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AlQalam Journal of Medical and Applied Sciences

Journal Papers (8) Details Call for Paper Manuscript submission Publication Ethics Contact Authors' Guide Line
1 High Flow Nasal Cannula Oxygen Therapy in Children; a Review , Cristina García-Muro1*, Cristina Toledo-Gotor 1, Verónica Jiménez-Escobar 1, Isabel Sáenz-Moreno 1, Eduardo Esteban-Zubero 2
High flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen therapy is a non-invasive respiratory support consisting in the administration of heated, humidified and blended air/oxygen delivered via nasal cannula. The inspired oxygen concentration can be varied from 21% to 100%, therefore giving a greater ability to titrate the concentration of oxygen delivered. Its potential benefits include; increase fraction of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the alveoli, a decrease in damage to upper airway mucosa, reduction of upper-airway resistance, reduction of the metabolic cost of gas conditions, and ventilation improvement by providing a continuous positive airway pressure. However, this technique has contraindications, including severe hypoxia, hemodynamic instability, pneumothorax, upper airway abnormalities and facial bone or skull base trauma. In addition, it should not be used in patients with hypercapnia. There has been an increase in the use of HFNC in pediatrics in recent years, despite the fact that there is little evidence of its effectiveness and safety in children Its main indication is acute bronchiolitis. Nevertheless, other respiratory diseases including asthma, pneumonia and post-extubation respiratory support have been studied. The aim of this article is to review the available evidence on the use of HFNC in most frequent respiratory diseases in pediatric age, including bronchiolitis, asthma and pneumonia.
2 Approximations of Maximal and Principal Ideal , Faraj Abdunanbi 
   In this paper, we will be delving deeper into the connection between the rough theory and the ring theory precisely in the principle and maximal ideal. The rough set theory has shown by Pawlak as good formal tool for modeling and processing incomplete information in information system. The rough theory is based on two concepts the upper approximation of a given set is the union of all the equivalence classes, which are subsets of the set, and the lower approximation is the union of all the equivalence classes, which are intersection with set non-empty. Many researchers develop this theory and use it in many areas. Here, we will apply this theorem in the one of the most important branches of mathematics that is ring theory. We will try to find the rough principal and maximal ideal as an extension of the notion of a principal maximal ideal respectively in ring theory. In addition, we study the properties of the upper and lower approximation of a principal maximal ideal. However, some researchers use the rough theory in the group and ring theory. Our work, is Shaw there are rough maximal and principle ideal as an extension of the maximal and principle ideal respectively. Our result will introduce the rough maximal ideal as an extended notion of a classic maximal ideal and we study some properties of the lower and the upper approximations a maximal ideal.
3 A Study of the Islamic Strategies for Prevention and Management of Pandemic Diseases (COVID-19) , Kamal-deen Sulaiman
Islam is the religion of all ages. It is adaptive, assimilative and accommodating religion that provides its adherents an unparalleled blueprint to lead an exemplary life. It guides its followers about every aspect of life, be it of past, present and future. Therefore, a true believer always looks towards Islam whenever he encounters any calamity or catastrophe. The latest outbreak of COVID-19 also warrants moving towards Islamic teachings for coping strategies. Corona virus, for sure, is an apocalypse for humanity. The aim of this article therefore, is to analyze the guidelines that Islam provides to its followers, for prevention and management of the pandemic. The paper reveals that, what today immunologists and the WHO are suggesting as preventive measures in order to remain protected from global contagion, were also advised by Prophet Muhammad (SAW) about 1500 years back. In addition to these, Islam recommended seeking medical treatment, intake of good foods and drinks, supplications/Dua and submission to the will of Allah (Pre-destination).The paper observes that, it is incredible to think that, about 1,500 years ago, a Prophet with no scientific training already knew, step by step, what to do during a pandemic that are still applicable in this 21st century. It concludes that, both preservation of the religion and preservation of life are amongst the primary objectives of the Sharīʿah.
4 Hepatoprotective Effect of Ginger Induced Experimentally by Dimethoate And Liver Injury in Adult Male Rabbits , Fayrouz Khaled 1*, Ali Shoaib 1, Mansour Attia 2 
Background: Dimethoate (DM) is a widely used organophosphate insecticide and acaridae. Ginger extracts have shown a wide array of beneficial role in the regulation of regular liver functions and the treatment of liver hepatotoxicity. This study was carried out to investigate the possible anti-oxidant activity of ginger extract on the DM-induced effect on liver injury of adult mail rabbits. Methods: Twenty male New Zealand White rabbits were randomly divided into four groups: (1): control group; (2): rabbits were treated with ginger alone (3): rabbits were treated with DM and (4): rabbits were given DM and ginger. Blood, and liver mushed were using for estimation of liver functions in serum and liver. Results: There were statistically significant elevations in the levels of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities in plasma and liver as affected by treatment with ginger, DM and/or their combination. Treatment with DM resulted in significant increase in the activities of plasma AST, ALT and ALP and caused significant decrease in the activities of these enzymes in liver. Ginger alone caused significant decrease in the activities of AST, ALT and ALP in plasma and insignificant increase in liver. Conclusion: The presence of ginger with DM caused significant decrease in the induction of AST, ALT, and ALP activities in plasma, and insignificant improvement in liver enzymes. 
5 Effect of Mobile Phone Radiation on Reproductive System and Behavior Using Female Albino Mice  , Suhera Aburawi 1*, Hana Abusaida 2, Habiba El Jaafari 3, Feras Alkayed 1, Naema Shibani 4, Arwa Dali 5, Suliman Shalabi 2, Marwa Ayad 1, Omima Altaboni 1
Objectives: To investigate histopathological effect on reproductive system and the behavioral effect in female albino mice due to exposure to mobile phone radiation. Methods: Twelve female albino mice were divided into two groups. Group 1, was healthy mice without expose to mobile phone radiation; group 2, exposed to mobile phone radiation for one hour (ringing) per day for ninety days. At the end of the experiment, behaviour study was carried out using plus maze and forced swimming maze; followed by histological examination of the ovary and uterus. Results: Mice exposed to mobile phone radiation did not show any changes in behavior. While, mice exposed to electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone showed ovarian cortex reduction in number of primordial and primary follicles, absence of oocyte inside the follicle, and large amount of vacuolated cytoplasm in Corpus luteum. In addition, mobile phone radiation exposed mice uterus showed abnormal histological features of the inner mucosa, or endometrium. Glands appears as focal inactive atrophic glands with hyperchromatic nuclei; atrophy of the uterine glands, and number of glands reduction in the stroma were observed. In myometrium, large blood vessels were observed. Conclusion: Exposure to mobile phone radiation has no effect either on behavior or any CNS function during exposure. Histologically, this duration of exposure produced damage in ovary and uterus. It is advised to limit the hours of mobile phone usage each day to keep the mind and body healthy.
6 Effect of Mobile Phone Radiation on Reproductive System and Behavior Using Male Albino Mice , Suhera Aburawi1*, Feras Alkayed 1, Naema Shibani 2, Hana Abusaida 3, Habiba El Jaafari 4, Arwa Dali 5, Suliman Shalabi 3, Alkhansa Sharif 1, Amira Aldali 1
Background and objectives: This work was carried out to investigate the effect of mobile radiation on the behavior and reproductive system (histological study) in male albino mice. Methods: Twelve mice were divided into two groups. Group I: the control group was not exposed to mobile radiation (healthy mice); group II: mice were exposed to mobile radiation for one hour (active-ringing) per day for 90 days. At the end of the experiment, behavior scoring was carried out, followed by histological investigation of reproductive system. Results: In plus maze, anxiety measure, total lines crossed and total number of entries did not change compared to the control group. Also, in force swimming maze, the duration of immobility was not changed in mobile radiation exposed mice, compared to the control. Sperm morphology showed an increased in the percentage of abnormal sperm count in mice exposed to mobile radiation compared to the control mice group. Histological study showed that mice exposed to mobile phone radiation showed an increase of abnormal sperm shape compared to the control. A reduction of intraluminal spermatozoa, hypospermatogenic cells of seminiferous tubules was observed. Sperms also were very few inside the lumen of seminiferous tubules, and reduced number spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatid, and sertoli cells were observed. Conclusion: Exposure to mobile phone radiation has no effect on behavior; this indicates that it has no effect on the CNS for this duration of exposure. Histologically, this duration of exposure produced damage to testis structure and also in the morphology of sperms. Decrease in mobile phone usage each day keep the mind and body healthy.
7 A Study of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria among Pregnant Women with and Without Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Al-Jalla Gynecology Hospital, Tripoli, Libya  , Abir Ben Ashur *, Hamida El Magrahi, Asma Elkammoshi, Yomna Shomakhi, Wesal Alaawaj
Background. The infection of the urinary tract is one of the most significant reasons for seeking medical attention among individuals, and is one of the most widely common nosocomial infections. Gestational diabetes mellitus during pregnancy is considered an important risk factor for urinary tract infections. This study aims to investigate the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria and the incidence of urinary tract infections in pregnant women with and without gestational diabetes mellitus and their antibiotic sensitivity patterns. Methods. Total of one hundred consecutive pregnant women with a clinical diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (n=50) and non-diabetic pregnant women (n=50) were included in the study at Gynecology Hospital Tripoli, Libya. Mid-stream urine samples were obtained for a full urine examination. All samples and isolates were investigated by standard laboratory procedures. Asymptomatic bacteriuria was described as at least 105 CFU / ml growth isolated from a woman's urine without complaints about urinary tract infections. Result. A total of 60 (60%) samples showed significant growth. No significant difference among the culture positivity rate was noted between gestational diabetic and non-diabetic patients (30% Vs 30%). Escherichia coli was the most frequent organism (50% in gestational diabetes mellitus and 43% non-diabetic) followed by staphylococcus aureus (27% in diabetic and 40% in non-diabetic). Ciprofloxacin (80%) was highly sensitive to infected bacteria. Conclusion. No significant differences in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria or incidence of urinary tract infections were found between pregnant women with and without gestational diabetes mellitus.
8 Barriers in Infection Control Practice against COVID-19: A Survey of Healthcare Workers in Benghazi Medical Centre ,  Naeima Houssein 1*, Kamla Othman 2,  Fatma Mohammed 3, Aeiad Saleh 3, Hanan Sunaallah 3
Background and objective. COVID-19 pandemic represents a public health emergency over the world. The only way to fight this novel virus is by following the standard prevention precautions. Healthcare workers in Libya face considerable challenges during the ongoing COVID-19. Barriers in infection control practice of infectious diseases are determined by many factors. This study aimed to explore attitudes of health care workers in Benghazi Medical Centre regarding barriers in infection control practice against COVID-19 outbreak. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from July 1st to July 25th 2020, involving a total of 400 HCWs across medical and allied medical professions in Benghazi medical centre. Results. Of those surveyed, 40.6% were in frontline, only half of them (51.3%) attended hand hygiene formal training in the last 3 years. The presence of all the mentioned barriers in work environment were perceived by 37.20% of participants. Limitation of personal protective equipments as a barrier was perceived by16.30% of participants. Conclusion: Attendance of formal hand hygiene training was limited in many medical and allied medical professions. For effective implementation of infection prevention practice in health care settings, barriers should be considered from the ministry of health and health care workers.