Application of Differential Equation in RL and RC Circuit Analysis by Classical Method
Chime C. C.
The paper deals with the analysis of RL and RC circuits by using linear ordinary differential equation of first order. Two circuits that consist of a single closed loop containing a resistor(R) and either a capacitor(C) or an inductor(L) connected to a power source ( or voltage source ) is analyzed. Applying Kirchhoff’s laws on voltage and current, a differential equation is formed. The general solution of the differential equation has two parts complementary function (CF) and particular integral (P.I) in which (CF) represents transient response and (P.I)represents steady response. The general solution of the differential equation represents the complete response of the network
Hypolipidemic and Anti-Ulcerative Effects of Cinnamomum Tamala (Nees.) (Bay Leaf) Extract on Hyperlipidemic and Indomethacin-Induced Gastric Ulcer in Male Wister Albino Rats.
Rita Oze,Gabriel Oze, Obijuru Tobias, Agomuo E. Emmanuel
Cinnamomumtamalaleaf (Bayleaf) is a naturalspice usually preferred because of its food flavor and perceived medicinal values. This study investigated the effectof aqueousbay leaf extract (BLE) on hyperlipidermiaand gastric ulceration using male Wister strain albino rats. Forty two male rats weighing 150-200g,were fed with high fat diet (HFD) for 10 days. Hyperlipidemia was established. The rats were divided into 7 groups of 6 rats each. Group 1 received normal saline (5ml/kg) to serve as negative control. Group 2 was fed with HFD for 10 days. Group 3 was treated with 10mg/kg indomethacin (Indo) to induce gastric ulcer. Group 4 was challenged with 10mg/kg simvastatinstandard. Group 5 received 30mg/kg indo with 100 mg/kg cimetidine standard. The hyperlipidemic and ulcerogenic groups 6 and 7 were treated with 200 ad 400 mg/kg BLE respectively. In a dose dependent manner, the BLE significantly attenuated (p<0.05) the serumconcentrations of TC, Tg, LDL-C, and VLDL-C; and significantly elevated (p<0.05) the serum level of HDL-C. Similarly, the BLE significantly inhibited the ulcer score by 66.85 and 81.14% respectively, compared with the standard cimethidine, (76.28%). It is concluded that BLE exhibited considerable hypolipidemic and anti-ulcerative potentials. These may justify its use in folkmedicine practice to manage hypertension and to treat gastric ulcer related cases. Thisinvestigation needs to be sustained to elucidate the scientific mechanism for the observed effects.
Determination of Carbondioxide and Methane Concentartions along Nworie River, Imo State, Nigeria
Verla Andrew Wirnkor, Anyanwu Ogechi and Verla Evelyn Ngozi C. C.
This study investigated the concentration of carbondioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), temperature and relative humidity on wetlands along Nworie River in Owerri.Data were collected from field survey of six sampling points on the wetlands using handheld AZ 77535 CO2analyzer and JCB4 gas analyzers. The results showed maximum mean concentration of 703.71 ppm at point A and minimum mean concentration of 676.27 ppm at point E for CO2; maximum mean concentration of 0.17 ppm and minimum of 0.16 ppm for CH4at 27.91 oC mean temperature and 88.37 % mean relative humidity. Thesignificant concentration of ambient CO2and CH4foundat the sampling point could result from the high level of human activity on the wetlands along NworieRiver. The study recommends that Environmental Protection Agency could carry out regular monitoring of the level of green house gasesat the river and other rivers in Imo state to minimizecontributionsto global warming
Extension of The Shelf Life of Locally Brewed Sorghum Beer Using VernoniaAmygdalina(Bitter Leaf) Extract
Uzomba N. I., Odu D. A., Ajah O., Uzomba C. N., Amaralam E. C., Nwaeze E. U. C.
Locally brewed sorghum beer is an indigenous alcoholic beverage. It is produced mainly from sorghum grains(sorghumvulgare). The process of brewing involves malting, mashing,souring and fermentation. In this study, bitter leaf (Vernoniaamygdalina) extract was used as a means of extending the shelf life of locally brewed sorghum beerwhichhasshort shelf life.Chemicaland microbial analysis wascarried out using standard method. The result of the chemical analysisshows that the sample with hop (bitter leaf extract) has the total acidity of 0.56±0.030, fixed acidity 0.20±0.001, volatile acidity 0.36±0.020,pH 3.93, specific gravity 1.04±0.003, total dissolved solid 1.12x 105ppm, total suspended solid 1.65 x 105ppm and ethanol content 3.43±0.030while sorghum beer without hop has total acidity of 0.65±0.002, fixed acidity 0.18±0.002, volatile acidity0.48±0.030,pH 3.50, specific gravity 1.02±0.003, total dissolved solid 1.15x 105ppm, total suspended solid 1.5 x 105ppm and ethanol content 3.65±0.020. The microbial analysis for sorghum with hop had no growth of E. coliand Staphylococcus aureuswhile the sorghum beer without hop had growth of Staphylococcus aureusfrom the 2ndday. The result of this study revealed the hop prevented microbial growth which could cause spoilage and also enhanced the quality of the drink over time. This supportive evidence above in this study suggeststhat the aqueous extract of Vernoniaamgydalinacould be used to extend the shelf life of locally brewed sorghum beer
The Role of Chemistry Education in Development of EntreprenuershipProgrammein Nigeria
Nleonu E. C., Ezeibe A. U.
Chemistry education is very important for entrepreneurial skills development instudents. This paper examines the central role of chemistry education as an instrument for a successful entrepreneurshipprogramme in our institution. The paper discussed the importance of entrepreneurship programmes and chemistryeducation in Nigeria andsuggested that chemistry education should be inculcatedinto entrepreneurship programme to help studentsacquire knowledge that will make themto be creators of job rather than job seekersafter graduation. In view of this, it was recommended that chemistry education should be made compulsory for all students in secondaryand tertiary institutionsto strengthen entrepreneurship programme in our institutions.
Physiochemical Analysis of Abattoir Contaminated Water Body in Obinze, Owerri West Local Government Area Imo State Nigeria.
Uzomba N. I., Amaralam E. C., Odu D. A.,Okore S. A., Okere O. C.
Abattoireffluents are known to degrade the quality of receiving water bodies. This study assesses the physiochemical parameters of water side river of which the abattoir is located at Obinze in Owerri west L.G.A, Imo State Nigeria. Water samples were collected from three different points of the water bodies namely the upstream i.e. the point of discharge, middle stream and downstream and analyzed for pH. Temperature, Conductivity Turbidity, Nitrate, Phosphate, Biological Oxygen Demand (B.O.D) and Dissolve Oxygen (D.O) . The mean values of these mean parameters were as follows; pH 6.4, Temperature 24.6oc, Conductivity 162.3us/cm, Turbidity 29.3NTU, Nitrate 232.3, Phosphate 59.8, B.O.D 41mg/l and D.O 39.9mg/l. From the result obtained, some of the parameters tested were above the NESREA’S permissible limit except for temperature, pH, D.O, which are within the NESREA’s permissible limits. The high levels of some of these parameters showed that the effluent from the Obinze abattoir in Owerri West L.G.A Imo State Nigeriacontributed to the pollution of the stream.
Electric Power Insecurity: The Bane of Sustainable Industrial Development in Nigeria
Iwuamadi Obioma C., Osondu Ugochukwu S., Anyaehie Maurice U., Iwuamadi Ojiugo C
Every developed economy is built with the technical realization that a sustained availability of quality and affordable electricity in its various forms of generation is fundamental to the provision of jobs, transportation, industrialization, health services, education, housing, clean water, and good sanitation.The insecurity of electric power has become an issue bedeviling sustainable and industrial development in Nigeria over the years.The study painstakingly compared the cost of alternative power supply and the estimated cost of utility supply using power cost factor regulation and power cost index. One strong outcome of the study is that the power insecurity in Nigeria has imposed a significant cost of more than 400% of expected utility power supply cost on the operation of alternative supply to enhance supply reliability. This has a significant negative impact on the cost competitiveness of the economy.