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1 Did the Covid-19 Pandemic Cause Financial Contagion? , Assoc. Prof. Abdulkadir Kaya
The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether or not the COVID-19 pandemic that occurred in Wuhan city of China and spread rapidly all over the world causes the effect of contagion in financial markets. For this purpose, it has examined whether the COVID-19 pandemic had a contagion effect in the financial markets and the direction of the impact. Sixteen countries have been selected for the determination of the financial contagion effect and the correlation between cases  number of these countries and the stock market indices has been examined.  A statistically significant and negative relationship between COVID-19 case number and stock market index variables at the % 1 significance level has been found in all countries subject to the analysis. Considering that outbreaks such as SARS, Swine Flu, MERS and COVID-19 spread outside the regions they occur, have a negative impact on financial markets and the world is open to such the epidemics; has made it compulsory for countries to take the necessary measures to reduce their vulnerability to the financial markets.
2 The Factors Affecting Household Education Expenditures: An Application On The Erzurum , Gurkan Calmasur and Gonca Algur
Expenditure on education directly affects the quality of education. Therefore, it is very important to determine the quality of education because education expenditures made by the households constitute a large part of the total education expenditures. In this study, the factors affecting the education expenditures of the households in Erzurum were tried to be determined. Data obtained from questionnaire were analyzed by Multiple Regression Model. According to the results obtained; it has been concluded that the student's gender, the student's level of the grade, the mother's education level, the father's education level, the age of the parents, the number of students in the household, the average monthly income of the family, the monthly expenses of the family's rent / lodging, and the satisfaction factors related to the success of the children of the families affected the probability of educational expenditure.
3 Relationshıp Between Financial Stress Index And Direct Foreign Investments, Portfolio Investments And External Debt Stock: ARDL Bound Test , Erkan Alsu
This study examines the long-term and short-term relationship between financial stress index and foreign direct investments , portfolio investments and foreign debt stock and. Data on financial stress index Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, data on external debt stock T.C. Data on portfolio investments were obtained from the Ministry of Treasury and Finance, World Bank and data on foreign direct investments were obtained from the Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey. The data period of the study covers 1994-2018. ARDL bound test approach was used in the study. According to the results of the study, an increase in the financial stress index decreased the portfolio investments of the country and increased the foreign debt stock. On the other hand, there is no significant relationship between the financial stress index and foreign direct investments. This indicates that foreign direct investments are not affected by the financial stress environment. This study contains important results for policy practitioners and interested parties.
4 Evaluation of Uzundere District in the Context of Cittaslow-Tourism Relations , Adnan Küçükali, UÄŸur Åžen
Uzundere is the only settlement in the Eastern Anatolia Region and has cittaslow title in Turkey.  In order to ensure diversity and sustainability in winter tourism in Erzurum, Uzundere district has the potential to become an important tourism destination with its features and to make serious contributions to the current winter tourism. Cittaslow Uzundere has a characteristic of developing winter tourism in terms of its geographical, natural, touristic and historical features as well as its proximity to ski centers. Cittaslow Uzundere has features that improve winter tourism in terms of its geographical, natural, touristic and historical features as well as its proximity to ski resorts. In this study, it was determined that Uzundere employees care about the development of district tourism and are individually and institution willing to contribute to this development. The research has shown that if Uzundere is effective in winter tourism, winter tourism activities concentrated in the city center of Erzurum can expand to the district.center of Erzurum will spread to a wider area and the region can be a more attractive tourism destination with various tourism alternatives.
5 An Evaluation of Local Government System in Turkey and Bangladesh , Mehmet Akif Özer, Hafijur Rahman
Turkey and Bangladesh are two Muslim countries, have good bilateral relation for a long time. In contemporary time, both of these countries intended to increase the co-operation in several sectors, i.e. diplomacy, trade, migration, education, defense etc. This paper aims to analyze the local government system of these countries from a comparative perspective which seems crucial because academician and policymaker should know the system of local government from both sides. In Turkey, there are three-tier local government systems, namely; especial provincial administration, municipalities and village administration. In Bangladesh, rural local government is also three tiers as District council, Upazila council and Union council. However, the urban local government of Bangladesh is different from rural as City Corporation and Municipalities. This paper broadly analysis the formation of the local government bodies as well as the functions. It is hoped that this research may contribute to academia by analyzing the local government system of Turkey and Bangladesh.   
6 The Effect Of Store Atmosphere On Purchasing Behavior: A Comparative Study On Ready-To-Wear And Food Retailing , Tevfik Åžükrü Yapraklı, Meryem Orhan
The definition of marketing activities in the retail area has been expanded along with the change of the marketing world in recent years; in this sense, the prominence of stores where the consumers get service and identify, experience the brands at retail clothing and food, atmospheric features of stores have been greatly effected the purchasing behavior. In the theory section of the study, the literature review was conducted about the store atmosphere and purchasing behavior topics. In the research section, the survey, which was prepared to determine the effect of store atmosphere on consumer purchasing behavior, was answered by the consumers. The data resulting from the responses of 410 consumers were analyzed with the help of SPSS package program.  As a result, it was revealed that consumers were affected by the atmosphere during the purchasing process. 
7 Development Of Agricultural Insurance in Turkey, Transition To Tarsim And Evaluation Of Insurance Sector For The Purpose Of Labor And Employment , Kemal Çiftyıldız, Mehmet Ä°sel
The history of agricultural insurance practices in Turkey dates back to the 1930s. However, as no insurance company can take on the catastrophic risks of agricultural insurances on its own, there has been no major progress in this insurance branch in our country as in the whole world. However, with the increase of technological developments and the fact that nutrition has come to the fore during the importance all over the world, the states have supported the insurance companies in the development of this insurance branch. In this context, a new period has started in agricultural insurance, and we can call this period state-sponsored agricultural insurance. Turkey also has not insensitive to these developments in the world and has started to work in order to develop these insurance branches since 1987. Depending on the developments in this field, there has also been an increase in the employment of groups working on agricultural insurance
8 The Role Of The Accounting Information System In The Decision-Making Process: An Application In Kars Province , Alper Tazegül
In today's world, which is defined as the digital age, it is unthinkable for businesses to be independent from the technological developments/transformations of this period. This transformation requires businesses to configure their information systems synchronously with sub-systems such as accounting information system. The data obtained from these subsystems has an important place especially decision-making process in business. Accounting information system, which is one of these sub-systems, having a distinct importance, is a system that stands out, especially considering the weight of financial contents in business processes. Because the accounting information system not only provides the recording, classification, storage and protection of data, but also the interpretation of these data and the analysis to be used in the decision-making process. In this study, the role of the accounting information system, which has an indispensable place in management information systems in the decision-making process was evaluated with a questionnaire applied in Kars. It has been determined that the main function of accounting information systems, especially in enterprises employing a small number of employees, is perceived as fulfilling tax liabilities according to the results of the study.
9 Program Budget System As A Tool of Admınıstratıve Accountabılıty in Turkey , Durdane Küçükaycan
Today, the expectation from budgeting systems is to serve both financial transparency and accountability by showing the relationship between public goals and targets and the resources used. In order to meet this expectation, since 2008, a performance-based budgeting system has been implemented in public administrations within the scope of general government. With this budgeting system, a budgeting and reporting mechanism based on managerial responsibility has been tried to be established based on the principles of transparency and accountability, and more effective use of public resources. A well-functioning budgeting system is required to ensure accountability in the public sector. In this study, the program budget system, which will be used in public administrations within the scope of central government in 2021, has been evaluated in terms of being a public administration tool from the managerial accountability perspective. In the study, the operation of the new budgeting system in public financial management was evaluated by examining the guides with the Public Financial Management and Control Law No. 5018. It is expected that the program budgeting system, which will start to be implemented, will contribute to managerial accountability by integrating the performance-based budgeting system used in public administrations.
10 The Research on Relationship Between Bank Activity Types And Economic Growth in Turkey , Tolga Ergün
The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between economic growth and participation banking, deposit banking, development and investment banking sectors operating in Turkey. In the study, a total of 42 quarters of data between 2010/Q1 and 2020/Q2 were examined using the ARDL bound testing. The separate research model has been established for the participation, deposit and investment banking sectors. In the models established for relevant sectors loans, total assets and net operating profit as independent variables; gross domestic product is considered as the dependent variable representing economic growth. Firstly, quarterly series are seasonally adjusted and logarithmic transformation. Then, the stationarity of the series was tested. In the findings obtained from the ARDL analysis, participation, deposit, development and investment banking sector and economic growth are co-integrated in the long run. In other words,  a  statistically positive relationship has been found between the variables of banking activity types and economic growth. Another finding obtained from the study is that among banking activity types, participation banks contribute more to economic growth in the long run compared to other banking activities.
11 Management Styles of University Hospitals in Healthcare Services and A New Model Proposal , Ä°brahim Gülaçar
University hospitals are at the top of healthcare services. In addition, it has an important place in the provision of health services in developed and developing countries, especially in our country. These hospitals are considered as complex hospitals where education and training, diagnosis and treatment methods of existing diseases are investigated in addition to health services. These hospitals, where 3-level health services are provided, are administratively managed with an extremely complex and classical management model. This modeling is a monopolistic and anti-democratic management approach in which all legal authority is concentrated in one person. This management approach causes an irregular institutionalization, inadequate scinetific level and lack of sustainability. In this study, classical management models of university hospitals, alternative management models, advantages and disadvantages of these models will be discussed. As a result, our study will focus on how to create a new management model that relief today's administrative problems in medical faculties. The study will be completed by revealing the advantages and negative aspects of the new management model created compared to the existing system.
12 Investıgatıon Of Consumers ‘Hedonıc Consumptıon Reasons In Terms Of Life Style Attitudes , Didem MicazoÄŸlu Çakmak , Muhammed Ä°hsan Çubukçu
Together with the basic benefit of the product, consumers tend to shop in order to satisfy their emotions, to take pleasure and to brighten. In addition to these emotional motives evaluated within the concept of Hedonic Consumption, life perception attitudes also influential factors in buying behaviors of consumers. In this study, which is conducted to compare these factors affecting the purchasing decisions of consumers; consumers’ reasons for making hedonic consumption, lifestyle attitudes examined. Demographic characteristics, lifestyle attitude scale, hedonic consumption reasons scale, for were used in the questionnaire form. The questionnaires were applied to consumers from Bayburt who were over 18 and living in Bayburt city center. The data obtained from the study was analyzed with SPSS 22 package program. In the comparison of lifestyle attitudes with the causes of hedonic consumption and with demographic characteristics; it was found that women, singles and the young were more dominant in both factors; and lifestyle attitudes and hedonic consumption reasons differed according to occupation, education and income levels. According to the analysis of the relation between lifestyle attitudes and the causes of hedonic consumption; “The Believers” were found to hold the lowest level of hedonic consumption.