• We are available for your help 24/7
  • Email: info@isindexing.com, submission@isindexing.com


...
Indexed Journal

1 Application of Differential Equation in RL and RC Circuit Analysis by Classical Method , Chime C. C.
The paper deals with the analysis of RL and RC circuits by using linear ordinary differential equation of first order. Two circuits that consist of a single closed loop containing a resistor(R) and either a capacitor(C) or an inductor(L) connected to a power source ( or voltage source ) is analyzed. Applying Kirchhoff’s laws on voltage and current, a differential equation is formed. The general solution of the differential equation has two parts complementary function (CF) and particular integral (P.I) in which (CF) represents transient response and (P.I)represents steady response. The general solution of the differential equation represents the complete response of the network
2 Hypolipidemic and Anti-Ulcerative Effects of Cinnamomum Tamala (Nees.) (Bay Leaf) Extract on Hyperlipidemic and Indomethacin-Induced Gastric Ulcer in Male Wister Albino Rats. , Rita Oze,Gabriel Oze, Obijuru Tobias, Agomuo E. Emmanuel
Cinnamomumtamalaleaf (Bayleaf) is a naturalspice usually preferred because of its food flavor and perceived medicinal values. This study investigated the effectof aqueousbay leaf extract (BLE) on hyperlipidermiaand gastric ulceration using male Wister strain albino rats. Forty two male rats weighing 150-200g,were fed with high fat diet (HFD) for 10 days. Hyperlipidemia was established. The rats were divided into 7 groups of 6 rats each. Group 1 received normal saline (5ml/kg) to serve as negative control. Group 2 was fed with HFD for 10 days. Group 3 was treated with 10mg/kg indomethacin (Indo) to induce gastric ulcer. Group 4 was challenged with 10mg/kg simvastatinstandard. Group 5 received 30mg/kg indo with 100 mg/kg cimetidine standard. The hyperlipidemic and ulcerogenic groups 6 and 7 were treated with 200 ad 400 mg/kg BLE respectively. In a dose dependent manner, the BLE significantly attenuated (p<0.05) the serumconcentrations of TC, Tg, LDL-C, and VLDL-C; and significantly elevated (p<0.05) the serum level of HDL-C. Similarly, the BLE significantly inhibited the ulcer score by 66.85 and 81.14% respectively, compared with the standard cimethidine, (76.28%). It is concluded that BLE exhibited considerable hypolipidemic and anti-ulcerative potentials. These may justify its use in folkmedicine practice to manage hypertension and to treat gastric ulcer related cases. Thisinvestigation needs to be sustained to elucidate the scientific mechanism for the observed effects.
3 Determination of Carbondioxide and Methane Concentartions along Nworie River, Imo State, Nigeria , Verla Andrew Wirnkor, Anyanwu Ogechi and Verla Evelyn Ngozi C. C.
This study investigated the concentration of carbondioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), temperature and relative humidity on wetlands along Nworie River in Owerri.Data were collected from field survey of six sampling points on the wetlands using handheld AZ 77535 CO2analyzer and JCB4 gas analyzers. The results showed maximum mean concentration of 703.71 ppm at point A and minimum mean concentration of 676.27 ppm at point E for CO2; maximum mean concentration of 0.17 ppm and minimum of 0.16 ppm for CH4at 27.91 oC mean temperature and 88.37 % mean relative humidity. Thesignificant concentration of ambient CO2and CH4foundat the sampling point could result from the high level of human activity on the wetlands along NworieRiver. The study recommends that Environmental Protection Agency could carry out regular monitoring of the level of green house gasesat the river and other rivers in Imo state to minimizecontributionsto global warming
4 Extension of The Shelf Life of Locally Brewed Sorghum Beer Using VernoniaAmygdalina(Bitter Leaf) Extract , Uzomba N. I., Odu D. A., Ajah O., Uzomba C. N., Amaralam E. C., Nwaeze E. U. C.
Locally brewed sorghum beer is an indigenous alcoholic beverage. It is produced mainly from sorghum grains(sorghumvulgare). The process of brewing involves malting, mashing,souring and fermentation. In this study, bitter leaf (Vernoniaamygdalina) extract was used as a means of extending the shelf life of locally brewed sorghum beerwhichhasshort shelf life.Chemicaland microbial analysis wascarried out using standard method. The result of the chemical analysisshows that the sample with hop (bitter leaf extract) has the total acidity of 0.56±0.030, fixed acidity 0.20±0.001, volatile acidity 0.36±0.020,pH 3.93, specific gravity 1.04±0.003, total dissolved solid 1.12x 105ppm, total suspended solid 1.65 x 105ppm and ethanol content 3.43±0.030while sorghum beer without hop has total acidity of 0.65±0.002, fixed acidity 0.18±0.002, volatile acidity0.48±0.030,pH 3.50, specific gravity 1.02±0.003, total dissolved solid 1.15x 105ppm, total suspended solid 1.5 x 105ppm and ethanol content 3.65±0.020. The microbial analysis for sorghum with hop had no growth of E. coliand Staphylococcus aureuswhile the sorghum beer without hop had growth of Staphylococcus aureusfrom the 2ndday. The result of this study revealed the hop prevented microbial growth which could cause spoilage and also enhanced the quality of the drink over time. This supportive evidence above in this study suggeststhat the aqueous extract of Vernoniaamgydalinacould be used to extend the shelf life of locally brewed sorghum beer
5 The Role of Chemistry Education in Development of EntreprenuershipProgrammein Nigeria , Nleonu E. C., Ezeibe A. U.
Chemistry education is very important for entrepreneurial skills development instudents. This paper examines the central role of chemistry education as an instrument for a successful entrepreneurshipprogramme in our institution. The paper discussed the importance of entrepreneurship programmes and chemistryeducation in Nigeria andsuggested that chemistry education should be inculcatedinto entrepreneurship programme to help studentsacquire knowledge that will make themto be creators of job rather than job seekersafter graduation. In view of this, it was recommended that chemistry education should be made compulsory for all students in secondaryand tertiary institutionsto strengthen entrepreneurship programme in our institutions.
6 Physiochemical Analysis of Abattoir Contaminated Water Body in Obinze, Owerri West Local Government Area Imo State Nigeria. , Uzomba N. I., Amaralam E. C., Odu D. A.,Okore S. A., Okere O. C.
Abattoireffluents are known to degrade the quality of receiving water bodies. This study assesses the physiochemical parameters of water side river of which the abattoir is located at Obinze in Owerri west L.G.A, Imo State Nigeria. Water samples were collected from three different points of the water bodies namely the upstream i.e. the point of discharge, middle stream and downstream and analyzed for pH. Temperature, Conductivity Turbidity, Nitrate, Phosphate, Biological Oxygen Demand (B.O.D) and Dissolve Oxygen (D.O) . The mean values of these mean parameters were as follows; pH 6.4, Temperature 24.6oc, Conductivity 162.3us/cm, Turbidity 29.3NTU, Nitrate 232.3, Phosphate 59.8, B.O.D 41mg/l and D.O 39.9mg/l. From the result obtained, some of the parameters tested were above the NESREA’S permissible limit except for temperature, pH, D.O, which are within the NESREA’s permissible limits. The high levels of some of these parameters showed that the effluent from the Obinze abattoir in Owerri West L.G.A Imo State Nigeriacontributed to the pollution of the stream.
7 Electric Power Insecurity: The Bane of Sustainable Industrial Development in Nigeria , Iwuamadi Obioma C., Osondu Ugochukwu S., Anyaehie Maurice U., Iwuamadi Ojiugo C
Every developed economy is built with the technical realization that a sustained availability of quality and affordable electricity in its various forms of generation is fundamental to the provision of jobs, transportation, industrialization, health services, education, housing, clean water, and good sanitation.The insecurity of electric power has become an issue bedeviling sustainable and industrial development in Nigeria over the years.The study painstakingly compared the cost of alternative power supply and the estimated cost of utility supply using power cost factor regulation and power cost index. One strong outcome of the study is that the power insecurity in Nigeria has imposed a significant cost of more than 400% of expected utility power supply cost on the operation of alternative supply to enhance supply reliability. This has a significant negative impact on the cost competitiveness of the economy.
8 Prevalence of Toxocaraand Hookworm Infections Among Stray Dogs in Esan North East and Esan West Lgasof Edo State, Nigeria , Inegbenosun C. U., Inegbenosun H., O. C. Njoku, B. El-yaqub3and I. A. Alhaji
Due to the wandering nature ofespecially, stray dogs, they are highly susceptible to a variety of parasitic infections. Close contact between humansand infected dogs is a major cause of zoonotic diseases, especially in urban and semi-urban areas. Occurrence of zoonotic helminthicinfections in humansisoften linked tothe prevalence of the diseases in the animals within the area.In Nigeria, little attention has beengiven to human toxocariasis. Therefore, the aim of this study is to provide information on the prevalence of parasites in stray dogs in the selected local government areasof Edo State, Nigeria, as a way of alerting healthcare providers of the dangers of possible cross-transmission to humans
9 Synthesis and Characterization of Some Mixed Ligand Metal Complexes of Anti-Inflammatory Drugs , I. Musa, B. El-yaqub, A. O. Raji, A. A. Aliyu
Twelve metal complexes derived from ibuprofen, naproxen and paracetamol were synthesized using the following metal ions: Zn(II), Ni(II), Fe(II), Co(II), Cr(II) and Mn(II). Metallo-ibuprofen, paracetamol and naproxen complexes were investigated by spectral and physical techniques. The complexes were characterized by melting point, solubility, conductivity measurement, elemental analysis, UV-Visible, infrared and H1NMRspectroscopy. The complexes have higher melting point than their free ligands and the lowervalue of conductivity test showed that the complexes are non-electrolyte in nature. The spectroscopic data proposed that naproxen coordinated through oxygen of the carbonyl. Paracetamol ligands behaved as a neutral bi-dentate ligand coordinated to the metal ions via the lone pair of electrons of the nitrogen and carbonyl-O atoms of the amide group. On the other hand, ibuprofen ligand coordinated to the metal ions via the deprotonated carboxylate-O atom. From the micro-analytical data, the stoichiometry of the complexes reacts with Mn(II), Co(II), Fe(II) and Cu(II) by molar ratios (2:1) (drug: metal ion). All complexes were proposed to be octahedral geometry with ligands acting as bi-dentate.
10 Extractionand Phytochemical Screening of ElaeisguineensisShell Waste , Ademidun Adeola Adesibikan, Stephen Sunday Emmanuel,Olumide James Oluwole
Phytochemicals from Elaeisguineensis shell waste can be a source of starting materials in pharmaceutical and food processing industries. Since time immemorial, truckloadof Elaeisguineensis shellare being treated as solid waste and the wasted shells are sometimes usedby traditional herbalist who believe in the superstitionworking power of the shellin the treatment of some illnesswhich is attributed to god of Satan(esu)in Southwestgeopolitical zone inNigeria. Therefore, the aim of thisstudy was to evaluate the phytochemical compositionof the n-hexaneextractof Elaeisguineensisshell wastefor the presence of active phytochemicalsandtoscientifically validate its medicinal actionswhich was misunderstood by traditional herbalist based on superstition. Theresult of thephytochemical analysisin this present studyrevealed the presence of phenolics(11.4 ± 0.2g/100g), flavonoids (5.67 ± 0.23 g/100g), tannins (6.67 ± 0.12 g/100g), terpenoids (4.53 ± 0.12 g/100g), saponins (1.99± 0.01 g/100g) and alkaloids (1.81 ± 0.03 g/100g).Quantitatively, the phenolics contentwas found to be the highest (11.4 ± 0.2g/100g) in the sample while the alkaloids content was the least (1.81 ± 0.03 g/100g).Thus, our findingnullifiesthe traditional herbalistsuperstitiousbelieveabout Elaeisguineensisshell waste and suggests a baseline information that n-hexaneshell extractof Elaeisguineensiscontain phytochemicalsthat possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatoryand astringentpropertiesand the extract could possibly be used in themanagement of wound in traditional medicinebecause of the key functions of those phytochemicals reportedin the past and present documented literatures.The ultimate utilization of this shellwasteshould be encouraged in order to enhancesolid waste management as well as pollution control and thus converting waste to estimable material.
11 The Production ofBiodiesel from Sewage Sludgevia Soxhlet Extraction with N-Hexane, Ethanol (2:1) Mixture and Transesterification Reaction , Ivwurie, W., Okotie, K.
The Lipid/oil was extracted from reduced dried primary sewage sludge particle using soxhlet extraction method with Hexaneand Ethanol in the ratio 2:1 as the extracting solvent. The extracted oil gave 0.58%percentage yield with density of 0.868 g/ml, pH value of 8.97, specific gravity of 0.868. The lipid/oil was brownish black in colour with a pungent smell. Thechemical analyses revealed saponification value of 156.00mgKOH/g, acid value of 3.40mgKOH/g and free fatty acid value of 1.70%.The physicochemical analyses of the biodiesel produced revealed percentage yield of 21.70% biodiesel, density of 0.845Kg/ml, pH value of 8.30, specific gravity of 0.845, acid value of 0.37mg KOH/g, and free fatty acid of 0.2%. The physiochemical values from the research shows that the feedstock (primary sewage sludge) would be a good source for the production of biodiesel.
12 Application of Differential Equation in RL and RC Circuit Analysis by Classical Method , Chime C. C.
The paper deals with the analysis of RL and RC circuits by using linear ordinary differential equation of first order. Two circuits that consist of a single closed loop containing a resistor(R) and either a capacitor(C) or an inductor(L) connected to a power source ( or voltage source ) is analyzed. Applying Kirchhoff’s laws on voltage and current, a differential equation is formed. The general solution of the differential equation has two parts complementary function (CF) and particular integral (P.I) in which (CF) represents transient response and (P.I)represents steady response. The general solution of the differential equation represents the complete response of the network
13 Hypolipidemic and Anti-Ulcerative Effects of Cinnamomum Tamala (Nees.) (Bay Leaf) Extract on Hyperlipidemic and Indomethacin-Induced Gastric Ulcer in Male Wister Albino Rats. , Rita Oze,Gabriel Oze, Obijuru Tobias, Agomuo E. Emmanuel
Cinnamomumtamalaleaf (Bayleaf) is a naturalspice usually preferred because of its food flavor and perceived medicinal values. This study investigated the effectof aqueousbay leaf extract (BLE) on hyperlipidermiaand gastric ulceration using male Wister strain albino rats. Forty two male rats weighing 150-200g,were fed with high fat diet (HFD) for 10 days. Hyperlipidemia was established. The rats were divided into 7 groups of 6 rats each. Group 1 received normal saline (5ml/kg) to serve as negative control. Group 2 was fed with HFD for 10 days. Group 3 was treated with 10mg/kg indomethacin (Indo) to induce gastric ulcer. Group 4 was challenged with 10mg/kg simvastatinstandard. Group 5 received 30mg/kg indo with 100 mg/kg cimetidine standard. The hyperlipidemic and ulcerogenic groups 6 and 7 were treated with 200 ad 400 mg/kg BLE respectively. In a dose dependent manner, the BLE significantly attenuated (p<0.05) the serumconcentrations of TC, Tg, LDL-C, and VLDL-C; and significantly elevated (p<0.05) the serum level of HDL-C. Similarly, the BLE significantly inhibited the ulcer score by 66.85 and 81.14% respectively, compared with the standard cimethidine, (76.28%). It is concluded that BLE exhibited considerable hypolipidemic and anti-ulcerative potentials. These may justify its use in folkmedicine practice to manage hypertension and to treat gastric ulcer related cases. Thisinvestigation needs to be sustained to elucidate the scientific mechanism for the observed effects.
14 Determination of Carbondioxide and Methane Concentartions along Nworie River, Imo State, Nigeria , Verla Andrew Wirnkor, Anyanwu Ogechi and Verla Evelyn Ngozi C. C.
This study investigated the concentration of carbondioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), temperature and relative humidity on wetlands along Nworie River in Owerri.Data were collected from field survey of six sampling points on the wetlands using handheld AZ 77535 CO2analyzer and JCB4 gas analyzers. The results showed maximum mean concentration of 703.71 ppm at point A and minimum mean concentration of 676.27 ppm at point E for CO2; maximum mean concentration of 0.17 ppm and minimum of 0.16 ppm for CH4at 27.91 oC mean temperature and 88.37 % mean relative humidity. Thesignificant concentration of ambient CO2and CH4foundat the sampling point could result from the high level of human activity on the wetlands along NworieRiver. The study recommends that Environmental Protection Agency could carry out regular monitoring of the level of green house gasesat the river and other rivers in Imo state to minimizecontributionsto global warming
15 Extension of The Shelf Life of Locally Brewed Sorghum Beer Using VernoniaAmygdalina(Bitter Leaf) Extract , Uzomba N. I., Odu D. A., Ajah O., Uzomba C. N., Amaralam E. C., Nwaeze E. U. C.
Locally brewed sorghum beer is an indigenous alcoholic beverage. It is produced mainly from sorghum grains(sorghumvulgare). The process of brewing involves malting, mashing,souring and fermentation. In this study, bitter leaf (Vernoniaamygdalina) extract was used as a means of extending the shelf life of locally brewed sorghum beerwhichhasshort shelf life.Chemicaland microbial analysis wascarried out using standard method. The result of the chemical analysisshows that the sample with hop (bitter leaf extract) has the total acidity of 0.56±0.030, fixed acidity 0.20±0.001, volatile acidity 0.36±0.020,pH 3.93, specific gravity 1.04±0.003, total dissolved solid 1.12x 105ppm, total suspended solid 1.65 x 105ppm and ethanol content 3.43±0.030while sorghum beer without hop has total acidity of 0.65±0.002, fixed acidity 0.18±0.002, volatile acidity0.48±0.030,pH 3.50, specific gravity 1.02±0.003, total dissolved solid 1.15x 105ppm, total suspended solid 1.5 x 105ppm and ethanol content 3.65±0.020. The microbial analysis for sorghum with hop had no growth of E. coliand Staphylococcus aureuswhile the sorghum beer without hop had growth of Staphylococcus aureusfrom the 2ndday. The result of this study revealed the hop prevented microbial growth which could cause spoilage and also enhanced the quality of the drink over time. This supportive evidence above in this study suggeststhat the aqueous extract of Vernoniaamgydalinacould be used to extend the shelf life of locally brewed sorghum beer
16 The Role of Chemistry Education in Development of EntreprenuershipProgrammein Nigeria , Nleonu E. C., Ezeibe A. U.
Chemistry education is very important for entrepreneurial skills development instudents. This paper examines the central role of chemistry education as an instrument for a successful entrepreneurshipprogramme in our institution. The paper discussed the importance of entrepreneurship programmes and chemistryeducation in Nigeria andsuggested that chemistry education should be inculcatedinto entrepreneurship programme to help studentsacquire knowledge that will make themto be creators of job rather than job seekersafter graduation. In view of this, it was recommended that chemistry education should be made compulsory for all students in secondaryand tertiary institutionsto strengthen entrepreneurship programme in our institutions.
17 Physiochemical Analysis of Abattoir Contaminated Water Body in Obinze, Owerri West Local Government Area Imo State Nigeria. , Uzomba N. I., Amaralam E. C., Odu D. A.,Okore S. A., Okere O. C.
Abattoireffluents are known to degrade the quality of receiving water bodies. This study assesses the physiochemical parameters of water side river of which the abattoir is located at Obinze in Owerri west L.G.A, Imo State Nigeria. Water samples were collected from three different points of the water bodies namely the upstream i.e. the point of discharge, middle stream and downstream and analyzed for pH. Temperature, Conductivity Turbidity, Nitrate, Phosphate, Biological Oxygen Demand (B.O.D) and Dissolve Oxygen (D.O) . The mean values of these mean parameters were as follows; pH 6.4, Temperature 24.6oc, Conductivity 162.3us/cm, Turbidity 29.3NTU, Nitrate 232.3, Phosphate 59.8, B.O.D 41mg/l and D.O 39.9mg/l. From the result obtained, some of the parameters tested were above the NESREA’S permissible limit except for temperature, pH, D.O, which are within the NESREA’s permissible limits. The high levels of some of these parameters showed that the effluent from the Obinze abattoir in Owerri West L.G.A Imo State Nigeriacontributed to the pollution of the stream.
18 Electric Power Insecurity: The Bane of Sustainable Industrial Development in Nigeria , Iwuamadi Obioma C., Osondu Ugochukwu S., Anyaehie Maurice U., Iwuamadi Ojiugo C
Every developed economy is built with the technical realization that a sustained availability of quality and affordable electricity in its various forms of generation is fundamental to the provision of jobs, transportation, industrialization, health services, education, housing, clean water, and good sanitation.The insecurity of electric power has become an issue bedeviling sustainable and industrial development in Nigeria over the years.The study painstakingly compared the cost of alternative power supply and the estimated cost of utility supply using power cost factor regulation and power cost index. One strong outcome of the study is that the power insecurity in Nigeria has imposed a significant cost of more than 400% of expected utility power supply cost on the operation of alternative supply to enhance supply reliability. This has a significant negative impact on the cost competitiveness of the economy.
19 Prevalence of Toxocaraand Hookworm Infections Among Stray Dogs in Esan North East and Esan West Lgasof Edo State, Nigeria , Inegbenosun C. U., Inegbenosun H., O. C. Njoku, B. El-yaqub3and I. A. Alhaji
Due to the wandering nature ofespecially, stray dogs, they are highly susceptible to a variety of parasitic infections. Close contact between humansand infected dogs is a major cause of zoonotic diseases, especially in urban and semi-urban areas. Occurrence of zoonotic helminthicinfections in humansisoften linked tothe prevalence of the diseases in the animals within the area.In Nigeria, little attention has beengiven to human toxocariasis. Therefore, the aim of this study is to provide information on the prevalence of parasites in stray dogs in the selected local government areasof Edo State, Nigeria, as a way of alerting healthcare providers of the dangers of possible cross-transmission to humans
20 Synthesis and Characterization of Some Mixed Ligand Metal Complexes of Anti-Inflammatory Drugs , I. Musa, B. El-yaqub, A. O. Raji, A. A. Aliyu
Twelve metal complexes derived from ibuprofen, naproxen and paracetamol were synthesized using the following metal ions: Zn(II), Ni(II), Fe(II), Co(II), Cr(II) and Mn(II). Metallo-ibuprofen, paracetamol and naproxen complexes were investigated by spectral and physical techniques. The complexes were characterized by melting point, solubility, conductivity measurement, elemental analysis, UV-Visible, infrared and H1NMRspectroscopy. The complexes have higher melting point than their free ligands and the lowervalue of conductivity test showed that the complexes are non-electrolyte in nature. The spectroscopic data proposed that naproxen coordinated through oxygen of the carbonyl. Paracetamol ligands behaved as a neutral bi-dentate ligand coordinated to the metal ions via the lone pair of electrons of the nitrogen and carbonyl-O atoms of the amide group. On the other hand, ibuprofen ligand coordinated to the metal ions via the deprotonated carboxylate-O atom. From the micro-analytical data, the stoichiometry of the complexes reacts with Mn(II), Co(II), Fe(II) and Cu(II) by molar ratios (2:1) (drug: metal ion). All complexes were proposed to be octahedral geometry with ligands acting as bi-dentate.
21 Extractionand Phytochemical Screening of ElaeisguineensisShell Waste , Ademidun Adeola Adesibikan, Stephen Sunday Emmanuel,Olumide James Oluwole
Phytochemicals from Elaeisguineensis shell waste can be a source of starting materials in pharmaceutical and food processing industries. Since time immemorial, truckloadof Elaeisguineensis shellare being treated as solid waste and the wasted shells are sometimes usedby traditional herbalist who believe in the superstitionworking power of the shellin the treatment of some illnesswhich is attributed to god of Satan(esu)in Southwestgeopolitical zone inNigeria. Therefore, the aim of thisstudy was to evaluate the phytochemical compositionof the n-hexaneextractof Elaeisguineensisshell wastefor the presence of active phytochemicalsandtoscientifically validate its medicinal actionswhich was misunderstood by traditional herbalist based on superstition. Theresult of thephytochemical analysisin this present studyrevealed the presence of phenolics(11.4 ± 0.2g/100g), flavonoids (5.67 ± 0.23 g/100g), tannins (6.67 ± 0.12 g/100g), terpenoids (4.53 ± 0.12 g/100g), saponins (1.99± 0.01 g/100g) and alkaloids (1.81 ± 0.03 g/100g).Quantitatively, the phenolics contentwas found to be the highest (11.4 ± 0.2g/100g) in the sample while the alkaloids content was the least (1.81 ± 0.03 g/100g).Thus, our findingnullifiesthe traditional herbalistsuperstitiousbelieveabout Elaeisguineensisshell waste and suggests a baseline information that n-hexaneshell extractof Elaeisguineensiscontain phytochemicalsthat possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatoryand astringentpropertiesand the extract could possibly be used in themanagement of wound in traditional medicinebecause of the key functions of those phytochemicals reportedin the past and present documented literatures.The ultimate utilization of this shellwasteshould be encouraged in order to enhancesolid waste management as well as pollution control and thus converting waste to estimable material.
22 The Production ofBiodiesel from Sewage Sludgevia Soxhlet Extraction with N-Hexane, Ethanol (2:1) Mixture and Transesterification Reaction , Ivwurie, W., Okotie, K.
The Lipid/oil was extracted from reduced dried primary sewage sludge particle using soxhlet extraction method with Hexaneand Ethanol in the ratio 2:1 as the extracting solvent. The extracted oil gave 0.58%percentage yield with density of 0.868 g/ml, pH value of 8.97, specific gravity of 0.868. The lipid/oil was brownish black in colour with a pungent smell. Thechemical analyses revealed saponification value of 156.00mgKOH/g, acid value of 3.40mgKOH/g and free fatty acid value of 1.70%.The physicochemical analyses of the biodiesel produced revealed percentage yield of 21.70% biodiesel, density of 0.845Kg/ml, pH value of 8.30, specific gravity of 0.845, acid value of 0.37mg KOH/g, and free fatty acid of 0.2%. The physiochemical values from the research shows that the feedstock (primary sewage sludge) would be a good source for the production of biodiesel.