Colonial Bio-Politics andMedical Mission inNWFP: A Case ofDr. Pennell of Bannu Medical Mission
Tasleem Malik and Faiz Ali
This paper examines the colonial project of social control of the Pashtun body as seen through Foucauldian framework of biopower. This paper initiates debate into colonial health politics of NWFP and explores the biopolitical logic as to how the Pasthun subjectivities as medicalizable objects were constituted within the colonial missionary medicine discourses.It examines theontological consequences of such constructions. It further aims to explore the co-constitution of colonial agents and the authority of the missionary doctorover the body. This paper delvesinto the myriad of strategies and sites of medical intervention, as hospital, medical camp, home, school, body, culture, race and gender. It takes up in-depth analysis of the works of Dr. Pennell i.e. Mission Hospital Bannu and Life among Wild Tribes. The study proposes that the relations of colonial power with the Pashtun body as embedded in the medical missionary discourse were biopolitical in nature.Keywords:North Western Frontier region, medical missionaries, biopower, noso-politics, bio-other.
Amnesty programme and skills training among ex-militants in Nigeria
Agba, A.M. Ogaboh,John Thompson Okpa and Ogar, JamesAjor
Sequel to the realisation that youths champion violence and militancy in the Niger Delta Region, and the resolution of Umar Musa Yar’Aduas’ government to end insecurity, militancy, and youth restiveness in the region, the amnesty programme was declared, with skills training as itsmajor component.This study examined the relationship between amnesty programmes and skills training among ex-militants in the Niger Delta Region, Nigeria. The study used a cross-sectional survey research design. Questionnaires were distributed to 1152 participants purposively selected from communities in Rivers, Delta, and Bayelsa states. Elicited data were analysed using a simple linear statistical tool.The findings of the study revealthat amnesty programmes significantly enabled ex-militant to acquired skills in pipeline installation and repairs. It also showsthat amnesty programmes have apositive impact on the ex-militant acquisition of information technology skills. Further resultindicatesthat there is a significant relationship between amnesty programmes and ex-militant acquisition of automobile servicing skills.The study,therefore,concluded on the need for beneficiaries of the amnesty skills training to be supervised by experts in their field and should be provided with professional advice that would help build their confidence in their chosen career.Keywords:amnesty programmes, skills training, pipeline installation and repairs, automobile servicing
Determinants of Sectoral Growth in Pakistan:A KalmanFilter Based Time Varying Parametric Approach
Muhammad Ajmair, Khadim Hussain and Zahra Masood Bhutta
Structure of the economy changes over a time. Fixed parameter approaches do not considerimpact of structural changes on constancy of estimated parameters. The studyaddresses the weaknesses of non-varyingparametric techniquesand usesnon fixedparametrictechnique to examine associationbetween sectoral growth and their determining factors. The findings revealthat capitalformation, foreign remittances,and permanent crop land reduce agriculturalsector growth while gross national expenditures results in growth of the sector. The significantfactors thataffectindustrial growth are external debt, foreign direct investment and gross national expenditures. Above mentioned determinantsare positively associated with the industrial sector growth in Pakistan. Services sector growth is determined by consumer price index, gross national expendituresand foreign direct investment. The foreign direct investment and gross national expenditures cause services sector growth while consumer price index retard it. While considering findings, the concernedauthorities should control growth retarding factors and augment the factors that increase sectoral growth of the country.Keywords:economic growth, Services, Industry, AgricultureJEL Classification:C82, F24, F43, O11, O41
Nigerian Criminal Justice System and Victims of Crime Neglect in Enugu Urban
Obinna J. Eze, Deborah O. Obi and Benjamin Okorie Ajah
As essentialareaof criminology, crime victims have really never been accorded due recognition in Nigeria. It is in this regard that this paper discusses the Nigerian criminal justice system and the issue of victim neglect in Enugu urban. Using qualitative and quantitative research approaches, a sample of 604 respondents were drawn from Enugu urban. Multi-stage and purposive sampling techniques were used to reach the respondents. Data from both questionnaires andin-depth interviews were collected. We found that most crime victims are highly neglected and there is a lack of cordial relationship between the police and crime victims in Enugu urban. The study recommends the need to consider civil aspect of cases whenpassing judgments so that crime victims would not lose on two folds, but get partially compensated for their losses. The study also calls for judges to speed up adjudication processes in order not to draw cases to elastic limit where crime victims lose faith in the criminal justice system.Keywords:court, Nigeria criminal justice system, police, victims neglect.
TheRole of Institutional Determinants in Attracting Foreign Direct Investment to Egypt: Empirical Study
Bahy Mohamed Yassin, Fakhry Elfiky and Nadia El Nimer
This paper aims to explore the relationship between foreign direct investment (FDI) in Egypt, as a dependent variable,and selectedeconomic and institutional determinants for the period (1996-2018). The work attempts to bridge the gap created by previous empirical literature that failed to focus on critical institutional determinantsof FDI in developing countries, especially governance-related determinants. The study used the autoregressive distributed lag model (ARDL); to testthe Cointegration relationship between FDI and its determinants.Besides, the error correction model (ECM) wasused to explorethe short-run relationship. In light ofapplying the ARDL approach, the study concluded that while both market size and regulatory quality stimulatedFDI, the latter has been negatively affected by the real exchange rate and government effectiveness. Moreover, the study revealed that inthe short-run, both regulatory quality and control of corruption inducedFDI in Egypt. These findings shed light on the crucial role that institutional factors can play in creating a more favorable FDI climate in Egypt.Keywords:foreign direct investment, Egypt, economic determinants, institutional determinants,
University Social Responsibilityand Organizational Factors for Their Implementation
Hamid Farhadi Rad, Abdollah Parsa, Sakineh Shahiand Mehran Bahrami
When the university initiates its activities as an academic and civic institution, it will have other upshots for the society, in addition to the goals set by policymakers. In a general view, social responsibility means the university's commitment to its existential philosophy and accountability for all its consequences. Therefore, the present study aimed to "Identify the social responsibilities of the university and the organizational factors of their realization". The perception and life experience of the specialists in the field of higher education were analyzed using a descriptive phenomenological method. Participants were Higher education experts and were selected purposefully. Using inferential content analysis, the themes and categories expressing social responsibilities as well as the organizational factors needed for their realization were extracted. The results show that the university's social responsibilities are a range of local and international expectations, most notably the development of a national culture of respect and commitment to the environment, the propagation of national and international peace culture, a commitment to poverty alleviation and Striving for social and economic justice. Also, the results of thestudy illustrate that organizational requirements for responding to university social responsibility, include: Reviewing the organizational structure of curriculum development, reforming the core missions of the university, recreation of the organizational culture of the university proportional to its social responsibilities. Keywords:University social responsibility, respect for the environment, the culture of peace, socio-economic justice, organizational requirements,
Relationships between Psychological Resilience and Work Engagement: Field Study in the Geography of Tragedies; Afghanistan Universities
Olcay Okun and Korhan Arun
Psychological resilience has been, to a certain extent, explained by Western individualistic, and static factors. However, dynamic factors that affect the resilience through the process are proofed to be more important, i.e. culture. In some collectivist nations, like Afghanistan, the meaning of work embedded in what their own culture taught them. Afghan cultural context may provide the foundation for different ways of knowing, including resilience, by people in that nation. So, the main aim of this research is to find out the impact of psychological resilience on work engagement from the Afghan national cultural perspective. In a study of 713 staffs from 27 universities in Afghanistan show that work engagement dimensions are more related to the social and family factor of resilience than individual ones, supporting the cultural cohesion theory of individuals of Afghan people. Resiliency and energy are also one of the critical components of work engagement, vitality as a more individualistic work engagement factor lost its importance.Keywords:psychological resilience, resilience, work engagement, Afghan universities
Human Capital Development and Strategic Renewalin HospitalityIndustryof Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Muhammad Aliand Abdul Majid
The current study examinesthe impact of human capital development (HCD) on strategic renewal (SR) of firms in hospitality industryof Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. In addition, the currentstudy also examined the mediatingrole of ambidextrous learning (AL) and the moderating role of dynamic capabilities(DC)between HCD and SR relationship. Data were collected from 490 managers/owners of 3-stars and 4-stars hotelsthrough questionnaires operatingin thetourist destinations of Khyber Pakthunkhwa, Pakistan. Data analysis was performed throughvarious statistical techniqueswhich provides some interesting results. The results indicate that HCD is positively associated withSR. Moreover, AL bridgesthe associationbetween HCD and SR. Furthermore, the results stated that DChas a strong contingent effect on the relationship between HCD and SR. The findingsreveal that HCD in presence of AL plays acritical role inSRof the hospitality in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.Keywords:human capital development, ambidextrous learning, strategic renewal,dynamic capabilities, hospitality industry
Pakistan’s Aid to Afghanistan Since 2001and Its Prospects forState Building in Afghanistan
Hashmat Ullah Khan and Gohar Rahman
FWU Journal of Social Sciences, Fall 2020,Vol.14, No.3. 114-130Pakistan’s Aid to Afghanistan Since 2001and Its Prospects forState Building in AfghanistanHashmat Ullah KhanJilin University, ChinaGohar RahmanUniversity of Peshawar, PakistanState buildingis theprocess of establishing and strengthening the institutions essential for smooth functioning of government and necessary foreconomic, social,and political development. The process of state building inAfghanistan has been severelyaffectedby wars,terrorism, ethnic and religious conflicts, tyrannies,and dictatorships.After the US occupation in 2001,a serious need of statebuilding was deemed necessary for the durable solution of the issue. Many foreign counties,including Pakistan,contributed into theprocess of state building.Thisresearch aimsto analysetherole of Pakistan’said instate buildingprocessinAfghanistansince 2001 and its prospects for peace, stability,and development.Pakistan helpedAfghanistan in the fields of education, infrastructure, agriculture, health,and capacity building of Afghanistan’s govt personalsand officials. She has provided a total aid of 1 billiondollars aid. Since 2001 Pakistan hasestablishedmanyhospitals, educational institutions,rail links, roads,scholarships to Afghan students,capacity building projects in differentfields,and training toarmed forcesand diplomatic professionals of Afghanistan. This type of help is playing very positive role in the process of state building in Afghanistan.Keywords:Pakistan, Afghanistan, aid, state building, institutions.
An Investigation ofthe Factors Affecting Institutional Performance: Evidence from Higher Education Institutions
Irfan Ullah Khan, Muhammad Idris and Aman Ullah Khan
The performance of institutions issquarely anchored with different factors that affect the institutional credibility and successeither positively ornegatively. The best performance on the part of institutions isthe most dynamic issuefor the institutions in attaining the desired objectives,ranking,and success.Still, there exists a dynamism that facilitatesas well asinterrupt the performance of the institutions in which academic, economic,and political aspectsare the foremost.These factors are responsible either for the success orfailure of higher education institutions in developing countries like Pakistan. In this connection, the present study confirmsand validate the existence of the relationship between certaindynamic factorsand institutional performance by collecting primary data overquestionnaire from respondents hailing from higher education institutions of KP, Pakistan. A total of325 respondents wereselected from the entire populationover simple random sampling techniques wherein each member of subset has an equal probability of being selection. Data wereanalyzed throughstatistical procedures (i.e., correlation and regression) to examine the hypotheses as developed from the theoretical framework. The results are valuable by providing significant information about the relationship (association, causeand effect) among the research variables and recommendations for future research.Keywords: factors(academic, economic&political),institutional performance, HEIs
Determinants of Microfinance Factors Affecting Women’s Empowerment: Evidence from Egypt
Ali Hamid Irhoumah
Azzaytuna University, Libya
Abdullah Moh'd Ayedh
Islamic Science University of Malaysia, Malaysia
Higher Colleges of Technology, United Arab Emirates
There have been many proposals made and implemented worldwide by both the public and private sectors to alleviate the hardships of the poor women, and in the long term enhance their empowerment. Subsequently, this would allow women to play a significant social and economic role in modern societies. The current research has been motivated by the need to close the knowledge gap by assessing the determinants of microfinance, as well as the factors affecting women‘s empowerment in Egypt, in terms of increased savings and real income and choice, as well as participation in decision making, social relations, consumption and household welfare. This study applied quantitative tools and examined a random sample of 423 women participants with a microfinance agency in Egypt. Particularly, a survey was conducted on the key impact of institutional factors, cognitive effects and cultural factors on women's empowerment. Data were inspected and then analysed using structural equation modelling (SEM), to determine the statistical significance and differences. The findings showed that women using microfinance were able to raise their own standard of living as well as that of their families, thus indicating the positive impact of microfinance. This finding could be useful for policy makers and microfinance institutions and other stakeholders in Egypt.
Teacher Educators’ Epistemological Beliefs and their Implications for Teacher Education
University of Malakand
International Islamic University Islamabad
Syed Munir Ahmad
University of Peshawar
Research has consistently shown that teachers’ epistemological beliefs have a significant impact on their teaching and teacher effectiveness in the teaching- learning process. This study investigated epistemological beliefs (EBs) of teacher educators in higher education institutions and teacher education institutes in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP). The study aimed at identifying teacher-centered and learners’ centered EBs, examine the relationship of EBs and gender, find out the relationship of teachers’ qualification with the EBs of teacher education, and explore differences between the EBs of teacher educators of public universities and RITEs. Of the 212 teacher educators of the study population, the data were collected through stratified random sampling from 145 respondents. Epistemological beliefs questionnaire (EBQ) and a scale for demographics were used for gathering data from the research participants. Percentages, Mean, One way ANOVA and Pearson r was used for data analysis. Findings of the study show that a majority of the teacher educators believed that the structure of knowledge is simple, half of the teacher educators believed that knowledge is certain. Similarly, a majority of the teachers did not believe in authority as a source of knowledge and considered that the ability to learn is not innate. A majority of the respondents did not agree that learning is a quick process. There was no significant difference in the EBs of male and female teacher educators; there was no significant difference in the EBs of teachers from universities and RITES, except in the dimension of the stability of knowledge, wherein educators from RITEs have unsophisticated beliefs and there is no significant effect of experience on the epistemological beliefs of teacher educators.
The Effects of Assessment as Learning (AaL) on ESL students’ Academic Performance and
Motivation in the light of self-Regulated Learning (SRL) Theory
Preeta Hinduja, Martin Thomas and Sohni Siddiqui
IQRA University, Karachi
This study intended to investigate the effects of Assessment as Learning (AaL) strategy on satisfaction of academic performance and motivational beliefs of ESL (English as Secondary Language) students of Public sector school. Using the quasi-experimental pre-post-test control group design, and assessment strategy recommended by Lee and Mak (2014), this study examined the effects of Assessment as Learning (AaL) on students’ studying ESL writing skills in Argumentative Essay. Through the convenience sampling technique, 60 ninth standard students were selected to participate in the study. Students' performance was analyzed with the help of Argumentative Essay Test and Motivation was investigated by using Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ). Both control and experimental groups were trained through traditional teaching ESL strategies; however, experimental group students practiced an additional intervention identified as "Assessment as Learning (AaL)" strategy. After seven weeks of study, both groups' performance and motivation were evaluated through post-tests. The data from pre-tests and post-tests were analysed by Independent Sample t-tests. The results demonstrated that the experiment group’s academic scores and motivation were significantly higher, thus the implementation of AaL practice is recommended to raise self-regulation and performance of students.
Centrifugal Cause of Household Poverty in Nigeria
Okokon Effiom Edem, AM Ogaboh Agba and Felix Eja Ojong
Department of Sociology, University of Calabar, Nigeria
The study assessed the centrifugal cause of poverty in Obudu, Cross River State, Nigeria. Utilising the survey research method, data was collected from 417 participants from Obudu Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria using cluster, purposive and simple random sampling technique. A semi-structured self-developed questionnaire was used for data collection. Collected data were analysed using simple percentages, graphs, frequency distribution and simple lineal regression at 0.05 confidence level. The result from the analysed data revealed that a correlation exists between family size correlates with household poverty from the descriptive analysis. It was discovered that 84.75 per cent of the participants could not afford to take care of their family because of family composition. Results also revealed that family income significantly correlates within household poverty. The descriptive statistics revealed that 96 per cent of the participants could hardly afford three square meal. The study concludes that family income and size significantly determine household poverty in Obudu Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria. There is a need for policy change by the government towards poverty alleviation programs and financial inclusion of people of Obudu.
Styles of Humor and Interpersonal Relationships in University Students
Ayesha Idrees and Saira Batool
Institute of Applied Psychology, University of the Punjab, Lahore
GC Women University, Sialkot, Pakistan
The study aimed to investigate relationship between humor styles and interpersonal relationships in university students. It was hypothesized that: there would be a relationship between humor styles and interpersonal relationships in university students; humor styles are likely to predict interpersonal relationships in university students; there would be gender differences in humor styles and interpersonal relationships. The sample consisted of 196 students from two Universities of Lahore. Humor Style Questionnaire (Martin, Puhlik-Doris, Larsen, Gray & Weir, 2003) and Interpersonal Relationship Questionnaire (Callaghan, 2006) were used for assessment. Data were analyzed by using Pearson product moment correlation, hierarchical regression analysis and independent sample t-test. Results revealed significant relationship between humor styles and interpersonal relationships. Affiliative humor style predicted interpersonal relationships negatively whereas self-defeating humor style predicted interpersonal relationships positively. Men used more aggressive humor styles compared to women but they did not differ on other humor styles. Findings highlight significance of humor in the quality of interpersonal relationships.
Effectiveness of Peer Tutoring on The Academic Achievements of Tutors and Tutees With
Respect to Knowledge, Comprehension and Application Levels of Cognitive Domain
National Special Education Complex Mardan
Bacha Khan Charssada University, KPK
Syed Muhammad Aamir
Elementary and Secondary Education KPK
Peer tutoring provides an opportunity to students of diverse abilities to work on academic tasks in pairs, in a democratic, cooperative and friendly approach. In this context, the study was an attempt to analyse how peer tutoring played the said role in enhancing the academic achievements of tutors and tutees at secondary level in reference to the key levels (knowledge, comprehension and application) of the cognitive domain. The study explored data from 40 purposefully selected participants of ANSI school Mardan, by applying the Pre-test Post-test Equivalent Group Design and conducting achievement tests before and after the treatments in order to accomplish the target objectives. The analysis of the data through inferential statistics (t-test) confirmed that though the tutors of the experimental group achieved better score at knowledge and application levels of the cognitive domain; however, they were not better in the comprehension level on post-test in compare to the high achievers of the control group. In the same way, the performance of the tutees of the group under investigation was significantly better with regards to academic ability, knowledge and comprehension at cognitive domain; however, at the application level there was no significant difference as compare to their correspondent low achievers of the controlled group. In the light of the findings it was concluded that the academic performance of the tutors as well as the tutees was significantly affected by peer tutoring.
Social consequences of wife-battering in Ogbaru and Onitsha North Local
Government Areas of Anambra State, Nigeria
AREH, Chinwe Edith
Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Nigeria
Emeka M. Onwuama and Benjamin Okorie Ajah
University of Nigeria, Nsukka
Domestic violence is gaining increasing notoriety in Nigeria, yet, it is treated with little importance. This could be attributed to a number of reasons; one of which is underreporting. This article examines the social consequences of wife-battering in Ogbaru and Onitsha North LGAs of Anambra State, Nigeria. Using qualitative and quantitative research approaches, a sample of 364 respondents comprising of 196 males and 168 females was drawn from Anambra State. The study adopted multi-stage and purposive sampling techniques in reaching the respondents. The quantitative data were analyzed using percentages, while thematic method of analysis was employed in the qualitative data. We found out and argue in this paper that wife-battering causes divorce, miscarriage, and children growing up to be aggressive. This paper proposes the need for emotionally incompatible couples to be allowed to get divorce. Also, the study calls for the government to encourage battered wives and children to get emotionally stabilized by establishing marriage counseling units in the communities that make up the Local Government Areas. And the units should make use of the services of personality psychologists and social workers.
Role of Sekola Islam and Pesantrens in Nation Building of Indonesia: An Analysis of the Perceptions of Alumni
Muhammad Zafar Iqbal and Humaira Akram
International Islamic University, Islamabad
Republic of Indonesia is the largest archipelagic and Muslim majority country in the world comprising of various small and big islands. Almost 300 languages are spoken in the country, but Indonesians believe in ‘Benika Tungal Ika’ mean diversity is strength. Indonesian Islamic education system covets overall development of students’ personality including the religious, cognitive, physical, emotional, physical and scientific aspects. This paper aims to explore the perceptions of alumni about contribution of Sekola Islam, Pesantren and Pandok in nation building of Indonesia. Paper is based on qualitative analysis of data collected through semi structured interviews with alumni of Sekola Islam, Pesantrens and Pandok. The results showed that Pesantrens, Sekola Islam and Pandok network of Islamic Education Institutions is root of education system and has played a significant role in nation building of Indonesia. Islamic Education Institutions have contributed for the religious, societal, economic and technological development of Indonesia and produced renowned leaders in the field of politics, religion and education.
Personality Traits, Identity style and Depression as predictors of smoking behavior among university students
Sana Sarfaraz Afridi and Sabeen Rahim
Shaheed Benazir Bhutto Women University, Peshawar
Present work was aimed to find the contribution of personality traits, identity style and depression in predicting cigarette smoking. Data was collected from male students of universities located in Peshawar through Beck Depression Inventory – II (BDI – II), NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) and Identity Style Inventory, Revised (ISI3). A total of 300 male students were involved, out of which n=150 were smokers whereas n=150 were nonsmokers. Of the total n=150 smokers, 75 were hostelers 75 were day scholars and same as for non-smokers. The outcome indicated that those who smoked had high levels of neuroticism and they also scored high on the Beck Depression Inventory. The outcome further revealed that persons having diffused identity style had likelihood of being involved in smoking behavior. Further results exposed that the hostelers were more vulnerable to smoking behavior as compared to the day scholars.
A Study of Self Control and Deviant Behavior of Secondary School Students of Mirpur, Azad Kashmir
Muhammad Zafar Iqbal and Safia Janjua
Allama Iqbal Open University
Jahan Ara Shams
Higher Education Department Punjab
This study aimed at finding the effect of self control (SC) on deviant behavior (DB) of Students. The approach of the study was quantitative. Causal comparative research design was used to investigate the effect of self control on students’ deviance. Students (8940) of grade 9th and 10th of all public schools of Mirpur, Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK) constituted the population of this study. Data were collected from 470 students of Mirpur, AJK. Out of them there were 291 males and 179 were females. Two scales, SC Scale originally developed by Grasmick et al., (1993) and Normative Deviance Scale by Vazsonyi et al., (2001) were adapted to measure the SC and DB of the students respectively. Descriptive statistics, t-test and linear regression were applied to analyze the data. Results of the study found a low level of SC and high level of DB among the secondary school students. Female were more SC led as compared to the males whereas male showed more DB than females. Regression analysis showed that SC has significant positive effect on the DB and it brings 49.8% variability in the DB of the secondary school students. It was recommended that SC related activities should be added into the curriculum at primary level as this is the best age for the development of SC into the students. Workshops and seminars should be held at Secondary Schools to bring awareness on the benefits of SC for the teachers and students.
Coverage of Government and Judiciary Relationship: A Study of Urdu and English Newspapers of Pakistan
University of Central Punjab
Karakoram International University, Gilgit
Karakoram International University, Gilgit
This present study analyzes the role played by the media during the controversy between Government of Pakistan and its Supreme Court in 2012. This study is particularly focused on the issues pertinent to the National Reconciliation Ordinance (NRO) case. It employed content analysis as research study and quantitatively examined the columns in the Pakistani newspapers; including, Dawn and Daily Jang for the one year time period in the year 2012. A conflicting relationship has been found between the government and judiciary concerning the National reconciliation ordinance (NRO). It was concluded that Dawn and Daily Jang, both newspapers, follow the same agenda about the NRO issue as both of these newspapers offered negative coverage of this issue. Compared to Jang, Dawn was more inclined to the negative framing of judiciary, and Jang was inclined to the negative reporting of government performance. Hence, the Pakistani Print media has framed the issues negatively between the government and the judiciary. Frequent negative slants were observed in Urdu newspaper as compared to English newspaper.
An Appreciation of Sir Alexander Cunningham’s Explorations at Taxila in the Light of His Methodological Framework
Shaheed Benazir Bhutto Women University, Peshawar
M. Ashraf Khan
Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad
Indian archaeology adopted sounder and viable conceptual tools for fieldwork in the later nineteenth century. The name of Sir Alexander Cunningham, the two times head of Archaeological Survey of India, is of special significance in this connection. This paper particularly focuses on his methods for archaeological survey and data collection. In the first place, Cunningham’s arrival into India has been traced. Next, his archaeological methods and approach have been delineated. It is followed by outlining what Cunningham did at Taxila especially in line with his conceptual understanding. Finally, all this has further been related to the intellectual environs of the time.
Determinants of Dividend Policy: Sectoral Analysis of Listed Non-Financial
Firms in Pakistan
University of Swabi, KPK
Islamia College University Peshawar
University of Peshawar
The study is conducted to analyze the effect of various factors (i.e. Leverage (Lvg), Profitability (Prof), Business Risk (B.R), Liquidity (Lqd), and Growth Opportunities (GO)) on dividend policy (D.P) in the sample two non-financial sectors that are, food and electrical machinery from Pakistan stock Exchange. Total 30 firms have been taken, of which 20 firms from food sector and 10 from electrical machinery sector for a period of 8 years (2009-2016) by analyzing sample firms panel data. The results for both of the sectors that is generated through E-views via estimation of fixed effect model (F.E.M), show that independent variables like Prof, Lqd and Lvg have a positive and significant association to the explained variable of the study i.e. D.P, while a contra relationship is witnessed for business risk and growth opportunity to the dependent variable. Therefore, in food sector the results are more significant than the electrical machinery sector and it can be concluded that increase in the given variables will ultimately boost the D.P to shareholders that is the most attractive factor in the eyes of the majority of the stockholders. The endeavor concludes considerable results which will help the key stakeholders particularly the Board of Directors in order to formulate and restructure their D.P backed by the considered variables of this study that will ultimately maximize the stockholders wealth as well as the organizational value of both the sample sectors of the study.