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1 The Relationship between Informal Economy and GDP Growth: A Study on South-Asian Developing Countries   ,   Md. Touhidul Islam1*, and Md. Jahangir Alam2   1Department of Business Administration, Gono University, Bangladesh; and 2Research Cell, Gono University, Bangladesh *Correspondence: touhid.finance.ru@gmail.com  
  The informal economy has gained increased attention from policy-makers and development practitioners, especially in the context of South-Asian developing countries. Though measuring the informal economy is difficult, statistics show the rate of employment creation by the informal sector in this region is higher than the rest of the world. But the GDP rate of growth in this region is still emerging in the global economic competition that indicates its effectiveness in the South-Asian region. The study was carried out to identify the relationship between the informal economy and the GDP rate of growth in South-Asian developing countries. The target population was economies of 8 South-Asian countries, which were also taken as the sample size. Data was collected from secondary sources and analyzed using multiple regression analysis. Results indicated that there is a significant positive connection between the informal economy and the GDP rate of growth in South Asian developing countries. Therefore, it is necessary for the policy-makers, and expansion practitioners in this region to give emphasis on the informal sector entrepreneurs to ensure constant economic growth and maturation.  
2 Customers' Satisfaction of Service Quality: A Study on the Customers of DBBL at Different Areas of Mymensingh District   ,   Mohammad Toriqul Islam Jony1*, Md. Jahangir Alam1, and Md. Shohel Rana2   1Dept. of Management, Jatiya Kabi Kazi Nazrul Islam University, Trishal, Mymensingh, Bangladesh; and 2Dept. of Human Resource Management, Jatiya Kabi Kazi Nazrul Islam University, Trishal, Mymensingh, Bangladesh *Correspondence: jony.jkkniu@gmail.com  
  This study is conducted to measure the level of customer satisfaction and understand the customer perceptions towards the bank regarding different service quality dimensions in different areas of the Mymensingh area. The study was carried out through a field survey among 300 customers of different branches of this bank at Mymensingh district. A well designed structured questionnaire including both open-ended and close-ended was developed by the researchers and randomly administered to the respondents to collect data. The study finds that customers of this bank are satisfied with the branch accuracy, less complexity in opening an account, security, behavior of employees, technology, and environment, etc. The factors that contribute to customer’s frustration are that they take too much time for the delivery of the checkbook and the interest rate for the loan is high; just as the bank does not provide loans without a mortgage.    
3 Present Scenario of Human Resource Management (HRM) Practices in the Life Insurance Companies: Bangladesh Perspective   ,   Mohammad Milon*   Dept. of Human Resource Management (HRM), Jatiya Kabi Kazi Nazrul Islam University, Trishal, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: milon07mgt@gmail.com  
  To keep the economic challenge in Bangladesh fast and active with other financial and non-financial companies, the insurance companies are playing a crucial contribution to our wealth. This economic contribution, no doubt, could be more effective in the economy if our insurance companies could able to apply HRM philosophy in its all spheres. In true sense, the concept of HRM practices is not widely applied aspects in many insurance companies still in our country due to some pivotal shortcomings. The aim of the study was to identify the present scenario (good/poor) of HRM application in the life insurance companies in our country. The study was limited to 10 life insurance companies in our country comprising all branch offices in Dhaka city. To collect relevant data, a comprehensive questionnaire (Liker Scale) was circulated among 220 respondents. The respondents were officers and branch managers. The most striking results of HRM practice was unsatisfactory/poor in all life insurance companies for the reasons of employees’ absenteeism, employees’ turnover, inadequate training facilities, lack of motivational tools, inadequate welfare facilities, absence of performance rating system, etc. It is recommended that life insurance should keep good HRM practices to minimize their employees’ absenteeism and turnover. Secondly, the companies can arrange adequate training (on-the-job & off-the-job) facilities for their existing employees. Then, life insurance can practice positive motivation, leadership, and adequate welfare facilities for their human resources. Finally, the companies can maintain the performance evaluation system in regular for minimizing their poor HRM practices.  
4 The Impact of Autocratic, Democratic and Laissez-Faire Leadership Styles on the Success of the Organization: A Study on the Different Popular Restaurants of Mymensingh, Bangladesh   ,   Mohammad Toriqul Islam Jony1*, Md. Jahangir Alam1, Mohammad Rafiqul Amin2, and Md. Jahangir Alam3   1Dept. of Management, Jatiya Kabi Kazi Nazrul Islam University, Trishal, Mymensingh, Bangladesh; 2Dept. of Human Resource Management, Jatiya Kabi Kazi Nazrul Islam University, Trishal, Mymensingh, Bangladesh; and 3Dept. of Business Administration, Gono University, Dhaka, Bangladesh *Correspondence: jony.jkkniu@gmail.com  
  This study aims to show the influence of the three types of leadership style: Autocratic, Democratic, and Laissez-Faire on an organization's success, and the study was conducted through a field survey of 60 respondents from different popular restaurants of Mymensingh, Bangladesh. The researchers designed and administered a well designed structured questionnaire in a combination that includes both open and close to collect data.  After collecting data from the field, the researchers carry out a comprehensive statistical analysis to analyze the research objectives. However; the study finds that the driving factors that have a major impact on organizational performance are Advice, Decision Making, Involvement, Consultation, and Shared and the democratic leadership style has a strong affirmative impact on the organizational performance. The factors: Leadership barriers, Expression of views, Communication, Stay out of the way, Freedom, Rewards or Punishment, Policies, Refusal to explain and Order and Procedures are not available in the results of the organizations. The study also finds that the factors of autocratic leadership have a significant negative impact on the organization and the style of laissez-faire management does not affect the organization's outcomes.   
5 Measuring the level of Job Satisfaction of the Employees of Grameen Bank: An Empirical Study   ,   Razuan Ahmed Shuvro1, Sajun Saha1*, and Md. Jahangir Alam2   1Dept. of Human Resource Management, Jatiya Kabi Kazi Nazrul Islam University, Trishal, Mymensingh, Bangladesh; and 2Dept. of Management, Jatiya Kabi Kazi Nazrul Islam University, Trishal, Mymensingh, Bangladesh *Correspondence: sajon19@gmail.com  
  The aim of this study is to measure the level of job satisfaction among the employees of Grameen Bank. It describes the factors of job satisfaction from the earlier literature and identifies their impacts on the overall job satisfaction of employees. The sample size of this study is 50 employees from the different branches of Grameen Bank. Data were collected from 10 branches of Grameen Bank by means of a structured questionnaire. The findings of the study show that organizational factors such as working conditions, pay, fairness and promotion significantly influence job satisfaction of the employees in Grameen Bank and the individual factors such as age and gender do not significantly influence employee job satisfaction in the Bank.   
6 E-marketing Practice in Bangladesh: An Empirical Study on Trend of Use and Expansion in Business   ,   Md. Abu Issa Gazi *   Department of Business Administration, The International University of Scholars, Middle Badda, Dhaka-1212, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: maigazi@yahoo.com (Dr. Md. Abu Issa Gazi, Assistant Professor, Department of Business Administration, IUS, Bangladesh).  
  E-Marketing is considered to be a process of exploring, creating, and delivering value to satisfy the needs and wants of a target market at a profit electronically. The widespread use of the internet has had an effect on much traditional marketing in Bangladesh, by prompting levels of competition amongst businesses and changing established marketing structures. This paper addresses the intension of the use of E-marketing strategies in business in Bangladesh. A total of 100 business owners were selected on a random sampling basis from Dhaka city in Bangladesh. A structured questionnaire was used to collect the required data. In analyzing data descriptive statistics were applied. The author has studied the published data to conceptualize the current scene of e-marketing progress in Bangladesh. They gathered data and information by using the primary and secondary methods. The study shows that in Bangladesh a praiseworthy rate of business owners have attained in online marketing and operating E-marketing tools for attracting qualified potential customers. The results also indicate that the policy implication to improve overall e-marketing and future prospects in the arena of E-marketing in Bangladesh. By developing and implementing E-marketing tools and techniques in business sectors in Bangladesh can take part in the implementation of the dream of digital Bangladesh.   
7 Impacts of Macroeconomic Variables on the Stock Market Returns of South Asian Region   ,   Quazi Nur Alam*   Department of Business Studies, University of Information Technology and Sciences (UITS, Dhaka, Bangladesh.  *Correspondence: nur.alam@uits.edu.bd (Quazi Nur Alam; Lecturer, Department of Business Studies, UITS, Dhaka, Bangladesh).  
  This paper is intended to find out whether macroeconomic variables may impact on the stock market as well as whether such impact has any country-specific pattern. The stock market return was taken as the dependent variable and real interest rate, inflation rate, GDP growth rate, foreign currency reserve growth rate, fiscal deficit, FDI to GDP ratio, exchange rate were taken as independent variables. Data-set was covered from 1993 to 2019 for five South Asian countries which were Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and Nepal. The pattern of the stock market, as well as macro conditions of these countries, was observed and it was found that some relationships exist between the stock market returns and these chosen independent variables. Unit root test, Heteroscedasticty test, autocorrelation test, Hausman test is conducted to authenticate and clarified data to investigate relationship nature. Granger Casualty test indicated that there exist cause and effect relationship between GDP growth rate, exchange rate, and stock market returns. Finally, the regression test reveals that the inflation rate and foreign currency reserve growth rate have a significant impact on the stock market returns. It was expected to have the unique nature of different countries having a versatile impact on dependent, so additionally fixed effects model and random-effects model were run and it was found that the random-effects model is statistically appropriate through conducting the Hausman test. The test reveals that GDP growth rate, foreign currency reserve growth rate, and fiscal deficit positively impact the stock market returns and these also support the literature review. Interest rates, inflation rate, FDI to GDP ratio, and exchange rate have negatively impacted the stock market return where only interest rate, inflation rate & exchange rate.   
8 Sustainability Reporting of Banking Companies in Bangladesh: A Study on Environmental Aspect   ,   Md. Jamsedul Islam*   *Department of Tourism & Hospitality Management, Noakhali Science & Technology University (NSTU), Noakhali-3814, Bangladesh.  *Correspondence: mji.thm.nstu@gmail.com (Md. Jamsedul Islam, Lecturer, Dept. of Tourism & Hospitality Management, NSTU, Noakhali, Bangladesh).  
  The purpose of this paper is to know the rules and regulations of sustainability reporting in Bangladesh, the extent of sustainability reporting practice, way of reporting in banking companies of Bangladesh and to assess the disclosure of environmental aspects in sustainability report of the banking companies in Bangladesh for developing a sustainable reporting culture. Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) plays a leading role in developing guidelines in the preparation of sustainability reports. That’s why GRI’s standard guideline is taken into consideration. The study revealed that sustainability-related information in the banking company’s annual report was not sufficient enough. Moreover, in most of the cases, it was found that the information regarding sustainability reporting did not meet the standard of GRI guidelines. The study sketches the current sustainability reporting trends and practices of the banking industry in Bangladesh. Specifically, the environmental aspect of sustainability reporting is the focal point of this study. Reporting style, report size, items disclosed in the report, environmental awareness activities, and future direction related to sustainability reporting practice are also found in this study. It can help different levels of managers, organizations, stakeholders, and regulatory authorities to identify issues and areas that they could be focused on to formulate future plans for making a sustainable future reporting culture in the banking sector of Bangladesh in order to make the world more sustainable.   
9 A Review on Corporate Environmental Reporting (CER): An Emerging Issue in the Corporate World   ,   Md. Jamsedul Islam1*, Sanjoy Kumar Roy1, Masum Miah2, and Sumon Kumar Das2   1Department of Tourism & Hospitality Management, Noakhali Science & Technology University, Noakhali-3814, Chittagong, Bangladesh; and 2Department of Business Administration, Noakhali Science & Technology University, Noakhali-3814, Chittagong, Bangladesh.  *Correspondence: mji.thm.nstu@gmail.com (Md. Jamsedul Islam, Lecturer, Dept. of Tourism & Hospitality Management, NSTU, Noakhali, Bangladesh).  
  Corporate environmental reporting has been treated as a vital issue in today’s corporate world. The current scenario and prospect give an indication that it is going to capture a long-lasting position in the bundle of general-purpose financial statements. The main reason is that the stakeholders prove a sharp interest in such disclosures. To sustain in today’s corporate world, every organization has to come forward to protect the environment and it is treated as one of the vital social responsibilities. It is assumed that corporations are the main force to create an environmental crisis so as to pay for this (cost-benefit trade-off). But we know reporting is guided by some standards guidelines and measurements and for this, we do not have any standards designed for such disclosure. Hence, such reporting is still considered voluntary and has no specific format and design. As it is voluntary disclosure, it often leads to some non-disclosure and mandatory disclosures which in turn leads to minimal disclosures. As it is a question of life and sustainability, environmental disclosure should have considered both types of disclosures; hence, this paper will try to evaluate the conceptual discussion on environmental reporting.   
10 The Role of Ethiopia Commodity Exchange (ECX) in Stimulating Agricultural Commodities Export: A Case Study of Export Coffee   ,   Fetene Aragaw Temesgen*   School of Commerce, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. *Correspondence: fetenearagaw6@gmail.com  
  The purpose of this paper was to examine the role of the Ethiopia Commodity Exchange in stimulating agricultural commodity exports with the case of export coffee. A structured questionnaire was prepared to collect data. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlation & regression. The findings of descriptive statistics of the independent variables showed that the facilitation of the physical trade dimension scored the highest rating with a mean value of 3.83 while the storage and grading dimension scored the least mean value of 2.86. The correlation analysis results indicated that the facilitation of physical trade had a significant correlation with the export performance and the remaining variables’ result indicated that they were moderately correlated with export performance. Regression analysis was conducted, and the result indicated that storage and grading, market information provision, and market development dimensions of ECX’s roles had a significant positive influence on the export performance of coffee exporters.  
11 Human Capital Investment and Its Impact on Firm’s Performance: A Study on Private Commercial Banks in Bangladesh   ,   Mohammad Rafiqul Amin*   Department of Human Resource Management, Jatiya Kabi Kazi Nazrul Islam University (JKKNIU), Trishal, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: abirshalo@yahoo.com (Mohammad Rafiqul Amin, Assistant Professor, Department of Human Resource Management, JKKNIU, Trishal, Mymensingh, Bangladesh).  
  Human capital is important possessions used to achieve a firm’s competitiveness and it is through investment (the commitment of a firm’s fund in human resource development with the hope of generating returns), we can expand it. This study embodies the investment scenario in human capital development made by different private commercial banks of Bangladesh and the impact of the investment on firm’s performance. The researchers have used different HR metrics (Human Capital ROI, Net Profit after Tax per Employee, HR Expense Factor, Organizational Training Cost per Employee, Human Capital Value Added) to measure the impact of human capital investment on a firm’s performance. Finally, the study reveals that investment in human capital development significantly increases a firm’s performance.   
12 Influential Factors of Tourists’ Satisfaction in Bangladesh: Evidence from Selected Tourism Destinations at Cumilla Region   ,   Md. Mosharraf  Hossain*   Department of Management Studies, Comilla University, Kotbari-3506, Cumilla, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: mosharrafhossain91@yahoo.com (Md. Mosharraf Hossain, Lecturer, Department of Management Studies, Comilla University, Cumilla, Bangladesh).  
  Tourism is a developing industry around the world. Tourism industry is dynamic as it plays a momentous role in the economy of developing and developed countries. The aim of the study is to understand the influential factors of tourists’ satisfaction with selected tourism destinations at Cumilla region in Bangladesh. Data are collected from 300 visitors’ by survey technique through a designed questionnaire with 5-point Likert scales. Simple random sampling method is used. Data are analyzed using frequency analysis, descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, and regression analysis. From the results of regression analysis, the study is found that product, promotion, people, and psychical evidence as to the vital factors, which significantly effect tourists’ satisfaction. Therefore, it is suggested that the study creates consciousness among prospective tourists, researchers, academicians, government authorities, tourism businesses, politicians, and all the stakeholders, and also the tourism industry can be benefited knowing the factors of tourists’ satisfaction. Hence, the papers can be helped tourists’ satisfaction advance along with tourism destinations products offer to prospect tourists.   
13 Promoting Bangladesh Tourism through the Internet: Theoretical Perspectives and Empirical Evidence   ,   Md. Afjal Hossain1*, Jameni Jabed Suchana1, and Md. Ashikur Rahman Avi2   1Department of Tourism and Hospitality Management, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh; and 2Department of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Pabna University of Science and Technology, Pabna, Bangladesh.  *Correspondence: afjaldu@hotmail.com (Professor, Md. Afjal Hossain, Department of Tourism and Hospitality Management, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh).  
  This study explores how the Internet helps promote tourism in Bangladesh. It has presented the applicability of the Internet in the promotional activities of the tourism industry in Bangladesh and also studied the present status of the usages of the Internet in its tourism promotional activities of the same. The advantages of Internet promotion in the contemporary tourism industry are also analyzed here in brief. The Internet can spread essential information about tourism destinations rapidly and their services at a lower cost. The Internet also helps build awareness, increase destination loyalty, allow flexibility of messages, ensure speedy information transfer and retrieval, and improve interactive relationships. The study also highlighted the limitations affecting the expansion of Internet usages in the tourism industry in Bangladesh. The paper concluded with some policy and strategic guidelines about how to develop Internet promotion for the tourism industry in Bangladesh.   
14 The Relationship Between Lengthy Job Recruitment Process and NEET: A Study on Bangladesh Public Service Commission Respect to Selected Year’s BCS Exams   ,   Md. Touhidul Islam1&2*   1Department of Business Administration, Gono Bishwabidyalay, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh; and 2M.Phil. Research Fellow, Department of Finance and Banking, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh.  *Correspondence: touhid.finance.ru@gmail.com  
  The NEETs indicator has become very popular in recent years and is increasingly used by individual researchers, governments, international organizations, and so on. It refers to the percentage of youth those who are not in employment, education, or training. In Bangladesh, the NEET percentage is higher than the other Asia-Pacific countries. This paper has addressed the relationship between the Lengthy Job Recruitment Process and NEET rate in Bangladesh's respect to BCS Exam Taken by the Bangladesh Public Service Commission. The study has applied a descriptive research design with a quantitative approach to determine the extent of each factor in the analysis. Data was collected from secondary sources like- ILOSTAT, News-portal, and BPSC annual reports for the years of 2010, 13, 16, and 17. Data were analyzed by using descriptive analysis (means and standard deviation, correlation analysis (Pearson Correlation), and simple linear regression analysis. The study found that lengthy job recruitment processing time has significant effects (P-value 0.068 at 0.10 significant levels) on NEET rate in Bangladesh with respect to selected year’s BCS exams taken by the Bangladesh Public Service Commission. The coefficient of determination (Adjusted R2=0.869) showed that 86.90% of the success recorded in the NEET rate changes in Bangladesh accounted for lengthy job recruitment processing time taken by the Bangladesh Public Service Commission with respect to selected year’s BCS exams.  
15 Green Banking in the Way of Sustainable Development: An Overview of Practice and Progress in Bangladesh   ,   Mohammad Ahsan Ullah*   Department of Management Studies, Comilla University, Cumilla-3506, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: ahsanctgbd71@gmail.com (Dr. Mohammad Ahsan Ullah, Professor, Department of Management Studies, Comilla University, Cumilla-3506, Bangladesh).  
  The main objective of the study is to evaluate the practice and progress of the activities of green banking in the way of sustainable development of Bangladesh. Green banking is regarded as sustainable banking, which has a role to safeguard the planet from environmental degradation, with an aim of ensuring sustainable development. It comprises the choices that take sustainability into account. Sustainable development is an expansion that comes across the requirements of the present situation without overlooking the capacity of future situations to meet the necessities. Bangladesh is in need of proper adaptation and utilization of green banking for its sustainable development. The present study is conceptual and analytical in nature based on the secondary data with an extensive literature survey along with scanning the annual and quarterly reports of Bangladesh Bank on green banking during the 2011-2019 fiscal years. The secondary sources of data are internet and commercial banks websites, Bangladesh Bank (BB) websites and literature reviews, etc. The collected data are analyzed and interpreted in the light of the practice and progress of activities of green banking in Bangladesh from a global perspective. The study shows that banking in Bangladesh is in the diversification phase passing through the intensification and foundation phases. It is progressing steadily. They have a lot more scope to contribute to the diversification of green finance in the way of sustainable development of Bangladesh. Rigorous, effective, and coherent efforts from banks in this regard are the demands of the day.  
16 The Effects of Green Banking Practices on Financial Performance of Listed Banking Companies in Bangladesh   ,   Md. Azmir Hossain1*, Md. Mominur Rahman2, Md. Sazzad Hossain2, and Md. Razaul Karim3   1Department of Business Administration, Dhaka International University, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2Department of AIS, Faculty of Business Studies, Comilla University, Cumilla, Bangladesh; and 3Dhaka Bank Ltd., Dhaka, Bangladesh.  *Correspondence: azmirdu@gmail.com (Md. Azmir Hossain, Associate Professor, Department of Business Administration, Dhaka International University, Dhaka, Bangladesh).  
  This study examines the effects of green banking practices on the financial performance of banks listed in the DSE of Bangladesh covering the period from 2011 to 2020. To move the economy on a sustainable path green banking practices is essential. Green banking practice is a way of contributing environmental and economical performance in the community by providing green finance and initiating green costs in its various sectors, it takes an important part to raise an organization’s financial performance through diminishing costs. Green banking is becoming a key issue in the whole world especially in developing countries like Bangladesh. This has been theorized by economists that there is a financial incentive if there is a number of practice in green banking. In this arena, a proactive role can be played by banks besides its operational activities known as the journey of renovation for a greener economy by participating in green finance. The aim of this study is to empirically find the relationship between green banking practices and banks' financial performance by using the panel data set, taking financial variables like return on asset, return on equity, and market value to proxy the banks’ performance, and employing green banking practice variables like green cost and volume of the risk management committee. Finally, this study finds that there is a positive relationship between green banking practices and financial performance. The findings generated from this study can be a proper guideline for the bank regulators to take effective decisions regarding environmental issues and thereby make a social contribution, and after all, play a vital role in economic growth. The practitioners, governments, decision-makers, academicians, and future researchers can use this study as a policy dialog.   
17 Evaluation and Comparison of Financial Soundness of Islamic and Conventional Private Commercial Banks in Bangladesh: A CAMEL Approach   ,   Aslam Mahmud1*and Md. Habibur Rahman2   1&2Department of Finance and Banking, Faculty of Business Administration, Jatiya Kabi Kazi Nazrul Islam University (JKKNIU), Trishal, Mymensingh-2220, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: aslammahmudknu@gmail.com (Aslam Mahmud, Lecturer, Department of Finance and Banking, Faculty of Business Administration, JKKNIU, Trishal, Mymensingh-2220, Bangladesh).  
  This article evaluates and compares the financial soundness of Islamic and conventional PCBs operating in Bangladesh based on the CAMEL approach over the period 2015 to 2019. For this purpose, the authors select a sample of 17 Conventional PCBs and 6 Islamic PCBs listed on the Dhaka Stock Exchange. In terms of composite CAMEL ratings, none of the banks is found to be strong or satisfactory in financial soundness in 2019. Out of 17 conventional banks, 13 of them are in a fair position i.e. having financial, operational, or compliance weakness and need more than normal supervision and regulation to address the deficiencies. Another 4 conventional banks are in a marginal position means that they are in serious financial problems and need close supervision and regulation. Ranking of conventional banks based on composite CAMEL ratings shows that Brac Bank Ltd. is in top position (Score 2.65) with Bank Asia Ltd. securing second position (score 2.7) while AB Bank Ltd., IFIC Bank Ltd, One Bank Ltd., and Mutual Trust Bank Ltd. are in the worst position with marginal status. Among 6 Islamic banks, 5 are in a fair position and only 1 in a marginal position in 2019. Shahjalal Islami Bank Ltd. secures the top position (Score 2.8) with fair status and Social Islami Bank Ltd. is in the worst position with marginal status. Independent sample test is used to see whether there is any significant difference between Islamic and Conventional PCBs concerning CAMEL parameters. The study finds that except for liquidity there is no significant difference in capital adequacy, asset quality, management quality, and earnings quality. The study also reveals that there is no significant difference in the average CAMEL ratings of two types of Banking. However, on average Islamic banks have better asset quality, management quality while conventional banks have better capital adequacy, earnings, and liquidity.  
18 Determinants of Customer Loyalty towards Bank: A Probit Regression Based Approach   ,   Mohammad Ahsan Uddin*   Department of Statistics, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh.  *Correspondence: munna_stat@yahoo.com (Mohammad Ahsan Uddin, Associate Professor, Department of Statistics, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh).  
  In present days banks realize the importance of customer loyalty and its potential to help them acquire new customers and retain existing ones and maximize their lifetime value. This study employed the binary probit model to investigate the determinants of customer loyalty to the banking sector of Bangladesh by interviewing 1000 randomly selected bank customers. It reveals that the levels of loyalty were high among customers of private commercial and development banks relative to customers of government banks. Although customer loyalty was observed as a key determinant of a customer’s satisfaction with a bank, these were indeed related to the levels of services provided to the customer. Good ATM services promote customer’s convenience and flexibility thereby ensuring loyalty. For reducing the difficulties in choosing a proper banking scheme proper guidance from bank staff is another determinant of customer loyalty.  Adequacy of other banking facilities like mobile banking and availability of help counter in bank causes a customer to be loyal to a bank.  Also, in order to increase loyal customers, banks should consider establishing branches at convenient locations to bring banking to the doorstep of their customers. Overcrowding in the banks and increasing the time taken to transact for this reason customers have to wait too long loyalty may decrease. Thus sufficient seating arrangement in banks has influence in increasing customer’s loyalty. In order to increase the customer’s loyalty bank must take all complains and problems seriously and solve them using advanced technology.   
19 Impact of Macroeconomic and Bank Specific Variables on Spread of Interest Rate: A Study of Listed Commercial Banks in Bangladesh   ,   Md. Tanvirul Hoque1, JanifarAlam2*, Susmita Dev Burman2, and Quazi Nur Alam2   1AVP and Head of Branch, The Premier Bank Ltd, Pallabi Branch, Dhaka, Bangladesh; and 2Department of Business Studies, University of Information Technology & Sciences (UITS), Dhaka, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: janifar.alam@uits.edu.bd (Janifar Alam, Assistant Professor, Department of Business Studies, UITS, Dhaka, Bangladesh).  
  The Banking system of a country provides the lifeblood to the efficient and effective functioning of an economy. Therefore it is crucial to understand the lending and borrowing rates and hence the spread of interest rates in the banking and financial sector. The Spread of Interest rate is the difference between loan rates and the deposit rates of a bank. High-interest rate reflected in the spread of a high-interest rate will immensely disrupt and cause adverse consequences in the whole economy. Both the spread of interest rate and the interest margin show that the intermediation cost is higher in Bangladesh. High-interest margins in a banking system are indicative of deep-rooted symptoms of inefficiency, absence of competition, non-diversification of income sources, and skewed development of money and capital market in favor of banks’ lending and inflexibility of rate adjustments symmetrically in response to market changes. Moreover, a frequent financial scam in Bangladesh has added more troubles in the money market of Bangladesh. For example, Hallmark scam of almost 4000 crore taka of Sonali Bank, a financial scam of Abdul Mannan, CEO of BIFC, amounted to around 950 crore taka, around 4500 crore taka scam of Janata bank and Agrani bank have made our money market and financial market susceptible to failure. These events have some direct or indirect impacts on interest rates. Hence, I have felt the importance of identifying the determinants of the spread of interest rates. Understanding the determinants of the spread of interest rates would enable us to eliminate such unnecessary costs in financial intermediation, which would be the result in operational and administrative efficiency, resulting in financial viability, stability, and economic growth. Therefore, we need to know the determinants of the spread of interest rates. Hence, I have been motivated to study the determinants of interest rate spread and their extent of impacts on interest rate spread.   
20 Reasons behind Money Laundering and Ways to Controlling it in Bangladesh   ,   Shohel Rana1* and Md. Robiul Awwal2   1&2Department of Finance and Banking, Jatiya Kabi Kazi Nazrul Islam University (JKKNIU), Trishal, Mymensingh, Bangladesh.  *Correspondence: s.rana_fb@yahoo.com (Shohel Rana, Associate Professor, Department of Finance and Banking, JKKNIU, Trishal, Mymensingh, Bangladesh).  
  Money laundering is a system, treated to legitimate illegally earned wealth in a way aiming to conceal the source of the wealth and after the process, the money looks like legal money. Our study aims to identify, analyze, and reveal the reasons that occur the offense and simultaneously, to suggest strategies and a model to control money laundering in Bangladesh. This study conducted based on primary data using a factors-based questionnaire, which responded to by teachers of universities and officers of banks. Findings suggest that reasons behind the offense are to transform black money into white money; to pay bribe and speed money; to hide the source of bribe and speed money; to get higher remittance, the illegal channel being used; to get a higher return from investment in other countries’ securities, stocks, and derivatives; to deposit money safely abroad; to evade import duty for having a higher rate in the specific items like gold, and to build a second home abroad. Findings also suggest a lack of ethical practice in life; having an imbalance in income and expenditure, and more earning tendency influenced people to conduct money laundering. Findings further suggest that the politician has a higher tendency to conduct money laundering than other occupations. Countries should control money laundering internationally by helping each other and update the way of controlling rules and regulations continuously.  
21 Adoption of E-commerce in Bangladesh: Probit Regression and Principal Component Analysis Approach   , Mohammad Ahsan Uddin* Department of Statistics, Faculty of Science, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: munna_stat@yahoo.com (Dr. Mohammad Ahsan Uddin, Associate Professor, Department of Statistics, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh).  
Web based services have turned into an integral part of peoples’ life. Ease of use and several advantages lead to the popularity of adopting electronic commerce (e-commerce). Though a big number of customers visit and register on the commerce sites daily, the selling rate is low for lack of trust and loyalty. Trust is the main connector of companies and customers. Loyal customers are the important assets for the companies. This study aims at identifying the factors that are associated with the trust and risk perception of the customers on e-commerce. A primary dataset is collected on this occasion. Likert scale type questionnaire is involved in the questionnaire and data reliability is checked through Cronbach's alpha. Probit regression and principal component analysis are used as statistical analysis. The study finds the variables age, internet using purpose, market orientation, and technology as significantly related to trustworthiness of the customers on e-commerce, while the variables experienced using the internet, internet using purpose, and market orientation are potential determinants of risk perception. The study results suggest the e-commerce companies emphasize technologies for keeping accurate information, performing the outmost of the customers’ benefit, and collecting customers’ information. In addition, they should be conscious of the customers’ opinion and pleasant experience, along with maintaining the mentioned delivery time.