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Turkish Journal of Electromechanics and Energy

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1 Turkish Journal of Electromechanics & Energy in its Fifth Year, and Portrait of a Pioneer in Engineering: Al-Jazari , Ömer Necati Cora, Mustafa Ergin Şahin
The current issue of the TJEE (Vol 5. No:1 January-June 2020) consists of five articles. Two of these articles have been selected from the ICADET-2019 conference which was held in Bayburt, Turkey during September 19-21, 2019.  The first study by Güney et al. addresses temperature control of an electric furnace with intuitive control methods. The second paper by Tozlu et al. studies the thermoeconomic analyses of a power plant. The third study by Tekbaş et.al. addresses ageing experiments of mastics and silicones used in bonding of range hood glass. The forty study by Yaman et. al. addresses vibration characteristics analysis of adhesively bonded different joints. The fifty study by Ghayad et al. addresses a new efficient self-adjusting PSO algorithm to enhance reactive power response of VSC-HVDC system. As we go through our fifth year, we aim TJEE to be indexed in respected databases. A good news which encourages us is that our journal has been included in ROAD, Semantic Scholar, DRJI, and Egyptian Knowledge Bank databases. This volume’s commemoration is devoted to Abu’l-ʿIzz ibn Ismāʿīl ibn ar-Razāz al-Jazarī, or shortly Al-Jazari, who was an inventor and famous for engineering solutions. He lived in the Golden Age of Islam during 13th century. He is regarded as “master of water”, and founder of the robotics due to the mechanisms he devised and built. Even though there is no consensus, it is widely accepted that he lived in 1136-1206 period when Artuqids ruled the Eastern Anatolia and Al-Jazeera. The name “Jazari” refers to peninsula of Mesopotamia (the region between Euphrates and Tigris rivers) where he lived. In some sources, it was claimed that he was born and lived in Cizre (called also as Jazeera), a territory belongs to Diyarbakır Sanjak during Ottoman Empire period, currently a town of Şırnak city in south east of Turkey.
2 Temperature Control of an Electric Furnace with Intuitive Control Methods , Ali Güney, Meltem Temizkan, Sinan Tekin, Doğan Can Samuk, Oğuzhan Çakır
In our daily life, electric furnaces are frequently used both in our homes and in industry. In electric furnaces, resistance heaters are placed on the upper and lower sides and temperature control is realized by on-off control method. Nevertheless, this method is unstable for applications where highly sensitive thermal control is required. Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) control stands out in precision heat treatment with its simplicity and stability. In this study, On-Off, Proportional, Proportional-Integral, and PID control methods were applied to the electric furnace at a reference temperature of 125 °C. The system model and parameters were determined by using the Ziegler-Nichols method. Also, by using the zero-crossing detection technique, the trigger signal and the network frequency were synchronized and the possible noise in the system was minimized. From the test results obtained; the stability and superiority of these control methods were compared. There is permanent error in P control. Thanks to the I component, permanent error in PI and PID control is eliminated. In addition, the best system response was achieved with PID control.
3 Thermoeconomic Analyses of An Actual Power Plant , Alperen Tozlu, Yekta Tolga Büyükmurat, Emrah Özahi
A municipal solid waste power plant located in Malatya, Turkey has been analyzed thermodynamically and thermoeconomically in this study. The sanitary landfill plant was constructed with an installed power capacity of 2.4 MW for both disposals of municipal solid waste and energy production from produced landfill gas (LFG) of 9425 m3, corresponding to the 2.86 % of total power demand of the city. As a result of the thermodynamic analyses throughout the power plant, the exergetic efficiencies of the compressor and the turbine of the turbocharger are found to be 83.02 % and 65.41 %, respectively; which means that there is a considerable amount of exergetic losses in the turbocharger. Moreover, the overall exergetic efficiency of the power plant is found to be 50.97 %. On the other hand, the thermal efficiency of the gas engine is obtained as 37.30 %. In terms of thermoeconomic analyses, the payback period of the plant is found to be 7.70 years which is an acceptable period for such a power plant.
4 Ageing Experiments of Mastics and Silicones Used in Bonding of Range Hood Glass , Hakan Tekbaş, Mehmet Ekici
Silicon is a synthetic compound consisting of elements such as silicon (silicium), oxygen, carbon, and hydrogen. Silicones are frequently used in adhesive, sealing, and insulating products. It that can be found in different colors and characteristics and it is for various purposes. In terms of structure, it is usually liquid and flexible, and used as adhesive and sealing material in white goods sector. The adhesive in the mastic structure is mixed with the filling materials and the frequent use of this mastic material which is cheaper structure, causes various problems in the sector. In this study, ageing experiments for silicon and mastic materials were conducted and the results were compared.
5 Vibration Characteristics Analysis of Adhesively Bonded Different Joints , Mustafa Yaman, Mehmet Fatih Şansveren, Sinan Maraş
Joining components is a critical concern in material science and construction. Adhesively bonded joints have been used extensively in engineering applications. This issue draws the attention of researchers. This paper investigates the vibration properties of adhesively bonded different joints with double-sided adhesive tape, experimentally. Single lap joint, single strap joint, and double strap joint were taken into consideration as joint types.  Vibration tests were conducted on constructed joints and results were evaluated based on natural frequencies and their corresponding damping ratios which were obtained from experimental data. The influences of adhesive tape thickness, aluminium plate thickness, and overlap length on vibration behaviour were also studied. In brief, growing overlap length increases both the natural frequencies and damping ratios of the system for single lap joints. For both single strap and double strap joints, overlap length does not play an important role in the natural frequencies but it has an essential effect on the damping ratios. Based on the results, double strap joint construction attained the best damping capability, which proves different joint constructions are another effective parameter affecting the damping ratio. Last but not least, it was noted that the adhesive tape thickness had a more significant effect over the damping ratio than the effect of overlap length.    
6 A New Efficient Self Adjusting PSO Algorithm to Enhance Reactive Power Response of VSC-HVDC System , Mohamed Sayed Ghayad, Niveen Badra, Almoataz Youssef Abdelaziz, Adel Mahmoud Sharaf, Mahmoud Abdullah Attiaa
This paper presents an artificial approach for optimizing parameters of the proportional-integral (PI) controller in a reactive power control loop of voltage source converters high-voltage direct current (VSC-HVDC) transmission systems. The control strategy is based on a PI controller due to its simple structure and strong robustness. The Sharaf algorithm particle swarm optimization (SAPSO) is a heuristic optimization method that is used in this paper to get optimal values of PI parameters. This modification based on the inertia weight parameter to speed up the convergence towards the optimal values. SAPSO has many merits, such as easiness in control its parameters and its simple implementation compared to other artificial approaches. VSC-HVDC system is established in MATLAB/Simulink to apply the SAPSO. This system is exposed to different disturbances to evaluate its dynamic response. The objective function is minimizing the error between the measured and reference value of reactive power to get a better dynamic response. The obtained results showed that there is a significant improvement in reactive power dynamic response in a system with optimized parameters.
7 Refreshing Turkish Journal of Electromechanics & Energy in its Fourth Year , Mustafa Ergin Şahin, Ömer Necati Cora
We are delighted to present fourth volume of Turkish Journal of Electromechanics & Energy (TJEE). Each volume and issue bring new joy and excitement to us as the journal is in its crawling stage. We appreciate our authors, reviewers and editorial board members for their contribution in bringing this issue to you. The current issue of the TJEE (Vol 4. No:1 January-June 2019) consists of two articles. The first study by Hassan Ali et al. addresses a methodology to evaluate the lifetime of photovoltaic generators by extracting parameters from a Weibull distribution and using the Akaike criterion test. The second study by Rekioua et al. presents a modeling and fuzzy logic control of a stand-alone photovoltaic system with battery storage.
8 Lifetime Estimation Method for Photovoltaic Generators , Mohamed HASSAN ALI, Aamir MEHMOOD, Sofiane HADDAD
This article addresses a methodology to evaluate the lifetime of photovoltaic generators (PVGs) by extracting parameters from a Weibull distribution and using the Akaike criterion test. A degradation index is developed for outdoor photovoltaic generators affected by operating conditions. Degradation index quantification, through weather monitoring  and instantaneous continuous output power, is proposed. For this purpose, statistical data series are extracted that correspond to the instantaneous number of contributing PVGs, which allows a reliability study. Akaike Criterion Test (AIC) shows that these data series tend towards a Weibull distribution. Efforts are made to be able to quantify the parameters of the distribution model and thereby obtain the lifetime of the PVG. The approach is validated by using data from several PVGs.
9 Modeling and Fuzzy Logic Control of a Stand-Alone Photovoltaic System with Battery Storage , Djamila REKİOUA, Faika ZAOUCHE, Hanane HASSANİ, Toufik REKİOUA, Seddik BACHA
This work aimed to study and control of a photovoltaic installation with batteries. The system is composed of a photovoltaic generator and a bank of batteries that are used to supply a load. The maximization of power is obtained using perturb and observes (P&O) algorithm and fuzzy logic controller (FLC). It is proposed to add a supervisor to manage the different powers, protect the batteries against overcharge and deep discharge and of course to satisfy the load. MATLAB/Simulink is used in simulations. Obtained results showed that the proposed power management control run the global systems with a good agreement under variable solar irradiance and temperature conditions.  
10 A Multi-Stage Fuzzy Logic Controller for Hybrid-AC Grid-Battery Charging Drive System , Abdel- Fattah Attia, Adel M. Sharaf, Fathalla F. Selim
The paper presents a fuzzy logic modified multi-stage hierarchical Fuzzy Logic PID Control Scheme for hybrid AC Grid-Drive-Battery Charging System. The multistage control scheme includes two fuzzy control stages for the separate PD and PID parts to ensure fast dynamical response, robust and effective speed control and efficient energy utilization with minimal ripple currents and transient over voltages during battery charging. The scheme ensures effective robust reference speed tracking of the dc PMDC motor drive with minimal transient currents and excursion voltage conditions. The use of dc side green plug and switched capacitor filters ensures effective stabilized damping and optimized performance on both dc and ac sides of the utilization hybrid AC-DC scheme. Dynamic speed regulation is enhanced by the introduced DC and AC filters regulated by multistage fuzzy logic multi loop controllers. AC side Switched Filter-Voltage stabilization is fully effective to ensure decoupled AC-DC operation and improved energy utilization and power factor enhancement.
11 Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) of Vanadium Oxide Thin Films , Adem ÖZÇELİK
Microbolometer grade vanadium oxide thin films were grown by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) method using VTIP metal organic precursor and water vapor. The ALD process was studied using in-situ QCM system integrated into the reactor. Mass uptake during each half reaction was monitored and analyzed for different half-reaction sequences. An overall mass uptake of 20 ng/cm2 was recorded for a complete ALD cycle.  Thickness analysis of the vanadium oxide films grown by 2500 cycles yielded a thickness of ~800 Å which corresponds to a 0.32 Å /cycle thin film growth rate. The ALD grown thin films were characterized and their electrical and structural properties were reported. Temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) value was measured to be around -4.7%/K, and resistivity was found as 77kΩ.cm. In addition, the ALD grown vanadium oxide thin films are found to be oxygen reach in composition that is yielding V2O5.    
12 The Measurement of the Efficiency of Wind Power Plants by Using DEA: A Case Study from TURKEY , Şeyma EMEÇ, Tuba ADAR, Gökay AKKAYA, Elif KILIÇ DELİCE
Energy is an important sector with great investments and strategic importance. Wind power plants (WPPs) have the most in-demand from the capacity of renewable energy sources in Turkey, where licensing, installation and commissioning processes can be performed relatively easily. According to the Republic of Turkey’s Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources, the installed capacity of Turkey as of mid-2019 is 90.421 MW. The distribution of this installed capacity was obtained from various resources: 31.4% hydraulic energy, 29.0% natural gas, 22.4% coal, 8.0% wind, 6.0% solar, 1.5% geothermal and 1.7% from other sources. Efficiency studies on wind energy are important for directing investments correctly and evaluating national wealth. By increasing the efficiency of existing facilities, more electrical energy will be produced, and the average number of people whose energy demand are met will increase. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of the existing 99 WPPs in Turkey, using the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method. In this way, instead of investing in a new WPP, factors that contribute to ineffectiveness can be discussed by identifying inactive facilities. The efficiencies of WPPs were calculated using input-oriented CCR (Charnes, Cooper and Rhodes) and BCC (Banker, Charnes, Cooper) DEA models. The model results were compared, and the effectiveness of WPPs was investigated. The results revealed that only six plants were relatively effective according to the CCR model, while 18 plants were relatively effective according to the BCC model