1 Contemporary Issues of Radical Temper in Leonard Ikerionwu’s Heroes of Change: a Marxist Study   , Raphael  Chukwuemeka Onyejizu Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nigeria, Raphaelnjz@gmail.com  
This paper sets out to examine the contemporary issues of radical temper in  Leonard Ikerionwu’s prose fiction. It aimed at showing that the myriads of challenges of the Nigerian socio-political enclave have not escaped the creative consciousness of the emergent African (Nigerian) writer and critic. It was discovered that the text under study carefully mirrored the present society from the Marxist viewpoint, highlighting attendant problems such as marginalization among the rank and file of the military, poverty, corruption, unemployment, insecurity and leadership ineptitude. In the light of these potent issues presented, the paper sought to educate and appeal to the masses’ conscience to perceive revolution as an alternative means, towards the total restoration of change in human society. Key Words: Literary Creativity, Radical Temper, Marxism, Commitment, Revolution, Heroes of Change.  
2 PASHTUN IMAGES IN CONTEMPORARY PAKISTANI FICTION IN ENGLISH , Syed Hanif Rasool Department of English, Khushal Khan Khattak University, Karak, Pakistan Jehangir Khan Department of English, OPF Boys College, Islamabad, Pakistan  
Living in an area that has long been a battlefield where various world powers have often been at loggerheads, Pashtuns have frequently drawn the attention of several works of fiction. Yet literary scholars have largely ignored the importance of these works of fiction looking into the lives of Pashtuns. This paper proposes that from the times of the Cold War to those of the War on Terror, Pashtun identities have been clouded by the hegemonic discourses of the contesting global powers, leading to gaps and silences in their depiction in literature.This paper argues that the Pashtun images in contemporary Pakistani fiction in English exhibit strong influences of the dominating narratives; simultaneously, however, they seem to offer various patterns of subversion of the prevailing power narratives. Despite the fact that Pashtuns are generally regarded as the most subversive people of South Asia and that their lands have been regarded significant strategically as well as geographically, yet they are portrayed as the Others of the mainstream cultural discourses. This paper aims to highlight the contours of the socio-cultural and political valuation of Pashtuns in contemporary Pakistani fiction in English. Keywords: Pashtun Images, prevailing discourses, power narratives, contemporary Pakistani fiction in English, subversive.  
3 On Gulzar’s Poetry: Comparing the Three Versions of English Translation  , Pallavi Kiran Assistant Professor (English), School of Humanities, KIIT Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India  pallavi.kiranfhu@kiit.ac.in
Gulzar’s merit as a contemporary Indian poet rests on his use of Hindustani, which has a high degree of emotional intensity, expressiveness, naturalness and unusual vividness that strikes the head and the heart of the listener. The study pragmatically and stylistically probes a randomly selected poem of Gulzar and its English translation by three translators, underlining, in the main, the variations in the linguistic choices they make and the significant differences in their translation. The analysis discusses that which is complicated and complex in the poem; and how it is simplified by the translator, leaving out that which puzzles the poet. The pragmatic-stylistic approach effectively identifies the translation shifts and investigates the value and belief system of Gulzar encoded in the language.   
4 Genderlect Styles: Analysis Of Ibsen’s “A Doll’s House” From The Perspective Of Gender Differences In Language Use   , Robina Khaliq Lecturer in English, National University of Modern Languages (NUML) Peshawar Campus Pakistan, robeenakhaliq@gmail.com Mehnaz Lecturer in English, National University of Modern Languages (NUML) Peshawar Campus Pakistan, mehkhan@numl.edu.pk  
This present paper examines Ibsen’s A Doll’s House from the viewpoint of gender differences in the use of language by the characters in the play, and the way the lives of the characters are affected by the use of language. The study concludes that the prevalent ideologies in the society define the gender roles that stimulate women to maintain intimacy and connection and men to preserve their independence and status. However, females break this connection when they tend to preserve their identity and individuality instead of maintaining connection. The analysis of the selected text, from the play, is carried out through using Discourse analysis tools like Identity Building Tool, Turn Taking and Holding Floor, Story Telling, Empty Adjectives, Intensifiers. Tannen’s theory of Genderlect Styles and Althusser’s concept of Ideological State Apparatuses have been used to draw the conclusion.  
5 Repression, Isolation and Paranoia: A Psychoanalytic Feminist Study of ‘The Nightmare’ by Rukhsana Ahmad   , Noreen Zainab MS English, Islamic University Islamabad  
Generally, literature written by Pakistani women writers in English depicts women as victims of patriarchy, social and cultural oppression. Meanwhile, in recent times the short fiction is exploring new paradigms related to the psychological oppression of married women in Pakistan. The following paper selects the short story, ‘The Nightmare’ by Pakistani writer, Rukhsana Ahmad, where a housewife suffers from paranoia because of disconsolate marriage. Therefore, this research aims to study the causes of psychological disorders specifically paranoia among apparently happy housewives. Moreover, the causes and effects of repression and isolation on personality of women would be discussed from the psychoanalytic feminist perspective using the framework of Sigmund Freud (1973- 86) through the character of Fariha. Through the method of character analysis (Dobie, 2011) this paper concludes that the childhood experiences of repression are the reason for victim’s passiveness towards psychological oppression during adult life. This paper would also help in establishing the conclusion that women who suffer abuse in their childhood are more likely to face abuse in their adult lives, which becomes the cause of their psychological instability.   
6 Deconstructive Analysis Of The Short Story “Saleema” By Daniyal Mueenuddin   , Omama Tanvir MS Scholar, Air University, Islamabad Nazish Amir Lecturer in English, University of Chitral  
The aim of this research is to apply deconstructive approach to a short story. For this purpose Daniyal Mueenuddin’s short story “Saleema” is selected and analyzed. Through deconstruction the feminist reading of the story is dismantled and the power dynamics of the patriarchal Pakistani society are subverted. The research is anchored in Derrida’s concept of unreliability of language and Cuddon’s idea of reversal of binary oppositions. The paper finds that the protagonist Saleema is not as weak and oppressed as she is perceived to be, rather she is a resilient, independent woman who uses any means possible to get what she wants. The power and authority reside with her and not with any male character. The study is purely qualitative and exploratory in nature.    
7 Lack of Tenderness: The Main Culprit for the Relationship between Husband and Wife in Lady Chatterley’s Lover   , Kifayatullah PhD Scholar, Qurtuba University, Peshawar  
This article presents the case of Chatterley and Clifford, the two main characters in Lady Chatterley’s Lover, to consider tenderness a basic working emotion to shape human relationship. The lack of tenderness causes emotional as well as physical distance in relation, especially that of male-female’s relation. The first part of the article reviews tenderness. The second part reviews how tenderness and lack of tenderness affects male-female relationship in the selected novel, Lady Chatterley’s Lover. On the basis of a careful analysis of Lady Chatterley’s Lover, the present writer tries to prove that the lack of tenderness is the main culprit for the broken relationship between husband and wife: a major one of the relations between man and woman in human society and mutual tenderness elicits people awakening to a new way of living in an exterior world that is uncracking after the long winter hibernation. Lawrence, through revelation of Connie’s gradual awakening from tenderness, has made his utmost effort to explore possible solutions to harmonious androgyny between men and women so as to revitalize the distorted human nature caused by the industrial civilization
8 R. K. Singh: The Poet Who Celebrates 'senses' to attain 'Nirvana'   , Dr. Ram Kulesh Thakur Associate Professor, K L University KLEF, Vijayawada, India  
This paper discusses a few of R.K.Singh’s characteristic poetic traits that make him stand apart from all his contemporary Indian poets writing in English. His poetry is an honest attempt to portray the contemporary world in its true hue and color; present an inside-out delineation of the modern man; and touch upon all the so-called ‘untouchable’ i.e., topics such as ‘Sex’, ‘Prostitution’, ‘Cultural Degradation’, ‘Stinking Politics’, ‘Religion’, etc. Reader finds Singh celebrating all his senses in his ‘unique’ attempt to attain the state of complete ‘Peace’ or ‘Calm’. His poetry serves as a medium for him to reach the state of ‘nirvana’. Reader finds Singh’s poetry as a prism that diffracts the worldly affairs into different spectrums, analyses each, and again sums it all into a single hue of liberation and peace with ‘detachment’ displaying the mark of a seasoned ‘yogi’. The paper aims to encourage other researchers and people in the academia to explore recent band of emerging Indian poets expressing themselves in English.   
9 Cultural Symbols, Identity and Meaning Formation: Symbolic Interactionist Analysis of Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart   , Mehnaz Lecturer in English, National University of Modern Languages (NUML) Peshawar Campus Pakistan Dr.Muhammad Iqbal Assistant Professor in English, Islamia College University (ICP) Peshawar, KPK, Pakistan Dr. Sayyed Zahid Ali Shah Assistant Professor in English, Islamia College University (ICP) Peshawar, KPK, Pakistan  
The present paper makes an attempt to examine how George Herbert Meade’s theory explains people’s use of symbols as a sense-making tool to elucidate the socialization process, role performance, identity, and meaning formation within the Igbo society for explaining various aspects of human life in the novel Things Fall Apart. This study is significant as it deals with character analysis of Okonkwo, to see how different roles of son, warrior, husband, father and a clansman are defined in Igbo culture during various phases of family and social life to clarify how Symbolic Interactionism has given a new impetus to see society, culture, psychology and relationships. It argues that the physical setting is significant to human behavior and human actions can be interpreted with the critical analysis of cultural symbols and the way they are deployed. It concludes that human behavior is based upon assigning meanings and their symbolic interpretations of the objects that surround them. The Symbolic Interactionist analysis of the novel clearly indicates that Okonkwo’s self and meaning formation is built on perceptions of the reactions of his clansman and his self-concept functions to direct his behavior. The development of different roles changes role and behavior patterns. The internal and external happenings influence role performance, conflict, struggle, and affect the nature, attitude, and self-image of Okonkwo. Moreover, it also affirms that the cultural symbols for honor, respect, and manliness etc. are not fixed naturally rather these are the constructions of the mind and are given meaning through interaction of the people. 
10 Investigating University Level Efl Undergraduate Learners’ Attitudes about Padlet: A Web-Based Digital Tool In Reading Classroom   , Usman Shah Toti & Majed Abahhussain  Department of English, College of Education, Majmaah University, Saudi Arabia  
The purpose of this mixed-method research was to assess the attitudes and perceptions of a sample of 21 University level Saudi Undergraduate EFL students at Majma University, Community College towards using Padlet as a collaborative web-based online digital tool in reading classroom. Participants were enrolled in reading introductory course. The research applied by the researcher was basically descriptive in nature and survey method for which students’ oriented set of questionnaire was designed. The questionnaire included 21 items related with respondents’ different categories of variable constructs on 5points likert scale. The research tools used for data collection were semi-structured interviews, researcher’s observation and a questionnaire. Data collected revealed that respondents indicated positive attitudes towards Padlet application in reading classroom. Maximum number of students enjoyed Padlet tool with great zeal. Furthermore, students valued the instructors’ feedback and peer discussion using Padlet.  
11 A Good Man is Easy to Find: Flannery O’Connor’s Theology of Death   , João Pedro Vala PhD Scholar at The University of Lisboa, Portugal  
The aim of this paper is to describe Flannery O’Connor’s stories as the repetition of a pattern that consists in, through sickness, changing good country people into good men. Therefore, sickness, in O’Connor’s oeuvre, has to be described as a blessing, an idea that the writer herself would gladly approve of. To prove it, this paper takes into consideration the way O’Connor described the debilitating disease that would end up by killing her. The usual portrait critics make of O’Connor’s work consists in randomly applying catchwords like South, Catholic or Grotesque. Contrarily to these critics’ description, the somehow systematic approach to O’Connor’s stories here proposed does not in any way serve to reduce and simplify the writer’s work, but to enhance its mystery and manners. What this paper tries to demonstrate is that, through the analysis of the plot of O’Connor’s short stories, we can have access to her personal theology. A theology that, although pictured so ghastly in tales full of rapes, delusions and murders, is profoundly optimistic. O’Connor’s aim as a writer is, thence, to prove that redemption and revelations are only dependent of an awareness regarding our own death, an awareness only sickness, in its many forms, can bring.   
12 Exploring the Id in Hemingway’s The Sun Also Rises (1926)   , Kiramatullah Lecturer in English, Qurtuba University, Peshawar  
This research paper focuses on exploring the id in Hemingway’s The Sun Also Rises (1926). From Freudian prospective, id, ego and superego are three parts of human psyche or mind. The id or pleasure principle is dominant throughout the novel. The instinctive and impulsive urges of the id ruin the ego and superego of the characters. As the characters strive to forget the traumatic past of the war, they indulge in excessive pleasure as free sex and excessive alcoholism. The deep trauma of war rooted in the unconscious of the characters, makes their lives like a hell. Consequently, the id strives for gratification and pleasure for removing the trauma from their minds. Brett, who is the heroine of the novel, falls to the urges of the id blindly. She recklessly indulges in free sex and excessive drinking. Similarly, Jake, Mike, Bill and Count always seek excessive pleasure in drinking. The characters search for pleasure is the unconscious urge for life instinct and psychic energy. The dominant id suppresses ego and superego as a result it creates neurotic anxieties in the characters.   
13 Free Verbal Repetition in Bronte’s Poetry   , Rabbia Khan COMSATS, Islamabad, Pakistan, bia_880@hotmail.com  
This paper attempts to analyze the use of free verbal repetition in Emily Bronte’s poems by using Leech’s classification. The aim of this linguistic analysis is to establish how different categories of verbal repetition contribute to the process of foregrounding’ of literary meanings and effects. To evaluate the functional value of these linguistic patterns, the approach of Fish (1980) and Toolan (1990) is also used. The study ends with the conclusion that the poet makes an extensive use of the device of free verbal repetition in two different kinds; both intermittent repetition and immediate repetition. The findings of this research reveal that Bronte uses more intermittent repetition than immediate ones. She uses these verbal repetitions to establish a threefold meaning, poetic, personal and symbolic of greater universal realities.   
14 Matrimonial Failure in George Eliot’s Middlemarch: through the perspective of Social Exchange Theory , Naveed-ur-Rehman Subject Specialist in English, Education Department, KPK, Pakistan  
This paper aims at to analyze the causes of matrimonial failure in George Eliot’s Middlemarch among the central couples: Casaubon and Dorothea and Dr. Lydgate and Rosamond _ by applying Social Exchange Theory and its principles (rewards and costs, Comparison level, relational resources, trust and commitment and marital solidarity), through which their causes of failure of conjugal relationship are meticulously analyzed, and not fulfilling of these cause failure and fragility in central marriages in the novel.   
15 Jokes are not Innocent: Representation of Punjabis in Pashto Jokes   , Muhammad Waqar Ali PhD scholar (Linguistics) and lecturer at the Department of English, Islamia College University Peshawar  
In this paper, the researcher analysed racist or ethnic jokes as a genre of discourse to investigate the issue of representation of Punjabis in Pashto jokes. The emphasis of the paper was on understanding stereotypes and symbols associated with the representation of Punjabis in Pashto jokes. The data for the study comprised oral jokes of Pakhtuns from Peshawar. The researcher followed John stone (2008) and Linde (1993) for discourse analysis of the jokes. Further, the researcherfollowed Althusser (1971) as theoretical framework to explain the reason(s) behind the way Pakhtuns present Punjabis in their jokes. At the end, the researcher concluded that ideology through cultural Ideological State Apparatus interpellates (i.e. calls out or hails) Pakhtuns as subjects.  
16 Facebook as a Language Learning Environment: A Descriptive Study on ESL Learners’ Perceptions   , Aakash Kumar (MPhil Scholar), Sukkur IBA University, Airport Road Sukkur #65200 Pakistan aakash.mphil18@iba-suk.edu.pk Dr. Hassan Syed Assistant Professor at Sukkur IBA University, Airport Road Sukkur #65200 Pakistan hassan.ali@iba-suk.edu.pk  
Social networking site like Facebook has been used as a modern source of communication and interaction. It also has the potential to be an effective academic too. This paper aims to present a comprehensive picture of what has already been discovered regarding Facebook as a language learning environment and it further tends to investigate ESL learners’ perceptions of Facebook as a language learning environment in Pakistani context particularly in Sindh. The sample who participated in this research were 100 higher secondary students studying in IBA-Public School Sukkur. The findings of this study revealed that the ESL learners in Sindh believe Facebook as a language learning environment helps to enhance language skills including reading, writing, vocabulary and grammar. Altogether students showed positive perceptions regarding this learning model. So, in light of the findings it is recommended for the Teachers teaching English as a second language in Sindh, Pakistan should plan their lessons that involve Facebook as a language learning platform.  
17 A Discourse Analysis of Canadian PM’s Speech after New Zealand Christchurch Mosque Shootings   , Muhammad Amjad RIPHAH International University Faisalabad, mamjadfsd@gmail.com  
We use language for different purposes that are mostly related to the social practices in different contexts and perspectives. Discourse analysis is one of the disciplines which examines the use of language from different perspectives to reach a possible understanding of the discourse. This paper is also an attempt to analyze language used in a particular context and perspective to understand and expose some constructed realities. The objective of this study is to examine the Canadian PM’s moral and ideological standpoint, his commitment to show solidarity with the grieved community, his determination to eradicate terrorism and his linguistic characterization of terrorism that he confirmed in his speech in the House of Common on March 18, 2019 after the Christchurch Mosque Shootings in New Zealand. The analysis is based on Fairclough’s conceptions in CDA. It claims that ideologies and texts are interrelated, and it is not possible to break this link between ideologies and texts because the texts can be interpreted in maximum possible ways. This study analyzes the components of ideology and persuasion used in Justin Trudeau’s speech to reveal his commitment and persuasive strategies against terrorism, and it gives new hopes to the targeted communities worldwide as well as the general public. He tried to ensure the public that they are not alone because the world leaders and the heads of the states are unconditionally united to eradicate worldwide terrorism.  
18 Relocating Aborigines in Sally Morgan’s My Place   , Azimullah Assistant Prof, Department of English, Abasyn University of Science and Information Technology, Peshawar Dr. Abdul Hamid Assistant Professor, Department of English, Qurtuba University, Peshawar Syed Hanif Rasool Assistant Professor, Department of English, Khushal Khan Khattak University, Karak
Sally Morgan’s novel My Place explicitly portrays the resistance of Aborigines subalterns against the prevailing social, economic, cultural and political issues. Focusing on identity, hybridity, ethnicity, and racism, the paper argues how Aborigines undergo social injustice, racial distortion, class disparity and adversarial displacement by Neo-colonialism. Investigating the Aborigines’ academic endeavours, genealogical suppressive destitutions, groundbreaking reattachment, matrilineal links, it is hypothesized that My Place foregrounds the contemporary status of modern Aboriginal Woman. Illustrating the Aborigines’ altruistic patriotism and excruciating their sufferings during Neo-colonialism in the novel, it is spotlighted how lost generation and stolen generation and extortive afflictions imposed on the Aborigines by the Whites in Australia have shaped the formers’ collective socio-cultural and political consciousness.  
19 Voice of Subalterns in Nepali Dohori Geets   , Dr. Ramesh Prasad Adhikary Assistant Professor (English) TU P. N. Campus, Pokhara, Nepal rameshadhikary29@gmail.com
This research paper is concerned with the question of the representation of subaltern classes--poor, Dalits, women and many other marginalized groups in Nepali Dohori’ Geets. By using the concept of subaltern studies and voice of the voiceless, it is studied about the voice of marginal groups and their representation in Nepali Dohori Geet. So, Dohori Geet, despite being orally transmitted as the part of entertainment programme also presents the social situation.  
20 On the Symbolism of Rain in A Farewell to Arms   , Mohammad Rahman Lecturer in English, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University Sheringal, Dir Upper, Pakistan,  rahmanmsw@gmail.com  
This paper critically analyzes the symbolic use of rain in A Farewell to Arms (1929). The researcher has applied Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis as a research tool for the analysis of the text. This hypothesis argues that the languages spoken by a person determines how one observes this world and that the peculiarities encoded in each language are all different from one another. It affirms that speakers of different languages reflect the world in pretty different ways. Hemingway’s symbolic use of rain in A Farewell to Arms (1929) is denotative, connotative and ironical. The narrator and protagonist, Frederick Henry symbolically embodies his own perceptions about the world around him. He time and again talks about rain when something embarrassing is about to ensue like disease, injury, arrest, retreat, defeat, escape and even death. Secondly, Hemingway has connotatively used rain as a cleansing agent for washing the past memories out of his mind. Finally, the author has ironically used rain as a symbol when Henry insists on his love with Catherine Barkley while the latter being afraid of the rain finds herself dead in it.  
21 Bacon’s “Envy”: An Evaluation of Punctuation   , Muhammad Waqar Ali PhD scholar (Linguistics) and lecturer at the Department of English Islamia College Peshawar  
Punctuation plays a pivotal role in enhancing comprehensibility of a text. It not   only abolishes ambiguity from the text but also adorns the individual style of the author. This paper analyses Bacon’s essay “Envy” evaluating the aberrant use of punctuation to understand its impact on holistic comprehension of the essay. Bacon has deviated in some punctuation marks in different situations. Most deviations occur in the use of the comma and the semicolon. The least deviations occur in the use of the period. Two explanations may be inferred from the analysis: First, what seems to be deviant in this regard was normal in his time; second, he deviates on purpose to make the long, complex sentence clear and easy for the reader.    
22 Ditransitive Verbs: An English Print Media based Comparison of Pakistani English and British English , Asadullah Balouch Lecturer, Army Public School & College Petaro, Sindh Pakistan Dr. Farida Panhwar Assistant Professor, Institute of English Language and Literature, University of Sindh Jamshoro Pakistan  
The present study highlights the ditransitive complementation between Pakistani English (PE) and British English (BE). The ditransitive verb complementation allows double objects in a sentence i.e. indirect object and direct object. Since the current study uses qualitative research methodology, a sample of 48 statements selected from these Pakistani Print Media sources: one newspaper, six daily magazines and two weekly magazines; eventually, 8 statements out of the 48 statements were only found suitable. Although, the findings of the present paper may be generalized as per the nature of study. Moreover, the retrieved data is analyzed in correspondence with the three patterns of ditransitive complementation of BE as introduced by Rahman (1990). Finally, the findings of the current study showed that PE utilizes infinitive phrase at the place of direct object; in view of second pattern PE leaves out indirect object and that clause remains the same between the two mentioned Englishes. Hence, in view of the third and last pattern, PE applies to infinitive in the place of indirect object and prepositional idiom. The study, hereby, has been successful in identifying the ditransitive complementation deviations between PE and BE.     
23 New World Order: Basra: A New Dawn in Electronic Literature   , Rabia Aamir Fellowship / Columbia University New York, USA  
In this age of techno globalization “contemporary artists, poets, and musicians [are] making imaginative use of algorithms to generate new works and taking advantage of communications networks to craft cyber textual projects or works in cross-media formats” (Burdick 8). It is one of these cyber textual projects and a cross media format that this article takes as case study to explore. Titled “New World Order: Basra”[i] by Sandy Baldwin, this cyber textual project integrates, apparently, two very different genres of expression, i.e. a poem and a typical game of shooting and hunting. The visual analysis of the electronic digital narrative titled “New World Order: Basra” by Sandy Baldwin entails different steps for this visual analysis; namely composition interpretation, Semiology, and Discourse Analysis, discussed here shortly.      
24 Satire and Realism in Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice: an Interpretative Analysis   , 1Aziz Ahmad (corresponding author) Assistant professor Department of English University of Malakand azizuom@yahoo.com   2Dr. Tariq Khan Assistant professor Department of English University of Malakand Tariqkhan1975@gmail.com   3Naseer Ahmad M. Phil Scholar Islamic International University Naseerqazi7@gmail.com  
Jane Austen is acknowledged for the application of realism and satire in her novels. This paper focuses on the analysis of realism and satire in Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice; however, her entire oeuvre spotlights the features (of satire and realism) alongside robust feminism: typical of her literary taste and temperament, not necessarily of the Romantic Age which she lived in. Rigorous analysis and realistic observation reveals that the employment of realism and satire in Pride and Prejudice, are quite obvious, in all sorts of aspects including narrative, settings, themes and characters. Analysis of the novel under study leads to the observation that satire and realism go hand in hand in the said novel—intermittently—and thoughtfully. Conclusively, it is observed that Jane Austen’s literary life had a tremendous influence on how to subsume realism (primarily through matrimonies) of age and satire on a romantic society (whereby ideals collapse headlong), in Pride and Prejudice.  
25 British Council’s English for Academic Purposes (EAP) Students’ Manual: A Critical Analysis of the Coursebook Taught at Pakistani Universities   , Abdul Qadar Lecturer in English, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University Sheringal, Pakistan                                                                            abdulqadar143@gmail.com  
English for Academic Purposes course focusing on the academic language needs of students is a subfield of English for Specific Purposes (ESP). It is a type of specialized course to integrate specific subject matter, language content, and material based on learners’ needs. The study aims to evaluate the British Council’s English for Academic Purposes (EAP) coursebook in terms of content, sequencing, learners’ autonomy, motivation, feedback and focus on language skills. Furthermore, the study tries to provide a general perception of the usefulness and effectiveness of the coursebook for undergraduate students. The EAP Students’ Manual coursebook is used as a primary source for the data collection. The researcher has chosen Nation & Macalister (2010) model of language teaching principles to analyze and discuss the data. The study found the coursebook a useful, effective and an appropriate source of English language learning in terms of the investigated aspects of the book. The findings report that the coursebook provides practice and practical usage in all domains of the academically required English language skills. It helps the students to build language competency and to be more independent learners. In addition, it provides an opportunity to the learners to think in the target language, use the language more practically and learn it in a natural type of environment. The study concludes and suggests that the content needs to be supplemented with English language audios and videos presenting the students relevant documentaries and helping material in order to make the coursebook and the learning process more useful, effective, interesting and motivating.  Furthermore, the study recommends that while choosing /designing a coursebook for a certain course, it needs to be evaluated following the various criteria and language-teaching-principles suggested by different language researchers.  
26 Analytical Study of Violence Theme in Victoria Schwab’s This Savage Song   , Muntazar Mehdi Assistant Professor, NUML, Islamabad, Pakistan, mmehdi@numl.edu.pk Muhammad Abdullah PhD Scholar, NUML, Islamabad, Pakistan, abdullahbaig09@gmail.com Saadia Khan BS English Literature, NUML, Islamabad, Pakistan, sadia.khan0139@gmail.com  
This research article focuses on the theme of violence and its representation by the characters of the novel “This Savage Song” by Victoria Schwab. How violence is transmitted through genes to next generations and to what extent socio- psycho factors are involved in it, has also been discussed. Similarly, in what manner violent events and deeds by the parents affect the psychology of children and how it inculcates aggressive behaviour in their minds has been studied. What role is played by the parents in grooming the personality of children and ultimately their decisions to choose the right or wrong way has been argued. In the light of the theory of Judith Harris, this research paper highlights all the phenomena involved: How the social hierarchy controls the behaviour.  In addition, the aggressive approach of the people in their lives has been analyzed in the light of the study of second theorist Thomas W Blume. As the novel is a unique representation of supernatural characters, the monsters, which are the products of some cruel deeds, this research paper brings out different dimensions of human sufferings with respect to these supernatural beings. Moreover, the researcher also discusses that, in what manner the curse of violence creates an inevitable vicious cycle of cruel monsters that makes the life of the characters turbulent and miserable.  
27 Determination of Socio-economic Conditions through Wealth and Material Possessions: A Marxist Critique of Mansfield’s Doll’s House , Sidra Ahmad Foundation University, Islamabad, Pakistan  
The current paper talks about the unavoidable class system that we all are entrapped in. The basic issue lies in the fact that the society we live in and grow operates on the system of class consciousness. The rich /bourgeoisie class uses and abuses the low or poor class to get their work done, whereas the poor or the proletariat has no choice except to be manipulated by the rich class for the cost of labor, for they know that their survival lies in manipulation. It has become an accepted phenomenon that the rich class/bourgeoisie exploits the poor class for their needs and desires. The rich class has become totally dependent on the proletariat and they know they cannot move without them. As the society is designed and planned on unequal footings so, on the one hand, the rich class has found a medium to exploit the labor class but at the same time the proletariat are not allowed to interact with them and furthermore there is bleak chance of their unification as the lower/labor class is itself a stigma in the eyes of the bourgeoisie.  
28 A Review Of Second Language Teaching And Learning Through Short Fiction And Communicative Approach   , Dr. Tariq Lecturer in English University of Malakand Mr.Saddam Hussain Lecturer in English University of Malakand Dr. Shaukat Ali Assistant Professor of English, University of Malakand  
This paper examines the potential role of literature and Communicative Approach in teaching second language (SL). This paper mainly focuses on digging out the prospective role of literature and Communicative Approach in teaching SL. Analysis of  past studies indicate that teacher usually recourse to Grammar Translation Method for teaching  of English language, for this method needs little endeavor and supplementary materials[1]. The reviewed literature has found that this method is ineffective and futile.  To critically examine the potential role of literature in combination with Communicative Approach in teaching SL, this paper tries to unearth the current literature and investigates the relevant research works carried out on the importance of exploiting Literature and Communicative Approach for teaching of English language. The present paper found that using literature and communicative approach for teaching of SL is more effective and productive than GTM. In the light of findings of this study, it is recommended that teachers of L2 need to exploit literature and employ Communicative Approach for teaching of second language.  
29 A Psychological Journey Of Optimistic/Pessimistic Cycle In The Fault In Our Stars , Muntazar Mehdi Assistant Professor of English, NUML, Islamabad, Pakistan mmehdi@numl.edu.pk Hafsa Azhar MPhil Scholar, NUML Islamabad, Pakistan  
This paper attempts to explore the presence of Freud’s psychoanalytical tools- id, ego and superego and their role in determining the protagonists’ optimistic/pessimistic cycle towards life. The researcher has applied Psychoanalysis theory of Sigmund Freud to analyse the novel. The research has successfully revealed application of Freudian psychoanalytical tools. Moreover, the researcher has also unveiled the psychological drives which were evident during the optimistic/pessimistic cycle of protagonists’ lives. The researcher has concluded her research on the ground which illustrates when protagonists were having positive approach towards life, the working of superego in their life was indicated and while having pessimistic approach in their life witnessed the presence of id.  
30 Stylistic Analysis of the E. E. Cummings’ “Humanity I Love You”   , Abdul Majid Department of English, Kohat University of Science and Technology, KP, Pakistan Syed Hanif Rasool Assistant Professor, Department of English, Khushal Khan Khattak University, Karak, KP, Pakistan Azimullah Lecturer, Department of English, Hazara University, K.P. Pakistan  
This study deals with stylistic analysis of E.E. Cummings’s poem "Humanity i love you". This study is dealt under the level of lexicology, graphology and the parallelism in stylistics. Qualitative method has been applied in the analysis of the poem in which the data are collected from primary, secondary and tertiary sources. The analysis of these features is helpful to comprehend the basic theme of the poem that is completely sarcasm and irony. The first free clause "Humanity i love you" repeats several times ironically in the poem but at the end of the poem this structural repetition is being juxtaposed and parallelized with what the poet actually wants to say “Humanity i hate you”.  
31 Needs Analysis and Teachers’ Perceptions: A Study of English Undergraduate Students   , Abdul Qadar Abdul Qadar, Lecturer in English, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University Sheringal, Pakistan. abdulqadar143@gmail.com Mohammad Rahman Mohammad Rahman, Lecturer in English, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University Sheringal, Pakistan. rahmanmsw@gmail.com Jawad Ur Rehman Jawad Ur Rehman, Lecturer in English, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University Sheringal, Pakistan. jawad.sbbu@gmail.com  
Needs Analysis in the context of language-learning-teaching is an important process to design a certain course and syllabus. It helps course designers to set objectives, choose content, method of instruction, appropriate teaching aids and classroom activities for different courses. This paper reports the perceptions of the researchers on the English language learning needs of the English undergraduate students of Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University Sheringal, Pakistan. The data is based on the researchers’ personal experience and a first-hand observation of the population as the researchers have been teaching in the target context for about a decade. Furthermore, the researchers have always been in discussion with their students and colleagues about the target students’ English leaning needs, preferred learning styles, motivation in learning English, interest, strengths/weaknesses, and attitude toward English learning in the target setting. Learners’ assignments, exam answer sheets, and presentations have also been used is a source of data collection. A needs analysis model proposed by Hutchinson and Waters (1987) has been applied in order to analyze the data. The results show that the students lack well grammatical sentences, have poor spellings, capitalization problems, limited vocabulary, unaware of collocations, poor/slow reading comprehension, and lack of effective presentation skills. Furthermore, most of the students have lack of involvement in classroom activities and feel shy in speaking English language. It was reported that provision of authentic material, interesting activities, suitable audio-visual aids, relevant texts, language labs and other logistic arrangements can better help them in learning English language. The findings demonstrate that the students wished to have a learner-centered-course which helps them excel in their academic life and learning English language.  
32 English as a Tool of British Political and Linguistic Imperialism in Chinua Achebe’s A Man of the People   , Naeema Shah M. Phil Scholar, Sardar Bahadur Khan Women University, Balochistan anzalnashah@gmail.com  
The spread of English is considered as a tool of British political and linguistic imperialism in effects of globalization. Kachrus Three Circle model of World Englishes has always played significant role in the categorization of  the spread of English. This model is always used as an important tool to critically analyze the distributed circle of English speaking regions in the world where English is dominant over other languages and cultures. In the present study the outer circle from Kachrus model is focused. A Man of the People by Chinua Achebe has been analysed through the lens of Kachrus Three Circle Model of World Englishes. The study finds that the spread of English is basically a tool used for homogenized attack by British imperialism in order to subdue other cultures, politically and linguistically.  
33 A Comparative Analysis of the Poetics of Anger in John Osborne’s Look Back in Anger and Femi Osofisan’s The Chattering and the Song   , Bosede Funke Afolayan (Ph.D.) Department of English,University of Lagos, Nigeria bafolayan@unilag.edu.ng  
Anger is a basic human emotion which has a force for constructive or destructive ends. Its expression in any circumstance can be a trigger for a desire to change a prevailing situation. In all cases, anger is a fundamental component of art. This study examines the use of anger in Osborne’s Look Back in Anger and Osofisan’s The Chattering and the Song. Osborne and Osofisan are two writers who are very anxious to change their societies through their art. In spite of differences in their origin (Osborne was a Briton while Osofisan is a Nigerian), they wrote at a time of certain social and political upheavals in their countries. They also share similar concerns and attitude towards art. My focus in this paper is on the early plays of Osborne and Osofisan where anger is strongest and where their artistic triumph is most poignant. Working within the formalist approach, the paper reveals that in Osborne and Osofisan, extreme anger is both material and style and is what marks their art out. The reification by the intellect provides a potent instrument for investigating society. Anger becomes the point of departure for their art, it is not mere hysterics but a cerebral one and it is the motivating force for their writings.  
34 Borrowing As A Tool To Fill The Ideological Thoughts: The Role Of Code-Mixing In An American Brat  By Bapsi Sidhwa And The Escape By Qaisra Shiraz   , Mirza Noman Shamas Department of English Language and Literature, University of Lahore Gujrat Campus mnomans761@gmail.com Zobia Ehsan Department of English Language and Literature, University of Lahore Gujrat Campus zobiaehsan@gmail.com
This research article highlights the temperament, inference, scope, and motives of code mixing in Pakistani English works. One novel from Pakistani English novels namely, An American Brat by Bapsi Sidhwa and one short story namely, The Escape by Qaisra Shehraz are being selected as an illustration of this reading. In this novel and short story the writers have already dealt with the characteristics of post colonialism. English language and literature pierced into the privileged civilizations of the sub-continent, after the end of British Imperialism. Pakistani writers in English are the best interpreter of the post-colonial communal language. In this study, I have hit upon code mixing in English works written by Pakistani authors to a bigger echelon. These works are paragons of arts and the unbelievable mixture of rhetorical and fictitious study. In these works the writers have not abased the confined diversities. They have tinted the value of Pakistani English in order to achieve the chatty desires of native people. These borrowings from the native languages are used to fill the lexical fissures of ideological thoughts. The reason of these borrowings is not to represent the English as substandard assortment. Through the utilization of native words we conclude that the significance of native languages has been tinted to question mark the dialect as well. The words of daily use also have an area of research for English people without having any substitute in English. That’s why in English literature innovative practices and ideas of code-mixing have been employed.  
35 Borrowing As A Tool To Fill The Ideological Thoughts: The Role Of Code-Mixing In An American Brat  By Bapsi Sidhwa And The Escape By Qaisra Shiraz   , Mirza Noman Shamas Department of English Language and Literature, University of Lahore Gujrat Campus mnomans761@gmail.com Zobia Ehsan Department of English Language and Literature, University of Lahore Gujrat Campus zobiaehsan@gmail.com
This research article highlights the temperament, inference, scope, and motives of code mixing in Pakistani English works. One novel from Pakistani English novels namely, An American Brat by Bapsi Sidhwa and one short story namely, The Escape by Qaisra Shehraz are being selected as an illustration of this reading. In this novel and short story the writers have already dealt with the characteristics of post colonialism. English language and literature pierced into the privileged civilizations of the sub-continent, after the end of British Imperialism. Pakistani writers in English are the best interpreter of the post-colonial communal language. In this study, I have hit upon code mixing in English works written by Pakistani authors to a bigger echelon. These works are paragons of arts and the unbelievable mixture of rhetorical and fictitious study. In these works the writers have not abased the confined diversities. They have tinted the value of Pakistani English in order to achieve the chatty desires of native people. These borrowings from the native languages are used to fill the lexical fissures of ideological thoughts. The reason of these borrowings is not to represent the English as substandard assortment. Through the utilization of native words we conclude that the significance of native languages has been tinted to question mark the dialect as well. The words of daily use also have an area of research for English people without having any substitute in English. That’s why in English literature innovative practices and ideas of code-mixing have been employed.