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Journal of Biomedical Research And Environmental Sciences

ISSN(p): | ISSN(e):2766-2276
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1 Analysis of Reported Case Fatality Rate and Characteristics of COVID-19 Patients in Italy , Alireza Hamidian Jahromi*
In a recent viewpoint publication in the Journal of American Medical Association (JAMA), Onder, et al. provided insight into the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in Italy along with an explanation of the Italian National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanita [ISS]) surveillance system [1]. Onder calculated the overall attributed COVID-19 fatality rate of 7.2% in the Italian population, based on the data up to March 17th, 2020 (1625 deaths/22 512 cases) [1]. Onder and colleagues proposed the demographic characteristics of the Italian population (higher older age distribution in the population compared to some other nations) and the associated comorbidities, lack of clearly defined COVID-19 related deaths and the differences in calculation methods in Italy and internationally along with country-specific differences in testing strategies as possible explanations for the higher Italian case-fatality rate compared with some other nations (i.e. China) [1]. There are claims that the mortality rate estimates based on the number of deaths relative to the number of confirmed cases of infection at a given time and place is not a true representative of the actual death rate [2].
2   Case Report Malignant Cerebral Ischemic Stroke Associated with COVID-19 Infection Case Report Malignant Cerebral Ischemic Stroke Associated with COVID-19 Infection ,
Introduction: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) originating from Wuhan, China, is spreading around the world. Apart from respiratory, cardiac and vascular complications, acute neurological symptoms and acute cerebrovascular disease have also been observed. Methods: A 36 year old female with severe cerebral stroke and COVID pneumonia and its clinical characteristics and evolution are described. Results of two retrospective studies about the incidence of Cerebrovascular Disease (CVD) amongst the positive cases for the new coronavirus are shown. An evaluation of the relationship between CVD and previous infections, their stational distribution, and the possible causes of this damage out of the brain is described. Result: Yanan Li, et al found a 6% of CVD. Ling Mao, et al showed a 5% only amongst the patients defined as severe. Non-severe patients had a 0.8 % incidence. These authors found that in patients with more risk factors that could present more often a severe disease and CVD, some of these factors could in fact be common for a pneumonia or stroke. We could observe that respiratory infections are described risk factors for CVD, especially for cervico-cerebral Artery Dissections (CAD). The seasonal variation also suggests a possible association. It is not well known how the new coronavirus spreads through the human body from the lungs. A possible triggering mechanism might be through the interaction with the Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme-2 (ACE-2) or the cytokine cascade that could create blood coagulation disorders. Conclusion: At this stage of the pandemic, we do not yet know much about the ability of the new coronavirus to produce CVD. This single case report only suggests a possible association between COVID-19 and CVD. More cases with epidemiological data are required to confirm and measure this association, although the role of infections in CVD through a not well-defined mechanism has been described frequently. Pablo J de la Fuente Department of Neurosurgery,Cruces University Hospital,Spain Volume1-Issue1 | Published: 2020-05-27 FullText HTML FullText PDF References    Guan WJ, Ni ZY, Hu Y, Liang WH, Ou CQ, et al. Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019. N Engl J Med. 2020; 382: 1708-1720.  Wang D, Hu B, Hu C, Zhu F, Liu X, Zhang J, et al. Clinical characteristics of 138 hospitalized patients with 2019 Novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia in Wuhan, China. JAMA. 2020; 323: 1061-1069. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32031570/ Li Y, Wang M, Zhou Y, Chang J, Xian Y et al. Acute cerebrovascular disease following COVID-19: A single center. Retrospective, Observational Study. LANCET. 2020. Ling Mao, Huijuan Jin, Mengdie Wang, Yu Hu, Shengcai Chen, Quanwei He, et al. Neurological manifestations of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective case series. JAMA Neurol. 2020; 201127: PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32275288/ A J Grau, F Buggle, S Heindl, C Steichen Wiehn, T Banerjee, M Maiwald, et al. Recent bacterial and viral infection is a risk factor for cerebrovascular ischemia. Clinical and biochemical studies. Neurology. 1998; 50: 196-203. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7886709/ A J Grau, T Brandt, F Buggle, E Orberk, J Mytilineos, E Werle, et al. Association of cervical artery dissection with recent infection. Arch Neurol. 1999; 56: 851-856. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10404987/ Benoit Guillon, Karine Berthet, Lamia Benslamia, Marion Bertrand, Marie Germaine Bousser, Christophe Tzourio. Infection and the risk of spontaneous cervical artery dissection: a case-control study. Stroke. 2003; 34: 79-81. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12805497/ Lucy C Thomas, Lesley Ann Hall, John R Attia, Elizabeth G Holliday, Hugh S Markus, Christopher R Levi. Seasonal variation in spontaneous cervical artery dissection: Comparing between UK and Australian Sites. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2017; 26: 177-185. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27745777/ Baumgartner RW. Handbook on cerebral artery dissection. Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience. Karge. 2005; 20: 12-15. Schievink WI, Mokri B, O'Fallon WM. Recurrent spontaneous cervical-artery dissection. N Engl J Med. 1994; 330: 393-397. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8284004/ Bogousslavsky J, Pierre P. Ischemic stroke in patients under age 45. Neurol Clin. 1992; 10: 113-124. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/1556998/ Arboix A, Jimenez C, Massons J, Parra O, Besses C. Hematological disordes: A commonly unrecognized cause of acute stroke. Expert review of hematology. 2016; 9: 891-901. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27367035/ Schievink WI, Wijdicks EFM, Michels VV, Vockley J, Godfrey M. Heritable connective tissue disorders in cervical artery dissections: A prospective study. Neurology. 1998; 50: 1166-1169. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9566419/ Sofia Morfopoulou, Julianne R Brown, E Graham Davies, Glenn Anderson, Alex Virasami, Waseem Qasim, et al. Human Coronavirus OC43 Associated with Fatal Encephalitis. N Engl J Med. 2016; 375: 497-498. Hussein Algahtani, Ahmad Subahi, Bader Shirah. Neurological complications of middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus: A report of two cases and review of the Literature. Case Rep Neurol Med. 2016; 3502683; PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27239356/ Carod Artal FJ. Neurological complications of coronavirus and COVID-19. Rev Neurol. 2020; 70: 311‐322. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32329044/ Wenhui Li, Chengsheng Zhang, Jianhua Sui, Jens H Kuhn, Michael J Moore, Shiwen Luo, et al. Receptor and viral determinants of SARS-coronavirus adaptation to human ACE2. EMBO J. 2005; 24: 1634-1643. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15791205/ Sajjad Muhammad, Emanuel Haasbach, Maria Kotchourko, Anne Strigli, Antje Krenz, Dirk A Ridder, et al. Influenza virus infection aggravates stroke outcome. Stroke. 2011; 42: 783-791. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21293018/ Zhe Xu, Lei Shi, Yijin Wang, Jiyuan Zhang, Lei Huang, Chao Zhang, et al. Pathological findings of COVID-19 associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Lancet Respir Med. 2020; 8: 420-422. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32085846/ Arboix A, Garcia Eroles L, Oliveres M, Comes E, Sanchez MJ, Massons J. Malignant middle cerebral artery infarction: A clinical study of 32 patients. Rev Invest Clin. 2015; 67: 64-70. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25857586/ Arboix A, Alio J. Acute cardioembolic stroke: an update. Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 2011; 9: 367-379. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21438816/  
3 Dermoid Cyst of the Frontal Bone: A Case Report , Beghdad Mohamed*, Ballage Amine, Mkhatri Amine, Chaouki Anas, Oukessou Youssef, Rouadi Sami, Abada Reda, Roubal Mohamed and Mahtar Mohamed
Introduction: Dermoid cysts are benign tumors that originate from aberrant primordial tissues. About 7% of all dermoid cysts are located in the head and neck region. We present here the case of a periorbital dermoid cyst in a 34 years old patient, involving the frontal bone.  
4 Effects of Irradiance and Different Nitrogen and Carbon Concentrations on the Minerals Accumulation in Scenedesmus obliquus Biomass , Jiménez-Veuthey Mariana1,2*, Zapata Luz Marina1, Vezzosi-Zoto Gina1, Sacks Natalia1, Flores Agustina1, Zampedri Patricia1 and Zampedri Carolina1
Microalgae are capable of absorbing and concentrating constituent elements that have a wide variety of applications in agriculture, food industry, and medicine. Microalgae chemical composition change according to internal and external factors. In this study, the effect of irradiance, sodium nitrate and sodium acetate concentration on the accumulation of essential minerals in Scenedesmus obliquus biomass were evaluated using 23 factorial screening designs. The simultaneous effect of the three experimental factors was studied using three levels for each parameter (irradiance: 36.71, 69.50, 102.30 μE m-2 s-1, sodium nitrate: 0.27, 44.00, 87.73 g L-1 and sodium acetate: 0.00, 2.50, 5.02 g L-1). The response variables were the minerals concentration of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn and Mn. Results show that each mineral has an optimal operation condition in order to improve its concentration in the microalgae biomass. A significant interaction between the variables was observed, which has direct effects on the minerals accumulation in the microalgae biomass. Under these conditions, the maximum concentration of K (1515.77 [mg (100gdw)-1]), Ca (2744.24 [mg (100gdw)-1]), Mg (9697.65 [mg (100gdw)-1]), Fe (2932.42 [mg (100gdw)-1]), Mn (38.48 [mg (100gdw)-1]), Zn (324.00 [mg (100gdw)-1]) and the minimum concentration of Na (5607.20 [mg (100gdw)-1]) were obtained from the microalga biomass. Thus, Scenedesmus obliquus biomass was characterized as good essential mineral source and confirmed to be potentially valuable ingredient for utilization in the food industry.
5 Recommendations for Individualized Rehabilitation of Syncope in Children and Adolescents during the COVID-19 Epidemic , Xin Wang, Haihui Xiao, Yi Xu and Cheng Wang*
Since December 2019, the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 in WuHan, HuBei province, has spread to the whole country and abroad. As a susceptible population, the number of children and adolescents is increasing day by day. Under the severe situation of epidemic prevention and control, pediatric department has successively launched the expert consensus and treatment recommendations on the prevention and control of novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) in related fields. Syncope is a common emergency in children and adolescents, recurrent syncope seriously affects the quality of life and mental health of children. It is difficult for children with syncope to seek medical treatment during the epidemic period. This paper puts forward some suggestions on the rehabilitation of children and adolescents with syncope during the epidemic period.
6 Cinnamomum verum and its Effects on the Visual Motor Speed in Humans , Ranyah Khan1* and Anna Patterson2  
Cinnamon is used in a variety of cuisines, herbal supplements, teas, and other unique variations. Use of it as a spice dates back thousands of years and is primarily found in the lower regions of Asia in places like Sri Lanka and India. This experiment was designed to examine the effects of cinnamon on visual motor reflexes. It was hypothesized that the longer a participant smelt cinnamon the faster their reflex time would be. Participants were used as an internal control to check their base reflexes when initially unexposed to cinnamon, before repeating the experiment with the smell of cinnamon diffusing through the air. This was recorded using an online computer program provided by Washington University that functions as a click the button test. Participants had to press the button every time they saw a computerized traffic light turn green. We then calculated the changes in visual motor response time in intervals of two minutes for ten minutes. The means and standard deviation of each trial for each participant was calculated through both a calculator and the computer program. Most participants showed similar trends in their results with only a few outliers. Afterwards, the means were compared which revealed a gradual decrease in reflex time and statistically significant data with a P value of 0.0026, which supports our hypothesis that the smell of cinnamon decreases reflex response time. This can support the idea that cinnamon may be utilized in everyday activities to enhance mental abilities and may act as a significant stimulant to prevent drowsy driving. The experiment did not account for reflex acclimation however, which may provide a possible source of error in our data set.
7 Determination of an Antiviral Activity of a Composition Comprising Glutathione Reductase (GSSG-R) and Oxidized Glutathione (GSSG) for Pharmaceutical use: Experiments In vitro and In vivo , Raffaele Ansovini*  
There are several viruses that are not currently covered by efficient antiviral terapies, as towards Poliovirus and the new Covid19. The spread of atypical viral strains strongly raises the need of having efficient terapies with wide coverage against viruses.
8 Antibiogram Pattern of Potential Pathogenic Bacteria Associated with Domestic Dog Faecal Matter in Port Harcourt Metropolis , Azuonwu Obioma1*, Ihua Nnenna1 and Ahiakwo Christian2
This study was aimed at investigating the Antibiogram pattern of Potential Pathogenic Bacteria that are associated with Domestic dog faecal matter in Port Harcourt Metropolis. Convenient sampling techniques were explored for sample collection. A total of fifty samples were collected from domestic dogs from different locations (Agip estates, Rumuokoro, GRA, Sandfill, Town, RSU lecturers’ quarters) within Port Harcourt metropolis, Rivers State, Nigeria. The bacteriological analysis was determined using standard microbiological procedures and identification techniques. Potential pathogens associated with domestic dog faecal matter that were isolated include; Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, Pseudomonas species, Proteus species, Bacillus species, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus species. However other species of Staphylococcus were also isolated respectively. The study showed that among the seven antibiotics used, tarivid was the most sensitive (96%), while peflacin was the most resistant (62%). The correlation analysis showed the relationship between isolates and bacterial count with antibiogram revealed that only Ciproflaxacin showed significant correlation with the isolates (r = 0.322, p = 0.02). This study strongly suggests that domestic dogs carry potential pathogenic organisms present in the faecal matter that can serve as sources of infection to the pet owners, especially the strains showing resistance to antibiotics. These pose a community health threat, thus putting the general public at risk of contracting infections. It is, therefore, important that these domestic dogs including the ones used as pets should be treated and possibly vaccinated frequently, even as faecal matter from domestic dogs should be well disposed to prevent possible zoonotic infections to man from the contaminated environment.
9 The Hypothetical Role of Erythrocytes in COVID-19: Immediate Clinical Therapys , Raffaele Ansovini1* and Leonardo Compagnucci2  
We suppose a hypothetical role of erythrocytes in COVID-19: Involvement of bone marrow; evidences of the presence of ferritins in the autoptic spleen; role of erythrocytes in the production of thrombosis; the reason of using chloroquine and heparin; the similar actions with HIV-1; protection of HIV patients and Thalassemic patients from Covid19; reason of increase of Kawasaki patients; At last the protective role of Methylene blue in COVID-19.
10 Heavy Metal Accumulation in Veli Lake Sediments - Kerala Coast of India   , Leena Grace Beslin*  
Organisms inhabiting in water require little amount of trace elements. At finest level they are favorable and further than that edge it affected the ecosystem. Continuous dumping of impurities like heavy metals from various supplies in significant quantities are constantly discharged into the rivers reaches estuaries and oceans. For the reason of this unwanted human liberation oceanic biosphere is recognized to hold heaviness of heavy metals. For most of the heavy metals estuarine sediments form the ultimate catch. The metals entering the system through various sources may associate with the sediment particles either by absorption are gradually sink with sediment or they may get released when mixed with marine water due to altered physico-chemical environment. Veli Lake is polluted by different means which is situated in the south west coast of India (Kerala). The additional quantities of heavy metals come from agricultural, industrial and domestic wastes. Hence sediments are indicators of the quality of overlying water, for the present study five different heavy metals were analyzed from the sediments of Veli Lake. Monthly collection of sediments and analysis were carried out for a period of one year (April-2017 to March-2018). The five metals analyzed were copper, lead, manganese, nickel and zinc. Low levels of copper were observed in all the stations while comparing other metals. The seasonal variations were also noted for all the five metals and discussed.
11 Effects of Root Bioaccumulation of Arsenic and Mercury on the Expression of the Nramp2b Gene in Prosopis alba (Griseb) , Sergio Loyola1#, Claudia Cárcamo1#, Francisca Concha1, Cristian Becerra1,2, Luis Pouchucq1,2*  
Finding of vegetal species suitable for ecologic restoration in arid climates is a primary goal of most of the governmental and private companies for fighting against the desertification and the recovery of contaminated soils. The Prosopis genus, a desert woody leguminous, with a wide distribution around the world, represents a very interesting source of highly tolerant and adaptable trees for revegetation and bioremediation of soils contaminated with metal and metalloids (metal(loid)s).
12 Covid-19 Pandemic-Insights and Challenges , Lakshmi S*, Shehna S, Vimal S, Midhu GV, Shiny DV, Sreelekshmi S, Reshmi R and Abi SA  
The 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) outbreak affected a large number of deaths with millions of confirmed cases worldwide. Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) is associated with respiratory illness that lead to severe pneumonia and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). Although related to the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), Covid-19 shows some unique pathogenetic, epidemiological and clinical features. On the basis of the phylogenetic relationship as well as genomic structures, the Covid-19 belongs to genera Betacoronavirus. Human Betacoronaviruses (SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV) have shared similarities, yet differences also in their genomic and phenotypic level that influence the pathogenesis. 
13 A Review: Artemisinin-Based Combination Therapies [ACTs] and K13 Polymorphism , Aqeel Ahmad1 and Sultan Ahmad2*  
Malaria is caused by four plasmodium species in humans (P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae and P. ovale) which spread from one person to another via the bite of female Anopheles mosquito. P. falciparum causes most deaths from malaria [1] and is most prevalent on the African continent whereas P. vivax has a wider geographical distribution [2]. According to the latest WHO estimates, released in December 2015, there were 214 million cases of malaria in 2015 and 438,000 deaths [3]. Existing strategies to control malaria include vector control, chemoprevention and case management [4]. Without a fruitful antibody that would offer security against malaria, we have to depend on anti-malarial prescription to treat just as lessen the odds of getting the disease [5-8]. Artemisinin in mix with other moderate acting medications is suggested for the treatment of P. falciparum [9,10].
14 Ecological Dynamics: An Inspiration for Triggering Epilepsy , Ambreen Kanwal and Asima Tayyeb*  
Epilepsy is a rigorous transmission of electrical impulses across neurons of the brain and reported more prevalent in lower-income countries. A systematic literature review has been performed to implicate the impact of environmental variables on the occurrence of epilepsy using the following keywords: Epilepsy or environmental risk factors or seizures. More than 500 genes have been reported to involve in epilepsy potentially. Moreover, family history with neurological disorders, sleep apnea, depression, alcohol, stress, diet, gestational period of mother, and social involvement are among the risk factors which can reliably predict onset and severity of the disease. Hence, minimizing these factors along with recommended therapies, counseling, and awareness could be a miracle in the life of epileptic patients and can improve societies.
15 Significance of Environmental Genomics Research , Leena Grace Beslin*  
Environmental Genomics serves as a guide for an environmental scientist who wishes to squeeze genomics to solve environmental problems. Environmental genomics try to find out the approach of an organism or group of organisms to the changes in their external environment at the genetic level [1]. Since the genome responses are diverse, environmental genomics has the necessity to integrate molecular biology, physiology, toxicology, ecology, systems biology, epidemiology and population genetics into an interdisciplinary research program [2].
16 A Review on the Possible Leakage of Electrons through the Electron Transport Chain within Mitochondria , Nafisa Tabassum1, Ilora Shabnam Kheya2, Syed Abdullah Ibn Asaduzzaman2, Syeda Muntaka Maniha2, Abrar Hamim Fayz2, Amayna Zakaria2 and Rashed Noor2*  
The finding of electron leakage during the electron transport within the mitochondrial membrane (in eukaryotes) or in the cell membrane of the prokaryotes is an important issue for the accumulation of the Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in the cytosol which in turn induce the probable aging of cells. In eukaryotes, mitochondrion is known to be the major site of the ROS generation in different pathological processes which may further cause cell damages as evident through the ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, respiratory diseases, cell apoptosis, and even the onset of cancer. Thus, the mitochondrial leakage and the physiological effect of leaked protons and electrons grow up with future interest in energy metabolism. Current review focused on the physiological impact of electron/ proton leakage particularly in the eukaryotic cells based on the previous reports; emphasized on the prospects of the eukaryotic mitochondrion as a modulator of proton and electron leakage; and finally attempted to assess the regulatory mechanisms of such electron/ proton leakage.
17 Higher Bioavailability and Contamination of Copper in the Eastern Part of Johore Causeway: Will the Pattern Remain the Same Beyond 2020?   , Chee Kong Yap1*, Rosimah Nulit1, Moslem Sharifinia2, Shih Hao Tony Peng3, Chee Wah Yap4, Hideo Okamura5, Mohamad Saupi Ismail6 and Muhammad Saleem7  
The aim of this paper is to determine and discuss the Concentrations of Copper (Cu) in the different soft tissues of Perna viridis and surface sediments collected from western and eastern parts of Johore Singapore Causeway. In general, it is found that the different tissues of eastern mussel populations were found to have significant (p < 0.05) higher Cu levels than those in the western mussel populations. This indicated higher Cu bioavailability in the eastern part of causeway than that in the western part. The geochemical fractions (except for oxidizable-organic fraction) showed significant (p < 0.05) higher Cu levels in the eastern sediments than those in the western part of the causeway. This indicated higher Cu contamination in the eastern part of causeway than that in the western part. With consistent scientific reports of high metal levels in the eastern part of causeway between 2015-2018, it is predicted that there is a plausible constant source of anthropogenic metal contamination at the eastern part of the causeway beyond 2020 should there is no drastic effective control of the anthropogenic activities.
18 Environmental Perspective on Menstrual Hygiene Management Along with the Movement towards Biodegradability: A Mini-Review , Isita Ghosh1, Dhaivat Rakholia2, Keyur Shah2, Disha Bhatt3 and Mriganka Das3*  
The topic indicated in this mini-review is an essential factor for the improvement of society through a clean environment movement. Now, this era of microbes forces us to make such kind of development for creating hazard free and healthy life. Girls in rural areas use old cloths, tissue paper, cotton, wool pieces, or a combination of these items to manage menstrual bleeding. Qualitative studies indicate that only those girls who know about several conventional sanitary pads, they prefer to use it. But for many girls, such pads are unavailable or unaffordable. These pads, when flushed, swell up due to saturation with liquid results in sewage blockage, which is a global problem. Sanitary products with the blood of an infected woman/girl may contain hepatitis and HIV viruses where pathogens can live up to 6 months and will retain in soil/water bodies. Incineration is a technique to dispose of menstrual waste. But the burning of pads releases gases that affect health and environment, where the chemical dioxins are toxic and carcinogenic. Considering this drawback, biodegradable sanitary napkins made from natural fibers are a perfect alternative route creating a hazard-free environment. This article focus on the development of different biodegradable sanitary napkins that are made up of the fiber of different plasnts like jute, banana, cotton, water hyacinth bamboo etc. This development provides infection and irritation-free menstruation using bio-active materials of plant origin, which also possess anti-microbial properties. The final implementation of this product will also benefit society by employing rural women empowerment.
19 Street Food Safety, Types and Microbiological Quality in Ethiopia: A Critical Review , Samuel Chane Teferi*  
Street food is food obtained from a street side vendor, often from a makeshift or portable stall and it feeds millions of people daily with a wide variety of foods that are relatively cheap and easily accessible. Street food is intimately connected with take-out, junk food, snacks, and fast foods but it is not protected against insects, dust etc; which may harbor foodborne pathogens. Pathogens present in street vended foods come from different sources and practices, such as, improper food handling, improper waste disposal, contaminated water and improper storage temperature and reheating. Food borne illnesses are defined as diseases, usually either infectious or toxic in nature, caused by agents that enter the body through the ingestion of food. Like other African and World countries there are many food vendors in Ethiopia where they sell both raw and cooked food items along the streets of different cities but it is far more unhygienic due to several reasons. So the objective of this review paper was to assess the existing research about street food safety, types, hygiene knowledge, and preparation and forward suggestion for stakeholders/policy makers to bridge the gap. Majority of street vended foods in Ethiopia are contaminated by bacteria like Salmonella, S aureus, E coli so the Government should intervene and solve the issue before it is too late.
20 Primary Prevention of New Pandemic and Biomimetic-Based Adaptation to Situation Connected with COVID-19 Pandemic , Jan W Dobrowolski1*, Zbigniew W Wolkowski2 and Tadeusz Zaba3,4  
Acceleration of worldwide infection with mutant of coronavirus SARS CoV-19 require new paradigmatic of human activity based on negative feed-back system following basic mechanism of Homeostasis of all living organisms and ecosystems. Condition of efficient primary prevention is better integration of cooperation of interdisciplinary teams of experts, knowledge-based society and decision-makers on local scale with working global network focused on common action for efficient protection against contamination of the Human environment with mutagens for reduction risk of incidence new mutants [Ex: Coronaviruses and new pandemics]. Key factor for primary prevention is reduction at the sources emission of immune suppressors, carcinogens and teratogens. Efficient prevention is depended on without delay worldwide introduction of complementary good practice in innovative environmental biotechnology integrated with ecological engineering and circular bioeconomy-driven sustainable development adopted to different kind of regions. Let us recommend heuristic approach, better financial support of transdisciplinary innovative basic and research-developing studies, improvement application of new IT tools for speed dissemination of scientific and technical progress, elimination of bureaucratic barriers and progress in distance problem-solving training and lifelong learning focused on sustainable, knowledge-based society selecting decision-makers with proper imagination and responsibility. Introduction on wider scale innovative biotechnologies [Ex: Recommended by our team modern environmental ecological engineering integrated with renewable sources of energy, laser biotechnology for better adaptation to climate change, aquaculture, apiculture etc.] focused on better prevention against contamination of the air, water and food; would be beneficial for environmental health. It would be also useful for creation in the near future many green jobs all over the world and for reduction risk of unemployment and hunger. International action for greening cities adopted to climate change could be supported by introduction of proposed new generation of eco-buildings and green habitats. The most important eco-innovation would be designing and construction underground centres integrating innovative biotechnologies for waster, wastes management to biogas; useful for also underground greenhouses for wide scale hydroponic production pollutants-free vegetables, mushrooms, supported by laser biotechnology, apiculture and aquaculture.
21 Primary Prevention of New Pandemic and Biomimetic-Based Adaptation to Situation Connected with COVID-19 Pandemic , Jan W Dobrowolski1*, Zbigniew W Wolkowski2 and Tadeusz Zaba3,4  
Acceleration of worldwide infection with mutant of coronavirus SARS CoV-19 require new paradigmatic of human activity based on negative feed-back system following basic mechanism of Homeostasis of all living organisms and ecosystems. Condition of efficient primary prevention is better integration of cooperation of interdisciplinary teams of experts, knowledge-based society and decision-makers on local scale with working global network focused on common action for efficient protection against contamination of the Human environment with mutagens for reduction risk of incidence new mutants [Ex: Coronaviruses and new pandemics]. Key factor for primary prevention is reduction at the sources emission of immune suppressors, carcinogens and teratogens. Efficient prevention is depended on without delay worldwide introduction of complementary good practice in innovative environmental biotechnology integrated with ecological engineering and circular bioeconomy-driven sustainable development adopted to different kind of regions. Let us recommend heuristic approach, better financial support of transdisciplinary innovative basic and research-developing studies, improvement application of new IT tools for speed dissemination of scientific and technical progress, elimination of bureaucratic barriers and progress in distance problem-solving training and lifelong learning focused on sustainable, knowledge-based society selecting decision-makers with proper imagination and responsibility. Introduction on wider scale innovative biotechnologies [Ex: Recommended by our team modern environmental ecological engineering integrated with renewable sources of energy, laser biotechnology for better adaptation to climate change, aquaculture, apiculture etc.] focused on better prevention against contamination of the air, water and food; would be beneficial for environmental health. It would be also useful for creation in the near future many green jobs all over the world and for reduction risk of unemployment and hunger. International action for greening cities adopted to climate change could be supported by introduction of proposed new generation of eco-buildings and green habitats. The most important eco-innovation would be designing and construction underground centres integrating innovative biotechnologies for waster, wastes management to biogas; useful for also underground greenhouses for wide scale hydroponic production pollutants-free vegetables, mushrooms, supported by laser biotechnology, apiculture and aquaculture.
22 Primary Prevention of New Pandemic and Biomimetic-Based Adaptation to Situation Connected with COVID-19 Pandemic , Jan W Dobrowolski1*, Zbigniew W Wolkowski2 and Tadeusz Zaba3,4  
Acceleration of worldwide infection with mutant of coronavirus SARS CoV-19 require new paradigmatic of human activity based on negative feed-back system following basic mechanism of Homeostasis of all living organisms and ecosystems. Condition of efficient primary prevention is better integration of cooperation of interdisciplinary teams of experts, knowledge-based society and decision-makers on local scale with working global network focused on common action for efficient protection against contamination of the Human environment with mutagens for reduction risk of incidence new mutants [Ex: Coronaviruses and new pandemics]. Key factor for primary prevention is reduction at the sources emission of immune suppressors, carcinogens and teratogens. Efficient prevention is depended on without delay worldwide introduction of complementary good practice in innovative environmental biotechnology integrated with ecological engineering and circular bioeconomy-driven sustainable development adopted to different kind of regions. Let us recommend heuristic approach, better financial support of transdisciplinary innovative basic and research-developing studies, improvement application of new IT tools for speed dissemination of scientific and technical progress, elimination of bureaucratic barriers and progress in distance problem-solving training and lifelong learning focused on sustainable, knowledge-based society selecting decision-makers with proper imagination and responsibility. Introduction on wider scale innovative biotechnologies [Ex: Recommended by our team modern environmental ecological engineering integrated with renewable sources of energy, laser biotechnology for better adaptation to climate change, aquaculture, apiculture etc.] focused on better prevention against contamination of the air, water and food; would be beneficial for environmental health. It would be also useful for creation in the near future many green jobs all over the world and for reduction risk of unemployment and hunger. International action for greening cities adopted to climate change could be supported by introduction of proposed new generation of eco-buildings and green habitats. The most important eco-innovation would be designing and construction underground centres integrating innovative biotechnologies for waster, wastes management to biogas; useful for also underground greenhouses for wide scale hydroponic production pollutants-free vegetables, mushrooms, supported by laser biotechnology, apiculture and aquaculture.
23 The Diary of a Suicidal Youth: A Linguistic Analysis , David Lester*  
A Linguistic Analysis using a Computer Program (LIWC) for the 58 entries over the last year of life of a young woman who died by suicide revealed 3 significant changes and 5 trends over time. In particular, the woman showed more anger as her death grew closer, and she focused less on the future. These results differ from those obtained from other studies of diaries, suggesting the importance of a psychological typology for suicides.
24 Ginger (Zingiber officinale) and its Bioactive Components with Protective and Therawpeutic Potential against Cancer   , Meeneri Vilas Bobde1, Saroj Yadav2 and Sibi G1*  
Ginger can be an important complementary medicine for prevention and treatment of different types of cancers, owing to its natural origin, safety, and low cost relative to synthetic cancer drugs. Ginger contains volatile oils, anthocyanins, tannins, phenolic compounds and sesquiterpenes anticancer effects of ginger may arise from the ability to induce changes in a number of cellular processes, including cell division, apoptosis and differentiation. In this study, anticancer activity of ginger extract against various cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo were investigated. The evidence in this review suggests that ginger and its compounds in diet may lower cancer risk and affect tumor behavior.
25 Canine Myiasis and its Causal Agents in India , Amandeep Singh*  
Myiasis, the invasion of tissues of live humans and vertebrate animals with dipteran larvae is common throughout the tropical regions of the world. It is a real welfare problem of worldwide distribution and a matter of great concern among medical and veterinary fields. The reports indicate that dogs are the most common canine species affected by myiasis. The present study was conducted to ascertain prevalence of myiasis among pet dogs and to identify myiasis-causing flies in India. The study resulted in the identification of three species of myiasis causing flies among pet dogs. The Old World Screw-worm fly- Chrysomya bezziana was reported to be the predominant fly species followed by Musca domestica and Sarcophaga ruficornis. The overall infestation rate was high in rainy season followed by summer, spring, autumn and least in winter. Incidence of myiasis was found to be higher among adult males than the females. The most frequently infested body regions were the face, neck and perianal region among males and face, neck and vulvar lips among females. Most infestations were found in the wounds at front body parts of the adult males, suggesting the common occurrence of myiasis in consequence of competitive fighting.
26 Violence against Health-Care Personnel: Lessons from COVID-19 Pandemic , Ahmed M Abbas1,2*, Lobna Ahmed2,3, Mark Mohsen Kamel2,3 and Sarah K. Fahmi2,4  
Violence towards healthcare personnel in hospitals is a widespread worrying phenomenon, and it is considered a mirror to violence in society in general [1]. There are many factors may share in this phenomenon as work overload, waiting times, and nurse-patient relations, responsibilities, environmental factors and patient-related factors [2]. Violence in hospitals has several negative impacts on physical and mental harm to the attacked persons who suffers from violence sequels in the short and long terms [3-6]. Since the beginning of this pandemic, headlines have also captured stories of health-care staff facing attacks of violence as they travel to and from health-care facilities. Reports described health-care workers being beaten, stoned, spat on, threatened and evicted from their home. The reasons people attack and abuse health-care personnel during health emergencies are many, and local contexts vary. In some settings during the Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic; fear, panic, misinformation about how Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) can spread, and misplaced anger are likely. What makes the current attacks specifically horrifying is that health-care personnel are responding to a crisis that is deeply affecting all societies [6,7]. Governmental failures in some countries to adequately provide and manage resources in this pandemic mean that health-care personnel are risking their lives daily by caring for COVID-19 patients without adequate Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) and other safety measures in their workplaces [7]. As a result, thousands of health-care workers worldwide have contracted SARS-CoV-2 and have thus been perceived as public health hazards themselves.
27 Patient Demographics Associated with ARDS Incidence, Hospital Length of Stay and Mortality , Tim W Gilmore* and Clifton F Frilot  
Introduction: Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) is a common finding among pediatric and adult patient populations [1]. ARDS-related mortality remains high and is associated with prolonged hospital Length of Stay (LOS) and multiple ventilator days. Studies have sought to predict whether certain risk factors can be associated with ARDS development and mortality. It remains to be established whether a strong association exists between ARDS patient demographic characteristics, hospital LOS and overall ARDS-related mortality [4]. Methods: A retrospective analysis of Electronic Health Record (EHR) data identified 595 adult subjects that received an ARDS diagnosis: ICD-9: 518.82, ICD-10: J96.00 or J80 annotation. The analysis spanned a 30-month period, evaluating subjects by age, gender, race, BMI, LOS, and mortality. Results: The majority of subjects were admitted through the Emergency Department (408: 68.6%) and were followed by Internal Medicine (137: 23%) or Trauma service (117: 19.7%). A significant portion of subjects expired (130: 21.8%), but a majority were discharged to home care (212: 35.6%). A binomial logistic regression was performed to identify whether a prevalence or risk ratio could be identified between subject demographics and either LOS or mortality. LOS in days was associated with an increased likelihood of mortality (1.055), and age at admission was associated with a reduction in the likelihood of mortality (0.986). Conclusions: No statistically significant predictor of mortality was identified among subject demographic variables. The findings did suggest that mortality in subjects was higher with longer hospital LOS, lower overall in younger subjects, and inversely related to BMI.
28 Treatment of People with Evans Syndrome in the Setting of COVID-19 Pandemic , Ahmed M Abbas1,2*, Fatma M Helbawi3 and Mostafa H Abdelsalam2,4  
A new type of pneumonia had developed from Wuhan Province in China in December 2019, caused by a novel member of the Coronaviridae family named Severe Acute Respiratory Coronavirus 2 Syndrome (SARS-CoV-2) [1]. The disease is characterized by fatigue, dry cough, fever, and dyspnea [2]. In a more severe case, the picture may become more complicated by the onset of interstitial pneumonia with alveolar damage, which clinically can lead to severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) and even death [3]. Since the initial outbreak, the epidemic has had a rapid global spread worldwide, which led the World Health Organization (WHO) to declare the disease now called COVID-19, a pandemic on 11th March 2020 [4].
29 Batch Adsorption Studies of Sunset Yellow and Tartrazine Using Coconut and Groundnut Shells , Clement Oluwaseun Ademoriyo1 and Christian Ebere Enyoh2*  
This report was based on the comparative study on effectiveness of adsorption of food colors using coconuts and groundnut shell. The activated carbon (coconuts and groundnut shells) were cut into pieces in a furnace at a temperature of 450°C then crushed and sieved using different mesh sizes and activated using hydrochloric acid of different concentration. The food colors (sunset yellow and tartrazine) was prepared with different concentration and calibration curve was drawn, and the required measured concentration was contacted with varied masses of the adsorbent (coconuts and groundnut shell) for an equilibrium adsorption at room temperature on effect of time, pH, shaking speed, and temperature. The results on contact time on the pseudo-first and second using the test mechanism shows pseudo-first order model is more preferable than pseudo second order and the different effect result on the isotherm shows that Freundlich is best fitted for the adsorption process. Overall, groundnut shell showed higher adsorption for both sunset yellow and Tartrazine compared to coconut shell.
30 Free Kick but that was not the Goal   , Shabih Manzar*  
Misadventure of the chest tube has been described in the literature resulting in complications [1-5]. Here we present a case of right pneumothorax in a preterm infant (Figure 1A). The pneumothorax was appropriately treated with a right pigtail inserted using the Seldinger technique (Figure 1B). However, on the follow up chest x-ray, the chest tube as noted to be lying outside the chest wall (Figure 1C). On careful inspection, we noted that infant has kicked the chest tube out (Figure 2). Infant remained clinically stable during accidently dislodgement of the chest tube. We have transitioned from trocar-based chest tubes to pigtail chest tubes in out NICU. In our current practice, to avoid extra trauma, we usually do not suture the pigtail catheter to the chest wall. We secure it with sticky transparent dressing (Tegaderm). The external tubing is secured by using the tapes. But this case highlights on need to secure the chest tube well to the chest wall either suturing it or putting extra tapes. A periodic check on the tube is also warranted.
31 Biophysical Aspects of Interactions at the Bionanointerface between Viruses and Metal and Metal Oxide Nanomaterials , Lahir YK*  
Viruses are at the threshold of living and nonliving entities. Virus particles exhibit life-activities when are within their respective hosts and act as non-living when present outside their hosts. This feature is very interesting and the related investigations can help to understand the differences between the functionalities at bionanointerfaces under living and nonliving phases. Metal and metal oxide nanomaterials occur naturally and are synthesized as per the need to meet the set targets. These nanosized materials have specific physicochemical properties such as high volume to area ratio, ability to get functionalized as per the need. These ubiquitous materials have multifaceted applications in almost all fields of sciences, industries, medical, clinical diagnostics, and remedial operations; these occupy an omnipresent status in our day to day life. Since these nanomaterials are a major integral part of industries and human life; these interact with the abiotic and biotic components of the environment. Viruses are the active entities of both these aspects of our environment. The interactions between metal and metal oxide nanomaterials and viruses are obvious and complex interactive phenomena. These complex interactions take place between nanomaterials and viruses within their respective hosts. The profiling of such interactions helps to optimize the resultant impacts and enhances the degree of de novo designing, in vivo, and in vitro performances.
32 The Negative RT-PCR Test is Enough to Rule Out Covıd-19 in Cancer Patients or Not? Covıd-19 or Not? , Selin Aktürk Esen1*, Öznur Bal1, Efnan Algın1, Yusuf Açıkgöz1, Merve Dirikoç1, Gökhan Uçar1, Lale Damgacı2, Yakup Ergun1, İrfan Esen3, Hürrem Bodur4 and Doğan Uncu1  
At the end of 2019, a new coronavirus pneumonia turned into an epidemic in China and then spread to other countries around the world. This disease was identified as the COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) disease. SARS-CoV-2 RNA is detected by Reverse-Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). A positive test for SARS-CoV-2 may confirm the diagnosis of COVID-19, but the results of false negativity and false positivity can be confusing. This article describes the negative COVID-19 RNA RT-PCR test results of four cancer patients with symptoms/clinical findings suggestive of COVID-19 and also computed tomography findings consistent with viral pneumonia.
33 White Peritoneum   , Shabih Manzar*  
Misadventure of the Gastrostomy Tube (GT) has been described in the literature resulting in complications [1]. Here we present a case of dislodged GT diagnosed by contrast administration. The infant underwent GT placement for nutritional support. On the third post-operative day, she was started on Pedialyte solution five ml every three hours. Soon after the second feed, the infant was reported by the nurse to be agitated despite adequate sedation and pain management. Abdominal examination at that time showed slight distension. An urgent abdominal x-ray was obtained that showed tiny amount of free intraperitoneal air between the liver and the lateral abdominal wall and free air under the diaphragm figure A. The infant was immediately made nil per mouth and intravenous antibiotics were started. A contrast study was performed via GT that showed ‘white peritoneum’ figure B. All the contrast administered was noted to be intraperitoneal surrounding the bowel and liver and within the pericolic gutters. Infant was taken to the OR and GT was replaced. Infant tolerated the procedure well and remained stable post-operatively.
34 In vitro Cytotoxicity Studies of Industrially Used Common Nanomaterials on L929 and 3T3 Fibroblast Cells   , Madhulika Srikanth1, Waseem S. Khan2, Ramazan Asmatulu1, Heath E. Misak1, Shang-You Yang3 and Eylem Asmatulu1*  
The unique structures and properties of nanomaterials have attracted many engineers and scientists to these resources for different applications, including biomedical, electronics, manufacturing, transportation, energy, and defense. The increasing applications of nanomaterials have also caused some concern among the scientific community about their safety and cytotoxicity. To successfully use nanomaterials in different fields, their interaction with mammalian cells in vitro must be addressed before in vivo experiments can be carried out successfully. In this study, the cytotoxicity values of commonly known nanomaterials, such as 100-ply Carbon Nanotube (CNT) wires, graphene, CNTs, nanoclay, and fullerene, were investigated through in vitro tests on human L929 and mice 3T3 fibroblast cells and compared with each other. The effects of cytotoxicity on both cell types were similar in many ways, but not closely identical due to structural and morphological differences. Compared to mice fibroblast cells, human fibroblast cells have a larger surface area; therefore, the viability values of L929 cells at different dilutions and time durations vary over a larger range. Pristine 100-ply CNT wires were found to be the least cytotoxic, with an average viability of 86.9%, whereas materials with high aspect ratio (e.g., CNTs and graphene) had higher cytotoxicity values due to their potential to pierce through cell membranes.
35 Gossypetin Derivatives are also Putative Inhibitors of SARS-COV 2: Results of a Computational Study   , Anna-Gaelle Giguet-Valard1,2*, Kevin Raguette1, Stephanie Morin1, Remi Bellance2 and Juliette Smith Ravin1  
SARS-CoV-2 is the third most highly virulent human coronavirus of the 21st century. It is linked with fatal respiratory illness. Currently, there are still no effective treatments of Covid-19. Among many drugs evaluated, few have proven conclusive clinical efficacy. Furthermore, the spread of the disease mandates that ideal medications against Covid-19 be cheap and available worldwide. Therefore, there is a rationale to evaluate whether treatments of natural origin from aromatic and medicinal plants have the ability to prevent and/or treat COVID-19. We evaluated in this study the inhibition of COVID-19 protease by natural plants compounds such as Gossypetin-3'-O-glucoside (G3'G). G3'G has been isolated from the petals of Talipariti elatum Sw. found almost exclusively in Martinique. It has no crystallography or modelisation studies. Antifungal and antioxidant properties are already published. We study its binding affinity so potential inhibition capability against SARS-CoV2 3CLpro mean protease as compared to other previously tested natural or pharmacological molecules by molecular docking. We propose Gossypetin derivatives as good tropical natural compounds candidate that should be further investigated to prevent or treat COVID19.
36 Female Moscow Police Officers’ Emotional Reactions Features during Service in the COVID-19 Pandemic Emergency Conditions , Andrey Soloviev1*, Sergey Zhernov2 and Elena Ichitovkina3  
The COVID-19 pandemic was an extreme situation that had a traumatic impact on psychosocial groups that performed their official duties in contact with the infected and sick, including in the gender aspect. Police officers were widely involved in anti-epidemic measures to protect order and citizens safety during the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of the study is to identify the emotional reactions features in female police officers - the Moscow police employees, carrying serving as public order guards in the COVID-19 pandemic emergency conditions.
37 Remdesivir Research Progress: An Overview of the Emerging Evidence   , Aamir Jalal Al Mosawi1,2*  
There has been an increasing interest in remdesivir research within the scientific medical community because of the emerging evidence suggesting its beneficial role in patients with COVID‑19. Remdesivir which can be given intravenously and not orally has an anti-viral against several RNA viruses. Remdesivir has an in vitro antiviral activity against filoviruses, arenaviruses, and coronaviruses including circulating human coronaviruses HCoV-OC43, HCoV-229E, SARS, and MERS zoonotic coronaviruses. Remdesivir (GS-5734) is a monophosphoramidate prodrug of an adenosine analogue that is activated intra-cellularly to the main metabolite in plasma “GS-441524” which act mainly by interfering with the action of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and escapes proofreading by viral exoribonuclease resulting reducing in viral RNA replication [1-4].
38 Challenges and Opportunities to Develop Diagnostics and Therapeutic Interventions for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome- Corona Virus 2 (SARS-COV-2) , Jaison Jeevanandam1,3, Subhamoy Banerjee2 and Rajkumar Paul1*  
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Corona Virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or Corona Virus Disease 19 (COVID-19) is playing havoc all over the world since December 2019. Despite being a family member of coronaviridae, which has previously affected mankind twice in last one decade, the novel corona virus, as it is named left medical practitioners and scientists defenseless. The major challenge is twofold identification and therapeutic intervention. Several approaches, including real-time PCR have already been taken for quick identification of Covid19. Due to very fast evolving rate, accurate identification is still a challenge for most of the detection methods developed in last three months. Several proposals for therapeutic intervention have also put forth by scientists, ranging from vaccine to RNA therapy. In this article, a comprehensive review is made from the scattered scientific literatures and is fine-tuned further with possible diagnostic and therapeutic interventions.
39 In silico Screening of Approved Drugs to Describe Novel E. coli DNA Gyrase A Antagonists , Rakhi Chandran1, Archana Ayyagari2, Prerna Diwan3, Sanjay Gupta4 and Vandana Gupta3*  
The alarming multiple drug resistance developed by Escherichia coli towards the routine conventional antibiotics owing to their non-judicious usage is fast becoming a tough menace. This necessitates the urgent unleashing of novel and diverse strategies and antibacterial compounds. Since finding a new antibiotic from the scratch, followed by endless clinical trials is exceedingly time-consuming, a powerful alternate strategy of CADD coupled with repurposing the available drugs could save precious time and money. DNA gyrases (topoisomerase II) of E. coli are among the promising new drug targets. The interface between the N-terminal domain of gyrA and C- terminal domain of gyrB which is targeted by most of the available inhibitory drugs, is of particular interest. Crucial active site residues within the N-terminal domain of gyrA were delineated through a literature search. FDA approved drugs were docked using FlexX on the receptors created around the co-crystallized reference ligand. Based on the docking scores and interactions with crucial residues, 12 leads were shortlisted, namely ceforanide, tetrahydrofolic acid, azlocillin, cefazolin, adenosine triphosphate, cefixime, dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, moxalactam, leucal, cromoglicic acid, cefotetan, and cedax. Surprisingly quinolones, which are approved inhibitors of gyrases were not picked up in the top leads, rather, the most dominant class of molecules that docked successfully was cephalosporin. Our results indicated that these cephalosporins, as well as the other shortlisted leads, could be further optimized and validated through in-vitro experiments for their potential as gyrase A antagonists. Hence the present study holds immense promise in combating MDR of human bacterial pathogens.
40 Assessment of Green House Gases (GHGS) Emission from Some Aquaculture Ponds of Andhra Pradesh and West Bengal, India , Subhendu Adhikari1*, Subhas Sarkar2, Mandal RN1, Ramesh Rathod3 and Bindu R Pillai2  
The Green House Gas Emission (GHGs) from the carp culture ponds (n = 12) of West Godavari, Krishna, and Guntur districts of Andhra Pradesh and from the ponds (n = 4) of Moyna, East Medinipur district of West Bengal, India was assessed through carbon storage and carbon footprint analysis. The average inputs as Carbon Equivalent (CE) were 14407 ± 2651, and 9231 ± 1007 kg/ha in Andhra Pradesh, and West Bengal, respectively. The average carbon storage were 6216 ± 2291, and 5360 ± 1439 kg/ha, in Andhra Pradesh, and Moyna, West Bengal respectively. The emissions of CO2-e and CH4-e were 1.91 ± 0.42 kg CO2-e/kg fish and 0.122 ± 0.027 kg CH4-e/kg fish, respectively in Andhra Pradesh. The emissions of CO2-e and CH4-e were 0.006 to 2.07 (average 0.72) kg CO2-e /kg fish, and 0.0004 to 0.132 (average 0.046) kg CH4-e /kg fish production, respectively in Moyna, West Bengal.
41 World Class Pioneering Clinical Innovations: Nobel Prize Committee’s Failures   , Aamir Jalal Al-Mosawi1,2*  
It is understandable even to the medical students, the undeniable role of Nobel Prize winners particularly in the clinical and therapeutic fields which included the discoveries that led to developing vaccines and therapies to combat potentially fatal infectious disease, and contributed to saving millions of lives throughout the world. However, there have been recent criticisms suggesting that the prize has been given unreasonably more to basic scientific research discoveries, while ignoring world class pioneering clinical achievements.
42 Perception towards Online Classes during COVID-19 among Nursing Students of a Medical College of Kaski District, Nepal , Dipti Koirala1*, Muna Silwal1, Sunita Gurung1, Muna Bhattarai1 and Vikash Kumar KC2  
Introduction: Online learning is a virtual learning system that integrates internet connection with teaching and learning process. This system has become a solution for the continuity of teaching and learning process in Nepal during Covid-19 pandemic. Thus the main objective of this study was to assess the perception of nursing students towards online classes during Covid-19 pandemic. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 133 nursing students studying at Gandaki Medical College of Nepal. Data were collected through online survey using a semi-structured questionnaire from 15 to 21, September, 2020 and were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 16 employing descriptive and inferential statistical method.
43 Association between Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 4 Genetic Polymorphisms and the Spontaneous Clearance of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen: A Large Population Case Control Study in China , Xun Qi1,3#, Qirong Jiang1#, Ying Lv3 , Sisi Yang1 , Jing Li1 , Yuxian Huang1,3 , Liang Chen3 * and Jiming Zhang1,2*
Aim: Several host factors mediating immune response infl uence susceptibility to Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection, ability to clear the virus, and maintenance of a chronic state. Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 4 (STAT4) variations are correlated with the risk of developing autoimmune diseases. However, there have been few studies to assess the relationship between STAT4 variations and Hepatitis B surface Antigen (HBsAg) clearance in adults infected with HBV. Our aim was to evaluate the association between genetic variants in STAT4 and HBsAg clearance in a large sample size population. Methods: This case control study included Chronic Hepatitis B (CHB) (n = 1.688), HBsAg Clearance after Treatment (TC) (n = 170), HBV Uninfected (HC) (n=1.012), and HBsAg Spontaneous Clearance (SC) (n = 1,052) patients. In the CHB group, patients were categorized into four subgroups: the Immune Tolerant (IT), Immune Active (IA), Inactive (IC), and Immune Reactivation (IR) phases, with 97, 855, 198, and 538 patients in each subgroup, respectively. Results: We found that the G allele in STAT4 rs7574865 was more frequent in the CHB and TC groups, compared with the SC group, whereas the STAT4 rs7574865 GG genotype was more frequent in the CHB and TC group, compared with the SC group in the dominant model. However, there was no statistical signifi cance in genotype between TC and CHB, nor between the IT, IA, IC, and IR groups. Conclusions: The prevalence of the minor allele rs7574865 T was higher in subjects with spontaneously cleared HBV infections than in CHB patients.
44 Repurposing Potential of Diminazene Aceturate as an Inhibitor of the E. coli DNA Gyrase B   , Varsha Dwivedi1, Archana Ayyagari2, Rakhi Chandran3, Prerna Diwan1, Sanjay Gupta4 and Vandana Gupta1*  
Drug-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) has overburdened the healthcare facilities in recent years and is getting hard to combat, mandating search for novel therapeutics with a broad antibacterial spectrum and high chemotherapeutic index. The 24 kDa domain of DNA gyrase B that is involved in the ATPase activity has been reported to be a promising target for inhibitors. A PDB structure (1KZN) of the 24kD domain of gyrase B with the co-crystallized ligand clorobiocin was used for the docking studies to explore a library of 2924 FDA approved drugs from www.zinc.docking.org. FlexX docking module from Biosolve IT was used for receptor preparation and in silico docking experiments. Docking studies on the pocket created around the reference ligand clorobiocin revealed the best score with diminazene aceturate and it also demonstrated interactions with the crucial amino acids present within the pocket. Diminazene aceturate has been conventionally been used as an antiparasitic molecule in animals and it has also been demonstrated to exhibit repurposing potential in the treatment of disorders triggered due to overproduction of inflammatory cytokines, pulmonary hypertension, ischemia-induced cardiac pathophysiology, etc. among others. Findings from this study indicate the possibility of repurposing the age-old molecule diminazene aceturate into a DNA gyrase B antagonist to combat not just the drug-resistant E. coli but also other gram-negative ESKAPE pathogens. It may also aid in alleviating the inflammatory response induced in the body of the patients suffering from septicemia caused by a variety of Gram-negative bacterial pathogens.
45 The Hidden Challenge: Preventive Practices of Sexually Transmitted Illness Among College Students in Western Ethiopia: The Case of Nekemte Town: A Mixed Materials and Methods Study   , Bikila Regassa Feyisa*, Melese Chego Cheme and Bayise Biru  
Objective: The study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude and preventive practice of college students towards Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) including HIV/AIDS in Nekemte town, western Ethiopia. Result: Institutional based descriptive cross sectional study design triangulated with in-depth interview method was employed on 403 randomly selected quantitative and 12 purposively selected in-depth interview samples. Quantitative data was obtained by self-administered questionnaire. About forty percent (39.7%) of the respondents had sexual practice in their life. Females were 1.42 times more likely to be encountered in sexual intercourse in the past one year of the study period (AOR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.3, 2.53). Sex, age, living arrangement and income level, was identified as factors initiating to sexual intercourse in college students. Qualitative evidences show that, living condition, poor access of sexual reproductive services and ever increasing urbanization, poor attention towards STI are challenging preventive practices of STI among college students. Generally, college students have good awareness and positive attitude towards STIs. However, there was a wide gap between knowledge and practice of the students regarding STIs. Greater attention should be paid to the college students improving the living conditions and access of services.
46 COVID-19 Influencing Factors on Transmission and Incidence Rates-Validation Analysis   , Hesham Magd1*, Khalfan Asmi2 and Henry Karyamsetty3  
Coronavirus disease has caused devasting effect so far which has put every nation in difficult situations in multiple ways. The pandemic has affected every business globally right from small, medium to large establishments collapsing the world economy. The major impact COVID has caused is restricting movement and travel that has heavily affected the international business and tourism showing predicted revenue loss of -810.7 bn USD in 2020 [1]. While the global COVID cases are increasing at an exceptional rate, normal life has got disrupted with many businesses have totally shut down in many cities and most countries are likely to experience economic recession [2,3].
47 Diagnosing Fetal Skeletal Dysplasia Using Three-Dimensional Computed Tomography: A Study Protocol for an Interventional Study   , Miyoko Waratani*, Fumitake Ito, Yukiko Tanaka, Mabuchi Aki, Taisuke Mori and Jo Kitawaki  
Background: Fetal skeletal dysplasias are a group of skeletal dysplasias occurring during the fetal stage. As the use of fetal ultrasonography has become widespread, the rate of prenatal diagnosis of skeletal dysplasias has increased. However, many fetal skeletal dysplasia phenotypes have indistinct definitions, making definitive prenatal diagnosis difficult. Fetal imaging methods that are the basis of diagnosing fetal skeletal dysplasias include ultrasonography and three-dimensional computed tomography. The use of three-dimensional computed tomography requires specific imaging techniques and cannot easily be performed at all facilities. In the present study, we propose to conduct a survey for the preparation of a protocol with a low risk, and a high diagnostic accuracy. Methods: In total, 50 pregnant women who undergo three-dimensional computed tomography for the diagnosis of fetal skeletal dysplasias will be included. The primary outcome is prenatal diagnostic accuracy for fetuses with skeletal dysplasias. The secondary outcome is the safety from radiation exposure. Results and conclusion: Three-dimensional computed tomography should be considered for the prenatal diagnosis of fetal skeletal dysplasias, as it is important to judge whether the prognosis is favorable or lethal. When considering the risk of radiation exposure, high quality images that are adequate for a diagnosis have been obtained using low-dose three-dimensional computed tomography scans. This approach reduces the level of radiation to which the pregnant woman and fetus are exposed. Trial registration: University hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN) Center: Trial registration number is UMIN000034744. Data of registration is October 01, 2018. (URL: https://upload.umin.ac.jp/cgi-open-bin/ctr_e/ctr_view.cgi?recptno=R000039610).
48 Integrated Yoga and Naturopathy Management (IYNM) of Obesity: A Case Report   , Venkateswaran ST1 and Maheshkumar K2*  
A 45-year-old male patient with the nature of sedentary lifestyle, diagnosed with obesity (BMI-33.2 kg/m2) since 2013, was visited for Integrated Yoga and Naturopathy Management (IYNM) for the weight reduction in our hospital on November 2019. He had mild pain over the both knees with sleeping disturbances. We advised him a tailor made individualized protocol for the weight management for the period of 6 months. The results showed reduction in weight (107.9kg to 90.6kg), Body Mass Index (BMI) (33.2kg/m2 to 29.32kg/m2), total cholesterol (209mg% to 185mg%), triglycerides (172mg% to 113mg%), Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) (102mg% to 94mg%), and High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) (44mg% to 48mg%). His knee pain minimized on discharge as observed on a Visual Analog Scale (7 to 3 points). He had an improved feeling of wellness and overall functional health. This case report suggests that lifestyle change in the form of IYNM is useful in the management of Obesity.
49 Impact of Short Term Mobile Phone Abstinence on Undergraduate Medical Students: A Qualitative Study   , Venugopal V1, Poonguzhali S2, Sadhana S2, Venkateswaran ST1 and Maheshkumar K3*  
Background: The purpose of the current study is to investigate the perceptions of completely abstaining oneself from using a smartphone for one whole day among medical students. This study is a unique initiative and it was experimented on a particular group of adolescent college students to completely abstain from using mobile phones for one whole day, and that specific day was coined as ‘No Mobile Day’. Methods: A total of 119 residential medical students participated in the study and they were instructed to abstain from any type of mobile phone or gadget usage for a period of 24 hours and they surrendered their mobile phones. A semi-structured questionnaire with open and close-ended questions was provided to the students at the end of the 24 hour period and the aims of the questionnaire are explained clearly to the respondents. Results: In total, 12 invalid responses were deleted, leaving 107 valid responses for analysis. The qualitative data analysis is performed using a constant comparison method. Results obtained from the current findings indicate the presence of mobile phone addiction in this particular group to some extent. However, majority of the students enjoyed this unique experience of not using mobile phones and embraced the concept of “No Mobile Day’.
50 Sex and Age Differences in Telomere Length and Susceptibility to COVID-19   , Manar Ahmed Kamal1*, Kareem Reda Alamiry2 and Mahmoud Zaki2  
Background: Telomeres are the ends of a chromosome and play a fundamental role as vanguards contra the chromosomal decay. Due to the inability of DNA polymerase to replicate chromosomal ends, a reduction in telomeres length happens after each cell division. The existence of shorter telomeres in older people is related to diminish immune functions. Viral infections able to stimulate remodeling of cells, stress responses, and telomere shortening. Moreover, telomere shortening can be caused by extrinsic environmental variables which induce oxidative stress under conditions of inflammation. Aim: To identify the correlation between telomere shortening and susceptibility to Novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). In addition to clarifying changes in telomere length according to the viral infection, the effect of sex and age differences in telomere length in confirmed positive COVID-19 cases are also reviewed. Conclusion: There is a correlation between telomere length and COVID-19 infection with higher susceptibly of elderly patients and males due to shortening in their telomere length. Approximately 53% of (111,428) infected cases (≥ 50) years old are males, and 47% of (111,428) infected cases (≥ 50) years old are females.
51 Use of Polio Vaccine Salk vs SARS- CoV-2E and HIV-1E 2, both as Therapeutic Drug and Effective Vaccine to Make Memory-Cells Able to Stop Reinfections   , Raffaele Ansovini1* and Leonardo Compagnucci2  
Dr. Ansovini began studying viruses by focusing his attention on HIV-1. The main discovery he made is that this virus, so difficult to treat, can be classified as “electrical”: one of its functional proteins, i.e. “p. 24”, actually has an electrical value, in other words it has a charge, and therefore it is not allosterically neutral as proteins usually are. After having developed its antiviral technology which is, at the moment, the only one capable of blocking all viruses, (See article: “Determination or fan antiviral activity of a composition comprising Glutathione Reductase (GSSG-r) and Oxidized Glutathione (GSSG) for pharmaceutical use: Experiments “In vitro “ and “In vivo”), including polio (A virus that can only be blocked by the vaccine because no drug has any action against it), Dr. Ansovini comprehends that poliovirus also has an “electrical characteristic”, not in its specific core proteins, but rather on the envelope.
52 Addressing the Life-Course Approach in Vaccination Policy across Europe: The Case History of Spain   , Mariano Votta*, Daniela Quaggia, Giulia Decarolis, Elena Moya, Josè Luis Baquero Ubeda and Maira Cardillo  
In April 2019, the Italian NGO Cittadinanzattiva, through its international branch Active Citizenship Network (ACN) launched, during the European immunization week, a new project called “European Active Citizens for Vaccination”. The aim was to improve the awareness on the importance of vaccination across Europe: The scientific evidence is clear; vaccination is an essential public health tool and helps to guarantee our fundamental rights as European citizens. ACN realized a social media communication campaign supporting and spreading awareness on the topic of life-long vaccination, videos were made in all the national languages of the involved countries (Italy, Hungary, Poland, Ireland and Spain) and then produced, shared and customized for each country. Moreover, an informative leaflet in a different language was produced. Civic consultations on the National Immunization Plan were held in Poland, Hungary and Spain. This article describes the main results of the focus group held in Spain on the topic of vaccination and on its related policies. The full report has been published in the Report entitled “European Active Citizens for Vaccination: focus on Spain (2019 - 2020)” edited by Cittadinanzattiva APS.
53 The Assembly of Bacteriophage Functional Enzymatic Models in Association with E. coli Proteins’ Profi les , Ayman A Elshayeb1 *, Amna Elfatih2, Karimeldin MA Salih3 and Nada SE Mustafa4
Introduction: The invasion of bacteriophage on the associated host bacterium depends on their receptors’ orientation that adsorb them to cell surface. During phage replication a valuable number of proteins acts as lytic enzymes for host puncher at the beginning of the infection and other for burst after lytic cycle compilation. Accordingly, the proteomic relationship among phage and bacterium proteins could easily be studied by their protein profi les analysis. Objective: To detect bacteriophages functional enzymes during lytic cycle. Methods: The isolation and identifi cation of Escherichia coli and their parasitic T7 phage group was done using bacterial culture and common plaque assay techniques. The investigations and protein-protein interactions’ assays were inveterate by proteins profi le of phage and bacterium using Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate Poly Acrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) to fi nd out their molecular weights, where the scaled location of each mobile band was compared to the standards of identifi ed proteins weights in the molecular ladder. Thereafter, Protein model’s assembly and bands migration was done by computer analytical software. Results: Mobilization of the phage’ proteins inside the Two Dimensions (2D) gel ranged between 60 and 12 kDa where a model of 4 main bands with molecular weights of (46, 35, 24 and 14 kDa) is corresponded to the host ones, where pure 9 bands with molecular weight ranged between 96-24 kDa. The computational model analysis showed common shared molecular masses of 47, 34 and 16 kDa on plot area of the phage and the bacterium. Model interpretation confi rmed that proteins ranged from 47.7 to 34.3 kDa resembles 43.3% of whole phage’s proteins that assembled the capsid head and the coil, while the molecular weight mass of 22.5 formed the tail’s proteins. The lytic enzymes’ molecular weight was ranged between 18-14 kDa according to the function of the enzyme. The study revealed that the 34 kDa band has the common shared peak between T7 phage group and associated Escherichia coli host. Conclusion: Functional models of analysed proteins during phage assembly, ensures lytic enzymes are built in the capsid head and the lysozyme in the tail, they facilitate the enzymatic decay for bacterial host. This enzymatic function is related to the lytic cycle of the bacteriophages and their phenomenon in employing the bacterial DNA in proteins manufacturing during their replication inside host.
54 The Human Ventilator as Equipment for Pressure Energy Transfer: The Risk of not taking in Account Engineering Aspects in Such a Complex Problem , Marco César Prado Soares*
In this essay, I invite the readers to refl ect on a very serious problem that I have noticed during the last months: there is a current tendency of reducing complex and multidisciplinary problems to a single sphere of knowledge. This is particularly complicated when we are facing problems that aff ect all of the global society. Firstly, I give you a simple personal example about the time when our research group started a project regarding the development of optical fi ber sensors for the monitoring of biochemical systems, especially fermentation. By that time, we noticed that many biologists and biotechnology professionals needed a solution for the assessment of such systems. In many cases, though, their formation made it particularly diffi cult to fi nd a solution. This is a problem that is present in almost every knowledge fi eld. In a PhD lecturer, the great Prof. Dr. Maciel Filho R (One of the greatest Brazilian authorities on the energetic and fermentation sectors) mentioned how important it was that engineers, chemists, and biologists discussed with each other. The group of Prof. Maciel Filho wished to make it viable to operate a biorefi nery, but the Monod kinetic parameters that would make the operation economically feasible were unreal. However, talking to a biologist colleague, Prof. Maciel learned that there was a particular Clostridium lineage which could be genetically modifi ed to obtain fermentation parameters close to what they needed. That showed him the importance of discussing and collaborating with everyone, since he learned something that, in principle, he did not even imagine.
55 The Kinetics of Glucose Transport in Human Red Blood Cells Depend on Their Metabolic State   , Günter Fred Fuhrmann*  
This article about freshly drawn human red blood cells offers new insights in regulation of glucose transport. Transport of glucose in Glut1 red blood cells is highly asymmetric and depend on metabolic energy, most probably ATP. The changes in “Km” for efflux and Vm obtained by ATP depletion of the cells are completely restored by incubation with adenosine, a substrate for ATP generation.
56 Epithelial Cells Orchestrate the Functions of Dendritic Cells in Intestinal Homeostasis   , Tianming Li1, Mei Liu1, Siyu Sun2, Xuying Liu1 and Dongyan Liu1*  
The gastrointestinal tract represents the largest mucosal membrane surface and is the one of the most complex human organs. The intestinal barrier dysfunction contributes to systemic immune activation. The mucosal immune system has extremely arduous tasks to resist invaders and promote tolerance of food antigens and the microbiota. The intestinal mucosal immune system fulfills these tasks through complex interactions between immune cells and the local microenvironment in intestine. Intestinal Epithelial Cells (IECs) play important roles in these complex interactions. IECs not only constitute the first barrier of the intestine but also are crucial for integrating external and internal signals and for coordinating the ensuing immune response. Dendritic Cells (DCs) play key roles in shaping the intestinal immune response by their ability to coordinate protective immunity and immune tolerance in the host. DCs are pivotal actors in the connection between innate and adaptive immune responses. The IECs coordinate with the DCs in immune recognition, tolerance and host defense mechanisms. In this review, we will summarize how IECs orchestrate intestinal DCs in intestinal homeostasis and diseases.
57 EEG Brain Wave Dynamics: A Systematic Review and Meta Analysis on Effect of Yoga on Mind Relaxation   , Savita Gaur1*, Usha Panjwani2 and Bhuvnesh Kumar3  
Background: Yoga is an ancient Indian science and way of life that is prophylactic, promotive and curative leading to good health: physical, mental, emotional and spiritual. Yogic practices like asana, Pranayama, Dhyana and Meditation are extremely beneficial in maintaining sound health and well-being. In this study we reviewed, synthesized, and analyzed published reports on EEG and other changes in neuro-psychological functions associated with Yoga practice. Methods: Published data till Jun 2020 on topics of Yoga, EEG analysis were included based on PRISM statement guidelines. The data characteristics defined by their objectives, study design, methodology, Yoga interventions, EEG power spectrum and outcomes of the study are presented in this review. The EEG data with mean ± SD was used for statistical analysis.
58 Association of Serum Ferritin and Infl ammatory Biomarkers with Insulin Resistance in Chinese Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients , Pratiksha Paudel1,2#, Shitian Zhang1#, Bei Guo1 , Alisha Pannu1,2 , Gajarishiyan Rasalingam1,2, Ranjita Sah1,2, Bharvi Desai1,2, Aili Yin1 , Chunmei Gu3 , Yuhua Yuan3 , Liming Chen1 and Wenyan Niu1#*
Objective: Obesity-induced Insulin Resistance (IR) is one of the main causes of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and accompanies the progression of T2DM. Serum Ferritin has been shown to be associated with IR. Infl ammation is also suggested to be involved in IR and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. However, there is lack of enough evidence concerning the interrelationship between serum Ferritin, infl ammation, and IR in the Chinese population with T2DM. In this study, the relationships between serum Ferritin and infl ammatory biomarkers with IR in Chinese population were investigated. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 207 Chinese participants, aged 40-60 years in Tianjin, China. Serum Ferritin, transferrin, and folate were measured by immunoassay analyzer. The levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 were detected by ELISA. IR was evaluated by Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) of IR. Correlations were examined by regression analyses. Results: Serum Ferritin level was higher in non-diabetic obese and diabetic group than the non-diabetic lean group. The levels of TNF-α and CRP were signifi cantly higher in the diabetic obese group than non-diabetic and diabetic lean subjects. Serum Ferritin, TNF-α, and CRP were all correlated with BMI. TNF-α correlated with IR and FPI. TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and CRP were all correlated with FPG and HbA1c. Conclusion: In Chinese population, IR had a signifi cant association with TNF-α but not with serum Ferritin. Serum Ferritin, TNF-α, and CRP were all correlated with BMI. Infl ammation and glucose metabolism factors (FPG, HbA1c) showed a strong correlation with each other as well as with adiposity
59 Arsenic Mobilization Process in Shallow Aquifer of Bengal Delta Plain: A Field Scale Study to Identify the Role of Coliform Bacteria , Pinaki Ghosh1 , Ayan Das1 , Madhurina Majunder1 , Samir Kumar Mukherjee2 and Debashis Chatterjee1 *
In Bengal Delta Plain (BDP), shallow aquifer (<50 m) is often contaminated with Arsenic (As). The phenomenon is wide spread in nature thought the BDP notable in Nadia district of west Bengal. The present study highlights a primary screening of As, Fe, MPN and FC in monitored shallow wells. The study designed for two different sites (site-A, High As and site-B Low As area). The water quality monitoring results suggest that high As concentration (Range- 103-171 μgL-1) has been noticed in site A when compared with site B (range-53-99 μgL-1). In sites A, the Fe concentration is high and low in site B. The correlation study (r2 ) between arsenic and iron are also determined. The value of r2 is 0.94 for site A and 0.73 for site B. The water quality results suggest that the nature of the monitor aquifer is anoxic in nature with low Eh, DO absent and low NO3- and SO4+. Major anion is HCO3- (376 mgL-1) followed by Cl- (28 mgL-1). However chloride concentration is largely varying in the monitored tube well. Microbial study (MPN & FC count) also indicates some relationship among MPN (r2 -0.32) and Fe (r2 -0.24). However the relationship is scatter when As concentration is low. The linear trended has also obtained when both As, MPN and FC are high. The physical observation of plate count (Color reaction in Chromo colt Agar) has also been observed. This is a clear indicator of fecal coli form contamination. The study indicates that the microbial mobilization of As is the key factor for enrichment of As in ground water. The possible sources of the microbes are local landuse pattern (notable pit-latrine). Finally, the study highlights the role of coli forms bacteria (Both facultative and non-facultative) are wide spread in shallow rural aquifer of Bengal. Thus microbial process possibly enriches arsenic in shallow ground water.
60 Osteopathic Manual Treatment vs Kaltenborn-Evjenth Orthopedic Manual Therapy for Chronic Low Back Pain: A Proposal for a Protocol for Randomized Trials , Pawel Lizis1*, Wojciech Kobza2, Grzegorz Manko3, Jaroslaw Jaszczur-Nowicki4, Joanna Bukowska4, Jacek Perlinski5, Barbara Para6, Damian Wisniewski7 and Jolanta Nawara8
Introduction: Numerous modalities of conservative therapeutic interventions are available to achieve the best health benefits in people with Low Back Pain (LBP), e.g., kinesiotherapy, physical therapy, behavior therapy. People with LBP continue to experience pain and disability despite receiving the best evidence based therapy. Osteopathic Manual Therapy (OMT) and Kaltenborn-Evjenth Ortopedic Manual Therapy (KEOMT) are the other options, although their effectiveness remains controversial. The aim of this study is a proposal for a protocol for randomized trials to compare the effectiveness of OMT vs. KEOMT on pain and disability in people suffering from LBP.  Methods and analysis: It's a randomized study with two-arms parallel, designed with concealed allocation, the assessor's blinding with intention to-treat analysis. It will include 34 people a group with severe disability ranged from 41 to 60% in Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). There will be two groups: a treatment group (OMT) and a comparison group (KEOMT). All the patients in both groups will receive 2 treatments a week for 5 weeks. Each session in both groups will not exceed 30 minutes. During each session OMT and KEOMT techniques will be repeated 3 times. A baseline assessment will be performed pre and post intervention, two days later. The following parameters will be assessed during the evaluations: Numeric Pain Rating Scale – NPRS, ODI.
61 Evaluation of Direct and Indirect Antioxidant Properties of Selected Four Natural Chemical Compounds: Quercetin, Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate, Indole-3-Carbinol and Sulforaphane by DPPH Radical Scavenging Assay , Maha J Hashim* and Jeff rey R Fry
The main characteristic of antioxidants is the capacity to scavenge free radicals produced during cell metabolism, and thus they prevent oxidative stress, which may reduce the risk of many diseases. In this study, we evaluate the antioxidant properties of selected four compounds Quercetin (Q), Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate, (EGCG), Indole-3-Carbinol (I3C) and Sulforaphane (SF) by DPPH assay. The view is to establish the distinction between direct and indirect antioxidants, which would be the form of the basis for subsequent cellular antioxidant assays in our further studies. For sample assay: 20 μL of antioxidant solutions of Q, EGCG, I3C, and SF was added to 180 of 2,2- Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) solution. For blank solution, DMSO was used. Leaving the plate for 15 min in a dark place and measure the absorbance at 540 nm. The results demonstrated that Q and EGCG possess direct antioxidant properties, which can be used in further cellular studies. I3C and SFN did not appear to possess any direct antioxidant behaviours during DPPH radical scavenging.
62 Metabolic Disturbance in Patients with Muscular Dystrophy and Reflection of Altered Enzyme Activity in Dystrophic Muscle: One Critical View   , Niraj Kumar Srivastava1-3*, Somnath Mukherjee2,4 and Vijay Nath Mishra5  
Muscular dystrophies are inherited myogenic diseases and considered by progressive muscle wasting and weakness with variable distribution and severity. The essential characteristics of muscular dystrophies are selective involvement, significant wasting and weakness of muscles. The most common and frequent types of muscular dystrophies are Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), Becker Muscular Dystrophy (BMD), Facioscapulohumeral Dystrophy (FSHD) and Limb Girdle Muscular Dystrophy (LGMD). Metabolic disturbance is observed in muscular dystrophy patients (DMD, BMD, FSHD and LGMD-2B). Alteration in the level of metabolites (BCAA, Glu/ Gln, Ace, alanine, glucose, histidine, propionate, tyrosine and fumarate) in dystrophic muscle reflects the alteration in the activity of enzymes. Collectively, these observations propose that there is alteration in the rate of glycolysis, TCA cycle, fatty acid oxidation, gluconeogenesis pathway and protein metabolism (catabolism & anabolism) in the muscular dystrophy patients. Metabolic disturbance, further provide the explanation about the pathophysiology of muscular dystrophy.
63 Sampling and Characterization of the Environmental Fungi in the Provincial Historic Archive of Pinar Del Río, Cuba , Sofi a Borrego1 *, Alian Molina1 and Tamara Abrante2
It has been reported that there is a correlation between indoor airborne fungi and the biodeterioration of valuable documents in archives, libraries and museums, and that these fungi can also cause effects on human health if there are immunological problems or the time of exposure to these environments of low quality is long. The aims of this study were quantifying and characterizing the mycobiota of the indoor air in three repositories of the Provincial Historical Archive of Pinar del Río, Cuba and assessing its impact on the human health. The samplings were made in two different months corresponding to the years 2016 and 2017, one belonging to the rainy season and the other to the season of the little rain using a SAS biocollector and appropriate culture media to isolate fungi. The fungal concentrations and the Indoor/Outdoor (I/O) ratios obtained revealing that the repositories showed good quality environments. In both isolations Cladosporium was the predominant genus followed by Penicillium in the fi rst sampling and Fusarium in the second isolation. The genera Aureobasidium, Sepedonium, Trichaegum and Wallemia were new fi ndings for the Cuban archives. The pathogenic attributes studied showed that 30% of the isolates have spores so small that they can penetrate into the respiratory tract into the alveoli; 10.7% of the taxa obtained in the fi rst isolation and 13.3% of the taxa detected in the second sampling also showed positive results to four virulence tests analyzed “In vitro” (growth at 37° C, hemolytic activity, phospholipase activity and respiratory tract level to which the spores can penetrate). These virulence factors (pathogenic attributes) evidence the risk that environmental fungi represent for the health of personnel in this archive.
64 Measurement of Photon Matter Interaction Parameters for some Iodine Compounds , Adnan Küçükönder1 and Saniye Tekerek2*
In this study, total atomic cross-section (σta), total moleculer cross-section (σtm) total electronic cross-section (σte), effective atomic number (Zeff), effective electron density (Neff) and Kerma (K) were determined both experimentally and theoretically values for some iodine compounds. Experimental mass attenuation coeffi cient (μ/ρ) values for some iodine compounds were calculated with the data obtained from the test results. The theoretical mass attenuation coeffi cient values of these compounds were calculated with the WinXCOM data program. Also, we have performed the measurements for the calculations of experimental values mass attenuation coeffi cient using direct transmission experimental geometry. The transmission photon intensity of halogene iodine compounds were measured in a narrow beam experiment geometry was used 59.543 keV γ-ray from an 241Am radioactive source. The tranmissions spectra from iodine compounds were recorded with a Si (Li) detector having a resolution of 155 eV FWHM at 5.9 keV (55Fe) and coupled to a 1024 channel analyzer through a spectroscopic amplifi er. This study was provided that new insights into the literature since mass attenuation coeffi cient experimental values of some I compounds have not been determined previously. More research should be done to observe the changes in the chemical structure of iodine compounds with gammaray interaction. This study will shed light on further research.
65 Minimize Risks of COVID-19 Infection , Sunil J Wimalawansa*
The fi rst wave of COVID-19 spread across the globe, rapidly during the fi rst half of the year 2020 [1]. Since August 2020, the second wave of COVID-19 has been rampaging across most countries. A third wave may likely occur during the late spring of 2021. These in part coincide with the annual winter fl u season in countries located in northern and later, the southern most latitudes, during their respective winter periods. One exception is the summertime peak in the middle-east when most people, near totally avoid exposure to sunlight due to extremely hot weather. During these vulnerable periods, body stores and the serum 25(OH)vitamin D [25(OH)D)] concentration reduce; in parallel, the immune system weakens, thus increasing the risks for respiratory viral illnesses, including COVID-19.
66 Pharmacodynamics of Remdesivir: How to Improve for COVID-19 Treatment , Ashok Chakraborty1 * and Anil Diwan2
Potential clinical benefi t in SARS-CoV-2 with remdesivir have been noticed. Recently, FDA has granted the use of remdesivir for COVID-therapy. However, the effi cacy of remdesivir alone or with combination of other antivirals, like chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine is still questionable, especially in terms of benefi ts vs. risk ratio. We here did a search for relevant pharmacological evidences with regards to the Pharmacokinetics (PK) and Pharmacodynamics (PD) of appropriate antiviral compounds against COVID-19 alone or in combination with other potential therapies. Drug– Drug Interactions (DDIs), if any in case of combo treatment have also been taken into consideration. We found promising in vitro evidence for using remdesivir, in combination with (hydroxy) chloroquine and/or favipiravir against SARS-CoV-2. However, clinical trial results are not that satisfactory as expected and limit the use in practice. Additionally, some other drug combination with remdesivir have been proposed in this article for future improvement in therapies.
67 Hydrogels: A Novel Drug Delivery System , Tayyaba Rana1 , Madeeha Fatima2, Abdul Qayyum Khan3 *, Zainab Naeem1 , Sumiyya Javaid1 , Nayab Sajid4 and Aamna Habib4
Hydrogels are water-swollen networks, which are cross-linked structures consisting of hydrophilic polymers. They are made three-dimensional by the creation of the cross-links by joining them through covalent or ionic bonds. Hydrogels have been used in various areas including industry and medicine due to their excellent characteristics such as high swelling capacity, high content of water, compatibility with other biological molecules, controlled chemical and physical properties, high mechanical integrity and biodegradability. They have been the center of attention of researchers from the past 50 years because of their promising applications in industries and other areas. They are used in different fi elds, in medicine, in the diagnosis of the diseases, in culturing of cells, in injuries as wound healers, in cosmetics, in skin diseases like pruritis, in environmental pollution reduction and other miscellaneous applications such as in diapers for babies and sanitary products. Extensive literature can be found on the subject of hydrogels. The present review discusses the history, description of hydrogels, basic properties, classifi cation, different techniques or methods of hydrogel synthesis and the areas in which hydrogels fi nd applications.
68 Knowledge and Attitude of Organ Donation among University Stu dents in Pokhara , Asmita GC1 , Arati Timilsina2*and Vikash Kumar KC3
Donation of the tissue or organ of human body from a living or dead person to a living recipient in need of transplantation is organ donation. In the fi eld of modern medicine organ transplantation is one of the greatest scientifi c advances and remains the most challenging and complex. It saves thousands of life. The main objective of the study was to explore the knowledge and attitude of organ donation. A descriptive cross- sectional study using self- administered questionnaire tool was conducted among 154 Bachelor level students who were selected by using non probability consecutive sampling technique. The obtained data was entered on SPSS 20 version program and analyzed and interpreted by using descriptive statistics (Frequency, percentage, mean, median, and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (chi square).The study found that 57.1 percent had moderate knowledge on organ donation and more than half (69.5%) had neutral attitude on organ donation. Knowledge on organ donation was poor. There was signifi cant association (0.014) between ethnicity and knowledge level. The study concluded that there was moderate level of knowledge and neutral level of attitude on organ donation among bachelor level students and there was no signifi cant association of socio-demographic variables and level of knowledge except ethnicity. It therefore suggests awareness programs on organ donation for college students to promote and upgrade their knowledge and attitude about organ donation.