Study of Organic Molecules: Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Application
Hammood M. Yasir, Falah H. Hanoon
The organic molecules have important role in our life. The large applications of organic molecules are electronic and optical devices, consumer electronics and screens, clean energy devices, sensors, membranes, and light-harvesting antennas, among others. Finding and optimizing such materials for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) applications would be very helpful for the advancement of clean energy. In this work, a theoretical investigation was performed to examine some electronic and optical properties of some different organic dyes. We used the density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) methods with B3LYP functional and 6-31G basis set by using Gaussian 09 program to test some organic molecules by studying the UVVis spectrum, the electronic states transition and the range of the absorption spectrum. The improvement of dyes was done by the terminal addition with organic molecules where the absorption becomes higher than that of the original dyes and also the energy transition becomes lower in the DSSCs that use TiO2 as a collector charge. Some electronic properties were done such as HOMO, LUMO distribution, energy gap, oscillator strength, and the geometrical optimization of these organic dyes. From these properties one can candidates these dyes as DSSCs.
Parallel litigation and its application in Iraq
Ali Khalil Burhan
Iraqi University, College of Law and Political Science, Department of Public Law, Baghdad, Iraq. Corresponding author Email: email@example.com
The most important principles upon which the legal state is based are the principle of legitimacy, i.e. subjection of everyone to the law, and work to establish judicial oversight of the administration to limit the excess of the administration by creating a specialized administrative judiciary with knowledge and knowledge of the requirements of the administration in a way that balances them with individual freedoms and rights.Many countries have adopted a dual judicial system by introducing an administrative judiciary that specializes in administrative cases, in addition to the ordinary judiciary, whose mandate is limited to examining ordinary cases. This administrative judiciary is no less efficient and organized than the ordinary judiciary, whether for the employees who work in it or for its organs or judicial bodies. The Iraqi legislator had to take the expected step by introducing an administrative judiciary, which would be a watchdog of all actions issued by the administration, and this actually happened with the establishment of the Administrative Judiciary Court, following the second amendment to the State Shura Council Law No. 106 of 1989 to be practiced alongside a court The employees ’judiciary supervises some of the administration’s actions and decides the cases that are held on this occasion, and one of the most important of these cases is the cancellation lawsuit. And finally there are conditions Related to the lack of a parallel appeal or the absence of a parallel case.
The effect of humic acid and biofertilizer on nutrient readiness, growth and yield plant
Mohammed Saeed Haran
Shatrah Technical Institute, Southern Technical University, Iraq Corresponding author Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract The addition of humic acid is very feasible compared to the chemical fertilizers, both in terms of the positive impact in increasing nutrient readiness in the soil or in terms of economic costs as well as environmental protection and human health. The inoculation of microorganisms that encourage plant growth leads to an increase in all growth indicators and an increase in the readiness of the nutrients necessary for plant growth such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, iron, zinc and manganese in the soil. Where studies have proven that adding humic acid at a level of 70 kg ha-1 with biofertilizer resulted in dispensing with chemical nitrogen fertilizer and filling the plant's need for some macor and micro nutrients, which is the appropriate combination to obtain a good quality of yield while ensuring the amount of production
Legal and international approaches to the assassination of Soleimani
Muhammad T., Talib F. Al-Drisawi, Muhammad T. Farhan
University of Religions and Sects, Law Department, Qom, Iran
Iranian military commander Qassem Soleimani was killed in an American bombing. It targeted his convoy at Baghdad international Airport and the united states of America Justified that his killing was legal according to Article (51) of the Charter of United Nations. It is related to self –defense, but through research it was found that the killing of Soleimani was not applicable and the article above and that his death violated Iraqi sovereignty. The Iraqi American security agreement and the universal Declaration of Human rights.
Legitimacy of isolation for the mentally disturbed
Talib Farhan Al-Drisawi
University of Religions and Sects, Law Department, Qom, Iran
Quarantine refers to the prohibition of financial actions, whether the prohibition is for the benefit of others, such as a quarantine against the bankrupt in favor of creditors, or if it is for the prohibition of a quarantine like a prohibition against the insane. Wisdom from quarantine is mercy and interest, maintenance and cooperation, it is the interest of the individual and society and pay harm for them. This preserves the person’s money, rights, and society’s interest by closing the outlets for want because the money should be spent without wasting it. The quarantine may be on the mentally disturbed and the intended insane and foolish and small is not distinguished as it is quarantined and on their behalf a person in the management of their affairs. Finally, the interdicted persons do not have the capacity to perform legal activities. The law provides for the appointment of a guardian or custodian of them in order to assist them in using their rights and performing their duties. The quarantine does not only include the mentally disturbed, but may also include a person sentenced to imprisonment or death as stated in the Penal Code.
DFT Study on Properties Adsorption of Explosive Organic Molecules Based on Coronene as Nanosensor
Hammood M. Yasir*, Falah H. Hanoon
Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Thi Qar, Nassiriya 64000, Iraq Corresponding Author Email: email@example.com
The coronene has outstanding physical and mechanical properties, and has been extensively investigated in future nanoelectronic applications. One promising application of this structure is usage as a nanosensor for various organic molecules. In this study the DFT method with B3LYP functional and 6-31G basis set was used for nanosensor candidate as a sensor for two explosive organic molecules TNT and NQ in the Gaussian 09 program package by determining two basic important parameters for each sensor which are they: distance between the organic molecules and the graphene sensor, also changing of the sensor band gap energy that will change the conductivity of the sensor device. Graphene sensor was modified by adding substitutional atoms Al, Cu, and Ge, the results show the enhancement of the device performance which can see from the energy gap changing where we found that the energy gap is very affected by all organic molecules under study, Al atom is the better addition for TNT and NQ sensor. Some electronic properties were determined such as HOMO-LUMO orbital distribution, adsorption energy, total energy, density of states, IR spectrum and also the optimization structure. The results of this study open a way for the development of new and effective nanosensors for explosive organic molecules.
Control traffic balancing optimization for in-band software defined networks
Alaaedi Hussain, Masoud Sabaei
Amirkabir University of Technology, Iran Corresponding Author Email: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
In Software Defined Networking (SDN), when a packet arrives from a new flow to software defined switch, a control message must be sent from this switch to the central controller. This control message has to be sent as fast as possible, and when it reaches the central controller, it must response it quickly because the switch will still be waiting until receives the response from the controller which tells the switch how to route the packets of the new flow. In largescale SDN, where there are thousands of flows arrive every second, significant amount of these control messages will be generated and forwarded in the network. This huge amount of control messages becomes a problem especially in in-band control channel. Since, most traffic balancing works focused on data traffic balancing. This paper tries to give attention to the control traffic balancing considering data traffic in the same time. This problem is very important for SDN because the delay time of the control message directly affects the overall performance of SDN. A non-convex optimization problem is presented to balance the control traffic over the network links. Simulation results shows that the proposed model can balance control traffic more efficient than other models and needs less on-line solving time to find near optimal routes.
Tsarist Russia's Privileges in the Ottoman Empire 1462-1918
Saif Moataz Omar
University of Basra, College of Education for Girls, Basra, Iraq Corresponding Author Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
The issue of Russian concessions with the Ottoman Empire is one of the important topics in the history of the two countries. As wars have been going on for 300 years between them. That is the desire of both parties to control the important straits as they represent economic and commercial importance. If they are controlled and wars that and weakened between both parties, which negatively affected the power of the Ottoman Empire and became vulnerable to the ambitions of European countries and their desire to control it. As the Ottoman Empire concluded several treaties with Tsarist Russia on regulating the issue of the passage of Russian ships in the Turkish Straits and their control over some lands and were the core of these treaties are not in the interests of the Ottoman Empire, but Tsarist Russia granted more privileges, including granting free passage of Russian ships in the Turkish Straits and give them the right to protect Christian minorities and part of its territory.
Enhancing students' motivation and perception by integrating video materials in learning listening skill
Akram S. A. Klella, Mohamed A. Hmouma
Zawia University, College of Education, Abu-Issa, English Department, Libya Corresponding Author Email: email@example.com
The purpose of this study was to know the effect of using videos on listening comprehension, and how video materials enhance students' motivation to pay more attention in listening. This study was conducted by the experimental design, so it contains pre-test and post-test, the sample of this study were thirty EFL learners from English department, Abu-Issa College of Education, Zawia University. They were selected randomly to assure best results. The pre-test was held to divide the students to two groups and then start to conduct the study. After that, they have been exposed to the post-test. The pre and post-test results were analyzed to determine the difference. The results indicated that the students of listening comprehension with the videos increased significantly after their learning with the videos, it also showed a positive attitude towards listening.
Complications Affecting Learning Listening by EFL Learners at University Level
Aeshah M. Abdulsalam
Zawia University, Faculty of Arts, English Department, Zawia, Libya Corresponding Author Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Many studies in language learning have indicated that listening comprehension plays an important role in the learning process. In spite of its importance, listening has been ignored in second language learning, research, and teaching. The purpose of the research is to define the terms listening and listening comprehension, causes of listening difficulties, listening strategies, listening process, and elements of listening. The study took place at the Faculty of Arts, Zawia University, in the academic year 2018/2019. Questionnaire consisted closed and open-ended questions, and the main purpose in this study to investigate the difficulties in listening comprehension faced by EFL learners of the English Specialization, and the strategies used to help EFL students of the English Department at the Faculty of Arts, Zawia University. Therefore, listening comprehension can be improved by students’ assistance and the use of appropriate learning materials and activities. The study revealed that several problems occurred in the teaching and learning of listening. The problems were related to listeners’ performance, listening materials, students’ physical limits, and supporting equipment. Based on the obtained data, the major difficulties faced by the students were related to listening materials and students’ performance. Different phonological system, which dealt with the materials, and guessing unknown words seemed to affect their listening comprehension.
Employing Audio-Visual Aids in Teaching English as a Foreign Language
Taqwa Rashid Juma'a
The General Directorate of Education, Al-Najaf Al-Ashraf, Iraq Corresponding Author Email: email@example.com
English language is characterized as language of the world because of its use as a major means for communication across borders globally. With the development of technology, various new innovations are appeared to be utilized in classroom in teaching English as foreign language (EFL) such as audio-visual aids. Audiovisual aids represent instructional materials which are employed to communicate messages more effectively via sounds and visuals. The implementation of such devices encourage the teaching process as well as improve and facilitate quick comprehension of the students.
Biological reclamation of soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons
Mohammed Saeed Haran
Shatrah Technical Institute - Southern Technical University Correspondence; firstname.lastname@example.org
Studies have shown a positive correlation between the numbers of broken and analyzed bacteria of hydrocarbons in oil and the percentages of cracking. Thus, the numbers of broken bacteria of petroleum hydrocarbons play an important role as sensitive indicators that reflect the degree of biological cracking of hydrocarbons. Also, light and medium hydrocarbons are higher in response to the bacterial bio cracking process than heavy hydrocarbons, and the presence of hydrocarbons increases the number of bacteria analyzed. Biological treatment occurs a chemical change in hydrocarbon pollutants, as these microbes use the contents of hydrocarbons as a source of food leading to the decomposition of these compounds, and therefore the final products of bio-digestion consist of biomass, carbon dioxide, water, mineral elements and energy, usually organic compounds do not completely decompose completely. Rather, they form less molecular weight compounds such as alcohols and organic acids. These compounds are of low toxicity to microbes and easily digested biologically if the appropriate environmental conditions are present.
Investment aims, areas, and types and its risks
Mutaz Y. Abuagla
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia - Petro Najd Corresponding Author Email: email@example.com
In this research, we will discuss the objectives of investment, types, and risks, as investment is the main factor that controls the rate and size of economic growth on the one hand, and how this growth occurs on the other. Investment is of great importance in all economies, regardless of the nature of the prevailing economic systems, or the poverty or wealth of countries, whether developing or developed. The importance of investment lies in the fact that it achieves economic development and stability, as well as the development of available wealth in order to satisfy various needs. Investing as an economic and financial activity includes various goals, magazines and types, and it exposed it to many risks that may affect the achievement of its goals and the return from it.
The rules governing the international envoy of the United Nations
Ammar Morad Aleasawy
University of Alkafeel, College of Law, Iraq Corresponding Author Email:firstname.lastname@example.org
After the exacerbation of the phenomenon of non-international armed conflicts, in the period after the end of the Cold War in 1990, the role of the United Nations in combating these armed conflicts increased, as this role is divided into two phases, the first is the stage of prevention, and the second stage revolves around how to deal with armed conflict, it is intended to contain it in its early stages, or to reduce the human suffering caused by its various effects on civilians. For the first phase of the United Nations role in preventing non-international armed conflicts, it includes four steps that are limiting the proliferation of weapons, especially small and light weapons, that are widely used during internal armed conflicts, and then fighting against various forms of transnational organized crime, for their significant role. In arousing armed conflicts such as mercenaries and armed militias, the United Nations is also working through its various organs, branches and specialized agencies, to build the capabilities of the security, economic and social fragile states, to avoid their occurrence in armed conflicts, so the United Nations adopted a new mechanism in the wake of the 1994 ethnic cleansing crimes in Rwanda. Which is monitoring and early warning before a conflict breaks out.
Does the knowledge of patients is important to store and dispose of the medications in a proper way?
E. I. Dukali1, * , M. Ahmed Elgndi2 , Ab. M. Aldhduh3 1, 2Department of Pharmaceutical, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Elmergib, Libya 3Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Elmergib, Libya Corresponding Author Email:email@example.com
Background: Pharmaceutical products require proper storage and dispose in order to ensure that their quality is not compromised due to moisture and temperature. This study is done to clarify the relation between the patient who has educated about the proper storage and dispose of medicines, and the method where he will store and dispose the medicines. A 15-questions survey was created to examine possible correlations in patients, and it has handed out in three main pharmacies. According to the results, the high percentage of patients who keep the medicine in kitchen and bathroom are not informed. Also the large number of participants who dispose the medicines by trashing them to the toilet or sink, are not informed. This study shows that education of patients in terms of the good storage and proper dispose of drugs, are important to keep these medications with high quality and could greatly impact the environment and give a cleaner and healthier environment.
Studying the Effect of Substituting Praseodymium in Superconductor (YBa2Cu3O7-δ)
Afaf S. Zawaly1 , Someraa S. Shakonah2 , Hanan A. Altahir3
Zawia University, College of Education, Abu-Issa, Physics Department, Zawia, Libya Corresponding Authors Email: firstname.lastname@example.org ; email@example.com ; firstname.lastname@example.org
Superconductors are materials that lose all resistance to the flow of electricity when cooled below a critical transition temperature (Tc) however; this ability of superconductors to conduct electricity with zero resistance can be exploited in the use of electrical transmission lines. Bulk high-temperature superconductors (HTS) exhibits lower critical current densities than thin films which result of the weak superconductivity at the grain boundaries. The critical current rapidly falls with respect to applied magnetic field than with thin films. Superconductivity is a thermodynamic phase distinguishing properties that depends on microscopic details such as zero resistivity to low applied currents in the absence of magnetic field or at an applied field less than the critical value. The uniqueness of high temperature superconductor relies much on their ability to maintain steady current and expel magnetic fields effect without deteriorating. The aim of this research is to investigate the effect of Pr substitution in the (YBa2 Cu3-x Prx) O7-δ (x= 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3) and metallic behavior over the range of samples.
Rhetorical aesthetics in the approach to rhetoric and conceptual metaphor as a model (for the literary intellectual concept based on linguistic knowledge)
Ali Piranishal, Zainulabdeen Hameed Tuaimah
Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran Corresponding Author Email: email@example.com
Conceptual metaphor is one of the most important data of cognitive linguistics and cognitive semantics. A large part of our perceptions, mental, and intellectual system is a metaphor of nature according to its subjective characteristics and metaphor shows our thinking and cognitive approaches so our knowledge in all dimensions is closely related to metaphor, and since moral and moral concepts nature because it is related to abstract spiritual and intellectual properties. So borrowing has an important role in morals and moral texts. For example, generosity, courage, patience, miserliness, cowardice and other virtues and vice are all abstract concepts that are not embodied and can only be imagined by metaphor. So the rhetoric approach book as a religious and moral text with different curricula was an important focus of this study. Through this descriptiveanalytical approach, this research attempts to study the moral system of rhetoric approach in terms of how to use metaphor to form the moral system by studying metaphors (piety, morals and self-love) using conceptual metaphor as a model, so the research aims to identify the role of metaphor in ethics and how it is structured in rhetoric approach. The study also showed that conceptual metaphors play an important role in the moral system. Imam Ali used numerous and varied positivist and creative metaphors to define and embody ethical concepts, especially notions of piety and morality, so the results of this research indicate that metaphor has a distinct place in the moral system in the rhetoric approach.
Preparation and study of electrical properties of MPAMI thin film by laser technology
Shimaa A. J. Farhan, Sahib Neamh Abdulwahid, Abid Allah M. Ali
University of Kufa, College of Education for Girl, Department of Physics, Najaf, Iraq
The compound (MPAMI) was prepared from the duplication of the Diaz onium salt of the compound Para toluidine with the imidazole in an alcoholic base medium. Then this compound was diagnosed after sedimentation and purification by analytical and spectroscopic means including mass spectrum and magnetic nuclear resonance spectrum. Where the scientific ratios showed a great match for the carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen elements, which indicates the correctness of the proposed combinations for this compound. Then study the electrical properties of the thin films (MPAMI) prepared by the method of pulsed laser deposition by laser of (1000, 3000, 5000) mJ cm-2 pure and copper oxide-like (CuO) ratio (10%). It was observed through electrical measurements in the case of frontal alignment (darkness and lighting current), the current increases linearly with increasing voltage, and that the electrical conductivity is its highest value at 3000) mJ cm-2 for the pure thin films (MPAMI). While in the case of Deformation Electrical conductivity at 1000 mJ/cm2 is as high
Probing the cytotoxic effect of MT1-MMP targeted anticancer prodrug
Salem M. Agfer¹, Robert A. Falconer², Jason H. Gill², Rema N. Nagi³, Ibrahim E. Dukali4 , Ahmed M. Elgndi5
1Department of pharmacology, Faculty of pharmacy, Elmergib University, Alkoms, Libya 2 Institute of Cancer Therapeutics, Bradford University, West Yorkshire, UK 3Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of pharmacy, Elmergib University, Alkoms, Libya 4, 5Department of pharmaceutics, Faculty of pharmacy, Elmergib University, Alkoms, Libya
The major limitation of the currently used anticancer agents is narrow therapeutic indices due to the lack of their tumor-selective targeting and consequent off-target toxicity towards normal cells. Accordingly, improving the therapeutic indices, tumor selectivity and response of these agents are paramount. One class of anticancer chemotherapeutics is the vascular disrupting agents (VDAs). Disruption of tumor vasculature is efficient approach to induce blood vessel shutdown with consequent tumor shrinkage and necrosis. The clinical value of several VDAs is compromised by low therapeutic indices and systemic toxicities. One approach is to develop “Tumoractivated prodrugs, TAPs” of these potent VDAs by exploiting specific enzymes synthesized by tumor cells such as matrix metallic-proteinases (MMPs). This study describing the design and the cytotoxicity profile of novel MT1-MMP targeted peptide conjugate of VDA (ICT2588), which is designed to remain nontoxic until metabolized selectively in tumor microenvironment by MT1-MMP. Lead compound is composed of potent VDA of colchicine-binding agent (MB2) linked to specific peptide conjugate rationalized to be selectively metabolized by MT1-MMP which is highly expressed in different cancer cell lines. ICT2588 showed a remarkable cytotoxic effect against the MT1-MMP-positive HT1080 cancer cell line, effectively metabolized by different tumor xenografts but not by normal tissues. Metabolism is further confirmed by blocking the activity MT1-MMP. MT1-MMP is unique tumor feature and can be utilized to activate masked anticancer prodrugs selectively in tumor microenvironment.
Drugs, their harmful effects and the stages of addiction
Shatha Kamel Ghanem Al-Saeedi
Al-Qadisiyah University, College of Dentistry, Iraq Corresponding Author Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Drug addiction is one of the biggest problems facing any society, as the number of addicts increases every year with the increase in the types of drugs and their negative impact on young people and the way to prevent them, and their forms, as it has been observed in the recent period that the phenomenon of addiction is no longer limited to the rich only as it was in the past the matter has come to include groups of the poor classes, and perhaps more than the number of rich addicts. In the past, drug use was largely restricted to the male category, but now the female category is taking various drugs, according to the latest studies.