Bangladesh-East Asia Relations in the Context of Bangladesh’s Look East Policy
Akkas Ahamed1, Md. Masum Sikdar2*, and Sonia Shirin3
1Dept. of Political Science, University of Chittagong, Chittagong, Bangladesh; 2Dept. of Political Science, University of Barisal, Barisal, Bangladesh; and 3Dept. of English, Gono Bishwabidyalay, Dhaka, Bangladesh
'Look East' diplomacy and its foreign policy aspiration of engagement with East Asian countries is part of clear recognition of strategic and economic importance of the region to Bangladesh's national interests. Bangladesh's government is planning to implement the 65,000-kilometer road project through the Asian highway route. Bangladesh would be linked to 15 countries with the proposed road network. The Asian Highway plan was first launched in 1959 under the UN Economic, and Social Commission for South Asia, and Pacific (ESCAP). Its main purpose is to increase regional and international cooperation between Asia, and Europe via Turkey and to set transportation, infrastructural progress for the socio-economic development of many countries in the region. In order to realize Bangladesh’s potential and expedite further growth, Japan has come up with the concept of the Bay of Bengal industrial growth belt” or what Prime Minister Shinzo Abe termed “The BIG-B”. On the other hand, Chinese President Xi Jinping narrates Bangladesh as an emerging country along with the “Maritime Silk Road” (MSR) project that he has been championing, which envisages deepening connectivity, constructing ports, free trade sectors, and boosting trade with littoral countries in the Indian Ocean zone, and in East Asia. In the introductory part of this paper, we will give a little summary of the concept of look east policy, the relationship between Bangladesh, and East Asia, particularly Japan and China. Political and economic relations, trade and investment, regional connectivity, infrastructural development, between Japan and Bangladesh, and China and Bangladesh have been discussed in the paper. The main purpose of this paper is to provide a basic understanding of look east policy of Bangladesh foreign policy, which is very significant in order to ensure more investment and transfer of technology to Bangladesh.
Impact of Social Networking Sites on Interpersonal Relationship among Teenager: A Sociological Analysis in the District of Bagerhat
Md. Shahin Parvez1*, Md. Anisur Rahaman1, Kaniz Fatema1, and Druti Rani Mondal1
1Dept. of Sociology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Science and Technology University, Gopalganj, Bangladesh
Social Networking Sites (SNSs) are clearly becoming an authentic and chosen form of Communication. At present, utilize of SNSs amongst teenage students has enlarged, and utilize of SNS has extensive influence on these students in various ways, especially on their interpersonal relationships. The current study is placed in this context to determine the influence of SNS on interpersonal relationships of the teenager, and also find out the impetus of utilize, interest, as well as danger associated with SNS among the college student. In this study students finished a questionnaire that utilizes of SNSs from Khalilur Rahman Degree College, Shahed Hemayet Uddin Girl’s High School, and Wajed Memorial Secondary School at Mollahat Upazila for creating primary data; It was established that the utilize of SNS has a result on interpersonal relationships of a teenager, particularly with their members of family, and friends. We were also found that how much average time they take up on SNSs, what kind of alter has occurred in their face to face relationship. The study also tries to reveal the benefit and dangers associated with SNSs among teenagers. The study found that, although the SNSs have supported improve relationships among teenagers as friends, they have also created some negative effects such as losing their time, increase crime, and immoral activities, and increase their monthly expenditure. It provides an outlook for exploring the technological implications of a society in the domain of sociology.
A Feministic Approach to Nora of Henric Ibsen’s A Doll’s House
Md. Shaon Akter1*, Muhammed Asgor Hossain2, Ferdousi Akter2, and Md. Abdul Zalil3
1Dept. of English, Khwaja Yunus Ali University, Sirajgonj, Bangladesh; 2Dept. of English, Islamic University, Kushtia; and 3Bangladesh International School & College, Jeddah, K.S.A
A Doll’s House by Henrik Ibsen is a significant work as a model play in the rise of feminism of the 19th century. Nora, the central female character, acts as the harbinger of feminism here. She is seen in the play as a rebellious female for establishing her own recognition as a human being. She discovers herself as a locked bird in both her father’s house and husband’s as well. She also proves that in the name of love and adoration she receives only humiliation from the male-dominated families. So she leaves her “happy home” for uncertainty as well as she leaves the community of her own people. Actually, Nora is the representative of the pioneering female world who tried to change the male-dominated social systems and to change their discriminatory outlook to the womanhood. So this study is to find out the seeds of feminism in the women waiting to be flourished with an explosion of freedom in the 19th century.
Present Status of Information and Internet Services in Union Council of Madhukhali Upazila: A Case Study
Md. Rubel Hossain1*, Shalehar Khatun1, and Md. Abdur Rashid2
1Department of Library and Information Science, Khwaja Yunus Ali University, Sirajgonj, Bangladesh; and 2Library and Documentation, Nuclear Power Plant Bangladesh, Bangladesh
Bangladesh is the smallest country but has a huge population. The government of Bangladesh tries to digital information and internet service to a remote area by the Union Council Information Centres. This center was established to bring information like agriculture, education, government, and non-government commercial services, community relations support services, etc. The purpose of UCIIS is to supply the easiest internet -services and to create an interaction. In this research, both qualitative and quantitative research approach has been applied. Data were collected by using questionnaires from random sampling through the service receivers from the study area which was in Madhukhali Upazila under Faridpur District in Bangladesh. While internet-service providing Union Council Information and Internet Services (UCIIS) is an outlet to supply information and internet-service, facilities among the rural level people of Bangladesh. Equipment, power supply, internet speed, trained entrepreneurs, entrepreneurs’ satisfaction income, financial Support, from Union Council have a positive relation with infrastructure and other's support. The study result has shown that the effectiveness of UCIIS, in respect of citizen satisfaction, is close to the successful level while the effectiveness of UCIIS, in respect of infrastructure and logistic support, is in between successful and somehow successful level. The effectiveness of UCIIS about the Internet-service delivery largely depends upon the citizen’s satisfaction and infrastructure & logistic support.
The Subversive Use of Parading Effeminacy by Transgender People in increasing Crime Rate in Bangladesh: A Study on Several Investigating Crime Reports
Sakina Akter Sema1*
1Department of English, Pundra University of Science and Technology, Bogura, Bangladesh
Transgender or Hijras are human being those who born with sexual deformation. They are considered as nor man nor women but the other third gender known as ‘Hijras’ in Indian-subcontinent. They have different societies that are lead by their leaders known as Guruma. They are strictly controlled by their gurumas and have very limited scope to enroll them in several activities without their permission. So frequently they are influenced by their gurumas to involve in criminal activities and sometimes they do that willingly for the other reasons. This study was an attempt to investigate the reasons for doing such criminal activities by them and to find the effects of such criminal activities in increasing the crime rate in Bangladesh. To conduct this study descriptive research design with a qualitative study was applied. Most of the data were collected from secondary sources like- scholarly articles, newspapers, several online YouTube channels, FBI reports, Bangladesh Police Discipline Security Progress reports and so on. Few data were also collected from primary sources like- directly interviewing transgender people who have sufficient knowledge about criminal activities that are occurring at the present time in Bangladesh. In the case of interviewing, the purposive sampling method was used to select the transgender people as a sample size. The study has found that a number of criminal activities are done by the transgender people in Bangladesh and there are some reasons behind it. If the respective authorities take some necessary steps to reduce the causes then the effects will be ultimately reduced. Finally, the total scenario of the crime situation in Bangladesh will be changed positively and it would be a good place to live in for all regardless of their gender identity.
A Comparative Study Relating to Community Policing in the Context of Bangladesh
Md. Nahidul Islam1*
1Department of Law, Gono Bishwabidyalay, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh
*Correspondence: firstname.lastname@example.org (Dr. Md. Nahidul Islam, Assistant Professor, Department of Law, Gono Bishwabidyalay, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh).
This paper is basically concerned with the concept of community policing, its significance, objectives, various organizations and institutions relating to security, community policing in different countries, population growth in comprising with community policing, and finally the conceptual framework and the present scenario of community policing in Bangladesh. The concept of community policing which is an essential part especially for ensuring quality policing in the context of a democratic and developing country like Bangladesh has been briefly discussed in this study. In fact, finally, the conceptual framework has been mentioned in this paper to ensure quality policing after a brief analysis between the concept of traditional policing and community policing with the review of certain developed and developing countries.
The Impact of Human Rights Violation Concerning the Status of Women and Children in Bangladesh: A Critical Review
Md. Nahidul Islam1*
1Department of Law, Gono Bishwabidyalay, Savar, Dhaka-1344, Bangladesh
*Correspondence: email@example.com (Dr. Md. Nahidul Islam, Assistant Professor, Gono Bishwabidyalay, Dhaka).
This paper is basically concerned with the status of Women and Children relating to the violation of human rights and its impact. This paper mostly dwells on certain examples of violation of human rights relating to torture, sexual harassment, trafficking and sexual exploitation, rape, and murder or even the violation of domestic workers’ rights emphasizing on the human rights situation in a democratic and a developing country like Bangladesh. In this study, in addition to this, an attempt has been made to unveil the relationship between Human Rights and Police Administration. Most importantly, there is a further attempt to uphold the facts of human rights violations especially concerning the status of women and children mentioning and studying certain sensational cases too. Finally, in this paper, the researcher has endeavored to bring out the actual situation and impact of such violations analyzing and reviewing critically the status of women and children as well as the indigenous community i.e., the rights of indigenous women and children in Bangladesh too and certain facts in different perspectives in connection with the activities of the law enforcers i.e., the police where these agencies are always on action having the responsibilities to protect and ensure the human rights of the citizens in a democratic and developing country like Bangladesh.
Perceived Effect of Motivation on the Job Performance of Library Personnel of Universities in Benue State, Nigeria
Margaret Mngusuur Ubagu1 and Joseph Ahemba Gbuushi2
1&2University Library and Information Services, Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria
The study was conducted on the perceived effect of motivation on the job performance of library personnel of universities in Benue State. Two objectives were formulated to find out the perceived effect of training and salary payment on job performance of library personnel of universities in Benue State. Two research questions and two hypotheses were also formulated in line with the formulated objectives. The survey research design was adopted. The study population was 223 library personnel from the Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Benue State University, Makurdi, and University of Mkar, Mkar. The entire population was used for the study hence there was no sample and sampling. A self-structure questionnaire was used for data collection. The questionnaire was subjected to face and content validity. Cronbach alpha was used to test the reliability of the instrument which yielded a value of 0.94. Mean values were used to answer research questions while one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to test hypotheses at 0.5 level of significance. The study found that training and salary payments have a significant difference in job performance of library personnel of universities in Benue State. The study recommended, therefore, that university library personnel should be sent for constant training and retraining; they should also be paid salaries for optimum job performance.
Dependency among Kautilya’s Three Major Ideas: Upaya, Sadgunya, and Prakrti
Krishna Kumar Saha*
Department of Public Administration, Comilla University, Cumilla-3506, Bangladesh.
*Correspondence: firstname.lastname@example.org (Krishna Kumar Saha, Assistant Professor, Dept. of Public Administration, Comilla University, Bangladesh).
Since the rediscovery of Kautilya’s Arthasastra, it is considered as one of the oldest books on statecrafts and political realism in the world. In the book Arthasastra, Kautilya has described many ideas of statecraft, and they are still in the use of state polity. Until now some of his ideas remained unextractable. Many scholars in South Asia and the West are practicing the ideas formulated by Kautilya. Yet, as a native South Asian political fractional and international relations theorist, Kautilya remained under exposed. Nevertheless, this current study is an attempt to find the dependency among the three significant concepts by Kautilya from his Arthasastra. In the study, the researcher has attempted to show how shifts in one of the three major concepts can change the other two. They are entirely dependent on each other. The researcher has made an effort to create a ‘measurement scale’ to measure the dependence among the ‘Upaya, Sadgunya, and Prakrti.’ On the other hand, since these concepts can also be found in the modern-day state system, the study has analyzed the ‘1962 Sino-Indian War’ concerning those three concepts. This current research is an explorative investigation.
Corporate Social Responsibility Practice of Multinational Companies in Ethiopia: A Case Study of Heineken Brewery S.C
Berihu Gereziher1* and Yohannes Shiferaw2
1&2School of Journalism and Communication, College of Social Sciences and Humanities, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
Multinational profit-making organizations are expected to carry out their Corporate Social Responsibilities (CSR) in order to protect the environment and the safety of people living in the surrounding of their plants. The main aim of this study was to explore the CSR practices of a multinational brewery company in Ethiopia, Heineken brewery, with specific reference to the brewery plant in Kilinto. The researcher explored the CSR practices with respect to Elkington’s CSR triple bottom line and a specific focus on the people and planet perspectives. Relevant literature was reviewed to describe multinational company's CSR practices in developed and developing country's perspectives. The qualitative research method was used in the study with a Case study approach since this research is about a specific case in a specific company. Semi-structured interviews, observation, and document analysis were used to collect data. The qualitative content analysis method was used to analyze the qualitative data and describe the meaning. The researcher examined the data in a systematic way in relation to the research questions reducing the data by coding and categorizing to draw meaning. The findings indicate that Heineken lacked balanced CSR practice in its environmental and social CSR practices. Though the company took part in some philanthropic CSR activities, its CSR approach was short term and reactive instead of being proactive. Heineken’s CSR strategy needs modification to customize its global CSR strategies into local contexts to solve local problems. Based on the findings, the researcher recommended that Heineken needs to make improvement in its CSR to sustainably address environmental and social needs with stronger community engagement and communicating its CSR efforts through effective PR practice.
Inevitability of the Education Sector in the Success of Vision 2021: A Critical Study of Bangladesh Perspective
Muhammed Asgor Hossain1* and Md. Shaon Akter2**
1Dept. of English, Islamic University (IU), Jhenidah-Kushtia, Bangladesh; 2Dept. of English, Khwaja Yunus Ali University (KYAU), Sirajgonj, Bangladesh.
*Correspondence: email@example.com (Dr. Muhammed Asgor Hossain, Professor, Dept. of English, IU, Jhenidah-Kushtia, Bangladesh).
**Correspondence: firstname.lastname@example.org (Md. Shaon Akter, Lecturer, Dept. of English, KYAU, Sirajgonj, Bangladesh).
Education is the backbone of a nation. The total development of a country largely depends on the development of the education sector. Our government has initiated to implement the Vision 2021 where it has been estimated that this country will acquire self-sufficiency in all the sectors. It is assumed that Bangladesh will overcome the poverty level and stand as a self-reliant country in the world by this vision of 2021. The economic growth of Bangladesh will cover up a satisfactory level to remove poverty and this nation will build up a new identity as a middle-income nation. The per-capita income will be higher and the citizens will lead to a higher standard of living after the implementation of Vision 2021. But no planning will come into effort without ensuring education for all. So the study is to remind the Government that they need to keep in mind the inevitability of education before going forth for the success of Visio 2021. To come out successful in this attempt, I have selected some text books, journals, magazines, books on criticism, and web links, etc.
Evolution and Assessment of South Asian Folk Music: A Study of Social and Religious Perspective
Department of Music, Faculty of Arts, Jagannath University, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
*Correspondence: email@example.com (Ruksana Karim, Lecturer, Department of Music, Jagannath University, Dhaka, Bangladesh).
This paper describes how South Asian folk music figured out from the ancient era and people discovered its individual form after ages. South Asia has too many colorful nations and they owned different culture from the very beginning. Folk music is like a treasure of South Asian culture. According to history, South Asian people established themselves here as a nation (Arya) before five thousand years from today and started to live with native people. So a perfect mixture of two ancient nations and their culture produced a new South Asia. This paper explores the massive changes that happened to South Asian folk music which creates several ways to correspond to their root and how they are different from each other. After many natural disasters and political changes, South Asian people faced many socio-economic conditions but there was the only way to share their feelings. They articulated their sorrows, happiness, wishes, prayers, and love with music, celebrated social and religious festivals all the way through music. As a result, bunches of folk music are being created with different lyrics and tune in every corner of South Asia.
Factors Influencing Family Size: A Critical Study on Khulna District of Bangladesh
Md. Jahidul Islam*
Sociology Discipline, Social Science School, Khulna University, Khulna, Bangladesh.
Family size in any particular society depends on different socioeconomic and cultural factors. This study makes an attempt to examine the determinants of family size in the Khulna district of Bangladesh. The study was carried out in Paikgacha villages under Paikgacha Upazila and. Ward no. 31 of Khulna city under Khulna district. The study opted for survey research design and the unit of analyses was the head of households from the study area. Samples of 296 respondents were selected through simple random sampling and were interviewed with a semi-structured interview schedule. The bivariate studies were executed using chi-square to explore the probable association between family size and certain covariates. To know the marginal effects of independent variables, the OLS (Ordinary Least Square) model was measured. Results show that half of the households (54.1% to be exact) were small (had four or less than that members) in size. Besides, age, family income, educational status, number of surviving children, number of desired children, sex preferences, contraceptive use, family planning, and residence were linked with the size of the family (p<.005) as potential socioeconomic and cultural factors.
Quest and Assessment for Self-Identity in the Select Novel of Arun Joshi
P. Revathy1* and V. Peruvalluthi2
1Dept. of English, Muthurangam Government Arts College, Vellore-2, India; and 2English Reader, Thiruvalluvar University, Serkadu, India.
*Correspondence: firstname.lastname@example.org (Dr. P. Revathy, Assistant Professor, Dept. of English, Muthurangam Government Arts College, Vellore-2, India).
Literature is one among the fine arts like painting, sculpture and music which express emotions, feelings, humour, and happiness using language as a medium of communication through different sorts of the genre like prose, poetry, drama and novel. It reflects the items that happen within society and life. It deals with human being’s personal experience, nature, war, culture, imagination, history, etc. Indian English literature is that the outcome of the works written by the Indian author who writes in English. In India, there are numerous languages and different literatures. Arun Joshi deals with a very difficult situation of a modern man and is sensitively alive to the various dimensions of tortures, exerted by the difficult character and demands of the society in which same age man is destined to live. The heroes of his novels are helpless outsiders and the harsh strangers. The consciousness of man’s rootlessness and new feeling and the major search for a meaningful self is the key factor of Joshi’s novels.
Impacts of Unemployment on Graduates in Bangladesh: A Case Study
Md. Harunur Rashid1*, and Md. Ashraful Islam2**
1Department of Public Administration and Governance Studies, Jatiya Kabi Kazi Nazrul Islam University (JKKNIU), Trishal, Mymensingh, Bangladesh; and 2Master of Business Administration, University of Greenwich, London, United Kingdom.
*Correspondence: email@example.com (Md. Harunur Rashid, Lecturer, Department of Public Administration and Governance Studies, JKKNIU, Trishal, Mymensingh, Bangladesh).
**Correspondence: firstname.lastname@example.org (Md. Ashraful Islam, MBA Student, University of Greenwich, London, United Kingdom).
The study attempts to explore the impacts of unemployment; how the state of unemployment is becoming the cause of social, economic, physical, personality, and psychological costs on the unemployed graduates with identification of reasons for unemployment in Bangladesh. The study area was the unemployed graduates of the social science faculty of the University of Dhaka. The study followed a qualitative approach by using the case study method. Capacity mismatch, corruption, the incapacity of the graduates, absence of job specialization, outdated curriculum were the leading reasons for unemployment, the study identified. The impacts of unemployment are invariably alike on graduates-mental depression, embarrassment, socio-economic vulnerability, erosion of inner potentiality, degradation of personality, and frustration. The study explored that sense of self-esteem erodes due to peer group pressure and their attitudes towards unemployed graduates. The findings significantly guide that Bangladeshi graduates, who hailed from lower and middle strata, lack in entrepreneurial spirit and are bound in cyclical craziness to secure a job primarily a government job. It recommends for further evaluation of Bangladesh’s education systems, the focus on higher education which will meet the capacity mismatch between market demands and education; and changes in attitudes-overindulgence on government jobs, associated with cultural factors, must be needed to minimize the vulnerabilities. Academia, learners, policymakers, scholars, policy advocates will get significant insight from the findings of the study.
Exploration of the Personal Memmorate of a Local Myth Based on Oral Genre Analysis
Israt Jahan Lipa*
Dept. of Anthropology, Comilla University, Comilla-3506, Bangladesh.
*Correspondence: email@example.com (Israt Jahan Lipa, Lecturer, Department of Anthropology, Comilla University, Comilla-3506, Bangladesh).
The conversational genres are part of and performed in everyday life, the culture of everyday talk, and the type of discourses embedded in ongoing social processes. Studying the communication and performance of ordinary people is essential to understand the discourses and to hear the unheard voices in our society. These are individual narratives usually composed orally by the tellers based on real incidents and personal experiences. Myths are important to be studied out to analyze discursive changes and locate personal experiences within the society. The importance of this local myth as an oral genre can be illustrated by analyzing their presence, practices, and functions within the community. For example, this local myth provides a useful narrative of cultural norms, changes in living conditions, and the world view of the local inhabitants. This paper is written following the personal memmorate analysis and it is analyzed based on oral genre analysis. It is explored that local people perceive this myth in their daily experiences and it guides their action.
Factors Affecting Diffusion of Entitlement in Consumption of Scarce Commodities: A Psychological Approach
Department of Health and Life Sciences, School of Psychological, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Coventry University, UK.
This research examined factors affecting Diffusion of Entitlement to identify the most likely individual to be prone to Diffusion of Entitlement. This was explored by considering 3 key factors; Self-esteem, Emotional Intelligence and Culture Orientation. An online survey of a cross sectional correlational design was conducted on 96 undergraduate students (21 males and 75 females, mean age = 21.1, SD = 4.72) from Coventry University, UK. 3 scales measuring the 3 independent variables along with a decision vignette to measure if an individual was prone to Diffusion of Entitlement or not was provided. The results were analyzed to show a high significance value for High Emotional Intelligence predicting Diffusion of Entitlement and no prediction from Self Esteem and Culture Orientation.
Impact of Foucauldian Discourse on Feminism and Postcolonial Studies
Yasif Ahmad Faysal1* and Md. Mijanur Rahman2
1&2Department of English, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, University of Barishal, Barishal, Bangladesh.
*Correspondence: firstname.lastname@example.org (Yasif Ahmad Faysal, Assistant Professor, Department of English, University of Barishal, Barishal, Bangladesh).
Foucault’s concept of power and its working in a complex process for the formation of identity and the mobilization of resistance has been of paramount interest over the years to individuals and groups located in unfavorable positions in power-relations. That knowledge and power work together in an exclusionary formation signified in the concept of discourse has inspired feminists and theorists of colonial and post-colonial studies to rework discourse theories to map out new identities and programs of resistance. Although Foucault’s ideas are appropriated by critical schools for various reasons, such appropriation still requires a measure of clarification, since there is no unified position among the schools themselves. In this paper, we therefore attempt to show how themes of exclusion, identity and resistance-very seminal to Foucault’s critical oeuvre, are received and modified by feminist thinkers and theorists of colonial and post-colonial studies.