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Advances in Bioengineering and Biomedical Science Research

ISSN(p): | ISSN(e):2640-4133
Journal Papers (38) Details
...
Indexed Journal

1 The Theory of Intelligent Relativity and Its Application in Advanced Craniosacral Therapy , Cobra Ghasemi
As I mentioned in the previous paper, since water molecules are highly role-playing and programmable, they can act as intermediators that easily accept the role and consciousness programs of the therapist’s mind during advanced craniosacral therapy and after the implementation of these programs in themselves, they direct it to all other dimensions and parts of the patient’s existence [1,2]. In my opinion, the field of consciousness in the observing mind is the only field which directly affects the dimension of time. As this field increases the synchrony and overlapping of the time dimension with the space dimensions, thus based on following formulas: (Consciousness) C= time × φ × space or C= = φ
2 The Theory of Intelligent Relativity and Its Application in Advanced Craniosacral Therapy , Cobra Ghasemi
As I mentioned in the previous paper, since water molecules are highly role-playing and programmable, they can act as intermediators that easily accept the role and consciousness programs of the therapist’s mind during advanced craniosacral therapy and after the implementation of these programs in themselves, they direct it to all other dimensions and parts of the patient’s existence [1,2]. In my opinion, the field of consciousness in the observing mind is the only field which directly affects the dimension of time. As this field increases the synchrony and overlapping of the time dimension with the space dimensions, thus based on following formulas: (Consciousness) C= time × φ × space or C= = φ
3 The Fundamental Role of Advanced Dressings Based On Rigenase®, Triticum Vulgare Observational Study , Sonia Silvestrini1*, Ivan Santoro2 and Alessandra Vernacchia3
The antiseptic properties of the advanced dressings based on Triticum vulgare, through the patented Damor® Pharmaceutics process starting from the Triticum seed, guarantee the speed of healing in the treatment of a wide range of skin wound, such as: ulcers, sores, surgical wounds, first and second degree burns, sunburn, abrasions, breast fissures secondary to breastfeeding, anal fissures. In particular, the Triticum vulgare extract contains starches, phospholipids and glycolipids, which create a protective barrier on the wound, protecting it. The presence of polyethylene glycol allows the recall and retention of water on the polymer chains, avoiding the loss of liquids. It is also able to attract fibroblastic cells that have the task of synthesizing collagen fibers, which are entrusted with the task of proceeding with the healing process. The aqueous extract of Triticum Vulgare, obtained from the entire germinated plant, mainly contains poly / oligosaccharide components with different biological properties capable of triggering the bioactive complex, interacting directly with the wound repair factors. The presence of Rigenase ®, germinated wheat extract, guarantees protection from the external environment
4 The Influence of Volatile Components On the Evolution of the Biosphere , Evgeny B Lebedev1 , Hartmut Kern2 , Ninely I Pavlenkova3 , Oleg A Lukanin1 , Konstantin V Lobanov4 , Andrey V Zharikov4 and Till Popp5
Water stands alone in the history of our planet. There is no natural body that can compare with it in terms of its influence on the course of the most grandiose geological processes and the birth of the biosphere. V. I. Vernadsky in” The History of Natural Waters “ wrote that water is the main volatile component contained in magmas, far exceeds the number of other components and significantly affects the changes in the chemical and physical properties of rocks and melts. In the monograph “Problems and origins and evolution of the Biosphere” [1]. In the section “What is life” on the diagram of the Initial stage of the evolution of life, it was indicated that the primary environment on Earth contained hv minerals, H2 O, CO2 , CO, CH4 , NH3 . Water has always stood out in the first place. In the book “Fluids in the Earth’s Crust”, he provides literature data on the water content in various layers of the Earth’s crust [2]. In the Earth’s crust, the amount of water up to a depth of 20 km is not less than 8%, and the amount of water up to 60 km does not decrease [Vernadsky, 1960]. In more recent studies, the amount of water in the “granite” layer is 0.5-1.5%, in “basalt” - 0.1-0.7%, [E. S. Gavrilenko and V. F. Dorpholz, 1971 The average water content in the rocks of the subcrustal layer of the upper mantle and the lower part of the earth’s crust is 0.3-0.5%. This approach allows us to judge only the presence of bound water in the rocks and does not indicate the content of free water [2]. Many works have been devoted to the experimental study of the water content
5 Why Did Supermassive Black Holes Already Exist In The Early Universe? , Horst Fritsch
Recent observations show that there are many more and much older black holes than previously known. What is particularly puzzling is that supermassive black holes containing more than a billion solar masses already existed in the very early universe. To date, there is no conclusive explanation for how such gravity monsters could have been created in such a short time after the Big Bang. The “Cosmic Time Hypothesis (CTH)” offers a solution to this problem [1]. According to this hypothesis, the early universe had much more time at its disposal than according to the “present-time scale” and the material-condensing forces were much stronger than now. Therefore, objects with extremely large masses could form in a very short “todaytime”.
6 Significant Waning of Active Cases of Covid-19 With High Recovery After Three Months of Complete Lockdown: Plausible Implication On Emergence of Herd Immunity in The Population , Prabir Chakravarty*
COVID-19 is fast spreading around the globe in a highly contagious manner. Until date there are no therapeutic agents/vaccines developed which could control this highly infectious virus from spreading among human population. Our earlier studies showed that implementation of prolonged lockdown had a profound effect on the rate of spread of COVID-19 in the population. The observed increase in doubling time of COVID-19 with a high recovery rate following complete Lockdown reflected that protective immunity may be present in the population. In this article, the data from three months following completion of Lockdown was considered. The results reflected that there was a significant down trend in the rate of COVID-19 with high recovery rate reaching up to 83% of the affected cases of COVID-19 by September 30, 2020. The projection made from the data up to 30 November, 2020, pointed towards continued decrease in active cases of COVID-19. Concomitant with this result, the recovery from COVID-19 reached to ~90% by end of October, 2020. The significance of the above mentioned results with rapid fall in active cases from end of September 30, 2020, in spite of increased testing for COVID-19 in generating immunity against COVID-19 is discussed.
7 A Neuroscientific Study of the Brain Stimulator and Simulation Model to Predict Breakfast PPG Using GH-Method: Math-Physical Medicine , Gerald C Hsu
To prove his hypothesis in this paper, the author interprets the brain stimulator and its associated simulation model of predicted breakfast postprandial plasma glucose (PPG) via a food or meal segmentation analysis and Sensor PPG waveform characteristics study.
8 A Neuroscientific Study of the Brain Stimulator and Glucose Simulation Model to Analyze High-Protein Meals Using GH-Method: Math-Physical Medicine , Gerald C Hsu
To prove his hypothesis in this paper, the author interprets the brain stimulator and its associated simulation model of predicted postprandial plasma glucose (PPG) using meal case studies with three different kinds of high protein.
9 Comparison of the distribution pattern of metastatic bone disease and Skeletal related events between breast and prostate cancer: A retrospective study in Khartoum Oncology Hospital 2020 , Mosab Ahmed Abker Adam1,2*, Alaa Othman Awadalkareim Gasmalla2,3, Noura Mohamed Hassan Mohamed4 and Wagas Abbas Mohamed Ahmed Mansour2,5
Annotation Background: Bone metastasis (BM) and its consequence skeletal-related events (SREs) are the most common cause of cancer pain and disability. In this study, we compare the distribution pattern of BM and SREs in breast cancer (BC) and prostate cancer (PC). Materials and Method: A Retrospective study in Khartoum oncology hospital of the medical record from 29 September 2019 to March 2020. Demographic and clinical information extracted from the medical records of eligible patients in the last 5 years 2015-2019 included age, sex, social habits, duration of breast and prostate cancer, duration of treatment, site of BM, and SREs if present. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS, Version 22.0. (IBM, USA). Results: Out of 3216 patients, medical records 71.8% diagnosed with BC and 28.2% diagnosed with PC.5.6% had to BM the ratio between the breast and prostate is 1:4, Both cancers commonly metastasize to Spinal and pelvic bones. In comparison between BC and PC, the common site for BM according to the affected segment is lumber 48.8%, thoracic 32.9%, and pelvic 32.9% in BC. While in the PC: 56.9%, 50.5%, and 42.2% for lumbar, pelvic, and thoracic vertebrae respectively. SREs occur in 45.7% and 63.3% of BC and PC patients respectively. Conclusion: Based on high incidence BM in the BC and PC, screening for BM as soon as cancer diagnosed should be done promptly. Skeletal complications signs should always be considered as a matter of priority, as it has an impact on patient quality of life.
10 Using GH-Method: Math-Physical Medicine to Calculate Individual Metabolism Category’s Score for Maintaining General Health from the Endocrinology Viewpoint , Gerald C Hsu
The author developed his GH-Method: math-physical medicine (MPM) by applying mathematics, physics, engineering modeling, and computer science (big data analytics and AI) to derive the mathematical metabolism. This study provides quantitative details of 10 metabolic categories for the metabolism index to achieve a better score for the 90-days moving average from the endocrinology viewpoint.
11 Using GH-Method: Math-Physical Medicine to Investigate Different Contribution Margins of Fasting Plasma Glucose vs. Postprandial Plasma Glucose on HbA1C , Gerald C Hsu
This paper displays results of the contribution margin calculation of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) vs. postprandial plasma glucose (PPG) on HbA1C. The dataset is provided by the author, who uses his own type 2 diabetes metabolic conditions control, as a case study via the “math-physical medicine” approach of a nontraditional methodology in medical research. Math-physical medicine (MPM) starts with the observation of the human body’s physical phenomena (not biological or chemical characteristics), collecting elements of the disease related data (preferring big data), utilizing applicable engineering modeling techniques, developing appropriate mathematical equations (not just statistical analysis), and finally predicting the direction of the development and control mechanism of the disease.
12 A Study on SARS-CoV-2 Penetration Process and Pathogenesis Analysis based on the Biological Mechanism as well as Medication to Alleviate the Impacts on Human Body , Ahmed Yesvi Rafa1 *, Dr Mauro Luisetto2 , Naeem Musa3 , Omar Bin Arif4 , Ahnaf Ilman5 and Tazwan Haque6
The related penetration and fusion process of SARS-CoV-2 is very outstanding to observe with some pathogenesis and biological feature of the very respiratory viral disease from the aspect of virology and bioanalysis. Furthermore, very interesting to look at is SARS-COV-2, the largest RNA consistent Coronavirus with a substantial classification, sometimes found symptomatic or sometimes asymptomatic. To understand better, some additional figures are included here. Surely that SARS-COV-2 has a very complicated life cycle and genetic make-up and plasma therapeutic action is one of the successful fighters with the assistance of antigen. The role of Receptor Binding Domain and primary hosts in the diffusion of this disease is eventually undeniable.
13 A Study on SARS-CoV-2 Penetration Process and Pathogenesis Analysis based on the Biological Mechanism as well as Medication to Alleviate the Impacts on Human Body , Ahmed Yesvi Rafa1 *, Dr Mauro Luisetto2 , Naeem Musa3 , Omar Bin Arif4 , Ahnaf Ilman5 and Tazwan Haque6
The related penetration and fusion process of SARS-CoV-2 is very outstanding to observe with some pathogenesis and biological feature of the very respiratory viral disease from the aspect of virology and bioanalysis. Furthermore, very interesting to look at is SARS-COV-2, the largest RNA consistent Coronavirus with a substantial classification, sometimes found symptomatic or sometimes asymptomatic. To understand better, some additional figures are included here. Surely that SARS-COV-2 has a very complicated life cycle and genetic make-up and plasma therapeutic action is one of the successful fighters with the assistance of antigen. The role of Receptor Binding Domain and primary hosts in the diffusion of this disease is eventually undeniable.
14 The Theory of Intelligent Relativity and Its Application in Advanced Craniosacral Therapy , Cobra Ghasemi
As I mentioned in the previous paper, since water molecules are highly role-playing and programmable, they can act as intermediators that easily accept the role and consciousness programs of the therapist’s mind during advanced craniosacral therapy and after the implementation of these programs in themselves, they direct it to all other dimensions and parts of the patient’s existence [1,2]. In my opinion, the field of consciousness in the observing mind is the only field which directly affects the dimension of time. As this field increases the synchrony and overlapping of the time dimension with the space dimensions, thus based on following formulas: (Consciousness) C= time × φ × space or C= = φ
15 The Theory of Intelligent Relativity and Its Application in Advanced Craniosacral Therapy , Cobra Ghasemi
As I mentioned in the previous paper, since water molecules are highly role-playing and programmable, they can act as intermediators that easily accept the role and consciousness programs of the therapist’s mind during advanced craniosacral therapy and after the implementation of these programs in themselves, they direct it to all other dimensions and parts of the patient’s existence [1,2]. In my opinion, the field of consciousness in the observing mind is the only field which directly affects the dimension of time. As this field increases the synchrony and overlapping of the time dimension with the space dimensions, thus based on following formulas: (Consciousness) C= time × φ × space or C= = φ
16 The Fundamental Role of Advanced Dressings Based On Rigenase®, Triticum Vulgare Observational Study , Sonia Silvestrini1*, Ivan Santoro2 and Alessandra Vernacchia3
The antiseptic properties of the advanced dressings based on Triticum vulgare, through the patented Damor® Pharmaceutics process starting from the Triticum seed, guarantee the speed of healing in the treatment of a wide range of skin wound, such as: ulcers, sores, surgical wounds, first and second degree burns, sunburn, abrasions, breast fissures secondary to breastfeeding, anal fissures. In particular, the Triticum vulgare extract contains starches, phospholipids and glycolipids, which create a protective barrier on the wound, protecting it. The presence of polyethylene glycol allows the recall and retention of water on the polymer chains, avoiding the loss of liquids. It is also able to attract fibroblastic cells that have the task of synthesizing collagen fibers, which are entrusted with the task of proceeding with the healing process. The aqueous extract of Triticum Vulgare, obtained from the entire germinated plant, mainly contains poly / oligosaccharide components with different biological properties capable of triggering the bioactive complex, interacting directly with the wound repair factors. The presence of Rigenase ®, germinated wheat extract, guarantees protection from the external environment
17 The Influence of Volatile Components On the Evolution of the Biosphere , Evgeny B Lebedev1 , Hartmut Kern2 , Ninely I Pavlenkova3 , Oleg A Lukanin1 , Konstantin V Lobanov4 , Andrey V Zharikov4 and Till Popp5
Water stands alone in the history of our planet. There is no natural body that can compare with it in terms of its influence on the course of the most grandiose geological processes and the birth of the biosphere. V. I. Vernadsky in” The History of Natural Waters “ wrote that water is the main volatile component contained in magmas, far exceeds the number of other components and significantly affects the changes in the chemical and physical properties of rocks and melts. In the monograph “Problems and origins and evolution of the Biosphere” [1]. In the section “What is life” on the diagram of the Initial stage of the evolution of life, it was indicated that the primary environment on Earth contained hv minerals, H2 O, CO2 , CO, CH4 , NH3 . Water has always stood out in the first place. In the book “Fluids in the Earth’s Crust”, he provides literature data on the water content in various layers of the Earth’s crust [2]. In the Earth’s crust, the amount of water up to a depth of 20 km is not less than 8%, and the amount of water up to 60 km does not decrease [Vernadsky, 1960]. In more recent studies, the amount of water in the “granite” layer is 0.5-1.5%, in “basalt” - 0.1-0.7%, [E. S. Gavrilenko and V. F. Dorpholz, 1971 The average water content in the rocks of the subcrustal layer of the upper mantle and the lower part of the earth’s crust is 0.3-0.5%. This approach allows us to judge only the presence of bound water in the rocks and does not indicate the content of free water [2]. Many works have been devoted to the experimental study of the water content
18 Why Did Supermassive Black Holes Already Exist In The Early Universe? , Horst Fritsch
Recent observations show that there are many more and much older black holes than previously known. What is particularly puzzling is that supermassive black holes containing more than a billion solar masses already existed in the very early universe. To date, there is no conclusive explanation for how such gravity monsters could have been created in such a short time after the Big Bang. The “Cosmic Time Hypothesis (CTH)” offers a solution to this problem [1]. According to this hypothesis, the early universe had much more time at its disposal than according to the “present-time scale” and the material-condensing forces were much stronger than now. Therefore, objects with extremely large masses could form in a very short “todaytime”.
19 Significant Waning of Active Cases of Covid-19 With High Recovery After Three Months of Complete Lockdown: Plausible Implication On Emergence of Herd Immunity in The Population , Prabir Chakravarty*
COVID-19 is fast spreading around the globe in a highly contagious manner. Until date there are no therapeutic agents/vaccines developed which could control this highly infectious virus from spreading among human population. Our earlier studies showed that implementation of prolonged lockdown had a profound effect on the rate of spread of COVID-19 in the population. The observed increase in doubling time of COVID-19 with a high recovery rate following complete Lockdown reflected that protective immunity may be present in the population. In this article, the data from three months following completion of Lockdown was considered. The results reflected that there was a significant down trend in the rate of COVID-19 with high recovery rate reaching up to 83% of the affected cases of COVID-19 by September 30, 2020. The projection made from the data up to 30 November, 2020, pointed towards continued decrease in active cases of COVID-19. Concomitant with this result, the recovery from COVID-19 reached to ~90% by end of October, 2020. The significance of the above mentioned results with rapid fall in active cases from end of September 30, 2020, in spite of increased testing for COVID-19 in generating immunity against COVID-19 is discussed.
20 A Neuroscientific Study of the Brain Stimulator and Simulation Model to Predict Breakfast PPG Using GH-Method: Math-Physical Medicine , Gerald C Hsu
To prove his hypothesis in this paper, the author interprets the brain stimulator and its associated simulation model of predicted breakfast postprandial plasma glucose (PPG) via a food or meal segmentation analysis and Sensor PPG waveform characteristics study.
21 A Neuroscientific Study of the Brain Stimulator and Glucose Simulation Model to Analyze High-Protein Meals Using GH-Method: Math-Physical Medicine , Gerald C Hsu
To prove his hypothesis in this paper, the author interprets the brain stimulator and its associated simulation model of predicted postprandial plasma glucose (PPG) using meal case studies with three different kinds of high protein.
22 Comparison of the distribution pattern of metastatic bone disease and Skeletal related events between breast and prostate cancer: A retrospective study in Khartoum Oncology Hospital 2020 , Mosab Ahmed Abker Adam1,2*, Alaa Othman Awadalkareim Gasmalla2,3, Noura Mohamed Hassan Mohamed4 and Wagas Abbas Mohamed Ahmed Mansour2,5
Annotation Background: Bone metastasis (BM) and its consequence skeletal-related events (SREs) are the most common cause of cancer pain and disability. In this study, we compare the distribution pattern of BM and SREs in breast cancer (BC) and prostate cancer (PC). Materials and Method: A Retrospective study in Khartoum oncology hospital of the medical record from 29 September 2019 to March 2020. Demographic and clinical information extracted from the medical records of eligible patients in the last 5 years 2015-2019 included age, sex, social habits, duration of breast and prostate cancer, duration of treatment, site of BM, and SREs if present. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS, Version 22.0. (IBM, USA). Results: Out of 3216 patients, medical records 71.8% diagnosed with BC and 28.2% diagnosed with PC.5.6% had to BM the ratio between the breast and prostate is 1:4, Both cancers commonly metastasize to Spinal and pelvic bones. In comparison between BC and PC, the common site for BM according to the affected segment is lumber 48.8%, thoracic 32.9%, and pelvic 32.9% in BC. While in the PC: 56.9%, 50.5%, and 42.2% for lumbar, pelvic, and thoracic vertebrae respectively. SREs occur in 45.7% and 63.3% of BC and PC patients respectively. Conclusion: Based on high incidence BM in the BC and PC, screening for BM as soon as cancer diagnosed should be done promptly. Skeletal complications signs should always be considered as a matter of priority, as it has an impact on patient quality of life.
23 Using GH-Method: Math-Physical Medicine to Calculate Individual Metabolism Category’s Score for Maintaining General Health from the Endocrinology Viewpoint , Gerald C Hsu
The author developed his GH-Method: math-physical medicine (MPM) by applying mathematics, physics, engineering modeling, and computer science (big data analytics and AI) to derive the mathematical metabolism. This study provides quantitative details of 10 metabolic categories for the metabolism index to achieve a better score for the 90-days moving average from the endocrinology viewpoint.
24 Using GH-Method: Math-Physical Medicine to Investigate Different Contribution Margins of Fasting Plasma Glucose vs. Postprandial Plasma Glucose on HbA1C , Gerald C Hsu
This paper displays results of the contribution margin calculation of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) vs. postprandial plasma glucose (PPG) on HbA1C. The dataset is provided by the author, who uses his own type 2 diabetes metabolic conditions control, as a case study via the “math-physical medicine” approach of a nontraditional methodology in medical research. Math-physical medicine (MPM) starts with the observation of the human body’s physical phenomena (not biological or chemical characteristics), collecting elements of the disease related data (preferring big data), utilizing applicable engineering modeling techniques, developing appropriate mathematical equations (not just statistical analysis), and finally predicting the direction of the development and control mechanism of the disease.
25 A Study on SARS-CoV-2 Penetration Process and Pathogenesis Analysis based on the Biological Mechanism as well as Medication to Alleviate the Impacts on Human Body , Ahmed Yesvi Rafa1 *, Dr Mauro Luisetto2 , Naeem Musa3 , Omar Bin Arif4 , Ahnaf Ilman5 and Tazwan Haque6
The related penetration and fusion process of SARS-CoV-2 is very outstanding to observe with some pathogenesis and biological feature of the very respiratory viral disease from the aspect of virology and bioanalysis. Furthermore, very interesting to look at is SARS-COV-2, the largest RNA consistent Coronavirus with a substantial classification, sometimes found symptomatic or sometimes asymptomatic. To understand better, some additional figures are included here. Surely that SARS-COV-2 has a very complicated life cycle and genetic make-up and plasma therapeutic action is one of the successful fighters with the assistance of antigen. The role of Receptor Binding Domain and primary hosts in the diffusion of this disease is eventually undeniable.
26 A Study on SARS-CoV-2 Penetration Process and Pathogenesis Analysis based on the Biological Mechanism as well as Medication to Alleviate the Impacts on Human Body , Ahmed Yesvi Rafa1 *, Dr Mauro Luisetto2 , Naeem Musa3 , Omar Bin Arif4 , Ahnaf Ilman5 and Tazwan Haque6
The related penetration and fusion process of SARS-CoV-2 is very outstanding to observe with some pathogenesis and biological feature of the very respiratory viral disease from the aspect of virology and bioanalysis. Furthermore, very interesting to look at is SARS-COV-2, the largest RNA consistent Coronavirus with a substantial classification, sometimes found symptomatic or sometimes asymptomatic. To understand better, some additional figures are included here. Surely that SARS-COV-2 has a very complicated life cycle and genetic make-up and plasma therapeutic action is one of the successful fighters with the assistance of antigen. The role of Receptor Binding Domain and primary hosts in the diffusion of this disease is eventually undeniable.
27 Nanobiotechnology Advances in Oncology , Alain L Fymat
Nanobiotechnology advances in cancer treatment are discussed including detailed consideration of the several drugladen nanoparticles and the nanocarriers used to deliver them at cancerous sites. This burgeoning field is contrasted with conventional chemotherapy and its clinical advantages set forth. New directions for improving the technology are also charted, but caution is noted regarding its potential toxic effects and the correspondingly associated need for more studies.
28 Importance of Advanced Glycation End Products (AGE) in Human Disease and Diagnosis , Myat Thu Thu Win
Advanced Glycation End (AGE) is a product of non-enzymatic reaction between reducing sugars of carbonyls and proteins. AGE accumulates with age. It may be derived from methylglyoxal (MG), glyoxal, and 3-deoxyglucosone (3DG) groups. AGEs are chemically heterogeneous group of compounds with only 25 AGE structures fully characterized. Among these Nε-carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) is the simplest and best characterized AGE. It is involved in the pathophysiological conditions like diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, atherosclerosis and aging disease like Alzheimer disease. So, it is important to measure the AGE level in human diseases. Skin autofluorescence (AF) is a noninvasive measurement of AGE accumulation. In this review, different methods of determination of AGE level in human will be discussed because of standard method of measurement of AGE have not been established yet. It is suggested that AGE may play an important in assessing diagnosis, prognosis and prevention of some high risk disease in near future.
29 Prevalence of Breast Cancer Intrinsic Subtypes and Its Association with Clinico-Pathological Feature , Rufina Soomro1 *, NailaZahid2 and Nadeemkhurshaidi3
Breast cancer is the commonest cancer in women worldwide and represents a highly heterogeneous group of tumours particularly in terms of molecular features, prognosis and response to therapy. Breast cancer molecular classification can predict the prognosis of breast cancer in terms of recurrence and help and guide us regarding the treatment decision about systemic therapy. Breast carcinomas may be stratified into subtypes similar to those defined by Gene expression profiling using a panel of immune-histochemical (IHC) markers. Routine IHC evaluations of breast cancers may, therefore, provide a reasonable alternative to costly genetic assays especially in under-resourced healthcare systems. The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence of molecular subtypes and correlate it to clinic-pathological features. Methods: From 2005 to 2017 total of 4847 Breast cancer patients, in whom complete information was available to classify them into luminal subtypes were retrieved and classified into intrinsic subtypes and patients information in each type was collected about age, tumour size, stage, grade and nodal status. Results: In luminal classification, a highly significant difference was found in mean age (p<0.001) tumour size (p<0.001), grade, metastasis and Ki67. The statistical significance of Her 2 positive and triple negative was found with stage, grade, metastasis and Ki67. Conclusions: IHC assignment into Luminal subtypes is clinically informative in our patients and routinely using this in our practice could identify patients that may need a more aggressive treatment to reduce the likelihood of recurrences.
30 Isolation and Quantification of Nanovesicles in Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Infarcted Rats , Aviwe Ntsethe*, Irene Mackraj, Saravanakumar Murugesan and Arunagiri Pandiyan
Introduction and Aim: Myocardial infarction (MI) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The pathogenesis and aetiology of MI is still unclear and there is currently no cure for MI. Cardiac troponin is the only well-known cardiac-specific marker for the diagnosis of MI but due to the delayed release of troponin in the circulation, a novel cardiac biomarker is needed in the early stages of development of MI to reduce MI mortality. Recently, it has been reported that exosome concentration is highly regulated by stress and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). We assessed the hypothesis that exosome secretion by the injured cardiomyocytes is increased during MI and thereby serve as biomarker for MI. The aim of this study was to quantify exosomes in an isoproterenol (ISO)-induced MI rats. Method: Twelve rats were divided into two groups (group A and B). Group-A (n=6) was the normal control rats and group-B (n=6) was the ISO-treated group. Group-B animals were injected with isoproterenol (85mg/kg/bw) for two consecutive days to induce MI. Blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR) and body weight were monitored for 7 days in all animals prior the ISO injection and throughout the experiment. After second ISO-injection, all animals were sacrificed and blood, heart tissues were obtained. Histopathological analysis was performed in heart tissue samples and levels of cardiac markers (creatine kinase-MB, lactate dehydrogenase and troponin T) were measured from the serum. Exosomes were isolated from the plasma by differential ultracentrifugation. Exosomes were quantified and characterized using nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), transmission electron microscope (TEM) study and ELISA for the quantification of circulating exosomal protein (CD63). Result and Discussion: ISO injection caused the development of MI and was confirmed by the increase in BP, Cardiac markers (cardiac troponin T, lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase). NTA together with TEM analysis revealed particle sizes of the exosome and showed an elevated number of the exosome in ISO-treated animals. Levels of exosomal protein (CD63) were also increased in ISO-treated animals. Conclusion: The concentration of exosomes was increased in MI rats indicating that circulating exosomes may be used as a novel diagnostic marker for MI.
31 The Discovery of the “Skipping Generations” Phenomenon , Mouza Mohammed AlFashti AlAleeli*
Statement of the Problem: The demanding need to discover someone’s identity is not possible with the nuclear DNA especially when the traces are highly degraded, since the nuclear DNA is destroyed in these conditions. Only the mitochondrial DNA that is inherited maternally can survive in these compromised conditions. The purpose of this study is to find a genetic commonality between UAE nationals. Methodology and Theoretical Orientation: 150 buccal swabs of unrelated UAE female students (approved by the UAE ID) of Sharjah Higher Colleges of Technology were collected and kept at room temperature for a period of three months or longer; to destroy the nuclear DNA, so only the mtDNA is present. mtDNA testing was performed on these buccal swabs, and it’s consisting of DNA Extraction, Real-Time quantitative PCR, Cycle sequencing and Capillary electrophoresis. The ABI PRISM®310 Genetic Analyzer capillary autosequencer [ABI PRISM® SeqScape® Soft-ware Version 2.6] was used to generate the mitochondrial DNA profiles. Findings: From these haplotype data, a total of 229 polymorphisms were observed carefully. 106 different polymorphisms were identified out of them, and classified into unique and common polymorphisms. Interestingly, two individuals from the study subjects lacked unique polymorphisms. Conclusion and Significance: It’s impossible for anyone to preserve their mtDNA from their great ancestors till now. The discovery of the remains of the Romanov family back in 1991 concluded that the comparison of mtDNA that is more than three generations old is more likely to get at least one mutation in the current generation. Therefore, if a vertical study is done on those two individuals with their older generations, definitely they will have unique polymorphisms compared to their older generations. Those two individuals are the effect of “Skipping Generations” phenomenon, the term that I have invented to solve the mystery of having two individuals with no unique polymorphisms.
32 Biologics in Autoimmune Disease , Sandra Simic*
Biologics are the drugs whose active substance is produced or excreted from the biological sources - human, animal or microbiological. Advanced biologics are highly complex molecules. Development and production are very demanding - manufactured in carefully supervised and monitored conditions (including the many steps necessary to obtain a consistent product).
33 Carbon Nanotubes Properties and Applications , Salah OUDJERTLI
Nanotubes have never ceased to make object of research around the world. The scientific community has high hopes on these nanomaterials seen their exceptional properties and their various applications. They are so successful is because they have properties unsurpassed in many areas. They have excellent properties which can be used in many applications extending from macroscopic to nano composite materials. Here we present an overview of the different properties of these nanomaterials and their applications.
34 Transition Metal Complexes/Organometallic Compounds as Anticancer/Anti HIV Drugs , Prakash MMS Kinthada
Inorganic chemotherapy has been considerably boosted in recent years by the discovery and exploitation of antitumor compounds based on platinum. Some Gold(III) complexes display similar chemistry. Pharmacological activity to cis-platin and its analogues are now the basis of multimillion dollars industry and bring benefit to thousands of cancer patients. Platinum based anticancer drugs induce normal tissue toxicity particularly to the kidneys and thus alternative metal compounds are presently being evaluated in clinical trials
35 The Purpose of Temperature of Fever , KM Yacob
All human beings and animals and amphibians affected by fever plenty of times in their life time. Hitherto the aim and target for rise of temperature in the case of fever has been subject to innumerable research works by lots of medical universities of international repute. But unfortunately the purpose of rise of temperature has not been found. Modern medical scientists have concluded that the purpose of rise of temperature couldn’t be found [1]. A scientific approach is necessary to evaluate and treat fever. My research to find the purpose of rise of temperature of fever. Even though now we are living with a lot of fevers with different names like Leptospira, Swine flu, Chikungunya, etc., the symptoms of fever patients have many things in common. That means there is a scientific basis, which is common for all these fevers and can be used to explain the secret of all fevers.
36 During Fever, Why Our Body Acts Against Facts of Physics? , KM Yacob*
All human beings and animals and amphibians affected by fever plenty of times in their life time. Now consider the following situations during fever1. 1. We do not like to drink cool water. 2. We do not like to take bath. 3. We do not feel taste for food. 4. The motion output will very less. 5. We feel tired. 6. Our body muscles shiver. Normally body temperature is 37 °C and atmospheric temperature is 33 °C in Kerala. During fever, body temperature increase to 40 °C and body starts shivering, even with the difference in temperature is just 7 °C. But without fever body may start shivering only if the atmospheric temperature is going below 17 °C, at temperature difference of 20 °C. So during fever just a 7 °C difference in temperature causes shivering, but without fever more than 20 °C required to shiver, why?
37 During Fever, Why Our Body Acts Against Facts of Physics? , KM Yacob*
All human beings and animals and amphibians affected by fever plenty of times in their life time. Now consider the following situations during fever1. 1. We do not like to drink cool water. 2. We do not like to take bath. 3. We do not feel taste for food. 4. The motion output will very less. 5. We feel tired. 6. Our body muscles shiver. Normally body temperature is 37 °C and atmospheric temperature is 33 °C in Kerala. During fever, body temperature increase to 40 °C and body starts shivering, even with the difference in temperature is just 7 °C. But without fever body may start shivering only if the atmospheric temperature is going below 17 °C, at temperature difference of 20 °C. So during fever just a 7 °C difference in temperature causes shivering, but without fever more than 20 °C required to shiver, why?
38 Office Hysteroscopy During COVID-19 Pandemic , Ewa Chotkowska, Paweł Piekarski*, Patrycja Gumuła, Tomasz Maciejewski, Tadeusz Issat
Background: Between April and December 2020 all admissions to the Office Hysteroscopy Unit in The Institute of Mother and Child, Warsaw, Poland, were tested for the Covid-19 infection. This retrospective cohort study presents the results of the RT-PCR testing for SARS-CoV-2. Material and methods: The study included 355 women qualified for the OH from April-2020 to December-2020. All patients who presented for the procedure were tested towards SARS-CO-V-2 48 hours before admission with RT-PCR nasopharyngeal swab tests (GeneFinder™-COVID-19-Plus-RealAmpKit. OSANG-Healthcare-Co.-Ltd., Gyeonggi-do, Korea). The testing protocol included repeated testing in case of inconclusive or positive results. The data from operative procedures was collected and analyzed. Results: Of 318 women presented for the OH 12 patients presented abnormal results of RT-PCR SARS-CoV-2 testing: 3 (0,94%) positive and 9 inconclusive (2,8%). All patients with positive and 3 with inconclusive results refused repeated testing; in remaining 6 patients repeated testing showed negative result. The total of 312 SARS-CoV-2-negative women underwent OH. The mean age was 48,0±13,2 years and 134 (42,9%) were after menopause. In 5(1,6%) patients endometrial cancer was found. Conclusions: Of the 318 women who were tested before OH in 3 (0.94%) RT-PCR SARS-CoV-2 testing showed positive result, while in 5(1,6%) of 312 patients who underwent OH endometrial cancer was found. Results of our study suggest that in COVID-19 pandemic conditions office hysteroscopy preceded with universal RT-PCR screening towards SARSCoV-2 could be the adequate tool to meet the need for appropriate care in women with abnormal symptoms related to the intrauterine pathology.