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international journal of biological innovations

Journal Papers (52) Details Call for Paper Manuscript submission Publication Ethics Contact Authors' Guide Line
1 Medicinal Fruit Lapsi Choerospondias axillaris Roxburgh, 1832 (B. L. Burtt & A. W. Hill) Enhances Fish Growth and Immunity in Aquaculture , Shyam Narayan Labh, Shubha Ratna Shakya and Babita Labh Kayastha
Today we live in a world where poverty, hunger and malnutrition are prevalent. It has been estimated that 14 per cent of the global population or 852 million people are going hungry and of these 690 million are in the Asia-Pacific region. Aquaculture is the farming of aquatic organisms in both coastal and inland areas involving interventions in the rearing process to enhance production. It is probably the fastest growing food-producing sector and now accounts for 50 percent of the world's fish that is used for food. Fish contributes over 20 per cent of the animal protein intake for more than 2.6 billion people around the world. Hence, fish and fisheries make a major contribution to nutritional security and the fight against hunger and poverty in Asia. Immunostimulants known as immunostimulators are attractive substances that activate the immune system of humans and animals for prevention of diseases and improvement of the body's natural resistance to various viral and bacterial infections. These biologically active substances are the products derived from natural sources or synthetically made with different chemical properties and mechanisms of action. Lapsi, Choerospondias axillaris is indigenous fruit tree of Nepal found growing within 900- 2000 m above sea level in many parts of the country. Native to Nepal hills (850-1900 m asl), the tree has also been reported from India, China, Thailand, Japan and Vietnam. Nepal is unique for processing and use of Lapsi fruits. Fruits are rich in vitamin C content, and are consumed fresh, pickled and processed for preparing a variety of sweet and sour, tasty food products locally called as Mada and candy. It is grown in 301 village Development committees of 29 hill districts of Nepal for some socio-economic purpose. Like other medicinal fruits, lapsi also act as immunostimulants and enhance the immunity of fish during aquaculture.
2 Effect of Zinc on the Histopathology of Gill, Liver and Kidney of Fresh Water Catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linn.) , Navneet Kunwer Srivastava and Sadguru Prakash
The aim of the present study was to assess the toxic effect of Zinc on the histology of gill, liver and kidney of Clarias batrachus was studied. The fish were exposed to sublethal concentration of 96h LC of zinc sulphate (37.22 mg/L) 50 i.e. 10, 20 and 30 of mg/L ZnSO for 30 and 45 days. The fish exposed to zinc sulphate showed fusion of secondary gill 4 lamellae, mucous secretion, and reduction in length, rupturing of secondary gill lamellae and vacuolization were observed in the gill, enlargement of hepatocytes, necrosis, ruptured hepatocytes, space formation and vacuolization were observed in liver, disintegration of tubules, swelling of glomerulus, tubular necrosis and vacuolization were observed in kidney of Clarias batrachus.
3 Effect of cadmium on fresh water teleost, Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch) , Ashok Kumar, Sadguru Prakash, Alpana Parmar and Anand Kumar Bajpeyee
Heteropneustes fossilis, the fresh water teleost fishes were exposed to sub lethal concentration 6.9 mg/l of Cd for 24, 48 ,72 , 96, hours. The order of cadmium accumulation rate was found in these tissues were liver>gills> kidney. It was concluded that the fish liver and gills exhibited highest accumulation of heavy metals. The results showed significant fall in all the biochemical constituents in all the tissues except glucose apparently suggest that organism's response to the toxicant stress. The accumulation of cadmium and significant fall in the level of these biochemical constituents in these tissues was found to increase directly. Cadmium blocks the oxidative metabolism in the tissues leading to an altered energy status in the fish as the toxicant effect carbohydrate metabolism in liver, brain and gills. A significant increase in glucose and lactate levels was observed while the glycogen and pyruvate contents were significantly decreased due to the toxic stress.
4 Socio-religious Plants of Terai Region of U.P., India , H. P. Pandey
Plants being the oldest companion of man influenced his culture and civilization very much, which themselves born, grown and flourished very deep in the dense forests. Our ancestors imparted this knowledge to us through various folktales, mythological stories and events in the epics. Lots of religious practices and worship in houses and temples on various festivals and ceremonies are still followed right from the birth to death, all associated with plants. These associations can be traced from prehistoric age to present so called civilized age without interruption. This submission discusses 36 plant species which are used in socio-religious ceremonies in and around Gonda and Balrampur districts of Terai region of U.P., India.
5 Species Diversity of Indian Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae), Rajendra Singh and Garima Singh
The aphids are tiny sap sucking plant lice that not only infest agricultural and horticultural crops but also spread several viral diseases. They are very fascinating insects as these are thelytokous parthenogenetic viviparous, having short generation time and telescopic generation with polymorphism. Many species of aphids display complex life cycles with alternation of sexual and asexual generations and host plant alternation. Aphids are almost cosmopolitan in distribution, but are most common in temperate areas. Unlike many taxa, aphid species diversity is much lower in the tropics than in the temperate zones. They can migrate great distances, mainly through passive dispersal by winds. At present all true aphids belong to a single family Aphididae which consists of 24 subfamilies. Globally, 5109 species of aphids are described under 527 genera. In India, 794 species of aphids under 208 genera are reported out of which about 385 are endemic.The subfamily Aphidinae constitutes a monophyletic group within the family with about 3100 extant species worldwide with higher diversity in temperate regions. In India, 431 species under 105 genera of this subfamily are reported out of which 192 species are endemic. In this paper, distribution of extant aphid species in different taxa of Aphididae is described.
6 Influence of Azolla as organic compost on cultivation of Sarpagandha Plants, Nikhil Agnihotri
Sarpagandha (Rauvolfia serpentina (L.) Benth. ex. Kurz.), a well known medicinal plant of family: Apocynaceae is used in therapeutics worldwide since ancient times. In present study, sarpagandha plants were treated with different doses of Azolla compost. After 400 days of cultivation, sarpagandha plants were studied for dry matter yield and chlorophyll contents. Azolla showed remarkable increase in dry matter yield as well as chlorophyll contents of sarpagandha. In culture medium, the effect of Azolla organic compost on the growth and composition of sarpagandha plants grown on soil-pot was analyzed that proved that in future, Azolla can be used as better source of organic compost for cultivation of medicinal plants.
7 Allelochemical Stress, ROS and Plant Defence System, Deepmala Singh
In nature plants grow close to each other, hence there must be a competition arises between them for nutrition and space. For their survival plants must have some strategy to defense and attack. Plants produce various secondary metabolites which may not be of nutritional values and have toxic effects. These metabolites when released out of plants and come in contact with another plant, exerts some effects (deleterious or beneficial) on recipient plant. These metabolites are known as allelochemicals or allelopathins. Allelochemicals also serve as defense agent against herbivores or competing plants due to their toxic nature. They maybe used as a toolfor attack. They exert biotic stress which is called as allelochemical stress or allelopathy. Present study investigates the adverse impact of allelopathy on recipient plant with special reference to production of ROS, oxidative stress and defense enzyme system.
8 Comparative Analysis of Sarus Crane Population from 2012-2019 in and around Alwara Lake of District Kaushambi (U.P.), India, Shri Prakash and Ashok Kumar Verma
The present study is designed to analyze the population of Indian Sarus Crane (Grus antigone antigone) in and around the Alwara Lake of district Kaushambi (Uttar Pradesh) India in 8 consecutive years from 2012 to 2019. The sarus crane is the only resident and non-migratory breeding crane of Indian subcontinent. This bird is now globally threatened due to the shrinking in the extent and quality of their wetland habitats, reduction in suitable mating sites and increased anthropogenic activities. In the present study, authors attempted to count the number of sarus crane in 8 consecutive years from 2012 to 2019 in the same study area. This systematic analysis reflects an increase in the number of sarus crane at sustainable level in the area studied.
9 Status of Indian major carps spawn in the Halda River along with marketing and economic condition of the Fishers and related collectors, B.K. Chakraborty, M.H. Shahroz, A.B. Bhuiyan, S. Bhattacharjee and S. Chattoraj
The spawn of Indian major carps makes the Halda River an irreplaceable heritage of Bangladesh. The study was conducted to observe present status of Indian major carp breeding and collection management procedures of carp spawn and fry from the Halda River along with marketing process and economic conditions of the fishers and spawn collector. Data were collected through direct interview. In marketing system of carp eggs, spawn and fry in the Halda River, a number of intermediaries were involved actively in the marketing system. Four different types of marketing systems were identified in Halda spawn and fry distribution fry seller to final consumer. Fertilized eggs and spawn were collected and hatched by the local fisher's and collectors using their indigenous method. Those egg collectors sold to the hatchery owners per kg spawn at the rate of 50,000-80,000 BdTk. Again hatchery owners sold each and every fry at the rate of 5.0-6.0 BDTk. to the local fish farmers. Yearly survey information on Halda River's egg, spawn and fry collection showed an ups and downs production rate during last 07 years. The production status in the year 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2017 was 230, 1569, 526, 508, 107, 320 and 338kg respectively and these types of ups and downs indicated poor number of broods, poor breeding ground and poor ecosystem of the Halda River. Different types of transports were used to carry fertilized eggs and spawn of Halda River. Investigation was also done to find out the economic condition, average income during breeding season and off season, educational background and family status of the local people of Halda region involving in fry collecting and marketing system. The study recommends that ecosystem health and breeding ground of Halda River should be protected for ensuring availability of pure line fertilized eggs and spawn of Indian major carp.
10 Diversity of Parthenium hysterophorus and associated weeds in the Chitrakoot District, Preeti Tripathi and Ramesh Chandra
Parthenium hysterophorus L. (Carrot grass) is an annual herb of neotropical origin that now has a serious problem and pantropical distribution. It was first reported in India in 1950 at Pune (Maharashtra). This weed is very aggressive and commonly known as Congress grass and carrot grass in India. It has achieved major weed status in India within a relatively short period of time. P. hysterophorus is grown mostly in cultivated fields, fallow lands, pasture and along the roadsides. To analyse the distribution of this weed in Chitrakoot district an exhaustive survey was performed in the holly place of Uttar Pradesh like Rajapur, Pahadi, Karwi and M.G.C.G.V. campus. During survey, the distribution of P. hysterophorus was measured in the agricultural lands, road side, river side and fallow lands. Moreover, the study also investigated the harmful effect of Parthenium upon native weeds and flora in the Chitrakoot district. Quadrates method (1mx1m) was used to collect the data of distribution and population of this weed. In this investigation, total 14 weed species were recorded belonging to 8 different families and 14 genera. The data were recorded by Absolute density (m2), relative density (%), absolute frequency (%), relative frequency (%) and importance value (%) of Parthenium and other associated weeds. The finding reveals that Parthenium weed is the most dominant species in comparison to other associated weeds. In conclusion, the Parthenium weed become a serious problem and replaces the entire native flora in the non-crop area. Due to no proper management and high growth rate, nowadays it becomes as super weed in the Chitrakoot district. So, the management of Parthenium weed requires the call attention from the Government Policy makers and proper quarantine inspection to conserve the native flora and fields crops to get maximum crop yield.
11 Incredible Benefits of Exotic Kiwano (Horned Melon) for Wellness, Vigour and Vitality, Bina Rani, Upma Singh, Lakha Ram, Ravi Sharma, Harsukh Chharang, Anju Sharma and Raaz K Maheshwari
The kiwano belongs to the Cucumber family. The alien looking fruit has similarities with Pomegranate and Passion fruit in its texture and is a traditional food plant in the African continent. Its increasing popularity in the health arena is due to the abundance of health benefits it possesses. It improves cognitive function, used as a recovery aid for heart stroke; kiwano melon slows down the ageing process and even neutralizes the free radicals in the body. The high fiber content in kiwano makes it an ideal digestive aid. Due to the presence of essential nutrients, minerals and organic compounds in the fruit, it got recognition by WHO, stating kiwano to be an essential fruit in fighting against illness and malnutrition. The health benefits of the kiwano are in the nutrients it contains including vitamin C, Fe and K. It also has smaller amounts of P, Mg, Zn, Ca, Cu, and Na. The seeds contain linoleic and oleic acid. Linoleic acid is an omega fatty acid which is required for human health while oleic acid is thought to help in lowering the blood pressure. A couple of anti-oxidants recognized in kiwano seeds are α-tocopherol as well as β-tocopherol. The yellowish-green colored pigments are located at the seeds. Its pulp contains the carotenoid, beta carotene. The beta carotene strengthens the body's defense mechanisms and sustains eye and skin health. It may also help to prevent cancer simply by suppressing the growth of free-radicals. This review article is aimed to discuss the diseases or ailments that are treated with the plant Cucumis metuliferus.
12 Impact of Climate Change on Biodiversity: An Overview, Sadguru Prakash and Seema Srivastava
Biodiversity is the 'Full variety of Life on Earth'. It includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystem. Biodiversity plays an important role in climate regulation. Biodiversity conservation will lead to strengthening of ecosystem resilience and will improve the ability of ecosystem to provide important services during increasing climate pressures. But due to anthropogenic activities the global climate has changed since last few decades.This climate change adversely affected the biological resources of the country. This review basically discuss the importance of biodiversity, the consequences faced by the plants, animals, humans and ecosystem owing to the climate change and also control measures or strategies should be taken for the conservation of biodiversity which can protect the earth from the consequenceof climate change.
13 Alternative Methods Replacing Animal Testing in Research: An Overview, Abhishek Singh and Preeti Singh
The discovery of new drugs involves their testing on animals for efficacy as well as safety before the approval. Millions of animals are being sacrificed to fulfill this need. But experimentation on animals during the past years has created a matter of attention to the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) for better care and handling of animals. The main aim of these committees is to reduce and finally exclude the animal use from the area of research with appropriate alternatives. Various alternative methods and organisms have been implemented and used respectively in this aspect in the last few years. Alternatives of animals serve the same purpose as that of utilizing whole animal for testing. The techniques such as in vitro method, computer model, stem cell, alternative organisms, use of biotechnology etc. might eventually replace the use of animals for testing and these approaches may provide an insight to minimum utilization of animals in s cientific research. Some alternatives of animal testing have been discussed in this article with some examples.
14 Cadmium induced histopathological alterations in female gonad of freshwater bivalve mollusks, Lamellidens marginalis during summer season, Shaikh Yasmeen
The study was aimed to investigate the effect of cadmium on the gonad in female fresh water bivalve mollusks, Lamellidens marginalis. The experiment was carried out on the bivalves collected from Kutluq Lake, Daultabad, district Aurangabad of Maharashtra, India from January 2018 to December 2018. The histolopathological findings include partial disruption of ovarian follicle, vacuolation of germinal cells cytoplas m and damaged inter follicular connective tissue. The cytomorphological structure of ovarian follicles got deformed and elongated, losing their typical configuration. Necrosis and fibrosis in the connective tissue and damage to yolk vesicles of maturing sites were observed.
15 Preliminary Studies on Diversity of Aquatic Insects in Guthia Taal, a Wetland of district Bahraich, U.P., Sadguru Prakash and Dhram Raj Verma
Aim of the present piece of work was to analyze the diversity of insect fauna of Guthia Taal, a wetland of district Bahraich of Uttar Pradesh (India). During the present study, a total of 32 species of aquatic insects belonging to 5 orders and 24 families were recorded from the three sampling sites from the study area. The study of population of insects in different sites revealed the fact that the population of aquatic insects was governed by both abiotic and biotic factors. The result of the present study reveals a great diversity of aquatic insects in freshwater bodies of Guthia taal and suggests a strong possibility of using insects effectively for biomonitoring programmes.
16 Histopathological changes in Liver of fish Channa punctatus exposed to sub lethal concentration of Hybrid Pesticide, Gurumeet Kaur and B. K. P. Mishra
Water pollution has its own importance and concern with human life, as water is the main component of living organisms and is in bottom of our everyday life activities like cleaning, drinking, washing, agricultural purpose, sea food and fish food. The harmful effect of any pollutant which entered into water bodies can be assessed by investigating health of aquatic fauna. In the present investigation, an attempt was made to examine the sub-lethal toxic effect of Chlorpyriphos (50%) and Cypermethrin (5%) on the histology of liver of Channa punctatus after short term chronic exposure. In the fish exposed to hybrid pesticides, irregular shape of nuclei, nuclear hypertrophy, necrosis, space formation and vacuolation were observed in the liver.
17 Evaluation of Bio efficacy of Azadirachta indica and Mentha piperita extract against Papilio demoleus L. on Citrus crop, Sunita Arya
Lemon butterfly (Papilio demoleus) is a serious pest of citrus crop. Present experiment was carried out in the laboratory under controlled conditions with three replications. Five concentrations of neem and mint extract were taken with solvent as petroleum ether, methanol, chloroform, and distilled water. The chloroform extract and methanol extract of Azadirachta indica and Mentha piperita were found to be effective with reduced larval survival up to 46.35%and 52.24%, respectively. With 20% neem extract concentration, survival percentage was found to be 47.8% and 46.3% in chloroform solvent after 24 and 72 hours of exposure, respectively. Methanol extract also revealed statistically at par results In control experiment, survival percentage was ranged from 97–100% in all solvent extracts. Similarly, with mint extract, survival percentage was found to be minimum with chloroform solvent (52.13%) followed by methanol solvent (58.08) after 24 hours. Similar trend was recorded after 48 and 72 hours of exposure.
18 STUDY OF WADERS DIVERSITY IN THE CATCHMENT AREA OF UJANI RESERVOIR, SOLAPUR DISTRICT (MS), INDIA, D. S. Kumbhar and D. K. Mhaske
The present study was an attempt to access and evaluate the status and distribution of waders associated to wetlands of Ujani Reservoir with special reference to north - west region. Waders are the birds generally observed along shorelines and mudflats that wade in order to forage for food in mud or sand. Ujani wetlands provide feeding and roosting grounds for resident and migratory waders. This study was conducted from December 2015 to November 2017 including seasonal visits to five wetland sites i.e. Kumbhargaon, Diksal, Kondhar-Chincholii, Rajegaon (Bhigwan) and Khanota. During study, about 38 species of waders were identified belonging to 14 families viz. Ardeidae, Charadriidae, Ciconiidae, Jacanidae, Laridae, Rallidae, Motacillidae, Phalacrocoracidae, Phoenicopteridae, Recurvirostridae, Rostratulidae, Scolopacidae, Threskiornithidae and Glariolidae.
19 REARING AND NURSING OF THAI PANGAS, PANGASIANODON HYPOPHTHALMUS (SAUVAGE, 1978) WITH DIFFERENT FEEDS, B. K. Chakraborty
Growth and survival of Pangasianodon hypophthalmus was assessed in relation to feeding of different feeds for a rearing period of 21 days. The experiment was designed with 3 treatments and 4 replications. The nursery ponds were stocked at a density of 0.6 million hatchling/ha with 3days old P. hypophthalmus. The highest growth performance, survival and production of the fry was found in treatment T in terms of length, weight and number, where sustainable nursery management was 1 implemented and egg yolk, mustard oil cake, nursery feed and Tubifex Chop were supplied. Poor growth performance and survival was recorded in treatment T where nursery management was poor 3, with insufficient food supply. The highest average growth was recorded at 5.66±0.55 g, SGR 12.24±0.68, FCR 0.68±0.01and survival rate 52.15±0.78% in the treatment T . The treatment (T ) 1 1 also showed highest economic return (Bd Tk. 290543/ ha) than that of treatment T and T . The 1 2 physico-chemical factors were found to be in optimum level for fish culture.
20 DIVERSITY OF SIMONID SPIDERS (ARANEAE: SALTICIDAE: SALTICINAE) IN INDIA, Rajendra Singh, Garima Singh, Bindra Bihari Singh
Distribution of spiders belonging to 4 tribes of clade Simonida (Salticinae: Salticidae: Araneae) reported in India is dealt. The tribe Aelurillini (7 genera, 27 species) is represented in 16 states and in 2 union territories, Euophryini (10 genera, 16 species) in 14 states and in 4 union territories, Leptorchestini (2 genera, 3 species) only in 2 union territories, Plexippini (22 genera, 73 species) in all states except Mizoram and in 3 union territories, and Salticini (3 genera, 11 species) in 15 states and in 4 union terrioties. West Bengal harbours maximum number of species, followed by Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra. Out of 129 species of the spiders listed, 70 species (54.3%) are endemic to India.
21 COVID-19 : TOWARDS CONFRONTING AN UNPRECEDENTED PANDEMIC, Tamanna Kumari and Vineeta Shukla
Latest 73 report of COVID-19 from national authorities to WHO by April 2, 2020, there are 896450 confirmed cases with 45526 deaths globally. 0 to 14 days is the average range of incubation period. Recent study from China Center for disease control (CDC) showed that most of the patients were asymptomatic in its early days of infection that leads to widespread of virus. Nosocomial transmission is another serious problem the world is facing with this public health crisis. Coronaviruses are known to cause respiratory and enteric disease in human and animals. These are round or oval and pleomorphic in shape. Limited information is present till now about COVID-19. It suggests that its infection ranges from previous coronavirus encounters. Here in this review we summarize all information present till date and also a brief comparison to SARS and MERS. This is to identify the gaps in knowledge to share resources to recover from COVID-19. It also includes pharmaceutical drugs that showed a negative impact on SARS-CoV- 2 in in-vitro studies that can be used for its treatment till a suitable vaccine candidate is available. The most important task at this hour is to find a vaccine for the infection. Moreover, the research needs to be conducted for finding measures to face this kind of challenges in future.
22 EFFECT OF ARSENIC ON SERUM BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF A FRESH WATER CAT FISH, MYSTUS VITTATUS, Sadguru Prakash and Ashok Kumar Verma
The present investigation has been designed to study the effect of sublethal concentrations (10% and 30%) of heavy metal, arsenic on the serum metabolites, serum enzyme activity and serum electrolytes of Mystus vittatus after exposure to 30 days. The present study shows that serum metabolites such as glucose, protein and bilirubin were significantly decreased while free amino acid, triglyceride and cholesterol were significantly increased; serum enzymes such as acid phosphatase (ACP), transminases (SGPT & SGOT) were increased significantly while alkaline phosphatase (ALP), was decreased significantly; serum electrolytes such as sodium, potassium and calcium were decreased significantly but chloride was increased significantly. Thus, this paper gives an overview of the manipulation of fish, Mystus vittatus as a biomarker of heavy metals through alternation in biochemical parameters.
23 DECLINE OF HOUSE SPARROW AND COMMON MYNA POPULATION IN DODA REGION OF JAMMU AND KASHMIR, INDIA, Wahied Khawar Balwan and Neelam Saba
The House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) and Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis), once very common birds, have declined markedly in most parts of the India including Doda district of Jammu and Kashmir. Once these birds were distributed widely in Doda district but over the past few years, they became not so common in this region. A study has been conducted during April 2016 to April 2020 to establish the database for their current population and to assess the possible causes of their decline in Doda district. The house sparrow is a symbiotic bird species highly adaptable with human habitation. House construction due to modern trend has resulted in reduced safe nesting for sparrows and mynas. Green spaces in our cities give way to more concrete construction due to which the house sparrow and myna loses its foraging ground. There is a dire need of ecological balancing to save the Sparrows and Mynas from getting extinct.
24 MACROPHYTES AS BIOINDICATOR IN BICHHIYA RIVER, REWA (M.P.), INDIA, Shrishti Singh and Suman Singh
The present study was aimed to analyze the macrophytes as bioindicators in Bichhiya River at Rewa. The study was conducted over a period of one year from January 2019 to December 2019 at 3 different sampling stations selected for the purpose in Rewa, a district of Madhya Pradesh, India. The physico-chemical parameters of water such as temperature, pH, DO, BOD, COD, hardness which are most useful for the prediction of distribution of macrophytes were analysed. A sum of 30 species of macrophytes was identified. Presence of macrophytes (1) reflects the nutrients enrichment and organic loading and (2) indicates the water pollution. Abundance and high density of Ceratophyllum demersum, Nitella hyalina, Chara vulgaris, Potamogeton pectinata indicated the enrichment of nutrients and high organic loading.
25 CALCIUM IN PLANT BIOLOGY: NUTRIENT AND SECOND MESSENGER, Rachana Singh
Calcium (Ca++ ) is an essential element required for growth and development of plants both under stressed and non-stressed situations. It not only maintains the integrity of cell wall and membrane, but also serves as a second messenger in many developmental and physiological Ca++ processes thereby inducing Ca influx into cytosol, which decodes into downstream responses like Ca++defense against various environmental cues. Therefore, maintenance of intracellular Ca++ homeostasis is essential for Ca signalling. In this review, the current knowledge about the Ca++ uptake, transport and signal transduction in different physiological aspects with respect to plant nutrient status will be discussed.
26 CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES OF ENVIRONMENTAL NOISE: AN OVERVIEW, Raaz K. Maheshwari, Ranjeet Poonia, Mahendra Singh Rathore, Ashok K. Kakodia Anil Kumar and Sulochna Sharma
Noise pollution (or environmental noise) refers to unwanted or unpleasant sound that disrupts the activity or balance of human and animal life. It reduces the concentration and negatively affects the mental activity. The noise is generated by the human through various ways and activities. Noise must be controlled and prevented by using various effective techniques at the source itself is today's need. This review basically discuss the various sources of noise pollution, measurement of noise, dB scale, equipments used in the measurement of noise levels, adverse effects of noise pollution on health, control of indoor noise, control technologies available for noise pollution and Indian penal codes to prevent noise pollution are the main points of focus of attention.
27 CLIMATE CHANGE AND PRACTICES OF FARMERS' TO MAINTAIN RICE YIELD: A CASE STUDY , Amar Chandra Mandal and Om Prakash Singh
A survey was conducted during December 2019 to March 2020 in the Siraha district of Nepal to assess farmers' perception on climate change and identifications of local practices to maintain the yield of rice production. Total 60 samples were purposively selected from the study site. During interaction and interview, the opinion of 75- 80% formers was that temperature increases, rainfall duration and its frequency decreases due to the global warming. About 33.33% farmers experience was an increase in flooding hazard due to increase in rainfall intensity during the rainy season in Siraha and its vicinity. The majority of respondents perceived increased in weed and pest (65%) and new weed (30%) and new pest (26.7%) infestation due to climate change. About 18% respondents had a clear knowledge of climate change. The major source of information was selfexperiences (80%) and organization (20%). The major climate change adaptation practices adopted by farmers were the use of drought-resistant varieties (11.67%), flood-resistant varieties (13.33%) and early maturing crops (15%). Crop insurance is one of the adaptation practices to climate change. The study showed that 63.33 % of the respondents know about crop insurance policy but none of the respondents have done crop insurance on different crops. The increase in disease and pest infestation is major problems of farmers. The focus group discussion and key informant study showed that the farmers were positive to adopt climate change adaptation strategies. So, Government and policymakers should focus on climate-resilient adaptation strategies formulation for rice cultivation through intensive research and extension package. Adoption of different resistant varieties and technological adoption like zero tillage, application of irrigation, and training related to adoption techniques should be done.
28 HOLISTIC SURVEY ON PREDATORY LADYBIRD BEETLE DIVERSITY AT SELECTED REGIONS OF NASHIK DISTRICT (MAHARASHTRA), INDIA, Shaikh Yasmeen and Punam Dugaje
A survey was conducted during January 2016 to December 2017 in four sites of Nashik to study the diversity of the predatory beetles. During the present study, a total of 14 species belonging to 11 genera and 4 subfamilies were recorded from the area studied. Subfamily Chilorinae is represented by 2 species belonging to 2 genera, Subfamily Coccinellinae by 8 species belonging 6 genera, Subfamily Scymninae by 2 species belonging to 2 genera and Subfamily Sticholotidinae by 2 species belonging to the same single genus from the different sites of the study area. The Subfamily Coccinellinae was the most variant and abundant among all the four subfamilies.
29 REVERSAL OF HYPERMETHYLATION AND REACTIVATION OF TUMOR SUPPRESSOR GENES DUE TO NATURAL COMPOUNDS IN BREAST CANCER CELLS, Debasray Saha, Neeraj Vaishnav, Zubiya Ahsan, Nisha Rani,Runjhun Mathur and Abhimanyu Kumar Jha
Breast oncogenesis is a multistage process that involves epigenetic and genetic changes. Epigenetics is outlined as reversible changes in gene expression, with no alteration in gene sequence. DNA methylation, histone modification, and nucleosome transformation are the foremost epigenetic changes that may get dysregulated in breast cancer. Epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) is reversed by varied molecules as well as natural compounds like polyphenols which will act as a hypermethylation agent. Nowadays, much of the research is going in the direction of natural and dietary compounds and attempting to search out novel and extra effective medical aid for the breast cancer patients. In this literature, few vital natural chemical compounds effective against the breast oncogenesis with their mode of actions are discussed. Such chemicals act as an analytical and prognostic tool in breast cancer due to their role in epigenetic regulation.
30 A SURVEY OF FISH FAUNA OF RAPTI RIVER, BALRAMPUR (U.P.), INDIA, Sudhakar Prakash, Ashok Kumar, Shri Prakash and B.K. Mishra
An initial survey was under taken to study the occurrence and diversity of fishes in Rapti River flowing through Balrampur district of Uttar Pradesh, India. The present survey was conducted from January, 2018 to December, 2018 to find out the fish fauna of Rapti River at Balrampur district. A total of 27 species of fishes belonging to 19 genera, 14 families and 7 orders were identified as a preliminary survey and observation. This was the first systematic survey on the fish diversity of this River. Order Siluriformes was found most dominant represented by 10 species, followed by Cypriniformes with 7 species; Perciformes and Ophiocephaliformes with 3 species each; Osteoglossiformes with 2 species while Clupeiformes and Beloniformes with only one species each.
31 FREQUENCY OF TYPHOID FEVER IN HEALTHY PEOPLE OF DODA REGION OF JAMMU AND KASHMIR, INDIA: FIRST REPORT FROM AREA, Walied Khawar Balwan, Wahied Khawar Balwan and Neelam Saba
Typhoid fever (or enteric fever) remains a deadly disease in developing countries, particularly in India. Although, the paediatric population is mainly affected by this disease, however, the disease is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in adult populations as well. Typhoid fever is an orally transmitted infectious disease caused by the Gram negative bacterium, Salmonella typhi. The aim of the study was to examine pathogens that cause typhoid fever among healthy people in the Doda region of Jammu and Kashmir, India. Blood was collected from 150 healthy people for testing. A total of 85 (56.7%) healthy people showed positive results that they had typhoid fever based on a clinical examination and serological test, while 65 (43.3%) showed negative results of the total of 150 patients. The Widal test was found to be suitable test for enteric fever. Typhoid fever remains common in the Doda region, even among those with a high level of education. The study conducted during March 2020 to May 2020, is the first of its kind in the Doda region of Jammu and Kashmir.
32 COVID 19: A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH TO COMBAT THE DEADLY VIRUS, Nirupam Roy, Amitrajit Pal and Radha Chaube
The COVID-19 pandemic has gripped the entire world in a medical emergency, spreading at a phenomenal rate, affecting even the most developed nations and challenging medical care infrastructure. With the precautions of social distancing and its enforcement through lockdowns, authorities have managed to buy time to flatten the curve. However, without any proven cure at hand, researchers are exploring varied approaches to treat the infected people. In this review, authors discuss the multilayered approach taken up to combat this deadly pandemic. The authors shall summarize the hospital setups, the frontline worker's struggles, the symptoms and their manifestations, preventive measures and also the current treatment approaches.
33 ZOOPLANKTON DIVERSITY IN SATHANUR RESERVOIR OF THIRUVANNAMALAI (TAMILNADU), INDIA, E. Sugumaran, B. Shabeena and M.V. Radhakrishnan
The present investigation was an attempt to study the zooplankton community of Sathanur reservoir of Thiruvannamalai, Tamilnadu, India. The zooplankton species composition was studied for a period of one year from October 2018 to September 2019 on monthly interval basis. As a result of study, 24 zooplankton species were identified, out of which 9 were Rotifers, 7 Cladocerans, 5 Copepods and 3 Ostracodans. The overall population density of zooplankton was found maximum during the summer season and mininmum during monsoon. They play a supportive role in fish culture by recycling of nutrients and increase the soil fertility and involve in energy transfer between phytoplankton and fishes.
34 TOXIC EFFECTS OF PAPER MILL EFFLUENTS ON MORTALITY, BEHAVIOUR AND MORPHOLOGY OF SNAKE HEADED FISH, CHANNA PUNCTATUS (BLOCH.), Sadguru Prakash and Ashok Kumar Verma
Present study was undertaken to find out the physico-chemical characteristics of paper mill effluents and their impact on mortality, behavior and morphology of fish, Channa punctatus. The result of physico-chemical characteristics of treated effluents showed that pH, EC, chloride and phenolic compound are within the permissible limit but colour, order, BOD, COD, TSS do not meet the permissible standards set by Central Pollution Control Board of India. LC values of paper mill 50 effluents of both sites (Po and Pd) for Channa punctatus were found 15% and 20%, respectively after 96 hours. Authors recorded abnormal behaviour of the fish studied throughout 96 hours in both effluents. The fishes showed erratic, haphazard movement, rapid opercular movement and tendency to jump out of water. The effluent exposed fishes showed the excessive secretion of the mucus. Many changes were seen in gill, skin and fins of fishes due to exposure of effluent. The gill colour changes from dark red to dull red and skin become erupted. The response of the fish towards toxicity was grossly dependent on concentration of effluents and length of exposure. Thus, the present study revealed that fish, Channa punctatus is sensitive to paper mill effluent toxicity and can be used as biological indicator.
35 EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT ACITIVITY OF EISENIA FETIDA, Pinky Deswal, Yasha Yadav, Khushbu and Vineeta Shukla
Antioxidant assay was performed to count the total phenolic content in coelomic fluid of Eisenia fetida. The worms were cultured in lab until they became sexually mature. The study focused on total phenolic compound determination using two solvents in a single species of earthworm. It was analysed that the extraction of phenolic compound with 85% ethanol yielded high phenol content, 208.6 mg GAE\L Eisenia fetida. Extraction with 85% methanol on the other hand, yielded 189.1 mg GAE\L. Eisenia fetida ethanolic extract in the sample manifested high total phenolic content than methanolic extract. Phenols are more readily soluble in ethanol and safe for human consumption. Methanol is used as solvent for low molecular weight polyphenols. The study concludes that ethanol extract of Eisenia fetida coelomic fluid contains significant amount of phenols. Phenols have an antioxidant effect and can be used as natural antioxidants for curing ailments related with inflammation and oxidative stress. This study will help in bringing attention towards the therapeutic utility of earthworms.
36 ASSESSMENT OF KAP (KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE) OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS TOWARDS PREVENTION OF COVID-19, Bhawna Srivastava and P. B. Reddy
The present study was aimed to explore the KAP (knowledge, attitude and practice) adopted by the university students of Madhya Pradesh (India) towards prevention of Covid-19 pandemic. For this purpose, authors performed an online survey with 776 students using a selfdesigned semi-structured questionnaire. The results found that students had a moderate to a high level of knowledge about the Covid -19 and sufficient knowledge regarding its preventive measures. The authors could not found any significant correlation between attitude and the socio-demographic variable (sex, age, qualification, and level of education) at (p < 0.05). The majority of the respondents admitted that they always wore a face mask and adopted the practice of going to crowded places and washing their hands with soap or sanitizer before and after touching of objects and suspicious people. In conclusion, authors found that more than two-third of university students have adequate knowledge of the Covid-19. Authors could not detect any statistically significant difference in the level of knowledge about Covid-19 among the participants irrespective of their academic qualifications. Authors suggest conducting follow up studies involving teaching and non-teaching staff in the schools and colleges of the state and country. Keywords: Awareness, COVID-19, KAP, Madhya Pradesh,
37 A NOTE ON HEPATITIS VIRUSES CAUSING CANCER IN HUMAN, Mohammad Shahid Masroor, Shagufta Parween, Mohammad Salim and I. P. Prajapati
Hepatitis is an inflammation of liver mainly caused by the infection of hepatitis viruses as A, B and C. Chronic infection of these viruses produces liver cancer, most commonly known as the hepatocellular carcinoma (HC). This is a kind aggressive tumor formed in liver due to the infection of these viruses. Since, the understanding of these viruses with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma is essential for the future design of treatment, the present short communication highlighted the risk factors for infection and hepatocarcinogenesis of hepatitis viruses. The present paper is also an attempt to make the people aware of the fact that chronic viral hepatitis infection in human might cause liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma developed in future.
38 EXISTING CROPPING PATTERN AND ADOPTION OF NEW FARMING TECHNOLOGY IN THE PLAIN LAND ECOSYSTEM OF PHULPUR UPAZILA OF MYMENSINGH, Md. Shahidul Islam, A.H.M. Kohinoor, Anuradha Bhadra, Md. Saiful Islam and Mahmuda Masum
The participatory rural appraisal (PRA) was conducted at Phulpur Upazila of Mymensingh district of Bangladesh during April 2018 to May 2019 to know the existing farming system and new techniques in plain land area. The analysis shows a profit gap between traditional mono/double crop cultivation and integrated farming and the gap benchmarking indicates that integrated farming has two times greater income feasibilities than present cultivation system. Authors strongly recommend the application of model integrated farming to minimize the input cost and maximize the agricultural outputs in order to establish the better economic feasibility for decent livelihood and rural development.
39 A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF THE FRESHWATER PONDS FROM SANGAMNER TALUKA OF AHMEDNAGAR, MAHARASHTRA, INDIA, R. V. Bhagde, S. A. Pingle, M. R. Bhoye, S. S. Pansambal and D. R. Deshmukh
A comparative study of physico-chemical parameters of two freshwater ponds was conducted to assess the seasonal variation in temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, free carbon dioxide, alkalinity and hardness. The result showed that the value of the dissolved oxygen was recorded in the range of 3.6 mg/L to 7.9 mg/L, free carbon dioxide in the range of 33.8 mg/L to 50.0 mg/L, alkalinity in the range of 140 mg/L to 330 mg/L, hardness from 41 mg/L to 130 mg/L. During entire study period from July 2018 to June 2019, authors observed a great seasonal variation in the values of physico-chemical parameters.
40 FEEDING ECOLOGY OF AVIFAUNA IN SUB-TROPICAL AND TEMPERATE REGION OF MIDDLE HIMALAYAN CHAIN OF DODA, JAMMU AND KASHMIR, Ajaz Ahmed Wani
Feeding ecology of birds was studied in subtropical and temperate region of Doda which lies in middle Himalayan chain of Pir Panchal range of Jammu and Kashmir, India. In the present study, a total 71 species of birds was documented from the study area belonging to 9 orders, 27 families and 12 sub families. Out of 71, 26 species were insectivores (I), 17 omnivores (O), 12 carnivores (C), 4 frugivores (F), 4 grainivores (G) and rest of the 8 species share more than one feeding guilds. This study therefore showed a remarkable variation in feeding ecology of birds in the region surveyed.
41 STATUS OF ANIMAL PHYLA IN DIFFERENT KINGDOM SYSTEMS OF BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION, Ashok Kumar Verma and Sadguru Prakash
Biological classification is the scientific procedure of arranging the organisms in a hierarchical series of groups and sub-groups on the basis of their similarities and dissimilarities. Many biologists have contributed to this method of classification, which took years for researchers to decide the most fundamental characteristics for the classification. The history of kingdom system in classification is started with Linnaeus (1735), who laid the foundation of modern biological classification by classifying the organisms into two kingdoms namely Plantae and Animalia. The two kingdom system was followed by three, four, five and six kingdom systems respectively. In present discussion, authors tried to discuss the current status of different animal phyla with respect to different kingdom systems.
42 EXPRESSION OF IMMUNE GENES AND STRESS ENZYME PROFILES OF RAINBOW TROUT (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS) FED MORINGA OLEIFERA LEAF MEAL (MLM), Shyam Narayan Labh
Moringa oleifera belongs to family Moringaceae, is one in every of the foremost useful trees within the world, with all the parts having nutritional and pharmacological properties. This research evaluated the impact of categorized nutritive insertion of Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MLM) on survival, growth, and antioxidant systems, with a few immune-related organic phenomena in rainbow trout. Fish diets formulated (M0, M10, M20, M30, and M40) to contain 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% of MLM as protein source supplemented with fish meal respectively. The rainbow trout fishes (6.57± 0.56 g) were randomly distributed into 15 plastic tanks (n=15) and fed the same (twice daily) for 90 days. Growth parameters (WG%, SGR, and FCR), serum protein contents (TSP, TSA, TSG, and A: G), enzyme contents (SOD, CAT, GPx, AST, ALT) and organic phenomena, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-α genes were studied, compared to β-actin genes followed by blood morphology of trout. Fish fed MLM accompanied diet showed higher weight gain (349.31%) and SGR (1.35) and minimum FCR (1.33) values up to M20 (20%) group of fish fed MLM diet compared with control fish. Protein profile in blood and enzyme-like SOD, CAT, and GPx found higher while lower AST and ALT recorded altogether the treated groups compared to regulate. Similarly, MLM supplemented diets fed fish exhibited the expression of immune genes. Interleukin -6, Interleukin -8 and Interleukin -10 found significantly high (P < 0.05) compared to β-actin gene. Finally, this research showed that dietary supplementation of 20% MLM is perfect for effective growth performance, enhancing the antioxidant activities and answering some immune performance in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).
43 NUTRIENT COMPOSITION OF SOME MARINE EDIBLE FISH SPECIES FROM KASIMEDU FISH LANDING CENTRE, CHENNAI (TN), INDIA, S. Syed Raffic Ali, E. Syed Abdhakir, R. Muthukkaruppan, M. Asrar Sheriff and K. Ambasankar
The objective of this study was to determine the morphometric characters, body indices, proximate and mineral composition of seven commercially important marine edible fish species from the Chennai coast, India. The results showed that the morphometric characters varied widely among the fishes studied. The average moisture content ranges from 68.2 to 75.1 %. Majority of fishes had average crude protein content between 51.1 and 74.8 % with highest in Trichiurus lepturus (74.8%). The fat content varied widely from 1.49 to 21.5 % with Arius dussumieri being the fattiest fish (21.5%). The total ash content ranges from 14.1 to 36.4 %. Leiognathus equulus and Liza macrolepis had high values of total ash with 36.4 and 28.5 % respectively. Similarly highest carbohydrate was observed in L. macrolepis (6.51%). Body indices showed significant differences (P < 0.05) among the fishes. A. dussumieri and Terapon jarbua had high values of hepatosomatic index (2.36 %). Similarly highest viscerosomatic index was observed in L. macrolepis (11.1%). Condition factor showed wide variations from 0.06 to 1.53k. The analysis of minerals showed significant differences (P < 0.05). Phosphorus content was found to be highest in T. jarbua and T. lepturus. Similarly highest calcium and iron were recorded in L. macrolepis and A. dussumieri. The results showed that fish samples were good sources of nutrients and minerals and could provide multihealth benefits if consumed in recommended amounts.
44 EFFECTS OF DIETARY VITAMIN-C ON BIOCHEMICAL AND MORPHOMETRIC PARAMETERS OF LABEO ROHITA, Ashok Kumar, A. K. Bajpeyee and Chandra Bhan Yadav
The major carp, Labeo rohita fed with six different diets having vitamin C fortification. The Halver's synthetic diet (H440) was supplemented with graded levels of vitamin C at 0, 250, 500, 600, 750 and 1000 mg/kg. In present investigation, Labeo rohita fed with 600 mg/kg vitamin C, gain maximum ash (4.16%), carbohydrate (2.94%) protein (16.87%), fat (5.09 %), SGR (2.92 %), survival rate (100 %) with least moisture content (77.10 %) as compared to control and other graded level of vitamin C. Supplementation of vitamin C beyond 600 mg resulted in decrease in protein, fat, carbohydrate and ash values with an increase in moisture content. The results also indicated that Halver's synthetic diet of fish without dietary vitamin C had lower weight gain (WG) and specific growth rate (SGR) than those fed the diets supplemented vitamin C. WG and SGR did increase with dietary vitamin C levels increasing from 250 mg/ kg to 600 mg / kg. However, no significant increase was observed with further increase in dietary vitamin C levels beyond 600 mg / kg.
45 DIVERSITY OF MYGALOMORPH SPIDERS (ARANAE: OPISTHOTHELAE) IN INDIA, Rajendra Singh and Garima Singh
A checklist of mygalomorph spiders recorded upto August, 2020 from different states and union territories of India was prepared. A total of 118 species under 31 genera belonging to 8 families are observed to be distributed in 23 states and 4 union territories of India. These primitive spiders are yet to be discovered in Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Nagaland, Rajasthan, Delhi, Ladakh, Lakshdweep, Daman and Diu. Maximum diversity of these primitive spiders was reported in Tamil Nadu followed by Maharashtra, Kerala and West Bengal. More than 80% of the species of mygalomorph spiders recorded in India were reported from coastal states and union territories. Among the families, more than half (55.5%) of the species diversity can be seen in Theraphosidae (65 species in 13 genera) which were recorded from 23 states and 3 union territories followed by Idiopidae which is distributed in 13 states. More than 90% of known mygalomorph spiders from India are endemic.
46 SEASONAL VARIATION IN GUT CONTENTS OF INDIAN MAJOR CARP, CIRRHINUS MRIGALA FROM MEERANPUR LAKE, INDIA, Surya Prakash Mishra
The present study was carried out to analyze the gut contents of Indian major carp, Cirrhinus mrigala from Meeranpur Lake of district Sultanpur, India from June 2018 to May 2019. The information on the feeding habits of fish helps to understand the inter-specific relationship of aquatic fauna and the productivity of the water body. The result so obtained was used to compute the percentage volume of food items in the gut (% V ), frequency of occurrence of gut having particular i food items (% O ), index of preponderance (I) and grading of various food items in gut contents of i Mrigal, Cirrhinus mrigala. In the present study, the gut was consisted by decay matter, phytoplankton, zooplankton, plant materials and insects. The result showed that the decay matter and plankton dominated in gut contents and considered as main food components during prebreeding, breeding and post-breeding seasons. The bottom feeder and omnivorous feeding habit of Cirrhinus mrigala was confirmed by the index of preponderance and grading of various food items.
47 STUDY OF FEEDING BEHAVIOUR AGAINST GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT PARAMETERS OF Heliothis armigera ON TOMATO, Ankita Awasthi and Sangeeta Avasthi
Heliothis armigera is an economically important, polyphagous pest. It feeds on wide range of crops such as tobacco, tomato, cauliflower, peas, maize, brinjal, groundnut, soya bean, cotton etc. It affects the quantitative and qualitative fruit production in more than 157 plant species. Damage is caused by larval stages. Larva bores deeply in the fruit and causes severe damage. The pest Heliothis armigera feeding on five tomato varieties (Pant Bahar, Ratna, Arka Saurabh, Pusa Gaurav and Arka Abha) was analyzed for different growth parameters such as adult emergence, sex ratio and longevity. In the present study, maximum adult emergence (74.33%) was recorded in Pusa Gaurav, followed by Pant Bahar (72.65%) while minimum emergence (62.62%) was noticed in Arka Saurabh tomato variety. The maximum longevity of male Heliothis armigera was recorded on tomato variety Pant Bahar (24.33 days), followed by Pusa Gaurav (19.50 days), Ratna (20.30 days) and Arka Abha (22.65 days) while minimum in Arka Saurabh (18.55 days). The maximum female longevity (31.67 days) was recorded on Pant Bahar while minimum on Arka Saurabh (22.93 days). Observation recorded on tomato varieties indicated that sex ratio was maximum on Pant Bahar (1:1.85) which was at par with Arka Abha (1:1.46), Ratna (1:1.29), Pusa Gaurav (1:1.06) and Arka Saurabh (1:0.98) respectively.
48 EVALUATION OF DRINKING WATER QUALITY STATUS BY WATER QUALITY INDEX: A CASE STUDY OF SHIKHAR WATER FALL, DEHRADUN (UK), INDIA, Sonu Dwivedi
Water is an essential element for life. Safe drinking water is the basic need for safeguarding the health and well-being of humans all over the world. In the present study, the physico-chemical parameters such as chloride, electrical conductivity, pH, alkalinity, sulfate, total dissolved solid (TDS), total hardness, calcium, magnesium and water quality index (WQI) of Shikhar water fall, Dehradun was analyzed to know the suitability of water for drinking purpose during post-monsoon season in the year 2019. The values of Ca, Mg, SO and TDS of the samples studied were found high 4 from the WHO/ ISI recommended values of drinking water. The calculated value of WQI was 82.07, found not suitable for drinking purpose as per Standard Rating of Water Quality. Geological strata of the area, adjoining pollution sources, natural disaster and improper maintenance are the key factors responsible for water quality deterioration of the Shikhar water fall source.
49 MYIASIS, DIPTERAN FLIES AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS IN FORENSIC ENTOMOLOGY, Sunita Rawat
Myiasis is a pathological condition caused by the larval infestation in human or animal tissues. It is caused by the larvae of dipteran flies which are cosmopolitan in distribution. It occurs frequently in tropical countries and developed due to poor hygienic conditions. In human beings, the most commonly affected sites are the skin, mouth, ears, eyes, nose, anus and vagina. The diagnosis of the disease includes examining the larvae in the wounds and lesions. Pain and irritation in the affected body parts are the general complaints by the patients. The treatment is generally carried out by local disinfection and removal of larvae from the affected area. Effective fly control measures and good hygienic conditions should be adopted to control the disease. Insect life cycle stages found on the body and crime scene may be used in the estimation of post-mortem intervals (time since death) in forensic investigations. Insect evidence can also be used in the conditions of myiasis in living beings. Neglect or cruelty results in the untreated wound, and accumulation of faeces or urine, therefore attract the flies to oviposit. These eggs, larvae, etc. can be collected from the wound and presented in the court of law. A forensic entomologist can determine the minimum time since abuse or the duration of neglect by estimating the temperature, species, and age of the insect.
50 APPLYING SINGLE VERSUS MULTIPLE METHODS FOR DELINEATION OF FISH STOCKS WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO MORPHOLOGICAL TOOLS, Deepmala Gupta and Madhu Tripathi
Stock identification methods have been developed with the progression of technology but this sometimes brings problems rather than the solution since the advancement in methods is not unidirectional but diffused. As of now, every method has pros and cons. The choice of the best method of population/stock discrimination is a critical issue depends on the frame of the study and the desired objectives to be fulfilled. The best method(s) would be the one which is rapid, reliable, low cost and easily applicable. In this article, the focus is given to morphological approaches. Since long, body morphology, as an efficient tool, has been used to delineate fish stocks, which contributes to the conservation management of important fauna. In stock or population delineation studies of fishes, landmark-based quantitative shape analysis of the organism body have a valuable role to play and complementing other existing approaches. Nevertheless, there is no single best method which can be applied to all or any species for their identification/delineation. The best method varies from species to species as does the requirement to one or more methods and even employing more than one discipline.
51 SEASONAL VARIATION IN PRIMARY PRODUCTIVITY AND MACROPHYTES OF GUTHIA TAAL, BAHRAICH (U.P.), Rajiv Ranjan and Alka Kushwaha
Seasonal variations in primary productivity, respiration rate, chlorophyll content and macrophytes biomass were carried out during July, 2019 to June, 2020. Grass primary productivity 3 (GPP) and net primary productivity (NPP) ranged from 54.27 to 92.36 mgC/m /3hr and 34.95 to 59.59 3 mgC/m /3hr, respectively. The respiration (R) value and chlorophyll concentration varied between 3 3 15.32 and 34.16 mgC/m /3hr and 0.0047 and 0.149 mg pig/m in respectively. The primary productivity rate was maximum during summer season denote the peak of phytoplankton, macrophytes, higher values of light intensity, temperature and chlorophyll concentration. The minimum rate of primary productivity was observed during monsoon season.
52 HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METALS FOR POPULATION VIA CONSUMPTION OF PULSES AND CEREALS, Muzaffar Ahmad Mir, Sandeep Arya and A. M. Kak
Plants absorb a number of elements from the soil, some of which have no biological significance while some are biologically toxic even at low concentration. The objective of present study was to assess the concentration of heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg, Ni and Pb) in edible cereals like multi colored rajma, white rajma, red rajma, red moong, white beans, black beans, local rice, mustard (oil yielding crop), white moong and wheat grown in the farmlands of Ganderbal and Srinagar district of Kashmir. The maximum concentration of heavy metals i.e. iron 4.73±0.02 ppm in red moong, copper 0.86±0.02 ppm in white beans, zinc 0.092±0.02 ppm in black beans, cadmium 0.03±0.01 ppm white rajma and black beans, mercury 0.32±0.01 ppm in white beans, nickel 1.33±0.02 ppm in multi colored rajma and lead 0.16±0.06 ppm in local rice were recorded. The results revealed that heavy metal concentrations were under the acceptable limits of WHO and FAO standards, hence it can be concluded that edible pulses and cereals that are growing in Ganderbal and Srinagar are not dangerous for human consumption.