• We are available for your help 24/7
  • Email: info@isindexing.com, submission@isindexing.com

1 Intersectionality as an emerging discipline in the 21st Century Women Studies , Asra Qudsia Research Scholar, Department of English, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India. Corresponding Author: Asra Qudsia, E-mail: asramakhdumi@gmail.com
The Civil Rights Movement and Feminist Movement in the 1960’s America fought for their basic rights and eventually were successful in achieving them. These two movements promised a new beginning for African-American men and White American women, but ironically these movements were relegating an equally important issue and that was of Black American women. Both the Civil Right and Feminist activists did not fulfill their promise to help Black women of America to come out of their century’s old bondage of multi-dimensional oppression. It was high time for black women activists, writers and intellectuals to raise their voice against the injustice they faced in their own homes where they confronted domestic violence in the hands of male family members and in the homes of their white masters and landladies where these black women worked as maids or nannies. Black feminists argued that feminism which was in vogue at the middle of the 20th century has always been Euro-centric in its approach; they didn’t see a promising future for themselves even when Civil rights movement was successful. For them, it was male dominated movement, sexiest and misogynist in its approach. Also, feminism was not giving enough space to black women as it always carried white supremacy at its core. Black women were left out in protest and rallies which were organized by white middle class American women because of the racist attitude. Black women of America started their own campaign against the oppression they faced in the society to make their voices heard and their identities recognized. In this paper, I have tried to present the core issues of Intersectionality (study of multiple oppressions), its inclusive nature, its difference from traditional feminism and the major arguments of Intersectional theorists who have tried to use Intersectionality as a new research paradigm in women studies.
2 The relationship of Personality Traits and Academic and Social Self-Efficacies of Learning Disabilities (LD) Learners , Norazlem Abd Hamid1, Moop Echee2, Abderrahim Benlahcene3 & Anita Lubana4 1, 2 & 3School of Education and Modern Languages, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia 4Department of Botany, Government Girls College, Ajmer, Rajasthan, India Corresponding Author: Abderrahim Benlahcene, E-mail: rahimhacen@gmail.com
This paper examined the relationship between Big Five personality traits (OCEAN) and academic and social self-efficacies of learning disabilities (LD) learners. A total of 89 LD learners aged 10 to 19 years old completed questionnaires measuring Big-Five personality traits (International Personality Item Pool, IPIP), academic self-efficacy (Academic Efficacy scale from the Manual for the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scales, MPAL), and social self-efficacy (Social Competence Rating Scale for Children, SCRSC). Pearson correlation shows that personality traits that have a significant relationship with academic and social self-efficacies were openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, and agreeableness while neuroticism does not have a significant relationship with both academic and social self-efficacies. Implications for future intervention are also being discussed.  
3 The Pathway of Organizational Sustainability through Segregation of Dimensional Indicators for Manufacturing Enterprises , Aemin Nasir1 & Kashif Saghir Rao2 1School of Business Management, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia 2School of Business, University of Central Punjab, Pakistan Corresponding Author: Aemin Nasir, E-mail: aemin_nasir@oyagsb.uum.edu.my
The organizational sustainability is the burning concern around the globe. The key focus of the study is to present the most suitable concept of sustainability for manufacturing enterprises through elaborating its three-dimensional divisions. The organizational sustainability consists of economical, social and environmental aspects. This conceptual paper contains the segregation of all the three dimensions, by identification of current issues and then associating them with the inner indicators of enterprises. This includes the guideline for the management such as policy makers, top managers and employees towards the accomplishment of sustainability.
4 Social Media as a Channel to Promote Youth Participation in Governance , Safiah Suhaimi1, Nor Azizah Zainal Abıdın2 & Asmah Laili Yeon3 1,2 School of Government, 3School of Law, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia. Corresponding Author: Safiah Suhaimi, E-mail: ciksafiah@gmail.com
Youth is the largest group in the structure of society in Malaysia. Youth is a valuable national asset and generation to be proud of. Youth is an experience that can shape the level of dependence of an individual, which can be marked according to different cultural perspectives in different ways. When social participation is used today, participation in governance will be rapid. The problem happened when lack of social media sharing channels for the continued engagement of young people. The youth believed that they still lacked the social media platforms needed for effective participation and expressed little confidence in their involvement. This paper analysed social media potential as channels for youth governance participation. The methods that used an extensive literature search which is secondary data. The social media is also critical for youth engagement in governance as knowledge channels. The Social Media and Participation literature review will be reviewed. Drawing on the final findings, social media plays an important role in youth engagement thus highlighting all the functions of social media.
5 Diagnosis of Dyscalculia: A Comprehensive Overview , Mohammad Amimul Ihsan Aquil Department of Computer and Information Sciences, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Malaysia Corresponding Author: Mohammad Amimul Ihsan Aquil, E-mail: aihsan.aquil@gmail.com
The aim of this article is to provide an overview of symptoms, causes and diagnosis of Dyscalculia based on current research findings.This paper reviews selected literature spanning from 2001 to date from PubMed, PsycINFO, Springer, ERIC databases using the keywords: dyscalculia, mathematical disability and math disorder and selectively reviewed articles for the diagnostic of Dyscalculia in general. The acquisition of mathematical skills is a development process that begins well before school starts. As a result, the children already start with different mathematical prior knowledge in the initial class. In order to be able to identify children at risk for a weakness in arithmetic (technical term: dyscalculia) at an early stage and to adequately support their needs, it is essential to set up a well-functioning diagnosis. According to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10), Dyscalculia belongs to the specific developmental disorders and is characterized by impairment in speech, motor activity and visual-spatial perception. The discrepancy between intelligence and expected arithmetic abilities is the essential criterion for the diagnosis of Dyscalculia. A comprehensive examination, also suitable for therapeutic intervention preparation, should take etiological conception of Dyscalculia into account as well as impairments in visual information processing. This should be reflected in the deliberate selection of appropriate test procedures. Recent diagnosis of Dyscalculia does not only account the classroom-based math performance and IQ into account, but also impaired basic skills associated with Dyscalculia into account while IQ discrepancy and appropriate IQ test for Dyscalculia remain a controversial topic. An innovative aspect of this work is synthesizing comprehensive view of Dyscalculia and its diagnosis using multidisciplinary approach which could be helpful for researchers across disciplines.
6 Developing a Conceptual Framework on Retailers’ Performance Towards Tourists’ Shopping Satisfaction , Ataul Karim Patwary School of Tourism, Hospitality and Event Management, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia. Corresponding Author: Ataul Karim Patwary, E-mail: raselataul@gmail.com
Malaysia is well known for its shopping reputation among the tourists, specially from Asian and Middle East countries. Shopping is one of the reasons why international tourists chose to visit Malaysia. During shopping, most of the time international tourists interact with retailers which is the context of this study. This study aims to explore on tourists’ shopping related issues in Malaysia in relation with retailers’ performance and develop a framework which will direct the future researchers to conduct empirical investigations. For the current study, the researcher relied on existing literature in the area of international tourists’ shopping behavior and how it influences on their satisfaction.
7 Forgiveness as a moderator for the relationship between suicidal behavior and anger expression among University students , Zainab Bibi1 & Sammrah Javaid2 1 & 2Department of Applied Psychology, Bahaudin Zakriya University, Pakistan. Corresponding Author: Zainab Bibi, E-mail: f.hafeez123@gmail.com
Anger is an expression, ranging from calm to compelling, and often manifests itself when people's destinations or needs are blocked. Most of the time the main reason behind poor physical and mental health like suicidal ideation and negative thoughts relates to anger. according to the World Health Organization (2005), about 2% of the world’s death is due to suicide. People's healthy relationship is forgiveness. In the Expression of anger in a fruitful and less harming way, forgiveness plays a vital role as it reduces negative outcomes of anger and makes people express their feelings in a positive way Several studies promote that forgiveness reduces the anger outcome that may further lead to suicidal ideation. The present study investigates the moderating role of forgiveness for the link of anger expression and suicidal behavior among students. The current study determined to discover the connection between suicidal behavior and anger expression and check the moderating effect of forgiveness. A total of 250 students which included 120 male and 130 female students were taken from Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan by using a convenient sampling technique as participants for the study. Their age range was between 19-26 years old. Suicidal behavior questionnaire- revised developed by (Osman A, Bagge CL 2001), Heartland forgiveness scale developed by (Yamhure Thompson, Laura; Snyder, C. R. (Rick); and Hoffman, Lesa 2005) and Novaco anger scale and provocation inventory (Novaco, 2003) was used to measure suicidal ideation, forgiveness attitude, and anger expression respectively. Results show an insignificant difference between males and females scores on suicide, forgiveness, and anger with a p-value of .483, .401, and .415 at the alpha level of 0.05 respectively. The present study concludes that Males are often more aggressive than females and age have a significant impact on expressing anger. Present studies show that forgiveness act as a moderator for the relationship of anger and suicidal ideation as (t=-2.123. p<0.05).
8 The concept of change and the young: A psycho-social reading of Sembene Ousmane’s Les Bouts De Bois De Dieu and Xala. , Olowolagba, Comfort Chioma1 & Otegbale Edirin Sylvester2 1Department of French, Adeyemi College of Education, Ondo, Ondo State - Nigeria 2Department of European Studies, University of Ibadan, Ibadan Oyo State - Nigeria Corresponding Author: Olowolagba, Comfort Chioma, E-mail: chiomacomfort67@gmail.com
Change is the only constant experience in all walks of life, literature inclusive. In the past decades, various critics have examined the selected novels of Sembène Ousmane from feminist and Marxist perspectives. However, this paper examines the selected texts from sociological perspective, with the aim of underlining some silent oversight of critics with respect to change. Pavlov’s classical conditioning serves as a tool in the analyses of the selected texts. Change for positive socio-cultural, economic and political development is underlined as a quality more pronounced in the young and lacking in the older generation of characters. The attitude of the older generation in aiding obsolete traditions in opposition to the beliefs and reality facing the younger generation precisely in political representation and marital unions are examined through a close reading. The study concludes with a clarion call to African elites on the need to introduce the younger, smarter generation of youths in the helms of affairs to ensure sustainable development through the application of their technical know-how, modern ideologies and expertise if tangible socio-cultural, economic development must be realised where phallocentric ideas have failed since independence as well as foster general entente in the society.
9 The Effectiveness of Facebook Advertisements on Purchase Intention of Customers in Malaysia , Shah Roman Al Mahmud School of Computing, Universiti Utara Malaysia, 06010 UUM, Sintok, Kedah, Malaysia. Corresponding Author: Shah Roman Al Mahmud, E-mail: romanalmahmud@gmail.com
The purpose of this empirical study is to examine the effectiveness of Facebook advertisement on enhancing consumer purchase intention. Facebook, as a social networking site, has become very popular among the people of all ages around the world. Facebook advertising is becoming very popular as it can reach to the mass people as a medium of social sites. The study is hopefully help Facebook stakeholder provide their customers with more customized messages and offer rewards and promotions to encourage them for exposing their products and services.
10 Investigation on the Bond and Sukuk market in Malaysia , 1Shahedin Alom & 2Mohammad Mehdi Hasan Khan 1Department of Accounting and Finance, School of Business and Economics, Universiti Putra Malaysia 2Faculty of Business Administration, Geomatika University College. Correspondent Author: Shahedin Alom, Email: turag357@gmail.com
The Malaysian capital market has a dual full fledged Islamic bond (Sukuk) instrument which operates in parallel with the conventional bond. This study investigates the correlation between the return of Sukuk portfolio differ significantly from conventional bond in Malaysia capital market. For this purpose, we just used the TR BPAM ALL BOND INDEX series from 2008 to 2013. This study is using the paired sample T test and correlation analysis; it found a positive and significant correlation between the returns of the conventional bond and Islamic (Sukuk) bond between the short term maturity bonds comparatively. Interestingly, the individual results of two debt instrument found that there is a noteworthy difference in the mean among long-term maturity of Sukuk and conventional bonds efficiency, which indicates that such two financial products, while traded in the same marketplace, are performed in different ways. The evidence justifies that long term maturity bond and Sukuk indicate that the higher probability of volatility in return and the maturity of the portfolio of bond and Sukuk.
11 An Empirical Exploration of Demand and Supply in Malaysia Housing Market , Shahedin Alom Department of Accounting and Finance, School of Business and Economics, Universiti Putra Malaysia Correspondent Author: Shahedin Alom, E-mail: turag357@gmail.com
The article provides an overview of factors that affect the supply of housing and the level of demand on the basis of market change in the Malaysia with transition economy. In the last decade, home prices in Malaysia have fluctuated considerably. This market volatility creates a significant impact on the Malaysian who want to buy or invest housing. Several scholars have argued that housing prices are directly correlated to buyers' ability to own a home, so the government plays a pivotal role in ensuring Malaysia's housing prices are equivalent to income rates. Therefore, this study is aimed at addressing various factors that impact Malaysian housing prices. The dynamics of prices on land and various types of completed buildings are also discussed. In this paper, it is seen how the housing market in Malaysia has been long discussed and has given attention to a great extent since the First Malaysia Plan (1966-1970). The finding presented in this paper may help to convince investor and house buyers that market volatility is not necessarily something to fear. The housing market is, to a certain degree predictable and hence house price movement may be detectable in advance.
12 An Empirical Case Study of Kraft Foods (IPO) & Kyber Network (ICO) , Shahedin Alom Department of Accounting and Finance, School of Business and Economics, Universiti Putra Malaysia Correspondent Author: Shahedin Alom, Email: turag357@gmail.com
In order to advise investors, who are choosing the appropriate avenue to invest between Kyber Network and Kraft Foods, this study investigates the platforms under which these two companies perform in the capital markets. These platforms are the Initial Public Offering [IPO] and Initial Coin Offering [ICO]. In order to find the most appropriate option, both platforms were studied on how they have developed over time. Various principles and requirement guiding their different uses and application were furthermore studied to provide insights on what a potential investor may be required in order to venture into these platforms. These findings were critical in proceeding to further find out how Kyber Network and Kraft Food have embraced these differences. Kyber Network trades in ICO while Kraft Food trades in IPO. In aspects of profitability, this study found out that Kyber Network has more prospective profitability with time due to increasing in per crypto price. Kraft Food’s per share price is declining hence it’s not profitable. In floating process, Kyber Network was found to be simpler and efficient for users since it only needs a user to create an account and begin trading with their crypto currencies or crypto tokens. Though Kyber Network was found to carry higher risk in the aspect of cyber risk, basic etiquettes of securing one’s online information would address any cyber risk. Henceforth, this study finds that investing in Kyber Network ICO is more profitable for investors.
13 Donor’s Perception Regarding Plasma Donation in Pakistan , Tauram Javed1 & Adnan Younas2 1Fourth Year MBBS, Sahiwal Medical College, Sahiwal, University of Health Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan 2Final Year MBBS, Rai Medical College, Sargodha, University of Health Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan Corresponding Author: Tauram Javed, E-mail: tauramjaved@gmail.com
Covid19 is rightly ranked as first international pandemic that within a short span of time covered the globe. There was no specific medicine to fight Covid-19 in early days (Rubin et al., 2020). But soon it was discovered that plasma of recovered covid-19 patient could be a hope for the newly affected patient. Fortunately, in Pakistan trails of convalescent plasma therapy proved much better results. But most of recovered people have fears and myths about plasma donation. This study aimed to motivate the recovered covid-19 patients to donate plasma generously through removal of apprehensions. plasma. In this cross-sectional study, self-generated questionnaire having answer (Yes/No) were designed and got it filled by 112 covid-19 recovered patients on Google forms and tried to find out the views about plasma therapy. Data is analyzed through SPSS version 26. About 55.5% people think that plasma donation is equal to blood donation, 50.9% think that plasma donation causes adverse effects on their health after donation. Amongst the participants in the sample, 73.2% had never donated blood even for a single time in their lives. The study enabled to know more precisely that why recovered patients avoid to help others to whom they were a ray of hope. The major deadly concern which kept the healed patient to abstain from plasma donation was further deterioration of health. While addressing the specific hinderance creating misconceptions the majority of recovered patients were ready to donate. A strong need is felt to encourage the mobs to donate blood in general and covid-19 recovered patient should donate their plasma for saving lives through proper awareness sessions by using social media, print media as well as electronic media.
14 Prevention, Management and Resolution of Political Conflicts in Nigeria: The Polite Language Approach , Donatus Chijioke Nwabunze1 & Ngozi M. Obi2 1Department of English and Literary Studies, Nwafor Orizu College of Education, Nsugbe, Nigeria 2Department of English and Literary Studies, Nwafor Orizu College of Education, Nsugbe, Nigeria Corresponding Author: Donatus Chijioke Nwabunze, Email: dnwabunze@gmail.com
As it has been observed by Aristotle centuries ago, of all the animals on earth, humans are the only beings endowed with the capacity to talk. They can as well use and manipulate diverse tools for various purposes. But the most important tool that makes them unique from other animals is their capacity to make use of speech to interact. Man is language; language is man. As social beings’ people cannot get along in the society without it, as far as communication is concerned. However, apart from positive functions of language, it can also perform negative functions when used offensively. It can be used both as constructive and destructive tool. The world over, offensive language leads to conflict –serious disagreement, quarrel or dispute between one person and another, between two groups of people, and even between nations. Interestingly language can equally be used to prevent, control, manage or settle disputes. It is the view of this paper that global conflicts, with particular reference to Nigeria, can be prevented, controlled and managed if the citizens can learn to use language constructively in a manner that does not slur and smear others. This paper further argues that inter-personal, ethnic and national conflicts can be curbed in Nigeria with skillful application of polite language in any communication event. Conclusively, this paper is of the view that the avoidance of conflict-inducing language would enhance fellowship of Nigerian citizens, rather than fellowship of race, ethnicity, religion and class in the country. As an empirical study, the research has Brown and Levinson’s politeness theory, and Deborah Cameron’s verbal hygiene theory, as theoretical frameworks. It is hoped that the study will complement all the efforts government has been making in the prevention, management and resolution of various politically motivated conflicts which are threatening the corporate existence of Nigeria as a nation.
15 Internal Party Democracy and Institutionalization of Political Parties in Nigeria's Fourth Republic , 1Alfa Patrick Innocent 2Kamarul Zaman Haji Yusoff & 3Otaida Eikojonwa 1Department of Social Science and Humanities, The Federal Polytechnic, Idah, Nigeria. 2School of International Studies,Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia 3Department of Political Science, Federal University Dutsin Ma, Katsina State, Nigeria Corresponding Author: Alfa Patrick Innocent, Email: alfaintellectual@gmail.com.
This paper interrogates the connection between the level of internal party democracy which exists in Nigeria's Fourth Republic political parties and their propensity to become institutionalised. The objective is to unravel the reason for their inability to make effective contribution the deepening of democracy in the country. The paper is descriptive and conceptual. It got insights from secondary data which includes journal articles, national dailies, internet, magazines and textbooks. The data gathered were analysed under various themes. The paper contends that Nigeria's Fourth Republic political parties do not adhere to the tenets of internal party democracy, thus undermining the prospects of their institutionalisation and negates the performance of their democratic functions. The paper offers valuable suggestions that could enhance the level of internal party democracy in the parties, propel them towards institutionalisation and most fundamentally contribute optimally to the consolidation of democracy in the Fourth Republic and beyond.
16 Peer Acceptance among Learning Disabilities (LD) and Mainstream Students in Inclusive Classroom in a Primary School , Armeetaa Kaur Mallanhanse1, Nur Fadzmin Alias2, Siti Salma Najwa Bt Ahmad Bidin3 1, 2 & 3School of Education and Modern Languages, College of Arts & Sciences, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia Corresponding Author: Armeetaa, Email: armeetaakaur@gmail.com
The need to include students with learning disabilities (LD) together with mainstream students in general education is vital in providing equal opportunity for all students regardless of their disabilities in obtaining the same education. Therefore, the present study aims in investigating peer acceptance from the perspectives of LD students and mainstream students, together with gender difference between these two group of learners in an inclusive classroom in a primary school in Sungai Petani, Kedah, Malaysia. The sample of this study consisted of 30 primary students involved in the inclusive programme within an age range of 8-11 years old. Data were collected using Acceptance Scale for Kindergarten-Revised. The findings revealed that there was no significant difference between LD and mainstream students on peer acceptance. Meanwhile, the analysis on gender differences revealed that there was a significant difference between male and female mainstream students on peer acceptance of their LD peers, in which male students reported higher peer acceptance than female students. While no gender differences were found among LD students on peer acceptance of their mainstream peers. The findings demonstrated that LD students are accepted in an inclusive classroom, indicating that mainstream students are willing to learn and experience education process together with LD students.
17 The King that Devours his People: Conceptual Notes on a Sculpture Project , Chikelue Chris Akabuike Department of Fine and Applied Arts, University of Nigeria, Nigeria. Corresponding Author: Chikelue Chris Akabuike, E-Mail: chikelue.akabuike@unn.edu.ng
This paper discusses the implications of personality cult leadership style in the Nigerian context. It sought to situate the work under discussion in a way that it contributes to the ongoing dialogues and debates, within the works of literary and visual artists who have sought to speak against personality cult phenomena. It uses the author’s sculptural woodwork titled, The King that Devours His People, a process-oriented studio exploration, produced as a visual metaphor using the joinery technique as a method. Thus, the instrumentalist essences of the studio project’s formal features are discussed in ways that draw out the implications of personality cult leadership style, especially, in the Nigerian setting. The generated visual imageries articulate the socio-political activities of leaders and its’ consequences on the led. It meteorologically addresses the man inhumanity to man perpetrated by the Nigerian leaders on the masses. It particularly focuses on mobilizing against personality cult syndrome. The project significantly rationalizes the history of Nigeria and her people who have been shaped by one form of leadership or another. Thus, the unique joinery method, that gave rise to the formal features shows how artistic media and processes is used as a metaphor to discuss the implications of personality cults as a way of interrogating the strength and limitations of the effect of personality cults within the Nigerian situation.
18 The Impact of COVID-19 on Food Security and Nutrition in Pakistan: A Narrative Review , Uzma Quraishi1, Hina Ali2, Ruqia Safdar Bajwa3 & Asia Bibi4 1, 2, 4 TheWomen University, Multan Pakistan 3Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan, Pakistan Corresponding Author: Hina Ali, E-mail: hinaali@wum.edu.pk
Covid-19 pandemic impact on food security and nutrition is a global occurrence that is increased domestically as well as economically. The impact of COVID-19 on food security and nutrition is harmful. The primary risk to food security is at the country level. Covid-19 pandemic has sparked health and economic crisis. The supply chain is disrupted due to the lockdown situation and unemployment in the country. Loss of incomes and remittances are creating immense food security risks in Pakistan. The purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of COVID-19 on food security and nutrition in Pakistan. People want fresh and healthier food but the food industry is unable to achieve challenges due to lack of resources and finance. The income level of the people became near to the ground due to lockdown in the country. People’s power of purchasing and spending on food is low, as a result, the demand for the product is fewer and the industry supply chain is being affected day by day. Due to the impact of COVID-19 and lockdown, the food insecurity grew up since there is an increase in daily base goods like fruit, milk, and vegetables, etc. The chance of food insecurity and depletion increased due to COVID-19 and lockdown. Thousand of deaths were reported in the world due to food insecurity and pandemic illness. The risk for food insecurity increases when money to buy food has limited The findings of the study show that the impact of COVID-19 on food security and nutrition is more rigorous and severe. Food insecurity affects the human life of young, old, children and pregnant women, etc.the reason is that food, nutrition, health, unemployment, and socio-economic outcomes are interlinked.
19 Issues of Single Mothers in Practice Parenting Style to Adolescent in Indonesia , 1Ika Indrawaty Hamzah & 2Fauziah Md Jaafar 1&2Universiti Utara Malaysia, College of Arts and Sciences, School of Education and Modern Languages Corresponding Author: Ika Indrawaty Hamzah, E-mail: ikaindrawatyhamzah@yahoo.com
This paper aims to illustrate the issues of single mothers in practice parenting style to adolescents in Indonesia. Single mothers are a massive challenge to continue living with their children because they carry out multiple responsibilities, including childcare and the livelihood of their children. However, they have lost their dependence, inability to give birth to young children and in school using heavy stress including financial, psychological, stigma, social, and social problems in educating their children. To overcome the problems faced, single mothers need social support from the parties concerned. Therefore, this paper recommends to the relevant parties for each program that can assist single mothers who can be independent and various problems faced that squeeze life with their children.
20 Public Education and Social Citizenship - Potentials and Pitfalls. , Paroma Ray Mphil research scholar, University of Delhi, Delhi, India. Corresponding Author: Proma Ray, E-mail: ray.iph@gmail.com
In this paper I aim to explore the ideological and practical connections between citizenship and public education. Drawing from Marshall’s social citizenship I will attempt to explore the strands of ideas that facilitate or restrict the growth of social citizenship. The idea of global cosmopolitan citizenship and Deep citizenship will be of special interest to me and I shall attempt to locate the ethics behind them and how it ties up with public education. Questions of justice and equality and rights will be the ethical considerations that would form an undercurrent to my discussion on citizenship and education. Walzer, Agamben and Arendt’s ideas will be important in order to understand these dimensions. I will also attempt to briefly trace the evolution of the concept of mass education and public education and look at both nationalizing as well as globalizing tendencies in its history. While I will be looking at the educational policies of India, I shall focus on only those aspects of education in India that fit the general frame of the debates happening globally. Lastly, I will focus on the specific question of movement of both citizens and non-citizens and its relationship with public education. Given that education takes place over a decade of someone’s life informal movement has significant impact on the breaks and continuity in one’s education and in one’s perception of oneself as a member of a productive community that puts a premium value on education and educational qualifications while allowing for the exploitation of those without an education.
21 The Comparison Between Students’ Writing Achievement In Private and State of Junior High School , Riska Maharani Putri1, Yoga Prihatin2, Yuvita3 1,2&3Department of English, University of Pancasakti Tegal, Indonesia Corresponding Author: Riska Maharani Putri, E-mail: riskamaharani1998@gmail.com
The objectives of this Research Project are to find out the differences between students’ writing achievement in state and private of junior high school and to identify the motivating factors that influence the difference between students’ English learning. The research method used is MMR (Mixed Method Approach). There are 66 students as the sample, 33 students from state and private school. The researcher analysis data by using t-test and questionnaire. The sig. 2-tailed is 0,012 while the significant level is at 5% level significance, which is 0,05. It indicates that there is a difference between students’ writing achievement in state and private school because the significance 2-tailed is less than the significant level (0,012 < 0,05). After the researcher analyzed the t-test, the researcher analyzed the questionnaire. The questionnaire is divided into two, internal factors and external factors. About 59% state school respondents gives positive responses toward internal factors while there is 51% private school respondents gives positive responses toward external factors.
22 Communication Strategies Towards Preventing Violent Extremist Attacks in Pakistan , Sundus Mustaqeem1, Romlah Ramli2 & Syarizan Dalib3 1,2&3School of Multimedia Technology and Communication, University Utara Malaysia Corresponding Author: Sundus Mustaqeem, E-mail: sundus1074fm@gmail.com
With unpredictable purposes, extremism in Pakistan has attracted considerable local and global attention, especially after 9/11. Due to war against terrorism, Pakistan has suffered tremendous losses both in terms of number of precious lives and billions of dollars in foreign investment; economic terrorism imposed by foreign sponsored and homegrown terrorist networks. The country has been facing the challenging situations in the form of target killings and bomb blasts. On 16 December 2014 the brutal terrorist attack on Army Public School (APS) in Peshawar Pakistan appeared as major catastrophe, as killing children has become a major puzzle to our understanding of terrorism. This research examines the consequences of extremist attacks in Pakistan while revealing APS attack and argues that communication strategies can be assimilated into policies as preventive measures to minimize extremism and establish peace. To investigate this, qualitative methodology has been used, based on in-depth interviews to provide comprehensive perspectives from field experts and practitioners, affiliated with the same area. Thus, with the observations of 13 Informants, the study revealed that strategic communication for countering violence extremism from both the long-term and short-time strategic approaches are expedient. The study discovered that plausible communication strategies required to counter violent extremist need to underscore preventive communication strategies and consistent use of credible sources of information. In order to support the findings, models were generated through NVivo 10. Finally, it is recommended that communication strategies should convey healthy messages regarding conduct and aptitude to far-reaching populations through media and other sources of communication.
23 Challenges Facing Teenage Mothers in School, Teachers’ Perspective: The Case of WA West District   , Amos Amuribadek Adangabe 
Bearing children as a young teenager is normally connected with various interruptions for young  ladies with regards to class participation. The young mothers’ who are in school are left to unwind  the interruptions some of the time all alone. Denying them the help they have to seek after their  schooling sentence them and their infants to an endless loop of neediness and obliviousness. In the  event that society anticipates that the young ladies should be effective with tutoring, there must be  arrangement that objectives their exceptional instructive requirements. The study explored the  perception of educators about the difficulties confronting adolescent moms in school in the WA West District. The purposeful sampling technique was used in selecting the teachers involved. A  focused group discussion was used in gathering and data analysis was done thematically. While  the results indicate that, majority of the teenage mothers in school are mostly tired even before  they come to school, it further revealed that the majority of the teachers perceive teenage mothers  having low self-esteem, poor time management, role conflict and how they are supported were  among the things discussed. The recommendations to tackle these perceptions were made.   
24 Epigenetics and Environmental Roles: The Reality of Igbo-Jewish Link   , Omeje Oguejiofor1 and Cindy Anene Ezeugwu2 
This paper aims to examine the Igbo-Jewish link which has received scant attention in  scholarly discourse. Among the few major critical submissions is that Igbos of the South  Eastern part of Nigeria, originated from Israel in one way or the other. Prominent among  these claims is that Igbos are one of the lost tribes of Israel’ and the ‘Hametic race saga’. Epigenetic and Mythological theories will be useful in helping to explain the Igbo history,  origin, migration and colour change. Findings show that proponents of Igbo-Jewish link have  not to the best of the researchers’ knowledge, given a satisfactory explanation for the difference in the Igbo-Israeli skin colour, neither have they addressed in what period of history that the Jews migrated to Igbo land. The paper, therefore, attempts to change the old  narratives which support the erroneous claim that Igbos originated from Israel by briefly  tracing their correct origin with a view to lay to rest, the myths and speculations surrounding  their identity. Much of what drives man to develop self and leave a significant mark in his  society is the quest to identify with his true origin and in Africa today, the idea of  westernization have affected the art of storytelling and indigenous documentation which has  been an ageless tradition. Some Africans, based on their understanding view this as waste of  time or impacting orchestrated stories in the minds of indigenes’ hence, they prefer westernized format of aligning with the Eurocentric view about the origin of the Igbos. The  study concludes that if any one group came from the other, it would be the Jews who  migrated from the much older Igbo race and not the other way around.  
25 Climate Change Mitigation in India Today: A Review of Policy  and Practice  , Smrithi K Chand
Climate change is one of the most widely debated issues, with far reaching adverse effects on agriculture, irrigation and water supply, health, energy, and so on. A universal understanding  as well as coordinated action at the national level is required to address the impacts of climate  change. There is a lot of contestation about the emission rate and carbon footprints of developed  and developing countries. The major consensus lies in this area is that while developed  countries contributed initially to the increased Green House Gases, while in the future, the  blame is on developing nations. The adaptive capacity of the people in developing countries is generally low in developing countries, due to the inadequate attention given to this issue. However, the international policies adopted including the Kyoto protocol provisions and the  efforts made by the UNFCCC are not enough to deal this global issue. Sustainable development  strategies can be adopted by choosing energy-efficient ways, new and updated modifications  in science and technology, renewable energy, advanced forestry methods, reforestation, and  water saving strategies. Minimizing the vulnerability of the people belonging to different social  and economic classes and ecosystems requires paramount consideration in the developing  nations. Developing countries like India are facing the responsibility of mitigation and adaption  strategies, affording the cost of such attempts and its inference for economic development.  
26 Tracing the Emergence and Growth of Ecocritical Language  , Tabeeda Binti Bashir 
During the last few decades, the disturbance in the environmental conditions has given rise to a great threat to Earth and the organisms residing in it. Under these circumstances, a new theory of reading texts came into existence known as Ecocriticism. Ecocritism is a literary theory which shows the interconnectedness between the human and the non-human agency, but it has not yet achieved that attention which other theories have. In this context, ecocritics strive to influence readers and writers by introducing and developing a specific vocabulary in their works. This paper can assist readers in understanding how ecocritics have developed a vocab ulary of their own. This paper aims to find and trace the emergence of ecological linguistics and its growth. Also, the aim is to perform an up-to-date assessment of its current state. Since Ecolinguistics work upon the role language plays in the life-sustaining interactions of humans and their physical environment, the main aim is to explore this language as used by ecocritics in order to reach the eco-critical judgements about certain texts—both the provisional and the temporal judgements. The language has a soft, respectful and rigorous influence on the envi ronment, so in this perspective, ecocritics establish tools in order to determine the influence of narrative techniques and the structures on readers. Readers and writers encounter varied narra tive styles when discussing environment and ecology, this paper will show how the attempt to create a specific vocabulary in this regard will better solidify the foundations of this field.   
27 Behavioural Intent of Indian Consumers to Accept Mobile Banking Services   , Bushra Khalid1 and Aalia Sheerin2 
Banking system around the globe is becoming digitally advanced and India, too, has adopted the  digital mode to transform the payment and settlement system. The number of mobile internet users  is continuously increasing owing to the easy accessibility of mobile phones and cost efficiency of  their usage. Mobile banking allows the consumers to conduct the financial transactions and other  banking activities using mobile phones. Mobile banking has ensured easy and rapid accessibility  of banking facility 24*7 and served as a medium to reach the unbanked, thereby becoming a  gateway to financial inclusion. Digital innovations are critical for achieving and sustaining an  inclusive economic growth, hence, eliminating poverty. In this paper, we have applied the  extended version of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), originally given by Davis in 1989,  to study the key determinants of behavioral intent of consumers to accept mobile banking services.  TAM in itself is an adaptation of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) (Fishbien and Ajzen,  1975). According to TRA, the actual action of an individual is determined by his/her behavioral  intention, which, in turn, is influenced by his/her attitude and subject norm. The key constructs  that have been studied in this paper are perceived ease-of-use, perceived usefulness, perceived  credibility, normative pressures, self-efficacy and attitude to use. In order to achieve the objective,  we have adapted a five-point Likert scale questionnaire containing 20items.The behavioral intent  was then regressed against these key constructs. The study attempts to trace the causality between  the behavioral intent and the main key constructs of TAM.  
28 Assessing the Existence of Gravity Model for Bangladesh’s Trade: A Panel Data Analysis   , Kamrul Hasan Maruf1, Subrata Saha2 , Rakibul Hasan Baten3 and Dilruba  Akter4
Generally, Gravity model has an important dominance in bilateral trade performance. The  foremost intention of this paper is to justify the theory of Gravity model on Bangladesh’s trade  activities with its sixty major bilateral trading partner countries including all members of  NAFTA and SAARC by applying panel data estimation approach for data 2001 to 2015. This  deed estimates the relationship between the total trade (sum of export and import) of Bangladesh  with its trade partner and their size of the economies and the transportation cost of trade as proxy  of distance between the trading countries. The findings of the study conclude that the shape of  the trading countries’ economies has positive significant impact on their bilateral trade and cost  of transport is examined a meaningful factor that it has negative impact on Bangladesh’s trade.  The study comes across with the visualization that gravity theory has persistency with the trade  of Bangladesh. In Bangladesh, the country specific effect indicates it is better for Bangladesh to  trade with its neighboring countries rather than trading with less distance countries as the dummy  coefficient of SAARC member countries is more positive significant than NAFTA member long  distance countries.    
29 Explaining the May 9th Regime Change in Malaysia: Ethnic Boundary, Social Differentiation, National Ethos and Political Changes   , Mansor Mohd Noor 
Malaysia is a product of a post-colonial plural society. However, under the influences of  development, migration and technological changes, the plural society characters of the nation  have undergone social transformation from one of a compartmentalized society by language,  culture, religion and economic vocation into a diverse society. However, the conceptual and  theoretical frameworks of the tradition of Furnivall’s plural society may not be able to explain  the fluidity and dynamism of contemporary Malaysia. Ethnic and religious dimensions may  define the ethnicised society but to argue that such a society is a plural society may not do  justice to explain the shift from ethno-religious concerned are being embedded with civic  spaces of justice, inclusivity and participative democracy of the Malaysian diverse society.  This article grapples with the constraints of the Furnivall tradition by introducing the  conceptual framework of ethnic boundary in the tradition of Barth and the theoretical  framework of the sociology of modernization and development in understanding and  explaining the social changes taking place in Malaysia. Ethnic identity still prevails but it has  thinned as an influence on social action. Studies show that social cohesion dominates the  relationship of the diverse ethnic groups that shared a common norm, showing greater  similarities rather than differences and under such social differentiation in the society, they  relate to one another horizontally and least vertically.    
30 Community Care of Geriatric Population in Pandemic & Beyond   , Rajendra Singh
The rapid growth in population is invisible. We are growing and aging just not as an individuals  or communities but as a world. In 2006, almost 500 million people worldwide were 65 plus years  old. By 2030, that total is projected to be 1 billion i.e.1 in every 8th of the earth’s inhabitants.  Significantly, the most rapid increases in the 65 plus older population are occurring in  developing countries. In the next 10 to 15 years, the loss of health and life in every region of the  world will be greater from non-communicable/chronic or lifestyle diseases such as heart disease,  cancer, diabetes etc. Elderly age group is one of the most vulnerable categories for infectious  diseases as for example COVID-19 infection. In this infection the high risk of death is due to  decreased immunity, decline in body reserves and multiple co-morbid conditions with multiple  treatment regimens. COVID-19 is an acute respiratory illness caused by novel corona virus  (SARS-CoV-2). It causes higher mortality among elderly persons, particularly in persons with  underlying medical conditions, such as cardiovascular disease, chronic respiratory disease,  diabetes, cancer etc. Due care can be provided to this vulnerable group, if the community is  aware about means & ways to protect them.    
31 Nigeria-Israeli Relations: “So Fragile So Emotional”   , Ngozika Anthonia Obi-Ani1 And Paul Obi-Ani2
Israel is technologically advanced and as a result of it, Nigeria after independence in 1960 had  developed ties with the State of Israel particularly in areas of agricultural and technical know how. Unfortunately, the Middle East crisis has made the relationship to be rocky at times due to  Nigerians’ religious differences. The predominantly Northern Muslims often reacted adversely  towards the Jews due to the Palestinian question while the Southern dominated Christians do not  see anything wrong with the Jewish seizure of Palestinian lands in West Bank and Gaza. The  break-up of diplomatic ties after the Yom Kipurr War of 1973 by the Oragnisation of African  Unity (OAU) was perceived by the Christians in Nigeria as an undue Muslim overreach. This  theoretically based research paper used both secondary sources, newspapers and internet  materials, to interrogate Nigeria-Israeli relations. The paper concludes that no human relations is  sustained on emotions and religious sentiments. Nigerian-Israeli relations has come of age and it  should be based on mutual beneficial opportunities for the good of both countries. On the other  hand, Nigeria stands to gain from Israeli’s military, technical and agricultural advancement if she  becomes more adroit and less emotional in her relations with Israel.   
32 Nigeria-Israeli Relations: “So Fragile So Emotional”   , Ngozika Anthonia Obi-Ani1 And Paul Obi-Ani2
Israel is technologically advanced and as a result of it, Nigeria after independence in 1960 had  developed ties with the State of Israel particularly in areas of agricultural and technical know how. Unfortunately, the Middle East crisis has made the relationship to be rocky at times due to  Nigerians’ religious differences. The predominantly Northern Muslims often reacted adversely  towards the Jews due to the Palestinian question while the Southern dominated Christians do not  see anything wrong with the Jewish seizure of Palestinian lands in West Bank and Gaza. The  break-up of diplomatic ties after the Yom Kipurr War of 1973 by the Oragnisation of African  Unity (OAU) was perceived by the Christians in Nigeria as an undue Muslim overreach. This  theoretically based research paper used both secondary sources, newspapers and internet  materials, to interrogate Nigeria-Israeli relations. The paper concludes that no human relations is  sustained on emotions and religious sentiments. Nigerian-Israeli relations has come of age and it  should be based on mutual beneficial opportunities for the good of both countries. On the other  hand, Nigeria stands to gain from Israeli’s military, technical and agricultural advancement if she  becomes more adroit and less emotional in her relations with Israel.   
33 Emphasis on Curriculum Contents in Civic Education for Secondary School in Nigeria   , Anderson Paingha Sele 
Civic Education is the study of the rights and responsibilities of citizens taught in many  primary schools in some years back but have been replaced with citizenship education in  some secondary schools in Nigeria. This paper highlights the reasons for Civic Education in  Nigeria; as the country has moved from normative society to pluralistic society. This situation  has created negative behavioral change which is noticeable in Nigeria today. The paper  further outlines the blocks and topics which are adoptable as curriculum for Civic Education  in Nigerian secondary schools and finally states some problems that may militate against the  implementation of the curriculum. Educational practices in indigenous Nigeria had social  content in which civic education was preponderant. The colonial educational outfit had a  patchy civic education curriculum which was British culture-biased and, therefore, was not  pertinent to our peoples’ aspirations. A little after independence on October 1, 1960, the  pervasive colonial oriented education with its twist of colonial civic education curriculum  was criticized and the result was a refashioning of curricula which became operational in  schools from 1982 but in which civic education was completely shielded out. It was not until  year 2007 that, the civic education curriculum for the 9-year Basic Education was born to  exist pari-pasu with Social Studies curriculum. This paper, in drawing attention to the fact  that civic education is, an unnecessary duplication of social studies curriculum in another  garb, outlines the lapses in the Upper Basic Civic Education Curriculum and in addition  raises seventeen (17) yet to be tackled queries. An immediate revision of the Civic Education  Curriculum is recommended.   
34 Implementation of New Technology in Service Industry: Are the Consumers Ready?   , Muharis Mohamed1 and Ataul Karim Patwary2
Technological advancement has prioritized every aspect of human living, no exception in the  service industry. From consumers’ perspectives, a question remained unsolved, how ready are  the consumers to adopt existing and upcoming technologies, specifically in service industry?  To explore that, this research attempted to figure out related factors that either directly or  indirectly influence consumers while adopting new technologies. This research provided a  detailed understanding of the consumers’ experience in technology adoption, explores  consumer views of technologically advanced and linked service environments, and strengthens  this understanding by outlining how customer perceptions are affected by contextual variables  (objects, behaviors, actors, and artifacts). This research uses a holistic approach to consider  consumer experience in the context of intelligent energy services. Intelligent innovations have  significantly transformed the service environment, but consumer engagement with intelligent  systems remains scarce. In this report, intelligent services are defined, consumer behavior in  this new environment is well understood, and important consequences for management and  service science are addressed.    
35 Transgender Issues in Indian Society from the Viewpoint of Arundhati Roy’s Novel, The Ministry of Utmost Happiness   , Danish Suleman1 and Faizahani binti Ab Rehman2
The transgender community existed from way back in history. There are records for their existence  thousands of years ago. But they were always submerged by the society. A chance was never  provided for them, which was all that was needed to prove themselves and their existence. The  tortures made them escalate downwards in fear of the outer world. The hijras, with their undefined  sense of self that forms their understanding of existence, their susceptibility, marginalisation and  relocation, existing in the middle of a culture that does not comprehend them and barely tolerates  them, are a fitting example of the existential component of precarity. This article attempted to  highlight the reason behind the issues faced by transgender community in Indian society. In order  to examine these issues this article analysed the character of Anjum, a transgender, in Arundhati  Roy’s The Ministry of Utmost Happiness.   
36 Shopping Mall, Consumption Culture And Different Age Group: Review Of Literature In a Sociological Comparative Framework   , Aayushi Verma and Pawan Kumar Misra
Many studies had examined the consumption pattern and the way shopping mall is working to  satisfy the consumption needs of both young and elderly. This article aims to study  consumption culture among different age group. Further it also tries to understand how the  social environment and environmental factors of a shopping mall allows for open access to a  wide variety of potential participants. Considering various studies, article explores the  respective literature and identifies gap for future research. Through a detailed study of  theoretical review with focus on different age groups, this study examines ‘elderly’ and ‘young’  and ‘adolescent’ as ‘shoppers’ in consumption spaces. This study contributes to the emerging  literature of consumption culture.  
37 The Indispensable Liabilities of Leaders in Times of Covid-19 Pandemic   , Mazhar Ali1, Zarmeena Anum2, Anam Nasir3 and Nazir Ahmad4 
This explanatory paper seeks to examine domestic and international competences of world  leaders towards the organizations in COVID-19. In this crisis phase, the organization empowers  leader’s critical competences to survive in the crucial business environment. The role of leaders  in this Pandemic ramification is exclusively meticulous. The particular research question that  drives this work is: what leadership skills are needed during crises? And what is it? What are the  critical competences which help their organizations during and post-crisis? In this manuscript,  we have some literature-based descriptions from foreign and domestic perspectives as necessary  competences for leadership activities a worldwide epidemic. We discussed leadership skills  needed in period of disasters, accompanied by discussing best practices leadership in various  ways and new reflections for top management analysts and professionals post a financial crisis. This study highlights and extends a few appropriate leadership qualities and competences which  are highly useful for all the current leaders and organizations.  
38 Decoding Environmental Politics: Industrialization, Indigenous Rights and Resistance Movements in India   , Debendra Kumar Biswal
Purpose of the study: To critically examine global discourse of development and it’s  dismissive of indigenous environmental knowledge and role of international indigenism in  giving space for debate on environmental politics. Based on case study of anti-POSCO  movement in Odisha in India, it has tried to sort out dichotomy of openness to change in  quality of life of local communities versus role of reactionary forces restricting development.  Methodology: This study is a qualitative anthropological study among the tribal and local  communities displaced in three villages by the POSCO project in Odisha. Modernisation  theory of development was critically examined through the use of both primary and  secondary data; interview, observation, Focus Group Discussion of the community, policy  makers and activists and content analysis.  Main findings: In India, modernization theory of development has pushed to the debate on  the way of development “development from below” versus “development from above”. The  anti-POSCO movement in Odisha reveals politics of truth; it’s just an extension of other  popular movements and anti-development. The truth is of double edged, a confrontation of  law of land versus rights of the people, and displacement of a section of population vs.  development.   Applications of this study: This paper will help create positive hypothesis that the legal  industrialization can be legalised for the sake of poverty eradication and livelihood promotion  governance. Industrialization is not hegemony of developed countries rather relevance for  economic growth and reduction of poverty to meet MDGs in underdeveloped ones.   Originality of this study: The theoretical issues raised are inter-disciplinary, pure economics  of industry and economic growth, anthropology of modernization and philosophy of social  facts and truth. It has also critically correlated the socio-cultural, environmental and  agricultural basis of protest to industrialization. The methodology is fieldwork-based observation, interview and focus group discussion. Results have been analysed through  dependent and independent variables in ecological anthropology.  
39 Politics of Translation of Kalidasa’s Sakuntalam into Malayalam: A Paratextual Study of the “First” Translation into Malayalam   , Divya Muraleedharan
The paper attempts to understand the politics involved in the first translations of Sakuntalam into  Malayalam. Prior to the genre of drama which was a late development, visual art performances  like Kathakali, Koothu, Thullal, etc were the objects of appreciation and literary involvement of  the Malyalaee audience. The inception of the Sangeetanatakas into the Kerala land brought in  many changes in the aesthetics of the Malayalee literati. With the translation of Sakuntalam into Malayalam, there was a revoked interest in the literary interest of the Malayalee audience. With  numerous translations of Sakuntalam into Malayalam, some within the same time frame, there  emerged a contestation in which work to be considered as the first translation and who was the  author to first translate the globally acclaimed Sanskrit text into Malayalam. In this context of the  contestation and debates existing around the first translations and the ‘ascribed” first translation  the paper examines the politics by employing paratextual study of the translations.   
40 A Narrative Inquiry: Students Perception in Increasing Teachers’ Identity By Join Microteaching   , Febri Ayu Setiyorini1  Yoga Prihatin2  Masfuad Edi Santoso3
Teaching is the process of focusing on people’s needs, experiences, and feelings. It makes the  students learning new things for their future. Microteaching can be one of ways to help the students  of teacher training and education to improve their teaching skills to be suitable with required  qualifications and building up their teachers’ identity. This research aims to know what the  students of the 8th semester English Department’s perceptions on microteaching related to their  teaching practicum by using questionnaire and interview. Testing the validity and reliability of  questionnaire uses correlation product moment SPSS. From fifteen questions, one question is  invalid. Meanwhile, the results of this research are students of 8th semester English Department  agree that microteaching is effective to build up their teaching competences and ability.   
41 Religious Orientation and Religious Internalization in Madrasa and College Students   , Iram Awan1 and Shaukat Hussain2
The research was aimed at examining the relationship between religious orientation (extrinsic,  intrinsic and quest religious orientation) with religious internalization (Introjection religious  internalization and identification religious internalization). A stratified convenient sample of 200  students was selected from different madrasas and colleges of Jhang and Faisalabad. For religious  orientation adopted Urdu version of Religious Orientation Scale developed by Francis & Leslie  (2007) and for religious internalization adopted Urdu version of Religious Internalization Scale  developed by Ryan, Rigby, and King (1993) were used. The extrinsic religious orientation  contributed significantly positive with introjection religious internalization and significantly  negative with Identification Religious Internalization. Intrinsic religious orientation contributed  significantly positive with Identification Religious Internalization and non-significantly negative  with Introjection Religious Orientation. Quest Religious Orientation contributed significantly  positive with Introjection Religious Internalization and non-significantly positive with  identification religious internalization. These two groups namely the madrasa students and college  students when compared on these dimensions it was found that college students have significantly  higher scores on intrinsic religious orientation, extrinsic religious orientation, quest religious  orientation, introjection religious internalization and non-significant differences on identification  religious internalization. The findings of the current study are quite new in Pakistan and are  important in understanding development of religiosity in the students of two competitive  educational systems of madrasa and colleges.    
42 Expected Roles and Functions of the School Management Committee: An Investigation for Effective Functioning   , Meena Sehrawat1 & M. M. Roy2
Community has always been essential in giving significant education to children and members of  a community have taken the liability of educating their children. Attempts have been made to  improve participation of the community in schools by creating committees like Village Education  Committees and School Management Committees. But questions always remain, how far are the  communities practically engaged with schools? Significant provisions concerning constitution and  functions of SMCs are given in sections of the RTE Act, 2009. With the above in background the  present study was taken up with two broad objectives: first, to study the expected roles and  functions of the school management committee; and, second to find out and suggest measures for  smooth functioning of school management committee. A descriptive survey method was used to  collect the data from 390 school management committee members using Questionnaire. The data  were quantitatively analyzed using percentage. Responses obtained through questionnaire were  converted in to frequencies followed by their conversion in to percentage. Findings revealed that  members involved themselves in the monitoring of the admission, attendance and participation of  child but didn’t ensure some of the key expected roles and functions and in order to function  smoothly, SMCs should be elected through proper election process as per RTE act and SMC  members should be oriented by the principals and other authorities. This study can be useful for  all the stakeholders involved at the planning, implementing and evaluating the functioning of the  School management Committee or community participation in schools. This study focusses on  expected roles and functions of school management committee as per the RTE Act and finds new  that if members do not function as per the RTE Act, municipal school which is the miniature of  the society is going to suffer in providing the quality education as well as implementation of true  decentralization.  
43 Expat Nostalgia: Nostalgic Emotions among ‘Permanent Tour ists’ in Pattaya, Thailand   , Michael Hviid Jacobsen
In a globalized world, the ability to travel and settle elsewhere than one’s native country is an oppor tunity open to still more people. Particularly with the rise of ‘retirement migration’ or ‘lifestyle migra tion’, increasing numbers of senior members move to foreign destinations in order to live the remain ing parts of their lives. The reasons for leaving their home countries in the first place are diversified as  are also their experienced upon arrival. However, nostalgia is an identifiable emotion among many  expats or, in this article called ‘permanent tourists’, who may experience a longing for what they left  behind. Based on a study in the city of Pattaya, Thailand, the author by way of informal meetings and  conversations with Western expatriates explored their experiences of nostalgia as an everyday emo tion relating to different parts of their lives and memories. The article shows how nostalgia is far from  a one-dimensional emotional response to changing life-circumstances, but rather encompasses a varie ty of connotations, expressions and experiences.  
44 The Hype of Coronavirus Pandemic in Southeast Nigeria: Some Thoughts   , Mathias Chukwudi Isiani1, Ngozika Anthonia Obi-Ani2 and Paul Obi-Ani3
The escalation of the Coronavirus to other countries around the world prompted WHO to declare  the virus on January 30, 2020 a public health emergency (WHO, 2020). In lieu of its quick  spread and high mortality rate, the WHO termed the virus a pandemic. However, in Nigeria,  efforts to contain and sensitize the populace about this pandemic were put in place, media  platforms were copiously engaged by the Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC), sensitizing the masses on the preventive measures against the coronavirus. Despite their efforts,  some social media users inundated the people with fake news, ‘end-time’ religious teachings, rumors and misinformation about 5G ultra-waves. The dominant questions are: what roles did  the different social media platforms play in information dissemination on Covid-19 in Southeast  Nigeria? What were peoples’ reactions to these messages? How do the people view messages  from government viz-a-viz their religious leaders or other sources? Why do individuals deem it  necessary to ‘forward’ such messages to relatives, friends and different social media platforms  like WhatsApp and Facebook? In answering these questions, this qualitative study explores social media outlets such as Facebook, Twitter, WhatsApp, blogs, online newspapers and YouTube where the contestations about the pandemic are most pronounced. This study through  its finding using statistical frequencies, demonstrates that before the detection of the first victim  of Covid-19 in Nigeria, the region was already agog with social media (mis)information about  the pandemic causing panic among the populace followed by the frenzy need to ‘forward’ such  messages to those in their contacts. In lieu of this, this study examines these contestations and  contradictions about Covid-19 in Southeast Nigeria.  
45 Beyond the Boundaries: A Study of Anita Nair’s Ladies Coupé   , Nida Ambreen
The debate over the position of women, their condition in their family and society at large, has  contributed in giving them many rights earlier denied. Nevertheless, the basic rights for  women are still not enough to say that their position is equal to their male counterparts.  Although women in general, are said to be in better positions than their earlier counterparts,  but they are still in the marginalized position, because the multifaceted gender patterns work  differently on women of different classes and backgrounds through culture. By looking at the  women characters from two different social backgrounds, this paper attempts to have a better  understanding of their marginalization through Anita Nair’s Ladies Coupé. This paper aims to  study the plight of women who are called privileged according to the societal norms yet, they  are marginalized. In Anita Nair’s Ladies Coupé, the protagonist Akhila, an independent  unmarried woman, goes on a journey alone to Kanyakumari in order to find a place for  herself. The text contrasts the challenges of living alone positing it against the women  surrounded by human relationships. The objective of this paper is to study how human  relationships have become a tool to women’s oppression and also what major role travel plays  in the development and realization of ‘Self’. Human psyche, being largely influenced by  culture, has many a time played a crucial role in victimizing human being themselves,  especially, the women. So, in a way it includes the deep cultural influences on human psyche  that leads to the oppression of a particular group and suggests alternatives to deal with them.  
46 Understanding the Association between Personality Traits and Motivational Potential of Jobs – The Employees’ Perspective   , Ruqia Safdar Bajwa1, Iram Batool2 and Muhammad Sadiq Shahid3
Interaction between human personality, traits and behaviors at work has already been studied.  Existing literature increasingly highlights the importance of the relationship between personality  traits and job characteristics. This study particularly explored the relationship between employees’ personality traits and potential motivational factors at work. For this purpose, a  sample of 184 employees was selected from various organizations of Multan City. Five Factor  inventory and job diagnostic survey scale was used to measure study variables. The findings  indicated that traits of personality like extroversion, openness to experience, agreeableness and  conscientiousness are positively associated, whereas neuroticism is negatively associated with the  perceived motivational potential of jobs. Furthermore, the motivational potential of jobs is found  to vary across the organizations; females are found to perceive their jobs more motivating as  compared to males; and the job characteristics of autonomy and skill variety have been found  positively related with the personality trait of openness to experience and negatively correlated  with the personality trait of neuroticism. By matching core job characteristics and personality traits at the time of recruitment can be highly beneficial for best selection of employees, productivity and different outcomes related to employee’s performance.  
47 Organizational Justice and its Impact on Achieving Marketing Prowess: Analytical Study in Samawah Cement Factory   , Jasim Rahi Kadim1 ,Yousif Mousa Sabti2, Ghazanfar Ali3 and Sadeq Mehdi Shliot4
The current research chose the dimensions of organizational justice (distributive justice,  procedural justice, interactive justice) and exclusion marketing prowess these are exploring  opportunities, exploiting opportunities, and marketing flexibility. The purpose of the research  was to test the possibility of organizational justice contributing to achieving marketing prowess.  And standing at the level of both organizational justice and marketing prowess, and from here it  becomes clear to us its importance. And by searching for the problem through a group of  questions centered on whether there is a correlation and influence between the research variables,  and in light of this, a hypothetical model was constructed from which the main and sub-research  hypotheses emerged. To test the validity of the hypotheses, the data were collected through the  questionnaire tool, and it was prepared for this purpose. A sample represented the size of (40)  workers in the researched laboratory. The data were analyzed using a set of statistical methods  and the results were extracted using the computer program (v.16 SPSS), and in light of the  results and analyzes, the research reached a set of conclusions, including the decrease in workers  ’sense of fairness of wage distribution procedures. And rewards for workers would cause the  worker to lose the performance evaluation criteria, and to separate the goals of the worker from  the goals of the organization. Finally, the research presented a set of recommendations, which is  the necessity of setting fixed standards for each department in the laboratory to work so that the  worker can, through these criteria, evaluate his performance and know his duties and rights.  Also, laboratory management must take care to involve all workers in making decisions that  affect their work, which contributes to making these decisions more effective.   
48 Determinants of SMEs Performance in Pakistan: A Pilot Study   , Tamoor Ali Tariq1 and Halim bin Mad Lazi2 and Rosman bin Iteng3
This study’s main objective is to investigate the face validity and reliability of the determinants  of SMEs’ performance in Pakistan. For this purpose, researchers adopted a simple random  sampling approach to collect a small data sample from the Owners/managers of 41 individual  manufacturing SMEs. The model suggested four factors (PDI, PCI, OLC, TO) as the  determinants of SMEs performance. Therefore, the instruments’ reliability and validity were  keenly examined with experts from academia and industry. Moreover, collected data were processed and analysed by using SPSS. However, the results of the study established the face  validity and reliability of the adapted instruments.