1 Global Perspectives on Regulatory Measures and Collection Procedures for Electronic Waste: A Critical Assessment , Khanna R*, Park M, Cayumil R, Mishra SK and Mukherjee PS
Extensive usage, new designs, rapid upgrades and short life-spans of electronic devices has resulted in ever growing generation of electronic waste (e-waste) worldwide. Burgeoning volumes of e-waste are becoming a global issue of great concern with developing and poor economies rapidly catching up with developed nations. This article presents an overview of regulatory measures being developed and operated across Europe, Asia, Oceania, Americas and Africa. Developed economies are more likely to have e-waste regulations and enforceable management systems in place but are relatively inefficient in e-waste collection as compared to poor and developing nations. E-waste collection occurs through channels broadly described as formal and informal sectors. The formal collection occurs largely in developed economies often managed by waste management services operating within national or local e-waste regulations. Informal collection in Africa, China, India and other Asian countries encompasses a range of unregulated and unreported collection arrangements including door to door brokers between households and mid-level scrap dealers, dismantlers and repairers. The opportunities and challenges for the management of e-waste remain complex and vary depending on the local political, cultural and socio-economic waste management issues. With recycling rates still below 20%, these need to evolve further for environmentally and economically sustainable management of e-waste
2 Plastic Pollution: A Global Problem from a Local Perspective , Joystu Dutta* and Moharana Choudhury
Plastic is a necessary evil of current times. It is ubiquitous in modern time’s cape, from polythene bags for daily shopping to PVC pipes, from kitchenware to pet bottles; plastic and its associated derivatives lands up everywhere
3 Effect of Egg Shell Powder (ESP) on the Strength Properties of Cement-Stabilization on Olokoro Lateritic Soil , Maduabuchi MN* and Obikara FO
The effect of eggshell powder or ash on the strength properties of cement-stabilization on Olokoro lateritic soil was studied. The eggshell was mixed with the cement-stabilized soil in the proportions of 3%, 6%, 9%, 12% and 15% and the geotechnical behavior of the soil was carefully observed. The results of the study showed that the strength properties of the A-6 soil, according to its AASHTO classification, improved with the addition of eggshell ash. This also indicates that further addition of eggshell ash would thus; increase the strength properties of the stabilized soil further. However, eggshell ash has been established to be a good accelerator for cement-bound materials and this would be very vital for road construction work especially during the rainy seasons for minimizing the setting time of stabilized road pavements. The study also exposes the engineering value of this agricultural material which probably causes disposal problems, leading to environmental pollution.
4 Agricultural Waste Materials as a Potential Adsorbent for Removal of Heavy Metals in Waste Water , Maduabuchi MN*
The world has suffered a major threat in recent years as a result of discharge of heavy metals into the environment due to industrial development and suburbanization. Adsorptions of these aforementioned metals were studied by Atomic Adsorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) and it showed that adsorption was extreme at the 100th minute. These elements pollute the water resources, contaminate of the food chain and pose a menace to the ecosystem, leading to pure water shortage. There are countless technical approaches adopted in the elimination of these metals from waste water. They include adsorption, precipitation, ion exchange, reverse osmosis, electrochemical treatments, membrane filtration, evaporation, flotation, and oxidation and bio sorption processes, but most of these techniques have detriments such as inadequate metal elimination, great reagent and energy necessities and generation of toxic sludge or other waste products. As a substitute for using commercial constituents, the research used agricultural wastes (banana peels and peanut shells) as adsorbent. The results showed that banana peels and peanut shells can be used for the removal of heavy metals with a concentration range of 10-50 mg/100cm3. Also, when the contact time was 100 minutes it showed maximum adsorption of lead and manganese for both adsorbents. It was found that the percentage removal of heavy metals was dependent on the adsorbent and adsorbent concentration.
5 Assessment of WASH & HealthCare Waste Management in a District Hospital: A Case Study of Bangladesh , Yousuf TB* and Mahmud SG
WASH and Waste management are essential part of the hospital management system with regard to healthy environment and infection control as a preventive measure from spreading diseases. Now-a-days the healthcare waste facilities are giving more emphasis on curative part of treatment rather than the preventative. A significant amount of resources are spent for patients infected with parasitic diseases caused by poor WASH and Waste Management practices. Study shows infected with diseases account for 50 percent of the in-patient bed occupancy, 33 percent of out-patient consultation adding an extra burden to hospital services that are often already overstretched. Providing access to sufficient quantities of safe water, the adequate and sound sanitation facility, proper health-care waste management system and introducing sound hygiene behavioral communication system can reduce the burden of disease transmission. The Essentials of WHO guideline of Environmental Health for infection control and management in the health-care settings and Medical Waste Management Rules 2008 of Government of Bangladesh has been taken as reference to carry out the assessment of WASH and Healthcare Waste Management situation in a District Hospital. It is found from the assessment that both the WASH and Hospital Waste Management situation are not conforming to the standards stated in WHO guideline of Environmental Health and Medical Waste Management Rules of Government of Bangladesh.
6 Is the Salvation of Life on the Planet? , Halidullin O*
Before the advent of modern industry, nature had tangible additions in the composition of atmospheric water vapor - natural evaporation from transpiration of plant and natural emissions, in particular, from the respiration of creatures, animal worlds
7 Understanding the Concept of Sustainable Development for Effective Solid Waste Management: Malaysia Perspective , Abas MA*
Malaysia’s economy has experience a change of dependence on the agricultural sector to the industrial sector. This rapid economic change has been supported by the phenomenon of globalization. As a result, the culture and lifestyle of Malaysian has been inclined towards consumerism. This unsustainable lifestyle has led to drastic increase of solid waste generated annually. Immersion the concept of sustainable development in solid waste management is an initiative and effective approach in addressing solid waste generated problem. Accordingly this paper discusses theintegration of solid waste management with the concept of sustainable development is scrutinized to exemplify the features and components that essential in effective solid waste management. Besides that, the concept of Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM) is explored to acquaint the concept of effective solid waste management. Comprehendingthe concepts and eachcomponent related to sustainable development and solid waste management could be an insight towards effective solid waste management in developing countries.
8 Assessment of Contaminated Soil with Some Heavy Metals in Selected Auto Repair Shops in Katsina North Western, Nigeria , Rabe JM*, Agbaji EB, Zakka Y, Muhammed HM and Rabe AM
Anthropogenic activities of humans lead to heavy metals toxicity into the soils. Auto mechanic workshops are one of the major sources of increase in heavy metal concentration in soils in Katsina North western Nigeria. Katsina is located on latitude 12o59’N and longitude 7o36’E and it’s the capital city of Katsina state Nigeria. Five selected auto repair shops which include; Garejin Tsohuwar Tasha (TT), Albarkar Motors-Garage (AM), Garejin Abdulhadi (GA), Garejin Bebeji (GB) and Garejin KofarDurbi (GK) were considered for this study. Heavy metals in the soil samples at 0-15cm and 15-30cm depths were subjected to sequential extraction to ascertain the bioavailability of the metals in the soils. The percentage bioavailability of metals in the experimental sites at 0-15cm were; (GB- Cd-23.08%, Pb-38.48%, Cu-33.49%, Zn-44.15%, Cr-23.1%), (GK-Cd-57.38%, Pb 65.49%, Cu-71.59%, Zn-41.75%, Cr-57.02%), (TT-Cd 28.30%, Pb 31.70%, Cu26.93%, Zn-64.47%, Cr-27.24%), (AM-Cd 36.59%, Pb-47.67%, Cu-25.45%, Zn-54.26%, Cr-21.39%), (GA-Cd 58.43%,Pb 24.00%, Cu-12.17%, Zn-67.13% Cr-18.02%), while the percentage bioavailability at 15-30cm depth were (GB- Cd 10.53%, Pb 23.96%, Cu-76.51%, Zn-26.53%, Cr 52.23%), (GKi - Cd 44.44%, Pb 23.19%, Cu 5.54% ,Zn 25.35%,Cr-59.80%), (TT-Cd 80.0%, Pb 34.97%, Cu31.79%, Zn 5.19%, Cr 50.24%),(AM-Cd 26.67%, Pb 39.74%, Cu 13.88%, Zn 2.45%, Cr 25.90%) and (GA-Cd 81.82%, Pb 88.69%, Cu-25.00%, Zn 5.23%, Cr 17.52%). The high level of concentration of the heavy metals in the soils from the five experimental sites were slightly higher than from the control sites and higher than the recommended limits given by European Commission and World Health Organization.
9 Evaluation of Air Stripping Process for Ammonia Removal from Landfill Leachate , Leite VD*, Oliveira EGD, Costa EFM, Dantas GD and Araujo ECOD
Of the amount of urban solid waste collected in Brazil, 58.4% (percentage by weight) had an adequate destination, while 41.6% were sent to landfills or controlled landfills. The leachate is one of the main by - products derived from the landfill process of municipal solid waste in landfills and presents qualitative/ quantitative characteristics with significant polluting potential, since it has a high concentration of recalcitrant organic material, a high concentration of ammoniacal nitrogen, a significant concentration of certain heavy metals and xenobiotic organic and inorganic compounds. The air stripping process of ammoniacal nitrogen presents as a viable alternative for reducing the concentration of ammoniacal nitrogen from landfill leachate, in order to facilitate the transfer of mass from the liquid phase to the gaseous phase. The objective of the application of the ammonia air stripping process in landfill leachate is to reduce the concentration of ammoniacal nitrogen to desired levels in systems optimized for operational parameters, especially pH. The experimental tests were performed on Jar Test apparatus, and two pH levels were studied. The application of the air stripping process to reduce the concentration of ammoniacal nitrogen in the landfill leachate showed removal efficiency of 87.0% in experiment 1 and 97.0% in experiment 2, for a time of operation the reactors of 4.1 day.
10 Review on E-Waste Management and Recycling , Santhosh G*, Sharma S and Nayaka GP*
Electronic waste or e-waste is one of the quickly developing Problems of the world. E- Waste includes a huge number of parts, some containing toxic substances that can adversely affect human wellbeing and the earth, if not handled appropriately. In India, E-Waste management accepts more noteworthy criticalness not only due to the generation of its own E-Waste yet in addition on account of the dumping of E- Waste from developed nations. This is combined with India's absence of proper framework and techniques for its disposal and recycling. This review article gives a compact overview of India's present E- Waste situation, specifically magnitude of the ecological issue and wellbeing hazards, current disposal and recycling tasks.
11 Preparation and Characterization of Water-soluble Acrylic Pressure Sensitive Adhesive , Juhyeon L and Jaehee L*
In order to evaluate the adhesion performance, tack, peel strength, shear strength, and water solubility of pressuresensitive adhesive (PSA), we prepared PSA copolymers using 2-ethyl hexyl acrylate (2-EHA), butyl acrylate (BA) and acrylic acid (AA) with varying AA contents through solution polymerization in methanol. After preparing the PSAs, we neutralized the AA in the PSAs with potassium hydroxide (KOH). Polypropylene glycol (PPG) was blended with the PSAs as a surfactant before testing adhesion performance and water solubility. Tack was characterized by probe tack testing, shear strength was evaluated with these hear adhesion failure temperature (SAFT) method, and peel strength was measured by 180° peel testing. The water solubility test was performed by comparing weight of before immersing the PSA blends in distilled water and after removing the PSAs blends from water. Water solubility was increased along within creased AA and PPG contents in the PSA blends.
12 Phytoplankton in Polishing Ponds in the Post Treatment of Anaerobic Reactor Effluent , Albuquerque MVC*, Pontes TG, Silva MCCP, Leite VD3, Ceballos BSO, Sousa JT and Lopes WS
Considering the variable a indicative of the trophic state of aquatic environments and a useful tool in the evaluation of the impact of organic and inorganic contaminants, this work aimed to verify the occurrence and frequency of the phytoplankton community in continuous and semi-continuousflow polishing lagoons used in post-treatment of effluents from anaerobic reactors. The research was carried out at the Experimental Station of Biological Treatment of Sanitary Sewers (EXTRABES). The system consisted of an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB), an equalization tank and the transshipment pond responsible for feeding the four ponds. There were identified twenty-five taxa distribuited in five taxonomic classes: cyanobacteria (7 taxa), Chlorophyceae (5 taxa), Bacillariophyceae (4 taxa), Euglenophyceae (2 taxa) and Zygnemaphyceae (2 taxa). The predominance of Chlorophyceae was observed, which was constant in the four lagoons of the system, followed by Cyanobacteria, Euglenophyceae, Bacillariophyceae and Zignemaphyceae. Based on the composition of the species of cyanobacteria that were found, they present histories in the production of metabolites and are described in the literature as the producers of toxins harmful to humans and to the environment.
13 Tourism and Municipal Solid Waste Management in Developing Economies: Challenges and Opportunities , Manomaivibool P* and Noithammaraj P
Tourism is a driving force for an increase in municipal solid waste (MSW) in developing countries. An average tourist may generate more MSW than a local resident and the tourist destinations are often located in remote areas deprived of proper infrastructure and services for the management of MSW. This combination can lead to a vicious cycle of tourism that destroys natural environment and host communities. However, there are sustainability standards and good practices that will maximize benefits of tourism while minimize negative impacts. This paper uses Thailand as a case study for both challenges and opportunities tourism offers to MSW management. In addition, the revenues from tourism can be channeled for the improvements of the hard and soft infrastructures and the services in a systematical way.
14 Assessment of Contaminated Soil with Some Heavy Metals in Selected Auto Repair Shops in Katsina North Western, Nigeria , Rabe JM*, Agbaji EB, Zakka Y, Muhammed HM and Rabe AM
Anthropogenic activities of humans lead to heavy metals toxicity into the soils. Auto mechanic workshops are one of the major sources of increase in heavy metal concentration in soils in Katsina North western Nigeria. Katsina is located on latitude 12o59’N and longitude 7o36’E and it’s the capital city of Katsina state Nigeria. Five selected auto repair shops which include; Garejin Tsohuwar Tasha (TT), Albarkar Motors-Garage (AM), Garejin Abdulhadi (GA), Garejin Bebeji (GB) and Garejin KofarDurbi (GK) were considered for this study. Heavy metals in the soil samples at 0-15cm and 15-30cm depths were subjected to sequential extraction to ascertain the bioavailability of the metals in the soils. The percentage bioavailability of metals in the experimental sites at 0-15cm were; (GB- Cd-23.08%, Pb-38.48%, Cu-33.49%, Zn-44.15%, Cr-23.1%), (GK-Cd-57.38%, Pb 65.49%, Cu-71.59%, Zn-41.75%, Cr-57.02%), (TT-Cd 28.30%, Pb 31.70%, Cu26.93%, Zn-64.47%, Cr-27.24%), (AM-Cd 36.59%, Pb-47.67%, Cu-25.45%, Zn-54.26%, Cr-21.39%), (GA-Cd 58.43%,Pb 24.00%, Cu-12.17%, Zn-67.13% Cr-18.02%), while the percentage bioavailability at 15-30cm depth were (GB- Cd 10.53%, Pb 23.96%, Cu-76.51%, Zn-26.53%, Cr 52.23%), (GKi - Cd 44.44%, Pb 23.19%, Cu 5.54% ,Zn 25.35%,Cr-59.80%), (TT-Cd 80.0%, Pb 34.97%, Cu31.79%, Zn 5.19%, Cr 50.24%),(AM-Cd 26.67%, Pb 39.74%, Cu 13.88%, Zn 2.45%, Cr 25.90%) and (GA-Cd 81.82%, Pb 88.69%, Cu-25.00%, Zn 5.23%, Cr 17.52%). The high level of concentration of the heavy metals in the soils from the five experimental sites were slightly higher than from the control sites and higher than the recommended limits given by European Commission and World Health Organization
15 Contribution of Dimensional Coordination to Construction Waste Reduction , Burcu Salgin*
The construction industry produces waste while consuming resources. To cope with the adverse effects of construction waste, attention should be focused on waste reduction opportunities. The consensus is that the architectural design decisions play an important role in construction waste minimisation. This means that any improvement in terms of architectural design decisions has the potential to enhance the construction industry’s performance with construction waste-reducing benefits. To this end, this study aims at presenting an approach in construction waste optimization through dimensional coordination at the architectural design stage. To achieve the objective of the study, a residential project was chosen as a case. Finding out the most dimensionally efficient product for the bathroom flooring in this project was aimed. When determining the ceramic tile, the main criterion was to find out the most compatible size of ceramic tile which directly affects the amount of waste produced. Some calculations were made and the results of which were compared. The results show that the waste rate can be reduced to a dramatically low level when the dimensionally coordinated product is chosen for the given space. This result proves that dimensional coordination between building product and building dimensions has an important effect on waste reduction.
16 Environmental Communication: Personal Media Communication and Waste Management , Federici R*
Waste is a subjective notion and creates one of the major challenges to public health, environment, and social justice. It seems crucial in this perspective to understand the importance of social capital as a necessary condition for sustainable community and can play a critical role in local community development initiatives. Collaboration for sustainable community development means that increasingly local community organizations, leaders and governments must form partnerships with other levels of government, with the private sector, and with civil society organizations is not an option but a necessity.
17 Mathematical Modeling to Evaluate and Select the Best Coagulant in Drinking Water Treatment, using Multi-Attribute Group Decision Making , Mohammadreza Jabehdari*, Leila Mosleh, Seyed Hossein Hashemi, and Mohammadreza Sadeghi Moghadam
Urbanization, population growth, and changing the social attitude toward water consumption has increased the drinking water demand. Coagulation is one of the essential processes in drinking water treatment plants in which the particles and microorganisms attached to those particles are settled down and removed. While there are different kinds of coagulants and coagulant aids are being used in drinking water treatment plants, it is always important to select the best available options considering important factors (criteria) such as efficiency, cost, and effect on health and environment. These three criteria are used to compare three alternatives including ferric chloride, poly aluminum chloride, and alum associated with corn starch as a coagulant aid. To find the best coagulant combination, we performed multi-attribute group decision making (MAGDM) using the conventional Cook and Seiford method. After mathematical modeling, Hungarian method was used to solve the problem. Then, the priority among the coagulants was determined based on defined criteria. The results of this article showed that ferric chloride and corn starch was ranked first among the alternatives. Poly aluminum chloride and alum with corn starch was ranked second and third respectively. The analysis and results presented in this article have significant implications for different operating strategies and material selection in water treatment plants.
18 Community-Based and Integrated Solid Waste Management: Experiences from Metro Manila’s Tondo District , Zortea M*, Bonis MD, Pupa F, Ripaldi G and Cucculelli F
An improper solid waste management system creates serious negative impacts both on the environment and on human health. This article analyses as case study the urban main reality of Philippines, Metro Manila, focusing specifically on Tondo District. According to the National Solid Waste Management Commission (NSWMC), in 2016, 40,000 tons of waste was produced daily in Philippines, of which 12,000 remained uncollected, and the country is considered the largest contributor of plastic in the ocean. The World Bank estimated that the production of waste would increase by 165%, doubling in 2025. These data show how the problem of solid waste management and collection in Philippines, especially in urban areas, requires immediate attention and solutions. In addition, in most cases, the waste management (WM) system organized by the Baranguays – the smallest administrative divisions in the country – is inadequate, and integrated by unofficial and in large part not legalized systems, which separate and sell waste to companies who recycle or reuse it. The research conducted in field analyses the waste chain in the Philippines, explaining how a more efficient Urban Solid Waste Management could produce a positive impact on people and on the environment. In Tondo District the presence of unofficial actors, such as cooperatives, under certain conditions could be a valuable supply chain that would reduce the amount of waste in streets and landfills, integrating the work of the most vulnerable groups, such as women and scavengers. The research main finding is that it would be necessary not only to implement LGUs (local government units, including provinces, independent cities, municipalities and Barangays) policies on solid waste management (SWM) but also to adopt a community-based approach in the official waste chain.
19 Water Purification by a Micelle-Clay Composite Alone and its Collaboration with other Technologies , Shlomo Nir*
Removal of chemicals and pathogenic microorganisms by filtration may provide safe drinking water, and decrease the risk from harmful disinfection by products. Micelle-clay complexes produced have a relatively large surface area, large hydrophobic fractions, and are positively charged to about half of the cation exchange capacity of the clay. Their material characteristics differ from those of organo-clays of the same composition, which are formed by adsorption of cations as monomers. Granulated micelle-clay composites (0.4 to 2mm) formed by the organic cation ODTMA (Octadecyltrimethylammonium), removed efficiently from water by filtration chemicals, such as herbicides, and dissolved organic matter, pharmaceuticals, perchlorate, and microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses and a parasite, such as crytosporidium. Bacteria removed included (a) Escherichia coli S-17; (b) total bacteria count (TBC); and (c) Cyanobacteria (Microcystis and Aphanizomenon). A model which considered convection, adsorption, and desorption simulated the filtration results and yielded predictions. The emphasis in this minireview is on collaboration of this technology with other procedures, which may enhance treated water quality and reduce the costs of treatment. Thus a new approach intends to utilize both filtration and biocidal/biostatic activity of free cations in removal of microorganisms from water. A two stage purification of greywater by a moving bed reactor followed by a micelle-clay filter yielded an order of magnitude increase in the capacity of the filter. Water purification by filtration followed by solar photocatalysis enabled removal of recalcitrant molecules and indicator bacteria from secondary treated wastewater, thus yielding high quality water for irrigation. Other examples are reduction of membrane fouling of UF membranes and a suggested reduction of fouling of RO membranes by a pretreatment by the micelle-clay filter, or its combination with granulated activated carbon filter.
20 Civil Engineering Education in the 21st Century , Ronie Navon*
21 Heavy Metal Contamination of Otofure Dumpsite Environment near Benin City Edo, Nigeria , Aiwekhoe KO, Biose E, Odiana S and Aighewi IT*
This study characterized some indices of heavy metals in the soils of Otofure waste dumpsite environment near Benin City, Edo State in Southern Nigeria, in order to ascertain the level of heavy metal contamination of one of the several sites receiving municipal solid wastes daily. Six samples were collected at the dumpsite (DS) and the adjoining upland positions (US). The samples were air-dried, crushed and sieved through a 2mm sieve and pre-treated using standard methods before determining the heavy metal concentrations in Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (Bulk Scientific 210 VGP) according to the method of the Association of Analytical Chemists. Various pollution indexes were computed using the analytical data obtained. The computed Enrichment factor (EF) showed that Mn. Fe, and cu had no enrichment at the top and subsurface of the dumpsite. However, there was a significant Zn enrichment and enrichment with Ni and V at the topsoil; and Extreme enrichment with Cr, Cd, and lead of the soil at the dumpsite. Also, the soil Contamination factor (CF) indicated a moderate contamination of iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and copper (Cu), Very High contamination of zinc (Zn), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni) and vanadium (V). Pollution Load Index (PLI) showed that Otofure dumpsite is heavily polluted (PLI > 1) by heavy metals in general. Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo) showed that soils of Otofure dumpsite were unpolluted to moderately polluted for manganese (Mn) and copper (Cu), heavily polluted for zinc (Zn), Heavily to Extremely polluted for chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and nickel (Ni), and Extremely polluted for chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and vanadium (V). The potential ecological risk index (PERI) showed slight pollution for manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu), a very strong pollution for chromium (Cr), and an extremely strong pollution for lead (Pb), nickel (Ni) and cadmium (Cd). The risk index (RI) for Otofure dumpsite indicated a very strong risk or level D pollution for the higher elevation around the Otofure dumpsite environment that could pose human health risks if crops from that environment is ingested. This result thus suggest the need for a gradual shift from surface municipal waste dumping of solid wastes to well-engineered and managed recycling/sanitary landfillin Edo State and Nigeria in order to prevent heavy metal pollution of lands and possibly groundwater where shallow aquifers exist.
22 Geoelectrical Assessment of Aquifer Potentials and its Vulnerability to Contaminant at El-Amin Proposed University Site, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria , Ahmed A, Alhassan DU, Shehu J*, Alkali A, Alabi OO and Mohammed A
Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) survey was carried out at EL-Amin proposed University site, Located along Eastern bye pass Minna, Niger State, Nigeria. It lies in the basement complex region of Northern Nigeria. The survey was carried out with the aim of determine the ground water potentials of the area and evaluate its aquifer protective capacity. The technique employed was the Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) using Schlumberger array. A total of 48 VES points were sounded on grid profiles separated by 100 m apart with VES spacing of 100 m. Three to four layers were observed. The Stratigraphy of subsurface shows: topsoil with resistivity range from 0.4 to 277.89 Ωm, Weathered/Fracture basement layer having resistivity vary between 31.0 and 982.89 Ωm and Fresh basement with resistivity range from 19.1 to 79935.239 Ωm. The Weathered/Fractured layer was considered as aquiferous horizon. The Longitudinal Conductance and resistivity Contour maps were produced. Thirteen VES points were delineated as groundwater potential with resistivity ranging from 45.5 Ωm to 611.77 Ωm, thickness ranging between 3.5 m and 13.07 m and depth ranging from 8.8 m to 24.43 m which represent about 18.75 percent of the area. The south, south-east and north-west portions of the area are underlain by materials of moderate to good protective capacity while the western and central part of the area with thin overburden coincided with weak to poor protective capacity which will expose the groundwater in the area to pollution.
23 A Short Review on Reverse Osmosis Membranes: Fouling and Control , Nida Maqbool*, Zubia Saleem and Yousuf Jamal
Reverse Osmosis (RO) is the process of separating dissolved salts from water with the help of semipermeable membranes. Membrane based solution are now widely accepted technology to combat safe drinking water shortage. Reverse osmosis has increasing market shares due to reduced cost and improvements in the process. This paper reviews the major issue of fouling that is faced during operation of RO and ways to regulate them. Fouling is categorized into many classes and the control is discussed respectively. It also discusses basics of RO, modular arrangements for RO membranes as well as multiple options for pretreatment which is a mandatory requirement of the process. Final discussion is the ways to consider while disposing of brine.
24 Improving Gas Permeability Measurements for Environmental Monitoring and Management , Lucchetti C, De Simone G, Tuccimei P*, Ricci T, Finizola A and Sciarra A
Intrinsic permeability is a crucial parameter to interpret soil gas data recorded from monitoring stations in different environmental settings. It is also fundamental for environmental management and pollution remediation. An improved version of a permeameter (PRM3) recently developed for environmental applications is presented and calibrated against a reference instrument (RADON-JOK produced by RADON v.o.s.). The innovations of this prototype are: i) the absence of the flow meter, and ii) a membrane pump in place of a rotary vane device. Proper calculation of the permeability from Darcy’s law is provided, as well as a modified formula for permeability determination in volcanic areas. Actually, soil gas viscosity and permeability are affected by changing gas temperature and composition. The effects of these two parameters on soil gas viscosity and permeability are also displayed. The second part of the paper shows the employ of permeability measurements in environmental monitoring. The aim of these field-works was the study of lateral and vertical variability of soil permeability at a very small scale (step of 0.25 m) and the effect of intrinsic permeability on gas transport through the soil and on gas concentration along depth profiles. We chose 2 different test sites: Valle della Caffarella (Roma, Italy) and Solfatara Volcano (Pozzuoli, Italy) areas. A specific protocol, designed to check any interference among permeability measurements carried out at very close distances demonstrated that no disturbance is occurring. Intrinsic permeability profiles resulted to be good proxy indicators for the degassing style of the two areas. In both cases, it gave important hints to interpret environmental data and help in the management of the sites.
25 Quality Management, Production Process, Innovation and Productivity , Sellero PS*
This paper aims to analyse quality management systems, production process, innovation and productivity of manufacturing firms. In order to obtain that, we have taken into account aspects such as product standardization, the use of quality management systems, the complexity of the production system and some considerations on technological innovation
26 Assessment of Steel Slag as a Persulfate Activator for Treatment of Landfill Leachate , Soubh AM*
In this research, the performance of steel slag (SS) as an activator of persulfate (PS) for the removal the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of raw leachate landfill was studied. The experiments were conducted in a batch reactor. The SS was obtained from the Esfahan Steel Company, Iran. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis were used to investigate the characteristics of the SS. The effects of SS dosage (0-5 g L-1), PS/COD ratio (1-5), and reaction time (0-180 min) on the removal of leachate landfill. The Maximum removal efficiencies at optimize operational conditions (SS dosage 3 g L-1, PS/COD ratio: 3 and reaction time: 45 min) was 83%. The addition of SS (3 g L-1) led to more than six and a halftimes increase in degradation rate constants of COD.
27 Advanced Techniques for Wastewater Treatment: A Review , Kunal, Rajput S and Yadav S*
Freshwater in lake and pond are often found to be polluted by heavy metals such as As, Zn, or Pb which are toxic in nature and non-biodegradable. Heavy metals are readily consumed by both aquatic flora and fauna present in the freshwater environment. It also polluted the air, water, and soil. Thus, they have adverse impact on the entire ecosystem. These heavy metals also enter the human systems through food consumed. This review discusses the methods and their mechanism used to reduce the amount of such heavy metals The methods which are in practice are Electrochemical Treatment (Electrocoagulation, Electro-Floatation, and Electro-Deposition), Physicochemical Process (Chemical Precipitation, Ion-Exchange, and Adsorption), Membrane Filtration (Nanofiltration, Reverse Osmosis, Microfiltration, Ultrafiltration, and Electro-Dialysis),and Photo-Catalysis and Nanotechnology Treatment.
28 Comprehensive Model to Predict the Yield of the Pyrolysis Products of Kraft Lignin Based on Lumped Approach , Sherif Elshokary,*, Sherif Farag and Bitu Hurisso
This work presents a comprehensive model based on the lumping approach to quantitively predict the products of the pyrolysis of kraft lignin. The yield of the primary pyrolysis products-biochar, bio-oil, and biogas-that are produced from the thermal decomposition of the lignin network are estimated. Different pyrolysis conditions and raw material characteristics are considered. The impacts of the particle size of the raw material, pyrolysis heating rate, and reaction residence time are taken into the investigation. The comparison of the predicted results using the developed model against the experimental data showed the high capability of the presented models to predict the biochar, bio-oil, and biogas yield under the examined conditions.
29 New Approaches in Drinking Water and Wastewater Treatment Coagulation System: A Mini-Review , Cheshmekhezr S* and Babaei L
Turbidity and natural organic matters (NOMs) cause change in odor, color, and taste of drinking water as well as increasing the concern of bacterial growth in water and wastewater. This article aims to review the coagulation process and to introduce the potential approaches that can help the water and wastewater authorities to come up with the best coagulant selection. The coagulation is a physicochemical process that is used in the conventional treatment process to reduce turbidity, suspended particles, and NOMs. Aluminum sulfate (alum) and ferric chloride are the most common coagulants that are used as chemical coagulants. However, there are some health concerns associated with the residual sludge and extra dose of chemical coagulants in treated water and wastewater such as increasing risk of Alzheimer and cancer. Natural Coagulants could be an alternative to reduce the dose of chemical coagulants and residual sludge and consequently reducing the health risks. Natural coagulants are effective in reducing particles, alongside the chemical coagulants or as a stand-alone process. The multidimensional nature of choosing the best process in water and wastewater treatment makes it difficult to select the best coagulant with the minimum health risk. Therefore, we need a systematic framework for modeling the coagulation process and selecting cost-efficient coagulant(s) to reduce health risk. Mathematical modeling and health risk assessment are two of the approaches that can be used to select the optimum range and track the residual and found to be helpful for the health risk reduction.
30 Recycling Potential for Waste Electric Vehicle Lithium-ion Batteries in China , Wang T, Song D, Li G, Huang J, Zhu H and He W*
The number of waste EV LIBs (electric vehicle lithium-ion batteries) has been increasing in China. Reasonable disposal of waste EV LIBs has becoming a new research hotspot. In this paper, the current status of the generation of waste EV LIBs of China is analyzed, and the treatment strategy and recycling market potential of waste EV LIBs are introduced. And some recommendations were given for the existing problems in the waste EV LIBs recycling market.
31 Ethiopian Hides and Skin Defects and Quality Status: An Assessment at Wet Blue Stage , Teklay A* , Gebeyehu G, Getachew T, Yayneshet T and Sastry TP
Hides and skins are important byproducts of livestock playing significant role in the Ethiopian economy. However, the potential of the sector is not adequately exploited due to factors limiting quality of the products. The objective of this study was therefore to identify the major defects of hide and skins and assess their impact on quality. The study was conducted in eight purposely selected tanneries in and around Addis Ababa. Overall, 648 hides, 648 sheepskins and 324 goatskins were assessed at wet-blue stage for defects and quality grading. Defects were categorized into pre-slaughter, peri-slaughter and post-slaughter problems. The findings showed 13 different types of defects; the major ones being cockle (28.4-60%), scratch (31-40.74%), scar (9.72-17.9%), flaying defect (35.2-69.44%) and putrefaction (20.2- 25.31%). No single hide or skin was found free of defects. Irrespective of the type and number of defects observed, no skin or hide was found to fall in grades 1 and 2 whereas grades 3 and 4 accounted for only 0.31-2.47%. On the other hand, majority of the hides and skins were grouped in either low grade (5 and 6) or reject categories. Similarly, out of the total sample examined, pre-, peri- and post-slaughter defects accounted for 70-87%, 36.7-75.3% and 27.2-32.9% respectively. When data were filtered for each defect category to show the impact of each on quality, pre- and postslaughter defects caused maximum loss of quality in cattle hide and sheepskins whereas peri- and post-slaughter defects were responsible for higher loss of quality in goatskins. Similarly, highest rate of rejection was caused by postslaughter problem in cattle hide (66.7%) and goatskins (67%). About 66-73% and 17-18% of hides and skins weredowngraded to low grade and reject categories by cockle problem alone. Whereas scratch was responsible for 45-82% of the products earning low grades. Similarly, flaying defect only has resulted in 22-24% of hides and sheepskins being rejected while deteriorating majority of goatskins to low grade category. Putrefaction, although prevalent in lower proportion, has the capacity to cause major rejection mainly in cattle hides and goatskins compared to sheepskin. In conclusion, in the presence of other major pre-slaughter problems and slaughtering defects, ectoparasite control alone may not significantly improve the quality of both hides and skins. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that hide and skin quality improvement programs should include strategies that can alleviate all major problems from supply side (preslaughter to post-slaughter) stages.
32 Waste Desalination Streams, Pre-Salt and Energy Genesis, Replenishing Oil, Gas Salt Diapirs in “Salt Mirror Petroleum Formations" - 40 Years in Retrospect, and Ancient Qanat Karez Mineral Salt Leaching Technology , David Bloch*
The Geology Of “Salt Mirrors” as the Responsible Hydraulic Mechanisms Enabling the Disappearance of Heavy Saline Waste Fluids, and Other Waste Toxic Sediments into Deep Land and Ocean Aquifers. A hydraulic mechanism which dissolves salt to form so-called “salt mirrors” results in exceptionally flat geological expanses of wetland, for example, suitable for solar evaporation pans. Whether initially in the form of evaporates, eutectic deposits, domes or other rock salt diapirs, the mechanism is proposed to be responsible for transporting most waste organic and inorganic debris into very deep aquifers in the water table: Specifically the interface of fresh water and heavy saturated brines in the water table initiates powerful horizontal and vertical liquid streams which are capable of collecting most sediment waste material and concentrating it into heavy gradient saline pools. Based on observations made in 1953 and presented to the 4th Salt Symposium Ohio USA by M.R.Bloch, it is also proposed that this mechanism is responsible for the slurry concentrating function of huge quantities of decomposed biodiversity waste and transporting it to such subterranean reservoirs where it subsequently is transformed into crude petroleum. Historically this mechanism became nature's process of recycling waste to very great depths in the Earth's aquifers. It could also become the obvious destination for toxic RO reject brine. During mankind’s short industrial timeline, raw chemical and even nuclear waste has been added to the equation and it is estimated that as this very deep interface of water and saturated brine rises together with the water table, and that it may percolate up through these same aquifers. This will be particularly true in the event that the water table raises due to predicted increased eustatic sea levels. Salt-driven wetlands and other historical saline concentrations and salt deposits are an integral part of the process in this mechanism and therefore careful control of these saline streams at their point of evolution must become a priority to sustaining such wetland sub oceanic ecosystems.
33 Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution of Surface Soils from Scrapyards in Benin City, Nigeria , Eghomwanre AF*, Nwosisi MC and Osarenotor O
Scrap metals found in scrapyards accounts for a large proportion of municipal solid waste in Nigeria. They are a menace to the environment and pose potential health risk to nearby residents. This study assessed the physicochemical quality and heavy metal contamination of surface soils from selected scrapyards in Benin City, Nigeria. Surface soils were collected from 12 randomly selected scrapyards between February and April 2018. Physicochemical analyses were carried out using standard analytical methods, while heavy metal (Fe, Cd, Zn, Cr, and Pb) concentrations were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The physicochemical indicators showed values which ranged from 6.17 ± 1.17 to 7.81 ± 0.88, 335.00 ± 60.62 to 2467.33 ± 1708.95μS/cm and 2.18 ± 0.39 to 44.27 ± 17.72 mg/kg for pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and nitrate (NO3) respectively. The texture of the scrapyard soils was predominantly sand. The concentrations of the heavy metals in the scrapyard sites were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the control site. A strong positive correlation existed among the studied metals. The concentrations of heavy metals were above the WHO/FAO critical level of 100 mg/kg except for Cr and Cd. Contamination indexes of the scrapyard soils showed that the soils samples from all the locations were highly contaminated with heavy metals. There is urgent need for evacuation of the scrap metal wastes from the scrapyards and enactment of appropriate legislations which prohibits the use of land in residential areas as scrapyards in the city to prevent likely health hazards.
34 Thermal Assessment of a New Bio-Based Insulation Material , Khoukhi M*, Hassan A, Darsaleh A and Abdelbaqi A
In recent times, the building sector is moving towards new approaches to energy-efficient design "low energy consumption". The development of bio-based thermal insulation materials contributes to such approaches; their implementation in the building gives a good result in a reduction of energy demand. Moreover, another beneficial environmental portion such as the reduction in the depletion of non-renewable resources and in waste generation. Using thermal insulation in the building envelope can substantially reduce the building's thermal load and consequently its energy consumption. Thermal insulation is organic or inorganic material, manufactured to reduce the propagation of the heat by a combined heat transfer (i.e., conduction, convection, and radiation). More advanced insulation materials have been recently developed. However, most of the available insulations are not eco-friendly and may require a huge amount of energy and complex manufacturing processes to be produced. Some commercialized bio-based thermal insulation materials are currently available, such as industrial fibers hemp, flax, kenaf. Also, recently some researches are conducted to develop thermal food-crop by-product insulation from palm date, pin apple leaves and rice husk. However, production cost and lower thermal resistance are the main correlated issues. A new cheap bio-insulation material with huge commercialization potential and environmental footprint is proposed. The main idea of running a project is to develop a new material, which is environmentally friendly insulation from grain. The early experiments of the insulation product showed a similar or even better thermal performance that could compete with common insulation materials such as polystyrene.
35 Waste as a Metaphor: Contextualism of a Human and Social Risks. Toward a Sociology of Wastes , Federici R*
The complex frame of interpretation that arises from waste production as a cultural problem is here observed as a social fact and as a metaphor. Waste constitutes a real world, complex and symmetrical to that of consumptions: a world which, behind the mirror in which the consumer civilization loves to reflects and become aware of it, gives us back the truest nature of the risks that populate our daily lives.
36 Recycling of Electric and Electronic Wastes Nowadays , Menad N*
37 Identification of the Problems Induced by the Informal Districts of the Commune of Ziguinchor (Senegal) and Analysis of their Social and Environmental Impacts , Samba GJ, Idrissa C* and Alain T
Ziguinchor, like the rest of African cities, has experienced rapid urbanization in this last years, determined by a strong demographic increase which is out of step with the urban planning capacities of the public authorities. That creates an expansion of informal districts. The creation and development of these informal districts are left to their own devices by the authorities, who refuse to condone the illegal occupation of the lands. These letters must resort to individual practices to face the problems of basic infrastructure, sanitation ... However, these unsuitable practices are sometimes likely to provide lasting solutions to the problems posed. They neither ensure an improvement of living conditions, but damage the environment of these neighborhoods. This article, based on the literary review, qualitative and quantitative surveys and interviews, aims to highlight the interactions between the problems induced by the informal districts of Ziguinchor city and their social and environmental consequences. The results show that informal districts suffer from a lack of public lighting, drinking water supply and sanitation; second, they reveal that the discharge of wastewater on the ground (90%) and the method of burning (87%) are the main methods for treating solid and liquid waste; and finally, they attest that physical and land insecurity, esthetic and olfactory nuisances as well as pollution of the groundwater are the impacts with which the populations of the informal districts are confronted.
38 Comparative Analysis of Alkali, Ash and Moisture Content of Some Agricultural Wastes , Ikezu UJM, Ugariogu SN*, Ikpa CBC, Ibe FC and Iwu VC
Comparative analysis of alkali, moisture and ash contents of some agricultural wastes which include palm bunch, plantain peel, banana leaf and maize cob were carried out to assess their usefulness in food, chemical and soap industries and as well as the possibility of reducing environmental pollution caused by them. Standard methods of analysis were used for all the parameters and the results revealed that all the wastes contain considerable amount of alkali in (g/l) as follows 0.05, 0.062, 0.016 and 0.03 and their molarity in mol/dm3 as 0.134, 0.09, 0.086 and 0.038 for Palm bunch, Plantain peel, Banana leaf and Maize cob respectively. The percentage ash content results were 2.91, 1.62, 2.02 and 1.12 while moisture content results were 53.77, 86.95, 79.05, and 38.54 respectively. The results suggested that some of the waste can be used for several beneficial purposes thereby reducing the harm and pollution they caused to the environment.
39 Moss, Lichens and Phytobenthos Bioindicators of Pollution , Nicoletta Guerrieri*, Laura Fantozzi, Arianna Orrù
The use of lichens, mosses and phytobenthos as biomonitors of air and water pollution by heavy metals is discussed on the basis of the literature and the author’s own experience. The usefulness of the available monitoring techniques is critically evaluated. Moss and lichens are considered very useful biodindicators especially for large-scale studies of heavy-metal deposition from the atmosphere. National and international organization standardized and shared monitoring protocols. We analysed the recent literature from 2019 to April 2020 and selected some significant case studies that contribute to an improvement of the analytical methods and to a development of new tools. A wide literature reports monitoring of air pollution with moss and lichens, both natural and transplanted. The use of transplanted moss as bioindicator of water pollution is less represented in the available literature. Phytobenthos represents a new frontier in the aquatic ecosystem monitoring and even if a standardized method has not yet been finalized, it represents a potential very useful biomonitor of metals, emergent pollutants and also microplastics in aquatic environment. New tools, new technologies are emerging from recent literature and the relationship between environment and human health starts to be studied from a different point of view.
40 Performance of Concrete Mixes Using Marble Waste and ISF Slag , Sudarshan D Kore *
A high volume of marble production generate a considerable amount of waste in the form of odd sizes of stones and slurry during the mining, processing and polishing stages that has a serious impact on the environment. Imperial Smelting Furnace (ISF) slag is a waste generated in the primary extraction of zinc by a pyro metallurgical process with a granular texture. The main goal of this study is utilization of marble mining waste as a partial replacement for conventional coarse aggregate and ISF slag as a partial replacement for sand in concrete mixes. The concrete mixes were designed by using particle packing density approach with a constant water/cement ratio 0.5. In this study the natural coarse aggregate was replaced by 75% marble aggregate and natural sand was replaced by 40% ISF slag by weight. The results of the study show that, the mechanical and durability properties of concrete mixes using these wastes did not have significant adverse impact on properties of concrete
41 Agricultural Waste Management System [AWMS] in Malaysian , Ali NEH*
42 Electricity Generation from Waste Tomatoes, Banana, Pineapple Fruits and Peels Using Single Chamber Microbial Fuel Cells (SMFC) , Kalagbor IA*, Azunda BI, Igwe BC and Akpan BJ
Green Chemistry is gaining prominence in environmental and technological processes. Generating electricity from agro wastes comprising of waste vegetables and fruits are new sources of clean energy. Scientists need to develop technological methods of converting these agro wastes to useful resources especially in developing countries. Fruit wastes are generated in large quantities globally from processing plants. Defective tomatoes rejected and damaged banana fruits as well as unusable pineapple fruits and peels constitute part of the agro waste biomass generated annually. Effective management of this biomass is still ongoing. This research focuses on the conversion of these agro wastes to bioelectricity (green energy) using single microbial fuel cells (SMFCs) technology. Fruits wastes of 5kg, 10kg, 15kg and 20k were used. Results showed that the higher the quantity of substrate, the higher the electricity produced. The maximum voltage outputs generated on day 1 were 4.2V, 3.1V and 3.0V from tomatoes, banana and pineapple (fruit and peel) wastes respectively. The values obtained for current readings were significantly proportional to the voltage readings. The physiochemical parameters; pH, Conductivity, BOD, COD and DO were consistent with those from similar studies. The conversion of tomatoes, banana and pineapple fruit waste to bioelectricity was achieved. Reduction of this biomass by biodegradation using the SMFC technology is one way of removing these agro wastes from the ecosystem to maintain a clean, healthy, pollution-free environment.
43 News Making, COVID 19 Pandemic: A Radical Analysis on Risk on Waste Management , Raffaele Federici*
The COVID 19 outbreak has triggered a global emergency. The corona virus crisis has led to a radical change in the space-time of everyday life. Workplaces and public spaces have been closed. The physical and social differentiation of the spaces of everyday life collapsed. Words such as lockdown, corona virus, personal protective equipment, isolation, physical distancing, spill over, zero patients, positive patient, intensive care, suppression, attenuation, have entered into the common language by configuring the language in a almost warlike terms. The logic of language always has some evidence and, in the current pandemic, the defence of human health seems to become a detailed conflict on the invasion of the virus, and in this specific semantic basin, every nuance seems to lose its meaning and everything becomes radical. In emergency times, waste management becomes, or rather, returns to be a serious and complex problem.