1 Effect of Audit Committee characteristics on Audit Quality: A Critical Literature Review , Alaallah A. M. Sharhan, Chandan Bora
Purpose: The aim of the paper is to present a critical literature review of the impact of audit committee characteristics (ACCs) on audit quality and to identify any research gaps in the field of audit quality. The aim is also to establish, if any, research gaps in the area of audit quality and to recommend any for potential research.  Approach/Methodology/Design: The methodology of this study is a review of literature on audit committee characteristics and audit quality. A number of research articles were analyzed. Findings: The results of this review of literature revealed that audit committee size, audit committee meeting, and audit committee financial expertise have main effects on  the audit quality in the public and private sectors. Practical Implications: This review article gives an opportunity to auditors, management of audit offices and other stakeholders to better understand the pillars of audit quality, factors, and framework to reinforce the quality of the financial statements. This literature review contributes to better understanding of the role of the audit committee in financial statements. It provides researchers in the field with insights and new perspectives.  Originality/value: The paper identifies certain gaps and highlights the effect of effective audit committee on regulating and improving the finance department of any institution. The study also contributes to the operating organization of knowledge on the audit quality, dimensions of audit quality, and governing frameworks. It emphasizes the audit committee’s effectiveness and also presents an opportunity to both researchers and the finance sector for potential future research.
2 Financial Performance of Indian Pharmaceutical Companies: Analysis of Leverage and Cost of Capital , Ahmed Mahdi Abdulkareem
Purpose: The main aim of the study is to examine the performance of selected pharmaceutical companies in India based on the Degree Of Operating Leverage, Degree Of Financial Leverage, Degree Of Combined Leverage, and Cost Of Capital. Approach/Methodology/Design: Five pharmaceutical companies were randomly selected, and the annual reports and financial statements of these companies were analyzed. The analysis methods involved Degree Of Operating Leverage, Degree Of Financial Leverage, Degree Of Combined Leverage, and Cost Of Capital. ANOVA test was also employed to test hypotheses. The study is made for five years from 2013-14 to 2017-18. Findings: The results of the study reveal that there is a significant difference in the (means) variables in terms of leverage (operating, finance, and combined) and cost of capital. All leverages are different to each other and the cost of capital. The analysis reveals that Sun Pharma performed well during the study period, whereas Lupin underperformed in all aspects. Practical Implications: The leverage and cost of capital are very important components for deciding whether to invest or not in pharmaceutical companies. The present study highlights the financial performances and growth of the selected pharmaceutical companies. Originality/value: The results of the paper give certain indicators about the performance of the selected companies. These indicators can be used to inform an investment decision.
3 Financial Indicators of Selected Service-Provider Companies of Telecommunication Sector in India: An Empirical Study , Ajmera Tushar R.
Purpose: The aim of this article is to measure profitability of selected services provider companies of telecommunication sector in India. The study also aims to identify liquidity and solvency of the selected services provider companies of telecommunication, and how these indicators determine their management efficiency. Approach/Methodology/Design: In this study, three service-provider telecommunication companies operating in India were selected. The study period is from 2013-14 to 2017-18. The criterion for selection of samples is market capitalization in which higher capitalized companies are selected like Bharti Airtel, Tata Communication and Reliance Communication. In this study ratio analysis is used as accounting tool, and One-way Anova technique is used as statistical tool for the identification of difference between the sample means. Findings: The major findings of the study indicate that Bharti Airtel and Tata Communication are in a better financial soundness as compared to Reliance Communication. In addition, the results of the study reveal that Reliance Communication suffered huge losses during the study period. Practical Implications: The study examines the status of the telecommunication sector with the current rules and regulations provided by government. It also assess the financial condition of the selected telecommunication companies, providing a systematic evaluation based on certain financial indicators that can help investors make relevant decisions. Originality/value: The financial indicators are important figures which give an overview about the financial health of any particular organization. There are number of financial indicators which are employed to identify the fair and true picture of organization. Profitability, liquidity and solvency ratios are one method for the identification of financial strength or weakness out of number of methods.
4 The Effect of Implementing the Financial Management Information System on the Quality of the Presentation of the Pangkep Regency Government’s Financial Statements , Andi Sry Anggraeny
Purpose: This study aims to examine the effectiveness of the application of Government Accounting Standards to the quality of financial reports in the local government of Pangkep Regency, Indonesia. Approach/Methodology/Design: In this study, the sample taken was 43 administrators from 45 Regional Work Units (SKPD) which consisted of a financial statement drafting team and Regional Government Internal Auditors (AIPD) involved in the preparation of Pangkep District Government's financial statements. Data collection was carried out through direct observation and surveys obtained by distributing questionnaires to the respondents. This research uses quantitative research methods. Findings: The results showed that the effectiveness of the application of Government Accounting Standards had a positive and significant effect on the quality of local government financial reports. Practical Implications: An important implication of the results of this study is that the effectiveness of implementing a system is highly dependent on the achievement of the quality of the output it produces. That is, a program is said to be successful if the program's objectives are effectively achieved. The amount of contribution greatly depends on the achievement of the targets and targets that have been set. Originality/value: The regional management information system is part of the state's efforts to present good governance, a government that can be accountable for activities financed through measurable and transparent public budgets. This paper examined the implementation of this system, and it is concluded that it has a positive and significant effect on the quality of the presentation of financial statements at the Pangkep Regency Government.
5 Financial Performance of Banks in India: A Study of Selected Private Sector Banks , Vasani Sureshbhai Vithalbhai
Purpose: This study aims to evaluate the performance of selected private sector Banks in India. The aim is also to study the profitability performance of these selected banks. Approach/Methodology/Design: Eight private Banks were selected as a sample for the study. The statistical tools employed in the study include Minimum and Maximum Net Profit Ratio, Descriptive Statistics and One-Way ANOVA test for the evaluation of performance of Banks. The period for the study is from 2011-12 to 2018-19, and this study is totally based on secondary data. Findings: The results of the study reveal that there is a significant difference of Net Profit of the selected banks. The financial performance of HDFC Bank is continuously in a good condition due to the high profit earned and the proper management that is employed. The results indicate that Yes Bank is in a deteriorating financial position because of governance issues, false assurance to customers, non-serious investors, non market-led revival in sight, outflow of liquidity, and non-disclosure practices. Axis Bank and ICICI Bank are slowly declining within the market. Jammu and Kashmir Bank suffered losses in the year 2016-17 due to the tune of Rs 16,000 crores during the five months long unrest in the Kashmir valley. Practical Implications: In today’s scenario, most of the banks have more Non-Performing Assets. Due to this condition, many banks go to liquation and merger/acquisition. This paper attempts to examine the current conditions of selected private sector banks in India, assisting in presenting statistical analysis that will be of use to investors as well as management teams of the banks. Originality/value: Nowadays, Banking sector is one of the fastest growing sectors and huge funds are invested in banks. The banking system is becoming more complex and therefore there is a strong need to evaluate the performance of the banks. The originality in this study lies in the attempt to provide up-to-date assessment of eight top banks in India.