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Communication in Physical Sciences

Journal Papers (34) Details Call for Paper Manuscript submission Publication Ethics Contact Authors' Guide Line
1 Repositioning the Bioactive Compounds Isolated from Bauhinia Galpinii Leaves as Potential Inhibitors Against Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) II Protease Through Application of In Silico Studies   , Victor Okezie Ikpeazu, Amaku James Friday, Kalu K. Igwe and Ifeanyi E. Otuokere,  
The global health implication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) II protease has posed an unmatched health challenge provoking increasing interest in search, design and development of new.  Therapeutic agents with the capacity to curb the spread of the disease.  The bioactive compound in the leaf extract of Bauhinia galpiniiand were investigated for inhibitory activity against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) II protease using molecular docking technique.  Result obtained from the docking analysis revealed that 24-isopropylcholest-5-en-3, 8-diol-1hsh interacted with binding energies of -5.6 Kcal/mol and was selected as the lead molecule.  This molecule was observed to interact with PRO81, ILE84, ALA28, ASP29, ASP30, ILE32, MET76, VAL47, GLY48, GLY49 and ILE50  within the active site of the 1hsh.  ADME prediction revealed that the lead molecule obeys the Lipinski rule without any violation and had a 0.55 bioavailability score.  The blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeant and gastrointestinal absorption (GI) were hindered and low, respectively.  The study concluded that 24-isopropylcholest-5-en-3, 8-diol is a promising candidate for the development of HIV drug
2 Synthesis of an azo dye and its cobalt complex derived from 3-aminophenol                  , Gideon Wyasu*, Bako. Myek, Avong Chrisantus George  and Sunday Moses  
An azo dye derived from 3-aminophenol and its cobalt complex have been synthesized and characterized using Fourier transformed and ultraviolet visible spectrophotometer. The ligand (dye) exhibited an absorption maximum at 470 nm but the absorbance maxima for the synthesized Schiff base complex deviated from 470 to 473 nm which indicated the existent of interaction between the cobalt and the ligand to form metal-dye complex. Moreover, the infrared absorbance band for -N=N- stretching vibration at 1513.3 cm-1 for azo dye nut in the complex the frequency shifted to 1457.4 cm-1. The calculated percentage yield of the azo dye was found to be 84% while that of its cobalt complex was 59%.    
3 Review of Reverse Osmosis as Green Technology against Water Supply: Challenges and the way Forward             , Ahamefula A. Ahuchaogu* and Chukwuemeka T. Adu
Contaminated water can be treated and be re-used but where portable water supply is not available, implementation of reverse osmosis technology is capable of increasing the volume of water supply. This paper reviewed the technology behind reverse osmosis, their proportional utilization, methods classification, expected technical problems and solutions that are connected with its operation. Desalination is admitted as one of the major application areas of reverse osmosis program.  The review acknowledges fouling, scale formation and corrosion as the major challenges that can hinder the operation of reverse osmosis plants and recommended precautional methods during design, testing and implementation of reverse osmosis plants.
4 Heavy metals contamination of Anambra River       Emeka Chima Ogoko*, Nkoli Mgbemana, Henrietta Ijeoma Kelle and Osiri Amarachi Jonah   , Emeka Chima Ogoko*, Nkoli Mgbemana, Henrietta Ijeoma Kelle and Osiri Amarachi Jonah
The need for continuous monitoring of the influence of heavy metal rich waste on the quality of water from Anambra is necessary because the river plays major roles in the life of the people. Concentrations of some heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, As, Cd, Pb, Ni, Mn and Hg) were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer Cd and the results obtained were compared with permissible limits stipulated by some regulatory bodies (Standard Organization of Nigeria, European Union and World Health Organization standards). The results obtained indicated observable mean concentrations of 0.046, 0.032, 0.032, 0.151, 0.032, 0.053, 0.031, 0.032, 0.060 and 0.030 mg/L for Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, As, , Pb, Ni, Mn and Hg respectively. The measured concentrations of Cd, Pb, Ni, Mn and Hg were comparable higher than WHO, SON and EU permissible limits. The concentration of Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn and As were lower than WHO maximum contamination levels. The pollution index of Cd, Pb, Ni, Mn and Hg were above threshold value of 1.0, indicating high level of contamination of water samples from Anambra River.  
5 Effect of Isoberlina Wood Fillers on the Mechanical and Thermal Properties of PVC Composites       ,   Uwaisu Yusuf, Paul A. P. Mamza and Casimir E. Gimba Uwaisu Yusuf, Paul A. P. Mamza and Casimir E. Gimba
Mechanical and thermal properties of Isoberlina (IS) wood reinforced polyvinyl chloride composites have been studied. The IS fibre was treated with sodium hydroxide solution to boast the adhesion between the hydrophilic natural fibre and the hydrophobic plastic matrix. The percentage fibre loading was varied from 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 to 24. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) technique was used to investigate the effect of Isoberlina wood powder on the thermal properties of polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The mechanical properties: ultimate tensile strength (UTS), elastic modulus and hardness showed an extensive improvement compared to the unreinforced PVC. DMA results showed that composite with 12 wt % IS have higher glass transition temperature and better stiffness stability at elevated temperature than the unreinforced PVC. Isoberlina wood powder can thus serve as a valuable reinforcement in the development of polymer composites.
6 Biosynthesis of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Using Solenostemon Monostachyus Leaf Extract and its Antimicrobial Activity       Elisha Karu, Buhari Magaji*, Zaccheus Shehu, and Hadiza Abdulsalam   , Elisha Karu, Buhari Magaji*, Zaccheus Shehu, and Hadiza Abdulsalam
A simple and rapid biosynthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) obtained using Solenostemon monostachyus leaf extract. The ZnO NPs was characterised by UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy/Energy dispersed X-ray, Fourier Transform Infra-red and X-ray Diffraction techniques. The UV-visible spectrum showed a maximum absorption peak at 350 nm which is typical for ZnO NPs and was ascribed to the excitation of Surface Plasmon Resonance phenomenon. FTIR Spectroscopy revealed a broad peak around 3455 cm-1 which was attributed to OH stretching vibration (υOH) that is probably from alcohols, flavonoids and phenols. X-ray Diffraction studies were observed at 2θ = 11.1°, 13.8°, 16.7°, 25.1°, 28.9° and 44.0°. The X-ray spectrum indicated typical for crystalline nanoparticles. Calculated nano particle size was 23.06 nm and was within the literature range for nano zinc oxide. The synthesized NPs exhibited significant antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus but exhibited moderate activity against Klebsiella pneumonia and Salmonella typhimurium. Significant antifungal activity was also observed against Aspergellus niger and Candida albican
7 Absorption of Solar Infrared Radiation by Tropospheric Water Vapour in Abeokuta Southwest of Nigeria       Olusegun Sowole* and Funke Roseline Amodu   , Olusegun Sowole* and Funke Roseline Amodu
   Absorption of infrared radiation through variation of water vapour transmittance with altitude in the atmosphere for radiation in the 6.3mm absorption band was studied using Goody model on pressure and temperature at different altitudes (0-16 km) for four months; (March, May, August and September, 2019) in Abeokuta metropolis. Computed results indicated, showed that water vapour transmittance decreased with increase in altitude (Z) at 2 km < Z ≤ 16 km (throughout the study period) due to absorption of infrared radiation by water vapour in the troposphere. The observed trend was attributed to the effect of warming on the lower troposphere     
8 Evaluation of mineral in the indigenous and industrially produced soya milk in Anyigba, Kogi State       , A. Yahaya, G. Ayeni, A. U. Ochala, R. A. Larayetan,  A.D. Onoja, T. C. Omale, V.F. Omale and J.A. Akor  
The aim of this research is to assess some mineral elements in both local and commercial produced soya milk. The samples from locally and industrially produced soy milk were digested with nitric acid and determined at appropriate wavelength with atomic absorption spectroscopy. The mean concentrations (mg/kg) of the selected elements are: 180 ± 0.02 (K), 1.50 ± 0.02 (Mg), 0.63 ± 0.01 (Fe), 1.50 ± 0.01 (Zn) and 4.90 ± 0.01 (Mn) but Na was not detectable (ND) in local soy milk. Whereas the mean concentrations (mg/kg) in commercially produced soy milk are 160 ± 0.01 (K), 2.12 ± 0.02 (Fe), and 2.63 ± 0.01 (Mn) but Na, Mg and Zn were ND.  The concentrations of these elements were compared with Food and Agriculture Organization as well as World Health Organization nutritional recommendation standards, in order to ascertain their regulatory compliance. The results showed that locally made soy milk was rich in micro-nutrients than the commercially produced ones and also, a good source of Mg and Zn.    
9 Sorption Studies on the Removal of Industrial Dye Aniline Yellow From Aqueous Solution Using Surfactant Modified Iron Filings         Comfort M. Ngwu*, Okoche K. Amadi, Augustine C. Egwu and Ebelechi C. Lucy   , Comfort M. Ngwu*, Okoche K. Amadi, Augustine C. Egwu and Ebelechi C. Lucy
The potential of iron filings for efficient removal of aniline yellow (a cationic dye) from aqueous solutions was investigated. The iron filings were characterized by XRD, SEM and FTIR techniques. To remove aniline yellow, the surface of the iron filings was modified with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as an anionic surfactant. Also, the various parameters affecting dye removal were investigated and optimized. Dye adsorption equilibrium data fitted well into Temkin isotherm and Redlich Peterson isotherm. The adsorption process was pH-dependent and the results indicate that the optimum pH for maximum adsorption occurred at pH 8.0 for the modified and pH 6.0 for the unmodified adsorbents having   maximum   removal efficiencies of   95.5 and 82 % respectively. Kinetic studies for aniline yellow adsorption showed rapid sorption dynamics according to the second-order kinetic model, suggesting that chemisorption must have played a major role in the adsorption process. Studies on the effect of temperature showed that adsorption capacity increased with increase in temperature for both adsorbents. The results indicate that, SDS-coated iron filings can be used as a cheap and efficient adsorbent for removal of cationic dyes from aqueous solutions.  
10 Preliminary Screening of Medicinal plants in Nigeria for Phytochemicals and Essential Oils Constituents     Musa  Runde   , Musa  Runde
Applications of plant extracts for medicinal purpose is based on its phytochemical and essential oil components. Therefore, this study was designed to screen some medicinal plants that are typical to Nigerian environment for their essential oil and phytochemicals constituents. The tests results indicated that methanolic extract of the stem bark/leaves of Bosweillia dalzielii, Ocimum americanus, Hyptis spicigera, Hyptis suaveolens, Eucalyptus cammaldulensis, vossia cuspidata, Lavandula officinalis, Cinnamondedrone cubenes, D. microcarpun, D. Mespilisformis, Isoberlinia doka, L. korstringi, and K. sengalensis contain basic metabolite and essential oils. The essential oil content deduced from steam distillation indicated significant concentrations in the studied plants
11 Chemical Information from GCMS of Ethanol Extract of Solanum melongena (Aubergine) Leaf       Emeka Chima Ogoko   , Emeka Chima Ogoko
Aubergine is often regarded as a local vegetable that is rarely consumed in Nigeria and other countries of the world. However, based on some nutritional data reported for this plant, the present study is aimed at investigating the phytochemical constituent of ethanol extract of this vegetable using GCMS. The results obtained indicated that ethanol extract of aubergine contains  1,1,3-trimethyl-cyclopentane (1.66%), alpha-undecane(2.21%),3,5-di-t-butylphenol(4.42%),6-methyl-1-heptanol (1.38%), dimethylmalononitrile (0.28%),  (5Z)-9-methyl-5-undecene (1.10%),metholene 2216 (11.60%), n-hexadecanoic acid (4.97%), ethyl stearate (2.21%), methyl linolelaidate (17.96%), methyl ester 9-octadecanoic acid (18.78%), 13Z)-13-octadecenal (8.29%), trans-3-oxabicyclo[4,4,0] decane -(6.63%), 5-methyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyra -zine (1.66%), oleamide (2.49%), E-9-tetradecenal (5.52%) and  2,6-dimethyl-1,5-heptadiene (8.84%).  Most of the detected phytochemicals have several biological activities such as antimicrobial, anticancer, antiepileptic and other activities. Some were found to have some industrial roles indicating that much can be derived from this vegetable than it is currently known.
12 Validation of Perception of Some Nigerians on the Origin and Use of Phyto-remedies in Management of Covid 19; An Overview of Social Media Respondents Musa Runde , Musa Runde
In 2019, a novel respiratory tract disease causing microorganism, SARS-COV 2 was reported with origin traced to some species of bat in WuhanChina. The first case of this disease was reported in Nigeria on the 27th of February 2020. A lot of speculations were posted on social media on the origin, management and existence of COVID 19. This study is designed to assess the perception of some Nigerians on COVID 19 and to validate the claim on the use of some plants formulation for the treatment of this disease. An online view of the perception and speculation of some Nigerians were obtained from the surveymonkey URL https://www.surveymonkey.com/r/7T9KNSB. 10 structured questions were designed and administered to respondent with the aim of drawing information on the origin of COVID 19, public perception on the management of COVID 19 with phytomedicines and prevention approach against COVID 19. The validation of the origin of SARSCOV 2 virus and its management was sustained by available literature. This study reveals that little or no knowledge on the origin of SARS-COV 2 was demonstrated by the respondents. The claim management approach of the COVID 19 did not correspond with the existing literature relating the activities of the plants phytochemical constituents on various viral species.
13 Theoretical and Biochemical Information studies on Compounds Detected in GCMS of Ethanol Extract of Chromolaena odorate Leaf       Augustine Odiba Aikoye   , Augustine Odiba Aikoye
In order to investigate the presence of chemical and biological active molecules in Chromolaena odorate leaf, ethanol extract of the was subjected to GCMS analysis. The results obtained indicated that most abundant phytochemicals detected in the GCMS analysis of ethanol extract of Chromolaena odorate  leaf were octadecanoic acid (11.35%), methyl elaidate(19.02%) and  erucic acid (20.55%). Others were   6-methyl-1-heptanol, 3-tetradecene, phenol 3,5-bis(1,1-dimethyl)- (3,5-di-tert-butylphenol), 1-methyl-2-(3-methylpentyl)-cyclopropane, 9-methyl-5-undecene, iminodiacetonitrile, metholene, 2-ethyl-heptanoic acid, 1-nitrododecane, 4,4-dimethyl-cyclohex-2-en-1-ol, cyclohexylpropanamide, nobilinem6-hydroxy, decamethylene glycol, 3,3,5-trimethyl-1,4-hexadiene and 1,1,3,3-tetramethylcyclopentane. Application of physicochemical and molecular descriptors analysis indicated that nobiline, 6-hydroxy is leaf the most reactive component of the phytochemical while 1,1,3,3-tetramethylcyclopentane is the least reactive. Chemical and biological activities of the compounds in ethanol extract of Chromolaena odorate leaf have been documented in this work. Docking of some of the biological active component is recommended for further study.    
14 Alternative Ratio-Product Type Estimator in Simple Random Sampling          , Yahaya Zakari, Isah Muhammad and Najmuddeen Muhammad Sani 
In this paper, we proposed a new alternative ratio-product estimator in simple random sampling without replacement by using information on an auxiliary variable. The proposed estimator is a mixture of some of the commonly known estimators. We have derived the minimum mean square errors up to the first order of approximation. Theoretically, we compare the mean square error (MSE) equation of the proposed estimator with the mean square error (MSE) equations of the existing estimators in literature. Numerical examples with four real data sets shows that the proposed estimator is more efficient than the existing other estimators considered. Therefore, the findings of this research are important in identifying alternative ratio-product exponential estimator, its properties, as well as relevant empirical applications.  
15 Comparism Between Analytical and Numerical Result of Stability Analysis of a Dynamical System     ,   Innocent C. Eli and Godspower C.  Abanum Innocent C. Eli and Godspower C.  Abanum
The system of ODE’s involving Sickle Cell, HIV and T-Cells are formulated with the aid of biological mathematical model. The eigen values are obtained to test for the trivial steady state solution or points using characteristic equation which is analytical. Finally, numerical simulations were carried out to test the level of reliability of the result
16 N-Myristoyl Transferase Inhibitors with Antifungal Activity in Quinolinequinone Series: Synthesis, In-silico Evaluation and Biological Assay         , Samuel A. Egu, Akachukwu Ibezim*, Efeturi A. Onoabedje, and Uchechukwu C. Okoro  
A series of anilino and aryl derivatives of quinolinequinone and naphthoquinone were synthesized via Pd catalysed cross-couplings. The results of docking the compound series towards the binding site of fungal N-myristoyl transferase (NMT) indicated that the quinones favourably interacted with the protein at binding free energy ranges of -5.14 to -8.01 kcal/mol. In addition, Candida albican and Candida anthra were susceptible to many of synthesized molecules in vitro, at MIC range of 1.60 -25 μg/ml. However, some of the compounds which had binding interaction with NMT in docking calculations fails to demonstrated measurable antifungal effect; and that highlights the importance of target-ligand complex stability dynamic situations that characterize biological system. Analysis of predicted binding modes revealed interesting structure-activity-relationship that can provide information on activity optimization process
17 Chemical Information from GCMS Analysis of Acetone Extract of Piper guineense Leaves. Part 1     Onyeije Ugomma Chibuzo* and Imeh Okop   , Onyeije Ugomma Chibuzo* and Imeh Okop
Applications of plant leaves for various purposes is based on its chemical constituents which may include proximate, elemental, phytochemical, toxicant, amino acid and other toxicants. Knowledge of phytochemical constituents is significant for their pharmaceutical/medicinal values. This study was carried out to investigate the chemical constituents of acetone extract of Piper guineense leaves through phytochemical screening and GCMS analysis. Results obtained from phytochemical screening indicated the major constituents (those whose concentrations were greater than 1%) to include ,6-dimethyloxazolo(5,4-c)pyridazin-4-amine (31.80 %), 3-(1-methylethyl)-cyclohexene (20.99 %), 4-methoxy-N-(4-nitrobenzyl)-benzamide (12.82 %), alpha bisabolene (7.33%), 1,2,3,4,4a,5,6,8a-octahydro-7-methyl-4-methylene-1-(1-methylethyl)-napthalene (4.42 %), 3,7-diacetamidophenoxathin (4.10 %), 1,3,3-trimethyl tricyclo{2,2,1]heptane (2.98%), 3H-indazol-3-one (2.11%), 1H-indene,octahydro-1,7a-dimethyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)-1,4-methano-1H-indene (1.98%), piperidine (1.97%),2,4-disopropenyl-1-methyl-1-vinyl (1.70%), n-hexadecanoic acid (1.68%), eudesdma-4[14],11-diene (1.27%). The pharmaceutical values of the identified constituents were also analsed. The study reveals that acetone extract of Piper guneense contains constituents that are not visible with some other solvents  
18 Nutritional Assessment of  Vigna unguiculata sub spp. sesquipedalis Seeds       M. Musah*, M.M. Ndamitso, H. Yerima, J. T. Mathew and G. O. Iwuchukwu   , M. Musah*, M.M. Ndamitso, H. Yerima, J. T. Mathew and G. O. Iwuchukwu
In order to access the nutritional value of Vigna unguiculata sub spp. sesquipedalis seeds, samples of the seeds were analysed for proximate, elemental, antinutritional factor and amino acid profile were determined using recommended methods.  The results obtained for proximate parameters were: %moisture content (7.40± 0.70); ash content (5.11±0.16), % crude fat (1.77± 0.03); % crude fibre (0.72±0.01), % crude protein (14.95±0.14), % crude carbohydrate (70.05±0.14) and the calorific value (355.93±0.03kcal/100g). The anti-nutritional factors had the following mean values: saponins (1.73±0.01 %), tannins (1.51±0.01 %), flavonoids (1.28±0.03 %), oxalates (0.10±0.00 %), and alkaloids (0.36±0.00 %). The functional properties were bulk density (0.89±0.03 g/cm3), emulsification capacity (56.40 ± 1.43 %), oil adsorption capacity (1.74±0.06 %), water adsorption capacity (3.17±0.92 %), foaming capacity (30.00±0.83 %). and foaming stability (18.00±0.81 %). The selected macro elemental composition of the sample were in the order: magnesium < sodium < calcium < phosphorus < potassium (2.60±0.28, 3.85±0.30, 5.15±0.55, 10.00±1.63 and 24.15±1.15) respectively and the selected micro elemental composition in sample were in the order: copper < zinc < manganese < iron (1.20±0.16, 3.10±0.26, 5.20±0.33 and 5.75±0.59) respectively. The amino acid profile indicated that glutamic acid had the highest value (13.55 g/100g), while cysteine was the lowest (0.78 g/100g). These values indicate that Vigna unguiculata sub spp. sesquipedalis has the tendency of being a good quality food
19 Computational Chemistry studies of some cyano(3-phenoxyphenyl) methyl isobutyrate derived insecticides and molecular design of novel ones         , Nnabuk Okon Eddy*, Rajni Garg, Femi Emmanuel Awe and Habibabt Faith Chahul
This work was designed to study some isobutyrate derived insecticides (using computational chemistry) and to designed novels ones using quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) model. PM 7 quantum chemical descriptors were calculated for cyhalothrin (CYH), fenpropathrin (FEP), cypermethrin (CYP), deltamethrin (DEL), permethrin (PEM) and cyfluthrin (CYF).  Calculated descriptors were frontier molecular energies (including the energy of the highest occupied molecular orbital (EHOMO), the energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (ELUMO) and the energy gap (DE)), the binding energy (EBind), the electronic energy (EElect), the hydration energy (EHyd) and logP.  Those descriptors that exhibited excellent correlations with the experimental LD50 values (of the studied insecticides) were used to derive quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR). Correlation between the theoretical and experimental LD50 values was excellent (R2 = 0.9500). The active sites of reactivity for the insecticides were identified through Fukui function analysis and were supported by their HOMO and LUMO diagrams. Based on the derived quantitative structure activity relationship, eleven (11) novel insecticides were designed and their theoretical activities (which ranged from 1319 to 5630 mg/kg) were comparable and better (in some cases) to the known insecticides. Therefore, quantitative structure activity approached can be effective in molecular design and modelling of insecticides.    
20 Chemical Information from GCMS Analysis of Acetone-Ethanol Extract of Piper guineense Leaf. Part 2     , Onyeije Ugomma Chibuzo* and Augustine Odiba Aikoye  
The need to know the different constituents of Piper  guineense  leaf extract through the use of different solvent is remarkable because solvents play significant role in the constituent that can be extracted from planr materials. GCMS analysis of Acetone-ethanol extract of  Piper guineense leaves indicated twenty one peaks which represented  2,3,6,7,7a-hexahydro-7a-methyl-5H-indene-5-one, alpha-cubebene, 1-ethenyl-1-methyl-2,4-bis(1-methylethenyl)-cyclohexane, caryophyllene, alpha caryophyllene, megastigma-7(E),9, 13-triene, eudesdma-4(14),11-diene, azulene, epsilon muurolene, di-t-butylacetylene, -cyclopentene -1-ethanol, 2,24-trimethyl, 2,6,6- trimethyl-3-(phenylthiol)cyclohep-4-enol, hexadecenoic acid, nonadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid, cyclohexylidenecyclohexane,, pyrrolo[3,2-c]pyridine-4(5H)-one, 4,5-dihydrobenzo[1,2-c:3,4-c’]bis[1,2,5]oxadiazole, piperidine, 3,7-diacetamidophenoxathin and 4-(6-methoxy-3-mythyl-2-benzofuran)-3-buten-2-one respectively. The most abundant components of the extract was di-t-butylacetylene (17.36%) and ,5-dihydrobenzo[1,2-c:3,4-c’]bis[1,2,5]oxadiazole (12.95%). Most of the  identified compounds were reported to possess strong biological activities. Compounds that has not been reported from GCMS analysis of the plant leaves using other solvent were also observed which confirmed that the missed  solvent (acetone-ethanol) is more effective in extracting phytochemicals in Piper guineense leaves than either of the solvent.  
21 Convergence Theorems for Modified Mann Reich-Sabach Iteration Scheme for Approximating the Common Solution of Equilibrium Problems and Fixed Point Problems in Hilbert Spaces with Numerical Examples           , Felicia. O. Isiogugu*, P. Pillay, C. C. Okeke, F. U. Ogbuisi  and P. U.Nwokoro
It is proved that the modified Reich-Sabach iteration scheme introduced recently by Isiogugu et al. in a real Hilbert space , converges strongly to a common element of the fixed point sets of a finite family of multi-valued strictly pseudocontractive-type mappings and the set of solutions of a finite family of equilibrium problems. This work is a continuation of the study on the computability of algorithms for approximating the solutions of equilibrium problems for bifunctions involving the construction of the sequences  and , from an arbitrary ,  The obtained results improve, complement and extend many results on equilibrium problems, multi-valued and single-valued mappings in the contemporary literature.
22 Targeting Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (Gsk3β) With Naturally Occurring Phytochemicals (Quercetin and its Modelled Analogue): A Pharmacophore Modelling and Molecular Docking Approach       , Amaku James Friday*, Ifeanyi E. Otuokere, Victor Okezie Ikpeazu, and Kalu K. Igwe
Molecular simulation is a significant tool in drug design and modelling. This work consists of a computational analysis through pharmacophore modelling and molecular docking techniques in order to predict the potential inhibitory activity of quercetin and its analogue.  The quercetin analogue QUT1, QUT2, QUT3, QUT4, QUT5, QUT6, QUT7, Quercetin, QUT8, QUT9 and QUT10 were noticed to have minimum energy values of -6.3 kcal/mol, -5.7 kcal/mol, -5.5 kcal/mol, -5.4 kcal/mol, -5.3 kcal/mol, -5.2 kcal/mol, -5.2 kcal/mol, -5.2 kcal/mol, -5.1 kcal/mol,, -5.0 kcal/mol, and +3.0 kcal/mol respectively.  Hence, QUT1 (7-(2,3-dihydroxycyclopropyl)-2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3,5-dihydroxy-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one) was selected as the lead molecule.  The ligand-receptor interaction study of the lead molecule revealed that QUT1 interacted with 15 amino acid residues (CYS 199, ALA 83, LEU 132, ASP 133, TYR 134, VAL 135, PRO 136, THR 138, ARG 141, ILE 62, VAL 61, VAL 110, VAL 70, GLN 72 and LEU 188 ) within the pocket of glycogen synthase kinase-3β.  With favourable ADME prediction of the lead molecule, is possible to conclude that 7-(2,3-dihydroxycyclopropyl)-2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3,5-dihydroxy-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one is a probable drug candidate for any disease in which synthase kinase-3β plays a key role in its cell replication
23 Colorimetric detection of Hg(II) ions present in industrial wastewater using zinc nanoparticle synthesized   biologically with Rauwolfia vomitoria leaf extract.         , Felicia Uchechukwu Okwunodulu*, Stella MbanyeakuUfearoh, Friday James Amaku and Angela Nwamaka Ani
This study highlights the synthesis of zinc nanoparticle using Rauwolfia vomitoria leaf extract for the colorimetric detection of Hg (II) ions in industrial wastewater. Characterization of zinc nanoparticlcles using UV-vis spectroscopy, revealed that maximum absorption was obtained at 219nm which indicated surface plasmon absorption of zinc nanoparticle. The XRD analysis of the zinc nanoparticle indicated that the zinc nanoparticles formed are crystalline in nature with a mixed irregular phase structure (polygonal and spherical) in shape. The average crystallite size of the zinc nanoparticle was found to be 57nm. FTIR analysis was carried out to ascertain the possible functional groups responsible for the reduction of zinc ion to zinc nanoparticle. The reduction was observed by the disappearance of C-O (due to ether) in the FTIR spectrum of the reduce compound, which that this functional group was involved in the reduction of zinc ions to zinc nanoparticle. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the morphology of the zinc nanoparticle possessed polygonal, spherical or faceted shape of various sizes that are agglomerated. Further magnifications revealed that these images possessed rough surfaces. Detection of Hg(II) ions in industrial wastewater using the colloidal zinc nanoparticle was feasible  even at very low concentration. However, absorption peak became more intense with increasing concentration. The results and findings of our study provide commendation for the use of economic synthesis of zinc nanoparticle in the detection of Hg (II) ions present in industrial wastewater.  
24 Bioactive phenolic compounds isolated in morus alba leaves as potential inhibitor of Hepatitis C Virus NS3 Protease: A molecular docking approach       , Amaku James Friday*, Ifeanyi E. Otuokere, Victor Okezie Ikpeazu, and Kalu K. Igwe  
The devastating impact of hepatitis C virus on liver demand the design and development of highly effective therapeutic agents.  Here, we employed computational tools to investigate the inhibitory activity of bioactive phenolic compounds isolated from Morus alba leaves against the hepatitis C virus NS3 protease.  Results obtained from docking study showed indicated that 3,4,5-trimethyoxyphenol-1-O-β-D-rhamnopyranoside had a favourable docking score of -6.6 kcal/mol and was selected as the lead molecule.  The ligand-receptor molecular interaction revealed that 3,4,5-trimethyoxyphenol-1-O-β-D-rhamnopyranoside interacted with HIS55, SER136, SER137, GLY135, LYS134, LEU133, VAL130, ALA155, ALA154, ARG153 and PHE152 at the active site of the target.  The pharmacokinetics and drug-likeness of the lead molecule reveal that 3,4,5-trimethyoxyphenol-1-O-β-D-rhamnopyranoside was soluble in all the class solvent employed for the assay.  Meanwhile, CYP1A2, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 Isoenzymes were not inhibited by 3,4,5-trimethyoxyphenol-1-O-β-D-rhamnopyranoside.  The lead molecule was also noticed to obey Lipinski’s, Egan, Veber and Muegge rules with 0.55 bioavailability score.  Hence, 3,4,5-trimethyoxyphenol-1-O-β-D-rhamnopyranoside have demonstrated drug-like characteristic and may have the capacity to inhibit hepatitis C virus NS3 Protease if subjected to in vitro and in vivo assay
25 Solar UV-Radiation Absorption by Stratospheric Ozone in Lagos Southwest of Nigeria         , Olusegun Sowole
Variation in ozone transmittance with altitude in the atmosphere for radiation in the 9.6mm absorption band was studied using Goody model on the data comprising of pressure and temperature at different altitudes (0-26km) for three months (including January, February and March, 2019) in Lagos, southwest of Nigeria. Computed results showed that ozone transmittance increased with altitude, except for the altitudes 8km< Z≤ 12km and 16km< Z≤ 26km for January, 8km< Z ≤ 12km, 14km< Z ≤ 16km and 22km< Z ≤ 26km for February, and  8km< Z ≤ 10km and 14km< Z ≤ 26km for March, due to absorption of solar UV- radiation by ozone (O3) indicating that stratospheric ozone was effective in the study area preventing living things from being destroyed by this radiation
26 Human Health Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues in Solanum lycopersicum Fruit Sold in Lagos Metropolis, South-West Nigeria       , Kelle Henrietta Ijeoma*, Oluade  Oludare Abiola and  Achem Daniel
Tomato is a vegetable that is eaten all over the world including Nigeria and in order to control infestation by pests, most tomato farmers use pesticides that may impart harmful effect on human. Consequently, this study was designed to assess pesticides residues and associated health risks in tomatoes sold in Lagos state. The result obtained indicated the presence of alpha and delta lindane, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, endrin, endosulfan, endosulfan sulphate and ether. Mean concentrations (mg/kg) and estimated daily intake (EDI) (mg/kg/day) of the pesticide residues were in the range of 0.0042 to 0.336 mk/kg and 7.5E- 6 to 2.3E-4 mg/kg/day respectively. The hazard quotient (HQ) ranged from 0.00024 to 17.77, while the hazard indices range from 1.00 to 18.92. The incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) for the pesticide residues ranged from 5E- 5 to 2.1E- 3. The mean concentration of most of the pesticide residues in the tomato samples were above their maximum residue limit (MRL) while some had estimated daily intake (EDI) above their established acceptable daily intake (ADI) and  hazard quotients  (HQ) above their safe value. The hazard indices (HI) and Incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) for the pesticide residues were above their safe values. The results and findings of the study indicate that there is need for continuous monitoring of pesticides residues in tomatoes and education of farmers on the uses of pesticides
27 Structural, Antimicrobial and in Silico Studies of Some Schiff Bases of Trans-paramethoxycinnamaldehyde Derivatives         , G. U. Kaior, N. J.  Nwodo, U. S. Oruma, A. Ibezim, A. E. Ochonogor, K. K. Onyia and N. L Obasi
Three Schiff bases viz; 3,5-bis[(E)-[(2E)-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-ylidene]benzoic acid (3,5-DA), 2-[(E)-[(2E)-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-ylidene]amino]phenol (OAP) and [3-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-allylidene]-[2-(2-{2-[3-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-allylideneamino]-ethoxy}-ethoxy)-ethyl]-amine (TPMC/DDE) are reported. The Schiff bases were synthesized from the condensation reaction of trans-paramethoxycinnamaldehyde and the primary amines (3,5-diaminobenzoic acid, 2-aminophenol and 1,8-diamino-3,6-dioxaoctane respectively), in dry methanol. The synthesized Schiff bases were characterized using UV-Visible, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), 1H, and 13C NMR spectroscopies. The In vitro antimicrobial screening of the Schiff bases were carried out on gram-positive bacteria: (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtillus) and gram-negative bacteria: (Pseudomonasaeruginosa, and Escherichia. coli strain13) and against the fungi, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans using the agar well diffusion method. The ligands 3,5-DA and OAP only showed activity against the fungus, Candida albicans with inhibition zone diameter (IZD) of 10 mm and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 5.0 mg/mL and 3.0 mg/mL respectively. The ligand, TPMC/DDE also showed varying activity against the bacteria, Pseudomonas aeroginosa with an IZD of 8.0 mm and MIC of 7.5 mg/mL while Escherichia coli displayed inhibition with an IZD of 10.0 mm and MIC of 1.9 mg/mL. According to molecular docking studies, the binding affinity of the compounds towards two validated antibiotic and antifungal drug targets (DD-transpeptidase–DDPT and N-myristyol transferase-NMT) were in agreement to their observed in vitro antimicrobial activities. Moreover, their retrieved binding poses explained intermolecular forces behind the interactions that exist between the proteins and the ligands, a knowledge which is very useful in structural modification for activity optimization
28 Experimental study of the removal of cobalt ion from aqueous solution using chitosan         , Augustine Odiba Aikoye ,  Ifiok D. Uffia and E. O. Udofia
High concentration of heavy metals (such as cobalt) can create serious environmental problems through pollution of the aquatic environment and subsequent magnification, accumulation and transfer to other components of the environment. In attempt to search for ecofriendly approach aimed at reducing concentration of cobalt in contaminated water. The effectiveness of chitosan for the removal of cobalt ion from aqueous solution was investigated with reference to concentration, period of contact and through the measurement absorbance before and after adsorption. We observed that chitosan has good adsorption surface for cobalt ion and the adsorption was facilitated through the N-H and C-O functional groups in the chitosan
29 Chemical synthesis and characterization of zinc, iron and carbon-based nanoparticles and their nanocomposites         , Comfort M. Ngwu, Steven A.  Odoemelam* and Jude C. Nnaji  
The wet chemical approach (an aspect of the bottom-up method) was used to synthesize  zinc oxide, magnetite and graphene oxide, graphene oxide/magnetite and chitosan/magnetite nanoparticles and their nanocomposites. The synthesized particles were characterized by FESEM/EDX, FT-IR and XRD techniques. Zinc oxide was obtained with a crystallite size of 9.0 nm. The synthesized magnetite particles had a crystallite particle size of 6.4 nm. Crystallite sizes obtained for GO, GO-magnetite and chitosan-magnetite were 7.9, 7.1 and 11.2 nm, respectively. The synthesized composite did not display any  phase change in the magnetite
30 Isolation and Characterization of Secondary Metabolite from the leaves Aspilia Africana (Pers.) C. D. Adams (Asteraceae)         , Ahamefula A. Ahuchaogu* and Okenwa U. Igwe
Aspilia africana is a medicinal plant used traditionally for treating various diseases. Phytochemical investigation of the methanol extract of the leaves has led to the isolation of squalene (hexamethyl-2, 6, 10, 14, 18, 22-tetracosahexa-ene) from the leaves of A. Africana and is known to possess significant antimicrobial activity, it has not been known to be previously isolated from Aspilia Africana. The structure of the component was elucidated based on the NMR and MS techniques and by comparison of their experimental data with literature.The purified compound was obtained by chromatographic method  
31 Tropospheric Concentrations of Methane Around A Quarry Site in Uturu, Abia State, Nigeria         , Prince O. Orji*, E. C. Okoro and C. D  Obiegbuna
Measurement of methane (CH4) concentration in ambient air at Setraco quarry site, Abia State (latitude 05⁰33 N and 06⁰03 N, and longitude 10⁰E and 07⁰29 E) was carried out in this work. The gas was measured using an automatic air sampler (EM-4 Type Multi-P detector). The measurements were made at three sampling points; the engine house, petrol/gas dispense station and crushing site for 12 weeks (7th August – 6th November, 2018) at one (1) hour interval per session for three sessions (morning, afternoon and evening) in a day. The results obtained indicated that concentrations of methane were higher in the quarrying sites than in the control and exhibited highest concentrations of methane in the petrol stations and in the crushing site of the quarry. Therefore, future risk of continuous engagement in the quarrying activities is advocated in this work and it is recommended that continuous monitoring of levels of methane around the quarry should be embarked upon.  
32 Proximate Composition of Leaf and Phytochemical Screening of Leaf, Stem and Root of Tridax procumbens Cultivated in North-East Nigeria.     M. Runde, M. H. Shagal and A.M. Gunda   , M. Runde, M. H. Shagal and A.M. Gunda
Proximate and phytochemical compositions of Tridax procumbens were investigated in order to ascertain their nutritional and other applications. The results obtained indicated the following proximate composition, ash (4.30 ± 0.007), moisture (5.00 ± 0.003), crude lipids (12.5 ±0.005), crude fiber (5.70 ± 0.005), crude protein (19.4 ± 0.008) and total carbohydrate (53.1 ± 0.046).  Phytochemical screening of acetone and aqueous extracts of the leaves, stem – bark and root of the plants (Tridax procumbens) indicated the presence of phyto-compounds in both extracts. Flavonoids were absent in leaves and stem-bark but presence in the root extracts. Glycosides and terpenoids were absence in the aqueous extracts.  However, the acetone extracts indicated the presence of terpenoid in the leaf. The results revealed that different parts of Tridax procumbens contain bioactive compounds that may have some therapeutic potential.  
33 Batch adsorption of Hg2+ and As3+ ions in Hospital wastewater using activated carbon from Balanites aegyptiaca and Detarium microcarpum           , Gideon Wyasu,  H.T Rumah,  and Sunday Moses
Hospital waste water has a great potential to pollute the environment and severely affect public health. In order to remediate the toxic impact of arsenic (III) and mercury (II) ions, activated carbon were prepared from Detarium microcarpum and Balanites aegyptiaca fruit shells using 2M ortho phosphoric acid and 2M zinc chloride as activating agents. The adsorption of Hg2+ and As3+ were investigated by varying the dosage of the adsorbent, pH and period of contact using batch adsorption experiment. Concentrations of Hg2+ and As3+ were determined using ICP-AES.  The results obtained indicated that all the adsorbent effectively removed As3+ and Hg2+ at varying experimental conditions. Optimum adsorption capacities were recorded at dosage values of 0.4 and 0.6 g for Hg2+ and As2+ respectively, pH of 6 and contact time between a0 and 15 minutes. Acitivated carbon synthesised from Detarium microcarpum using H3PO4 and ZnCl2 displayed better efficiencies than commercial activated carbon while others exhibited comparative adsorption efficiency. Therefore, the use of local materials can provide the needed technology that can help in the removal of hospital wastewater.
34 Production and Purification of Biogas Generated by Co-digestion of Cow Dung and Kitchen Waste           , M. Runde*, M. H. Shagal and Y. Abba
This study was designed to produce biogas from co-digestion of cow dung and kitchen waste. 20 litres digester and gas collection systems were prepared from locally available materials. The feed materials were collected locally, pre-fermented, digested and analysed. Purification of the produced biogas was carried out by passing the gas through three chambers containing 40% KOH, CaO. activated charcoal and silica gel/activated charcoal respectively. The flame of the combusting purified biogas was observed to be more intense than that of the freshly produced impure biogas both in colour and height. The study confirmed that biogas can easily be generated and purified using locally and cheaply available raw materials.