case shows that acquired stuttering may result from non-dominant cortical infarction. Thus, we cannot consider stuttering a focal neither lateralizing neurological sign.
20 Sphere Based Assessment of Psychosocial Support Services at Internally Displaced Person Camps in Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria , Pindar SK*, Onyencho VC, Ibrahim AW, Mshelia AA, Placidus O and Mshelia AI
This study examined available psychosocial support services at internally displaced persons camps in Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria based on sphere standards and indicators. This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study using multistage sampling technique; cluster sampling technique was used to select nine IDP camps and finally 450 household heads or family representatives were selected through systematic sampling techniques. Families were asked about social services; place of worship 435 (96.6%), community celebration 436 (96.8%), funeral services 428 (96.2%), recreational facilities for children 198 (44%), and 20 (4.4%) were opportune to participate in relief effort such as construction of mosques, schools, water pumps, sanitation facilities. Only 14.4% reported family member with symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder; vivid imagery related to a violent memory, 45 (10%) families member with a previously diagnosed mental disorder, of which 25 (55.5%) are still receiving regular medication from Psychiatric hospital and 20 (45.5%) had abruptly stopped medication. This study revealed that creation of recreational facilities for children is essential and more IDPs should be giving opportunity to participate in relief effort and community development. Also, psychotropic drugs should be made free and available in the camps.
21 Prenatal Care: Associations with Birth Outcomes and Medicaid at Varying Population Levels , Iqbal MT and Iqbal MM*
Purpose: To identify associations between timing of prenatal care, various pregnancy outcomes, and Medicaid within and across various aggregate population levels. Data: The data for prenatal utilization, birth outcomes, and insurance were obtained from Central for Disease Control (CDC) Vital Statistics, Kaiser Family Foundation, National Health Expenditure, the New York State Minority Health Surveillance Report, and the New York State Community Health Data Set. Methods: Descriptive statistics were run on all variables at all population levels to gauge the variability and characteristics of the study population. Bivariate (simple regression) analysis was then used to identify associations among variables and timing of prenatal care at all aggregate population levels of analysis. Results: Early prenatal care was only found to be associated with reduced adverse birth outcomes at the national and regional aggregate population levels. The percent of births financed by Medicaid was also found to be associated with adverse birth outcomes and reduced per capita Medicaid spending at the national level. Conclusions: Initiation of early prenatal care may result in reduction of adverse birth outcomes but these benefits may be difficult to measure due to current limitations in measuring the quality and content of prenatal care. Furthermore, prenatal care needs to be adjusted to reflect the specific needs of high risk pregnant women, with an emphasis on quality of visits over quantity of visits.
22 Quality of Life and Mental Illness in Home Care Professionals , Pelucio L*, Nardi AE, Levitan M, Barreto I, Rodrigues M and Pereira R
This study has the objective of assessing quality of life and psychopathology in two populations; nursing technicians in training and nursing technicians engaged in home care with patients. The data shows an increase in this type of care, focused on the relevance of the healthcare professionals involved. A total of twenty-one nursing technicians working in home care and twenty-one nursing technicians in training, intending to work in home care, were submitted to three scales assessing anxiety (BAI), depression (BDI) and quality of life (WHOQOL). The results demonstrate that anxiety is more present in younger caregivers, possibly associated with anticipatory anxiety from uncertainty regarding the future. Furthermore, a correlation between higher anxiety levels and higher levels of depression in the group of nursing technicians in training was also found. Moreover, the relationship between these factors and dissatisfaction regarding quality of life of the caregivers was also perceivable, as demonstrated in some domains in both groups. The data seems to indicate that professionals involved in the practice of home care need personal care, given that their practice involves long-term care of others. It should be emphasized that it is important to recognize what constitutes care for the improvement and better understanding of caring for others, this being relevant as a practice in development and increasing globally, with increasing demand for positions for the evaluated populations.
23 A Boy Who Loved Knives: Resilience Supported through Successful Psychotherapy , Peter A Olsson*
Unlike many melodramatic Hollywood movie scenarios, changes occurring in psychotherapy are often deceptively quiet, often muted. Psychotherapy involves many emotional experiences—anxiety, fear, fascination, wonder, boredom, humor/laughter, anger, sadness, and often pain. The more severe and ominous forms of pain, destruction, and even a death prevented, go unheralded. They are unnoticed because existentially they like a suicide prevented, never, in fact, exist or occur. This paper presents detailed child psychotherapy work with a highly anxious conflicted twelve-year-old boy. Robbie's case is presented in the form of a short story to protect his privacy and to demonstrate exquisite detail of the psychotherapy process. Psychotherapy helped ten-year-old Robbie and his family deal effectively with painful family secrets. Robbie resolved his fears and conflicts and got back on track in his life to become a normal contented person.
24 Understanding the Mental Health Literacy in Kurdish Refugees , Zibaei A*
Background: Health literacy is an important issue which is closely connected to health promotion, protection and disease prevention. The aim of this research is to study and raise awareness of mental health issues amongst Kurdish refugees in Finland. The methods and materials include reading and analysing previous studies conducted on this subject. The results indicate that Kurdish refugees suffer from multiple mental health conditions which should be taken into further consideration.
25 Effects of the Presence of Violators on the Intention to Commit Illegal Bicycle Parking -From the Perspective of Behavioral Criteria , Itakura N*
Illegal bicycle parking was focused as deviant behavior and the effects of descriptive norms shown by the presence of violators on the intention to illegally park bicycles were investigated. Tendencies that were affected by descriptive norms were also examined from the perspective of three types of behavioral criteria: public consideration, consideration for reputation, and egocentrism. The results indicated main effects of the presence of violators on the sense of guilt concerning surrounding people, egocentric feelings, the sense of shame towards surrounding people, and the intention to park illegally, regardless of the degree of each behavioral criterion. On the other hand, there were differences in the effects of the presence of violators according to the degree of value attached to the reputation, and egocentrism, on the personal acceptance of the prohibition. The acceptance of the prohibition increased when there were no violators in people that regarded reputation as important. The results also indicated that egocentric people might justify illegal parking when there were violators.
26 The Effect of Reading Direction on Emotion Recognition: A Pilot Study , Vargha B* and Labadi B
In this pilot study we tested whether or not the direction of reading (independently from its content) influences participants’ emotional experience. We tested a small sample of 30 Japanese people in a repeated measure setting. Participants completed a short emotion-recognition task following two different reading direction conditions: left-toright and top-to-bottom. Results show that reading direction tends to have an impact on recognition of expression of emotion. Based on these positive results, we believe further research is necessary to verify the observed effects and to refine present findings.
27 Negative Spiritual Experiences and Psychological Flourishing , Gabriel S Dy-Liacco* and Mary Beth Werdel
Psychological studies on the spiritual experience of religiously committed individuals have typically focused on positive spiritual experiences and their impact on psychological flourishing. This study examined two structural equation models of the potential short-term impact of negative spiritual experiences on the psychological flourishing of religiously committed individuals. Modeling results were: a) negative and positive spiritual experiences together emerged as the underlying cause of psychological flourishing, rather than the reverse, and, b) when taken together with positive spiritual experiences, negative spiritual experiences had a significant immediate negative association with psychological flourishing whereas positive spiritual experiences did not have a statistically significant association. These modeling results were discussed in light of the “bad stronger than good” theory of the greater immediate impact of negative events on psychological outcomes. Negative spiritual experiences appear to have similar salience to non-spiritual negative events.
28 Normal Grief Versus Pathological Grief: Should we Prescribe Pharmacological Treatment? , Omar Walid Muquebil Ali Al Shaban Rodríguez*, Sara Solares Rodríguez and Celia Rodríguez Turiel
Complicated grief (CG) has been conceptualized as one in which the process intensifies to such an extreme that the person feels overwhelmed, resorting to maladaptive behaviors, or remaining without moving towards resolution in the grieving process, with intrusive symptoms in form of memories or fantasies, intense accesses of emotions and unbearable longings, avoidance of places and people that remember the deceased and inability to adapt.
29 Assessing Correlation between Psychological Resilience and Successful Ageing , Ali Javadpour*, Peter Schofield and Mohammad Motamedi
Background: The term ‘resilience’ is applied with reference to a range of biological, psychological and social factors that enable people to survive in a meaningful way in the face of stressful situations and adversities. It is thought that resilience could impact on health status, and high level of resilience is protective against both mental and physical health. It is possible that long term health benefits are influenced by resilience and vice versa. Psychological resilience has been defined as a pervasive and flexible personality trait that helps an individual to cope well into a successful ageing. Successful ageing has been defined as mental, physical and spiritual vigor, into middle age and further years. Successful ageing has also been considered as freedom from disease and disability in the way that people can live independently in later life. Given that resilience represents complex psycho-social behaviors, it could potentially correlate with other gerontology concepts like successful ageing. Aim: In this study we investigated the correlation between resilience score and some indicators of successful ageing. In current study correlation between psychological resilience score and variables related to successful ageing are examined. Methods: Data was collected in the term one of Olfactory Stress Test longitudinal study at the Hunter Medical Research Institute in Newcastle. Baseline data was collected in 2013-2014 from 290 participant aged 65+ as part of Olfactory Stress Test longitudinal study at the Hunter Medical Research Institute in Newcastle. By using baseline data, we examined the associations between resilience score measured by CD-RISC and some emotional, cognitive and health related variables as indicators of successful ageing. Result: Initial analyses showed that resilience sore and scores measured mental health related factors such as DASS, CESD, melancholia score, DASS depression and Anxiety subscales were negatively correlated. Correlation analyses between resilience score and items related to cognitive performance revealed that variables such as IQ-code score, PQ-Code Score, MAC-Q, ARCS were negatively correlated and people with higher resilient score reported lower cognitive complaint by both participant and informant. Further analyses also showed that the level of physical activity was positively correlated with resilience score. There was a negative correlation between number of medical conditions and resilience score(p=0.013). people with more resilient suffering from lower physical illnesses. To check the predictability of mental health related indicators for resilience, emotional and cognitive variables were entered into stepwise regression model. The results showed that depressive symptoms were predictor for lower resilience and more resilience was a predictor for lower cognitive complaint. Discussion: Our finding is consistent with other studies investigated factors related to resilience in relation to successful ageing. Moreover, finding from this study supported the idea that psychological resilience could be a synonym for Successful ageing and these gerontology concepts could be interrelated in particularly for psychological of successful ageing
30 Mental Health among Elderly Inmates: Mini Review , Upasen R*
Elderly inmates are considered as a vulnerability group of prisoners. There are amount of elderly inmates increasingly in many countries as Thailand. The elderly inmates who are 60 years or older are arrested because they need to offense about substance; be guardian and offender instead of their descendants; living lonely; need to be cared by staff of the Prions or Detention centers; and need to have food in each day, peers, and caregivers during staying in the Prison or Detention center.
31 The Precision of Research in Three Top Medical Journals , Trafimow D*, Rodriguez A, Myuz HA, Wang C and Wang T
Background: Given widespread agreement about the importance of evidence-based medicine, it is crucial to know the precision of the data in top medical journals. Such research has been performed in psychology with pessimistic findings; but not in medicine. Methods: 30 articles in each of three top medical journals (90 totals) were randomly selected from all articles featuring sample means, using between-participants analyses, and published in 2017. The journals were The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM), The Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), and The Lancet (L). Though not a criterion for selection, most of the articles included an Experiment 1 and an Experiment 2. Results: Article-wise sample means analyses indicate superior precision for medical journals relative to previously published findings from psychology journals (Md < .1 for all medical journals but Md > .2 for all psychology journals). However, NEJM outperformed JAMA and L for more focused experiment-wise analyses involving sample means in Experiment 1 (Md = .12, .17, and .20, respectively) and Experiment 2 (Md = .12, .17, and .21, respectively). Similar results occurred for differences between experimental and control group means (as opposed to the means themselves) in Experiment 1 (Md = .06, 21, and 23, respectively) and Experiment 2 (Md = .06, 21, and 27, respectively). Conclusion: Top medical journals perform well with respect to precision relative to top psychology journals. But there is room for improvement in medical journals too, particularly in JAMA and L.
32 Reconsidering Psychotherapy Training Programs: Recommendations for Producing More Skilled , Klostermann K*, Mignone T and Papagni E
The results of nearly four decades of psychotherapy outcome research do not support the emphasis on models and techniques in psychotherapy training programs. According to Wampold and Imel.
33 Are there any Pharmaceutical Agents Available for the Improvement of Female Sexual Dysfunction (FSD)? , Ana Dias-Amaral*, Diogo Barbosa, Berta Ramos, Vítor Covelo and Márcia Mota
Women may not follow a linear model of sexual response (as previously defined by Masters and Johnson). In fact, women seem to respond to sexual cues in a more complex way than men. In her circular model, Basson introduced a new concept of emotional intimacy and emphasized the influence of biopsychosocial factors in women’s sexuality
34 Paying Attention to What Works in Therapy: The Case for Feedback Informed Treatment , Klosterman K*, Papagni E and Mignone T3
It is critical that therapists identify when therapy is not working and collaborate with clients on how treatment should be modified, according to their preferences. One method for routinely monitoring outcomes involves the use of Feedback Informed Treatment. FIT is based on 2 primary findings: 1) Clients subjective experience of the therapist in treatment (i.e., view of the alliance) is one of the best predictors of outcome and 2) Clients experience of change early in treatment is a very good predictor of treatment outcome. FIT involves the use of two psychometrically sound and brief measures: 1) Outcome Rating Scale (ORS), and 2) Session Rating Scale (SRS). Implementing and practicing FIT is about more than just collecting feedback and may involve developing a closer relationship with research, statistics, and measurement. Paying Attention to What Works in Therapy: The Case for Feedback Informed Treatment.
35 Suicidal Behaviour in Complex Trauma Syndrome , Vito Z*
Suicide is a phenomenon which remains among the most tragic consequences of any mental disorder and the assessment of suicidal potential (suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, self-harm, etc.) should be of the highest clinical priority to treat. Identifying those individuals who are at a high risk for attempting suicide or self-harm expands the clinician’s reference in assessing and treating suicidal patients more seriously than any other mental health problem. Suicidality is not a diagnostic criterion for PTSD, however, in severe and complex cases of the psychological trauma this problem appears quite frequently. In this paper, we have elaborated suicidal behaviour of 36 trauma syndrome patients (complex PTSD) using psychometric instruments (BHS, CAPS, SCID) and clinical interview. Our results demonstrate a high incidence of suicidal behaviour in severely traumatised individuals.
36 The Effects of the World War I on the Development of the Modern Concept of Trauma , Sefa B*
The modern concept of trauma and posttraumatic stress diagnosis has evolved to a large degree from documentations of soldiers’ pre-and-post war experiences, and observations. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of the first Word War on the development of the concept posttraumatic stress disorder at the turn of the century. Even though soldiers’ war histories and stories were popular in previous wars, the moving point for understanding and classification of traumatic stress gained more importance and systematic investigation after WW-I. Due to the large number of drafted soldiers, and veterans and the death count, WW-I had a great impact on a large number of soldiers, their families, and the society as a whole. During the First World War attention was focused for the first time on the illness known as “shell shock” or “traumatic neurosis.” Due to military needs and compensation reasons, treatment options were searched for in many parts of the world. Traumatic experience was named “shell shock” and was thought to be a neurological disorder caused by explosive bombing
37 Gender Dysphoria in a Mother and Son: A Report of Two Cases Referred to Legal Medicine Office of Iran , Nowroozi A, Borji E and Saberi SM2
Two cases of gender dysphoria are presented in this article, a mother and her son who had requested legal permission for sex reassignment surgery. The cases were a 16-year-old boy and her 38-year-old biological mother who were referred to the department of forensic psychiatry in Legal Medicine Organization of Iran. They were referred to special clinics for psychiatric evaluations and finally the diagnosis “gender dysphoria” was confirmed. They were not met any criteria for other mental disorders and had not any physical abnormality. Their sex chromosomes were consistent with their physical identities. The results support the possibility of familial aggregation or a shared state of gender identity problems because of a pathologic impressibility and imitation and/or a genetic predisposition of gender dysphoria.
38 Emotional Intelligence and Stability in the Corona Pandemic , Abdel-Fattah HMM*
Two cases of gender dysphoria are presented in this article, a mother and her son who had requested legal permission for sex reassignment surgery. The cases were a 16-year-old boy and her 38-year-old biological mother who were referred to the department of forensic psychiatry in Legal Medicine Organization of Iran. They were referred to special clinics for psychiatric evaluations and finally the diagnosis “gender dysphoria” was confirmed. They were not met any criteria for other mental disorders and had not any physical abnormality. Their sex chromosomes were consistent with their physical identities. The results support the possibility of familial aggregation or a shared state of gender identity problems because of a pathologic impressibility and imitation and/or a genetic predisposition of gender dysphoria.
39 Illegal Immigrant Parenting and Character Formation , Peter A Olsson*
During the presidential political campaigns a frequent question posed is, “What will we do with millions of illegal immigrants already in America?” The above is the wrong question
40 A Systematic Review of Dynamic Forces as Regards Mask NonAdherence in Healthcare and Community Settings , Shafti SS*
Although vaccination is the first-line strategy controlling and preventing SARS-CoV-2, personal protective measures, such as wearing facemasks, are also important preventive behaviors to reduce the risk of becoming infected with viral infections during a pandemic. While medication non-compliance is a common issue for clinicians, non-compliance with shielding measures, like wearing facemasks, for prevention of infection in healthcare and community settings is rather a new problem. On the other hand, while medication non-adherence has more an individual characteristic, non-compliance with protective methods for prevention of contamination has more a social feature. In this regard, though, maybe, neither of existing shielding measures nor the proposed strategies may promise a complete protection against the biotic dangers, certainly acting in accordance with the safety methods will increase the popular protection and health. But, why some of the people avoid shielding exercises and what is wrong with the reasonableness and awareness that is expected to be revealed by all citizens? How the morbid cycle of spreading of communicable diseases can be obstructed or weakened when the masses do not have faith in favorable recommendations that are issued by the most authentic universal administrations, like World Health Organization, or the reliable and answerable native health executives. In the present article, after reviewing the background of non-compliance in medicine, and chronology of wearing facemasks for prevention of infection in community settings, the route of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19), and evidential analysis of community masking has been talked over. In addition, after appraisal of plausible interconnected psychodynamic and/or psychopathologic factors, the problem solving strategies, like increasing awareness through education and feedback, and necessity of collaboration between health care practitioners and people, has been stressed. While the promotion of compliance must be the responsibility of both the health care professional and the populace, right interventions for targeting public misunderstandings about recommended shielding maneuvers can reduce preventable infection rates during pandemic, and no longer must the people be viewed as the only guilty party
41 Mental Health Peer Career Pathways and Impact: The Results of Lived Experience on Recovery , Harrison J*, Lange AI, and Chapleau A
Peer support professionals bring lived experience to the recovery process, have training and certification as professionals, and are increasingly integrated disciplines in mental health and substance use services. Outcomes for clients of peer services include decreased hospitalization, decreased substance use, improved housing stability, and improved engagement in treatment. The scope of peer support work, particularly in providing services for individuals with mental health and substance use, or cooccurring needs, is still evolving. While the outcomes for individuals served are compelling, less is understood of the effect of peer services on non-peer colleagues and the peer professionals themselves. A qualitative narrative interview analysis was performed with 15 peer support professionals providing co-occurring services as either part of an interprofessional team or as part of peer-run services. Six content categories were identified, with most common content areas being the sense of relatability, experience with the system of care, individual and societal impact, and impact on one’s own recovery. Insights into policies and career pathways for peers over the last five years were noted. Implications for policy and practice in the coming years to grow peer services are discussed.
42 Internet Addiction of Adolescent and Treatment: Mini Review , Priyono D*, Putri TH and Fradianto I
Internet Addiction is a new addiction and it is a mental health problem current issue that could be recommended into DSM-V. There are some dimensions of physical, psychological, and emotional disturbances that arise due to internet addiction. Excessive use, withdrawal effect, tolerance, negative repercussions. Based on literature research, internet addiction on adolescents has become the main research topic in various countries. There are several more approaches that could be applied Non-psychological, Psychological Approaches: Motivational Interviewing (MI) Reality Therapy, Community Reinforcement and Family Training, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT).
43 A Decisive Account of Specific Forms of Psychosocial Privation as Cause of Schizophrenia , Saunders V*
Aim: To demonstrate that evidence of psychosocial privation as cause has already been available for decades through previously published data. To supplement published evidence with additional original data that ensures comprehensive and precise explanation of cause. Methods: Triangulation was used. Firstly, evidence was provided through analyzing government epidemiological schizophrenia rates for the UK and Canada. Published data from case studies was re-interpreted, in tandem with original data from community relationships as an example of normalcy. Such data was then compared with a precise recently published list of all human psychosocial need. Finally, original evidence from an analysis of further community based case studies was provided. Results: It was shown that cause is complex and multifactorial as set out in a figure. This has contributed to previous researchers not being able to determine cause with certainty. Through re-interpreting case studies data through contemporary information about human psychosocial needs, it was revealed that sufferers are not able to form appropriate schemas due to abnormal parental behaviours that prevent psychosocial environment comprehension and rule formation leading to conflict, confusion, and inability to mentally organize information. This also explains increased rates in migrants; it is due to different norms (schemas) between societies of origin and destination causing conflict and confusion. Conclusion: Parents have mental health problems leading to the intergenerational transmission of abnormal familial culture through learned deviant behaviour. Any such psychosocial privation is a form of child abuse. The role of the extended family can potentially be preventative. Schizophrenia is a psychosocial privation problem accounted for mostly through social science paradigms. Clinical Implications: Understanding cause has important ramifications for prevention and improving treatment
44 Perspective of the Family Caregiver in View of the Benefits of the Permanence of the Person with Advanced Chronic Illness at Home , Silva DR and Cerqueira M*
Background: The technological advances and the improvement of health care verified in the last decades, combined with the current economic and health policies allow and guide for the provision of care to move more and more from the hospital environment to the home, even when we are facing more advanced stages of the disease. In this context, the family appears as a key element in the care process, since it assumes and plays a major role in the maintenance and continuity of care at home. Objective: To analyze the perspective of the family caregiver in view of the benefits of staying with the person with advanced chronic illness at home. Methodology: Qualitative study, case study. For data collection, semi-structured interviews were carried out with ten family caregivers of people with advanced chronic illness, admitted to surgery units of a Local Health Unit in the metropolitan area of Porto and discharged to their homes. Content analysis was carried out according to the Bardin. The study respected the ethical-moral principles. Results: The family caregivers emphasize several benefits of the permanence of the person with advanced chronic illness at home, such as providing love, comfort and a accompanied end of life process. Conclusion: Caring for a family member with advanced chronic illness at home allows the provision of care in the comfort of home and in the company of those who are most loved, surrounded by gestures of love and affection, providing the best possible well-being and quality of life.
45 Long COVID-19 Syndrome Precaution and Management , Abdelfattah HM*
COVID-19 virus defined as illness caused by a novel coronavirus which first discovered in Wuhan City, China. And On January 30, 2020, the WHO awarded the global health emergency. This is a review of COVID-19’s highly affects on almost all the organs and how we precaution and management as the COVID-19 causes many systemic abnormalities like inflammation, endotheliitis, vasoconstriction, hypercoagulability, edema and Lymphocytopenia, with elevated D-dimer, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Deep vein thrombosis and venous, thrombosis with pulmonary embolization, systemic and pulmonary arterial thrombosis, embolism are reported, ischemic stroke changes, and myocardial infarction are reported also. it can lead to acute coronary syndrome, with heart failure and myocarditis, arrhythmias. Kidney affection was usually secondary to systemic allover disturbances. Stroke may occurred. Delirium and seizures symptoms are common. Impaired the tastes are reported with Psychological disturbances are commonly, Lactate dehydrogenase may be elevated. Many skin manifestations including patchy erythematous rash are noticeable, One of the biggest barriers standing in the way of ending the pandemic the misinformation about the COVID-19 vaccines. At this critical time the Demand for vaccines very effective as it rigorously tested and found to be safe, also Vaccines have no effect on recipients’ genetic material and not effect on fertilization also Antibodies from are estimated to last two to four months, so those who have had a previous infection still get this vaccinated.
46 Secondary Traumatic Stress and Resilience in Intensive Care Doctors and Nurses , Ceberio MR*, Jones GM, Benedicto G and Aizpurua RI
The Intensive Therapy Unit (ICU) is a hospital or clinic service that has certain peculiarities. Al- though, the work in the different specialties is covered with stress, the ICU is the place where the emotional impacts, the speed of the interventions, the severity of the pathologies, the complexity of the medical equipment and its domain, are some of the factors that generate greater stress. The present research explores through different instruments, explores vulnerability through the correlation between the impact of STSs and resilient actions that would simultaneously act as a buffer for the emotional shocks that appear in daily work in medical and nursing personnel. At the same time, it investigates the traumatic impact of children and the current one on ICU services.
47 Behavioral Couples Therapy for Substance Use Disorders: A Model for Implementation , Klostermann K*, Papagni E and Henninger MW
The important role of family in the development and maintenance of substance use disorders is now widely acknowledged by researchers and clinicians alike. Behavioral Couples Therapy for Substance Use Disorders (BCT-SUD) is an evidencebased treatment based on social learning theory which posits that couples in which a partner has a substance use disorder are characterized by a reciprocal pattern of unhealthy substance use and negative relationship dynamics that reinforce relationship dysfunction and problematic substance use. Despite BCT-SUD’s proven efficacy across several domains of functioning, it is not widely implemented into practice. Therefore, the challenge for BCT-SUD researchers and clinicians alike is to identify comprehensive and systemic models for implementation which are not only feasible, but sustainable. The purpose of this paper is to provide a possible model for implementing BCT-SUD in practice as well as identify common barriers to the implementation process.
48 Schools and Mental Health: How Schools Support Mental Health during Pandemic-Related Disruptions , Dana Lev*
This review addresses the emerging field which analyzes the social and emotional effects of COVID-19 related disruptions on children and adolescents. Educators and counselors, as positive influencers on a student population, have an outsized role in supporting the mental health and wellbeing of students. This review looks at school-based services which provide a platform for effective emotional and mental health support. Public health policymakers should include school systems and the support services they can provide as part of the national COVID-19 recovery plan. One specific group of students which faces particular mental health challenges is the international ‘nomad’ student population, popularly referred to as ‘Third Culture Kids’ (TCK). International schools who cater to the needs of this population must adopt an extensive integration plan for newcomers in light of the challenges presented by COVID-19 related disruptions.
49 The Good, the Bland and the Ugly-Further Analysis of Why the Yorubas Took the Pax Britannica Chloroform , Ayoade S*
Whereas it has been theorized that the Yoruba were colonized by the British because of their illiteracy [1] that does not give 100% of the picture. Shouldn’t their “native intelligence” and common sense have told the Yoruba pagans that in this world nothing goes for anything and that there had to be a catch for the British so readily playing peacemaker? And why didn’t the Yorubas ask for a stipulation of time limit for British colonial occupation? Apart from their illiteracy which the Yoruba intelligentsia capitalized upon to deceive the Yoruba illiterates two other factors explain why the 19th century Yoruba pagans took the pax Britannica chloroform so readily