Low-Cost Jute-Cotton and Glass Fibre Reinforced Textile Composite Sheet
Md. Moslem Uddin1, Rezaul Karim2, M A Kaysar1, Md. Anisur Rahman Dayan1, and Kazi Asraful Islam2*
1Textile Physics Division, Bangladesh Jute Research Institute, Dhaka-1707, Bangladesh; and 2Department of Textile Engineering, Sonargaon University, Dhaka-1212, Bangladesh
Composite material is a single structure composed of two or more materials with identifiable interfaces at multi-scales to get properties that are superior to those of its constituents. Composites are designed to get unique mechanical properties and superior performance characteristics that are not possible with any of its component material alone. An experimental work was done at Textile Physics Division of BJRI, Bangladesh, in 2019 for the manufacture of jute, cotton and glass fire reinforced composite corrugated sheet suitable for roofing in poultry and rural housing. For the investigation jute, cotton and glass fibre were used like as reinforcing material and polyester resin were used like as matrix material. This paper reports the findings of an experimental investigation conducted on the engineering properties of jute, cotton and glass fibre reinforced composite corrugated sheet. Different fabric design and volume fractions were used as reinforcement for corrugated sheet to determine the physical, mechanical and thermal properties of the composite. The results of this investigation have showed the feasibility of the use of jute fibre for producing low cost housing materials.
Fitting ARIMA Model and Forecasting for the Tea Production, and Internal Consumption of Tea (Per year) and Export of Tea
Md. Aliul Islam1*, Mst. Sharmin Akter Sumy1, Md. Alhaz Uddin2, and Md. Sazzad Hossain1
1Dept. of Statistics, Islamic University, Jhenidah-Kushtia, Bangladesh; and 2Dept. of Statistics, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
Every year, in Bangladesh the production has increased by 1.84 % and contributes 1.37 in export in the word tea trade and earns nearing 1775 million Taka. The internal consumers of the country are presently consuming about 98% of its produce. The consumption is increasing day by day mainly due to the rapid increase in population. This study considered the published secondary data of yearly tea production in Bangladesh over the period 1990 to 2015 by the Bangladesh Tea Board. We are forecasting the production of tea and internal consumption of tea by using Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) for the next 5 years. Run test, Jarque and Bera test criteria are used for the adequacy of the fitted model which followed by the residual analysis. The comparison between the original series and forecasted series are showing the same trends which indicate the fitted model is statistically well and appropriate for the forecast the productions of tea in Bangladesh.
First Principles Study of Structural, Elastic, Electronic and Optical Features of the Non-centrosymmetric Superconductors SrMGe3 (Where M= Ir, Pt, and Pd)
Mst. Jannatul Naefa1, and Md. Atikur Rahman2*
1&2Department of Physics, Pabna University of Science and Technology, Pabna-6600, Bangladesh.
*Correspondence: email@example.com (Md. Atikur Rahman, Assistant Professor, Dept. of Physics, Pabna University of Science and Technology, Pabna, Bangladesh).
BaNiSn3-type superconductors SrIrGe3, SrPdGe3 and SrPtGe3 have the critical temperature of 1.80 K, 1.49K and 1.0K respectively have been reported recently. Employing the first-principles method based on the density function theory, we have examined the physical properties including structural, elastic, electronic and optical phenomena of all these structures. For all the phases our optimized lattice parameters are well accord to the experimental lattice parameters. The positive elastic constants of these compounds revealed that these superconductors possess the mechanical stability in nature. The values of Pugh’s ratio and Poisson’s ratio ensured the brittle manner of these compounds and anisotropic behavior is ensured by the values of anisotropy factor. The soft nature of all compounds is confirmed by the bulk modulus analysis. The values of Vickers hardness indicate that the rigidity decreased in the order of SrIrGe3>SrPtGe3>SrPdGe3. The overlapping of the conduction band and valence band at Fermi level indicates the zero band gaps and metallic nature of SrIrGe3, SrPdGe3 and SrPtGe3. The chief contribution around the Fermi level arises from Ir-5d, Ge-4s, 4p states for SrIrGe3 and Ge-4s, 4p states for SrPdGe3 and Pt-5d, Ge-4s, 4p for SrPtGe3 compound. The study of DOS, Mulliken atomic populations and charge density ensured the existing of complex bonding in SrIrGe3, SrPdGe3 and SrPtGe3 with ionic, covalent and metallic characteristics. The analysis of the dielectric function also ensured the metallic behavior of all these compounds.
Influence of High Power Nd: YAG Laser on Hardness and Surface Properties of Zirconium Silicate
Alaa Salahaldin Awadala1, Ahmed Elhassan Elfaky1, and Ali A. S. Marouf2*
1Department of Physics, College of Science, Sudan University of Science and Technology, Khartoum, Sudan; 2Department of Laser Engineering and Industrial Applications, Institute of Laser, Sudan University of Science and Technology, Khartoum, Sudan.
*Correspondence: firstname.lastname@example.org (Ali A. S. Marouf, Associate Professor, Department of Laser Engineering and Industrial Applications, Sudan University of Science and Technology, Sudan).
Different parameters like irradiated area, irradiation time, laser wavelength, pulse energy, and the nature of the irradiated material determine largely the effect of the laser-matter interaction. In this, study the influence of high power Nd: YAG laser irradiation on the hardness and surface properties of zirconium silicate (ZrSiO4) ceramics was investigated. Specimens of zirconium ceramic pieces were divided into four samples depend on irradiation duration as follows: one reference sample and three samples treated with Nd: YAG laser at irradiation times vary from 3 to 5 minutes. The irradiation was done with 60 W output power. The hardness and tensile strength were determined and the optical properties were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, also EDX spectra were carried out. The obtained results revealed that high power (60 W) Nd: YAG laser provides higher hardness compared to the reference sample surface. Increasing irradiation time resulted in the higher hardness of the ceramic surfaces. EDX results showed that laser irradiation does not change the chemical surface composition of ceramics. Moreover, increase in transmittance of the irradiated zirconium silicate in the visible and near-infrared range was also found using UV-vis spectroscopy.
MHD Free Convective Heat Transfer in a Triangular Enclosure Filled with Copper-Water Nanofluid
Tarikul Islam1*, Nahida Akter2, and Nusrat Jahan3
1&2Department of Mathematics, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Science and Technology University, Gopalganj, Bangladesh; 3Department of Science and Humanity, Bangladesh Army International University of Science and Technology, Cumilla, Bangladesh.
Two-dimensional time independent free convective flow and temperature flow into a right-angled triangle shape cavity charged by Cu-H2O nanofluid has been performed. The horizontal side of the enclosure is warmed uniformly T=Th whilst the standing wall is cooled at low temperature T-Tc and hypotenuse of the triangular is insulated. The dimensionless non-linear governing PDEs have been solved numerically employing the robust PDE solver the Galerkin weighted residual finite element technique. An excellent agreement is founded between the previous, and present studies. The outcomes are displayed through streamline contours, isotherm contours, and local and average Nusselt number for buoyancy-driven parameter Rayleigh number, Hartmann number, and nanoparticles volume fraction. The outcomes show that the temperature flow value significantly changes for the increases of Rayleigh number, Hartmann number , and nanoparticles volume fraction. Average Nusselt number is increased for the composition of nanoparticles whereas diminishes with the increase of Hartmann number.
A Critical Exploration of Some Fundamental Terms and Terminologies in Statistics
M A Jalil1 and Md. Jamil Hasan Karami 2*
1&2Department of Statistics, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
*Correspondence: email@example.com (Dr. Md. Jamil Hasan Karami, Associate Professor, Department of Statistics, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh).
This article focuses on the understanding of definitions of several widely used statistical terms such as degrees of freedom, locations, range, dispersion, grouped and ungrouped data. The terms have been redefined along with examples so that they stand alone to express their meaning. In this article, a new term ‘the smallest unit’ in a statistical sense has been defined and illustrated in some instances. It is also indicated how statisticians or practitioners of statistics are using it knowingly or unknowingly. We have mentioned the application of the smallest unit in the classification of data. Moreover, the concept of the smallest unit has been synced with the definition of sample range so that the range can cover the entire space of values. Therefore, the proposed sample range can now better approximate the population range. We have shown that researchers can end up with misleading result if they treat a dataset as an ungrouped data when it is truly a grouped data. This has been discussed in the computation of different percentiles. Moreover, the crux of the definition of degrees of freedom and dispersion has been pointed out which has helped repelled the confusion behind these terms. We have shown how the concept of linearly independent pieces of information is related to the definition of degrees of freedom. We have also emphasized not to mix the definition of standard deviation and/or variance with the whole concept of dispersion because the former is merely a single measure among many measures of the latter.
First Principles Study on the Structural, Elastic, Electronic and Optical Properties of Cubic ‘Half-Heusler’ Alloy RuVAs Under Pressure
Farhana Mostari1, Md. Atikur Rahman2*, Rukayia Khatun3
1,2&3Department of Physics, Pabna University of Science and Technology, Pabna-6600, Bangladesh.
*Correspondence: firstname.lastname@example.org (Md. Atikur Rahman, Assistant Professor, Department of Physics, Pabna University of Science and Technology, Pabna, Bangladesh).
The pressure effect (0 to 40 GPa) on the structural, elastic, electronic and optical properties of half-metallic compound RuVAs has been investigated employing the DFT based on the first-principles method. The CASTEP computer code is used for this investigation. The calculated lattice parameter show slide deviation from the synthesized and other theoretical data. The normalized lattice parameter and volume are decreased with increasing pressure. The zero pressure elastic constants and also the pressure-dependent elastic constants are positive up to 40 GPa and satisfy the Born stability condition which ensured that the compound RuVAs is stable in nature. At zero pressure, the electronic band gap of 0.159 eV is observed from the band structure calculations which ensured the semimetallic nature of RuVAs. No band gap is observed in the electronic band structure at 40 GPa which indicates the occurrence of phase transition of compound RuVAs at this pressure. We have calculated the value of bulk modulus B, shear modulus G, Young’s modulus E, Pugh ratio B/G, Poisson’s ratio ν and anisotropy factor A of this compound by using the Voigt-Reuss-Hill (VRH) averaging scheme under pressure. The bulk modulus shows a linear response to pressure so that the hardness of this material is increased with increasing pressure. Furthermore the optical properties such as reflectivity, absorptivity, conductivity, dielectric constant, refractive index and loss function of RuVAs were evaluated and discussed under pressure up to 40 GPa.
Prediction of Banking Sectors Financial Data of Dhaka Stock Exchange Using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) Approach
Md. Farhad Hossain1*, Dulal Chandra Nandi1, and Kazi Mohammed Kamal Uddin2
1Department of Statistics, Comilla University, Cumilla, Bangladesh; and 2Department of Economics, Comilla University, Cumilla, Bangladesh.
*Correspondence: email@example.com (Md. Farhad Hossain, Assistant Professor, Department of Statistics, Comilla University, Cumilla, Bangladesh).
This paper investigates the predictability with the banking sector data of the Dhaka Stock Exchange (DSE) by using the Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) process. Through different formal tests on the data set, the best-fitted model selected was ARIMA (0,2,1) for the data series. This study was select five banks from DSE such as Al-Arafah bank limited, EXIM bank limited, Islami bank limited, National bank limited, and one bank limited and use these data to train the model and checks the predictive power of the model. Only analyzed results of Al-Arafah bank limited are presented in this paper because the same results have been produced for other remaining companies. The obtained results show that all the companies closing stock prices are non-stationary. It is also found that the original value curve and the predicted value curve are very much identical. So, the fitted model is performed better. For the validity of the model, the root means squared error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE) and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) were checked.
Synthesis, Characterization and Pressure Effect on Structural and Mechanical Properties of MgBi2O6: Solid-State Route and DFT Study
Md. Atikur Rahman1*, Md. Afjalur Rahman2, and Abdur Razzaque Sarker3
1,2Department of Physics, Pabna University of Science and Technology, Pabna-6600, Bangladesh; and 3Department of Physics, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6205, Bangladesh.
*Correspondence: firstname.lastname@example.org (Md. Atikur Rahman, Assistant Professor, Department of Physics, Pabna University of Science and Technology, Pabna, Bangladesh).
Here we have prepared good quality crystalline sample MgBi2O6 employing the solid state reaction technique. The synthesized material was characterized by XRD and SEM (scanning electron microscopy). The structural study confirmed that MgBi2O6 possesses tetragonal crystal configuration (JCPDS PDF#, No. 86-2492) with outstanding crystallinity and a grain size between 200 to 350 nm. The temperature dependence electrical resistivity and conductivity were measured by two probe methods and ensured the semiconducting nature of this material. Using the impedance analyzer and UV-visible spectrophotometer we studied the experimental electronic and optical properties of this material. To explore the hypothetical features of MgBi2O6 we have used first principles methods which depend on CASTEP code. The band structure analysis also ensured the semiconducting nature of MgBi2O6 with small band gap of 0.12 eV. The semiconducting behavior of MgBi2O6 with band gap of 0.12 eV was also observed by the band structure analysis. The Born’s stability criteria were fulfilled by the investigated elastic constants and ensured the stable nature of MgBi2O6. The response of structural and mechanical properties with pressure of MgBi2O6 was discussed in details. We have also studied the hypothetical optical properties of MgBi2O6 by CASTEP code.
The Metric of Space-Time Curvature in a Weak Gravitational Field and it’s Consequence in Newtonian Approximation
Md. Ashik Iqbal1*, Al Mahmud Al Mamun2, Md. Rasel Hossain3, and Md. Kamrul Hassan2
1Dept. of Applied Mathematics, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh, 2Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering, Islamic University, Bangladesh; and 3Dept. of Statistics, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Noakhali, Bangladesh.
*Correspondence: email@example.com (Md. Ashik Iqbal, Dept. of Applied Mathematics, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh).
In Newtonian mechanics, space and time are separate but in General Relativity is unified. It is considered that the space in the weak-field approximation is quasi-static and it arises from a perfect field whose particles have very small velocity in comparison to light velocity in this coordinate system and the metric is a gravitational potential tensor of rank two which implies the field of empty space. If each point of an area in N-dimensional space there existed a corresponding definite tensor, where the components of the tensor are the function of space and space acts as the strong or weak gravitational field.
Efficient Water Management and Selection of Cooling System for Future NPP in Bangladesh
Md. Rakibul Hasan1*, K M Rezaur Rahman2, Md. Bodhroddoza Shohag1, and M. Mezbah Uddin1
1Center for Research Reactor, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Ganakbari, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh and 2International Affairs Division, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, E-12/A, Agargaon, Sher-e-Bangla Nagar, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
*Correspondence: firstname.lastname@example.org (Md. Rakibul Hasan, Senior Engineer, Center for Research Reactor, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Ganakbari, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh).
Water withdrawal today presents a vital issue for Bangladesh to build a new nuclear power plant (NPP) as the country has a deficit in its water resources. It is an issue that may create conflict among the socio-economic activities that require and depend on the water like agriculture that mostly depends on river and ground water. Very recently nuclear power has come into focus during debates on energy generation, often in relation to wider issues such as global warming and climate change. According to Power System Master Plan (PSMP) 2016 of the Government of Bangladesh, it is estimated that a capacity of 7200 MWe of electricity may be generated from nuclear power by 2041 (PSMP, 2016). The government of Bangladesh has already started the construction work of 2400 MWe Rooppur NPP and planning to construct more units of NPPs in the future to fulfill the planning of PSMP 2016. Usually, water is used as a coolant for most of the commercial NPP designed in the present world. In this paper, a study has been performed about the estimation of both the needs for cooling water and other essential systems for a future NPP in Bangladesh using IAEA’s Water Management Program (WAMP). Moreover, the selection of cooling systems by evaluating three different criteria: water resource, environment, and economics, has also been performed during this study.
An Execution of a Mathematical Example Using Euler’s Phi-Function in Hill Chiper Cryptosystem
Mohiuddin Ahmed1* and Md. Ashik Iqbal1
1Faculty Member in Mathematics, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, North Western University (NWU), Khulna, Bangladesh.
*Correspondence: email@example.com (Mohiuddin Ahmed, Faculty Member in Mathematics, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, NWU, Khulna, Bangladesh).
In this article, we have explained the RSA public-key cryptosystem initiate by Rivest and Hill Chiper cryptosystem initiate by Lester. Hill for coding and decoding the text. To explain these we apply the Euler-phi function, congruence, and simple Matrix Application in cryptography to decode and encode the message. In our analyses, we were collaborated two cryptosystems which is more assured than standard cryptographic process such as Ceaser cipher. We apply both secret-key cryptography and public-key cryptography which differ from standard cryptography. In our presentation, we use two keys for coding and two for decoding.
Cooperative Spectrum Sensing with Selection Diversity Reception in Cognitive Radio
Md. Farukuzzaman Khan1 and Mohammad Alamgir Hossain2*
1&2Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Islamic University (IU), Jhenidah-Kushtia, Bangladesh.
*Correspondence: firstname.lastname@example.org (Mohammad Alamgir Hossain, Assistant Professor, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, IU, Jhenidah-Kushtia, Bangladesh).
Spectrum sensing is the key component of cognitive radio technology. But, detection is compromised when a user reports shadowing or fading consequences. In such instances, the customer cannot apprehend between an unexploited band and a profound fade. Hence, communal spectrum sensing is suggested to optimize sensing overall performance. We recognition performance of communal Spectrum Sensing with Selection Diversity Reception in Cognitive Radio. This study presents a simulation evaluation of choice diversity Reception based totally on fusion rule. Fusion rule is finished at the fusion centre (FC) to make the very last selection about the presence of PU. This leads that spectrum sensing is enthusiastically in the presence of Rayleigh.
A Comparative Study on Classical Fourth Order and Butcher Sixth Order Runge-Kutta Methods with Initial and Boundary Value Problems
Mst. Sharmin Banu1*, Irfan Raju2, and Samiran Mondal1
1Department of Mathematics, Jashore University of Science and Technology, Jashore, Bangladesh; and 2Department of Arts and Sciences, Bangladesh Army University of Science and Technology, Saidpur, Bangladesh.
*Correspondence: email@example.com (Mst. Sharmin Banu, Lecturer, Department of Mathematics, Jashore University of Science and Technology, Jashore, Bangladesh).
In this paper, it is discussed about Runge-Kutta fourth-order method and Butcher Sixth order Runge-Kutta method for approximating a numerical solution of higher-order initial value and boundary value ordinary differential equations. The proposed methods are most efficient and extolled practically for solving these problems arising indifferent sector of science and engineering. Also, the shooting method is applied to convert the boundary value problems to initial value problems. Illustrative examples are provided to verify the accuracy of the numerical outcome and compared the approximated result with the exact result. The approximated results are found in good agreement with the result of the exact solution and firstly converge to more accuracy in the solution when step size is very small. Finally, the error with different step sizes is analyzed and compared to these two methods.
Enhance the LZW Compression Ratio Through the Use of Image Preprocessing Techniques for Gray Scale Images
Negesse Tadesse1*, Abebe Alemu1, and Abay Teshager1
1Dept. of Information Technology, Faculty of Informatics, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.
*Correspondence: firstname.lastname@example.org (Negesse Tadesse, Dept. of Information Technology, Faculty of Informatics, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia).
Compression ratios of encoding algorithms degrade due to signal distortion, additive noise, and hacker manipulation. Large file size costs too much disk space, difficult to analyze, and high bandwidth to transmit over the internet. In this case, compression is mandatory. LZW is a general dictionary-based lossless compression algorithm. It is fast, simple, and efficient when it includes lots of repetitive data or monochrome images. Images with little data repetition and too much-blurred signal, the compression ratio of the LZW algorithm downgraded. Besides this, the execution time of the LZW compression algorithm increases dramatically. To preprocess and analyze the image information the researcher uses LZW encoding algorithm, bit plane slicing technique, Adaptive Median Filter, and MATLAB image processing toolbox. The MATLAB public grayscale image, salt & pepper, Gaussian locavore blurred, and Bayern pattern image data sets are used. Those images dataset is used to test the normal LZW encoding algorithm and the proposed encoding algorithm compression ratio step by step. The noised dataset, the filtered datasets, and bit plane dataset images are processed and recorded quality and compression ratio parameters. The enhanced encoding algorithm average compression ratio is better by far from the normal LZW encoding algorithm by 160%. Not only has the compression ratio, but demising also improved the algorithms execution time. And the image quality metrics measurement of mean square error, peak signal to noise ratio, and structural similarity index measurement are 0, 99, and 1 respectively. This implies the enhanced encoding algorithm could decompress fully without scarifying image quality. The LZW encoding algorithm developmental environment specifies to select tiff and gif image formats. In addition, the LZW encoding algorithm functions are not available in the MATLAB image processing toolbox. The researcher challenged to write a MATLAB script for each personal function. Still, there is room to extend the compression ratio of the LZW encoding algorithm using the image masking technique.
Effect of Shift Parameters in Rational Krylov Subspace Method for Solving Riccati Equations Arise from Power System Models
Mahtab Uddin1&3*, M. Monir Uddin2, and Md. Abdul Hakim Khan3
1Institute of Natural Sciences, United International University, Dhaka-1212, Bangladesh; 2Department of Mathematics and Physics, North South University, Dhaka-1229, Bangladesh; and 3Department of Mathematics, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh.
*Correspondence: email@example.com (Mahtab Uddin, Assistant Professor, Institute of Natural Sciences, United International University, Dhaka-1212, Bangladesh).
The simulation of continuous-time algebraic Riccati equations (CARE) derived from the very large power system models is a highly laborious task and most cases infeasible due to the sophisticated structural ingredients. The computation is very time costly and the rate of convergence can be severely affected in the direct solvers. To overcome those adversities, an iterative approach Rational Krylov Subspace Method (RKSM) is introduced to deal with those large-scale CAREs. The solutions of those CAREs and hence the optimal feedback matrices can be efficiently explored by the RKSM approach to stabilize the power system models of unstable categories. In this approach, shift parameters play a vital role in the convergence of the computations and size of the solution spaces. The goal of the work is to investigate the effect of different types of shift parameters on the stabilization process. To attain the mentioned objective, a modified version of the iterative RKSM algorithm is proposed by employing two types of shift parameters, namely, the adaptive ADI shifts and heuristic shifts. Qualitative discussions for the outcomes for those shift parameters are narrated by tabular and figurative methods.
The Physical Properties of ThCr2Si2- Type Co-based Compound SrCo2Si2: An ab-initio Study
Md. Shahidul Islam1, Md. Atikur Rahman2*, and Nahida Farjana2
1Department of Physics, Tarash Honours College, Tarash, Sirajganj, National University, Gazipur-1704, Bangladesh; 2Departments of Physics, Pabna University of Science and Technology, Pabna-6600, Bangladesh.
*Correspondence: firstname.lastname@example.org (Md. Atikur Rahman, Assistant Professor, Departments of Physics, Pabna University of Science and Technology, Pabna-6600, Bangladesh).
In this article, we have studied the mechanical, electronic, and optical features of ThCr2Si2- type compound SrCo2Si2. The investigation has been done by using the first-principles method depend on the density functional theory (DFT) and the calculations were completed with the Cambridge Serial Total Energy Package (CASTEP) code. The optimized lattice parameters are well in accord with the existing synthesized values. The investigated elastic constants for this compound are positive which ensured the mechanical stability of this phase. The calculated values of Pugh’s ratio and Poisson’s ratio ensure the brittle character of SrCo2Si2. The universal anisotropic constant AU ensures the anisotropic behavior of SrCo2Si2.The softness nature of SrCo2Si2 is confirmed by the bulk modulus calculations. The overlapping of the valence band and conduction band near the Fermi level indicates the metallic nature of SrCo2Si2. At the Fermi level, the major contribution comes from Co-3d and Si-3p states. The large reflectivity in the high-energy region indicates that this compound might be useful as coating materials for reducing solar heating. The photoconductivity and absorption begin with zero photon energy which also ensures the metallic nature of SrCo2Si2.
Numerical Investigation of Dropwise Condensation on Smooth Plates with Different Wettability
School of Computing, Engineering and Mathematics, Division of Engineering and Product Design, Brighton University, United Kingdom.
*Correspondence: email@example.com (Danuska Pathiranage, School of Computing, Engineering and Mathematics, Division of Engineering and Product Design, Brighton University, United Kingdom).
ABSTRACT Condensers are used in various energy-intensive processing industries. Improving their efficiency plays a crucial role in the optimization of energy consumption. Dropwise Condensation is a highly attractive form of heat transfer. This project investigates the effects of different wettability characteristics in drop-wise condensation on smooth plates. It involves a Volume of Fluid (VOF) based Computational Fluids Dynamics (CFD) model to carry out the simulations in Open FOAM on smooth plates various wettability’s. Different parameters such as receding angle, advancing angle, and various radii of droplets have been used for investigation. A base case with droplets’ radius of 12.5μm, receding angle, and advancing angles of (34°, 90°) was used. Three sets of simulations were performed. In Set 1, the angles were (34°, 90°). The radius of the first droplet was kept constant at 12.5μm and the radius of the second droplet changes 1:4 progressively. In Set 2, the angles are changed to (154°, 162°), and the radius of the second droplet changes in the same manner above. In Set 3, the angles were kept at (107°, 117°). The radius changes as above. In some cases, the droplets merge and condense. In others, the momentum created by merging of the droplets creates repeated oscillation or even a lift-off, from the cooling plate.
Portfolio Optimization in DSE Using Financial Indicators, LSTM & PyportfolioOpt
Hasan M Sami1*, Lana Fardous2 and Debangshu Saha Ruhit3
1School of Business, Canadian University of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh, and 2&3Dept. of Finance, Canadian University of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
*Correspondence: firstname.lastname@example.org (Hasan M Sami, Senior Lecturer, School of Business, Canadian University of Bangladesh Dhaka, Bangladesh).
ABSTRACT Due to its suitable power to anticipate using Non-Linear forecasting methodologies, LSTM (Long Short-Term Memory) has changed the approach to time series prediction several folds. Process compatibilities of technical identifiers and various financial benchmarks that are defining financial decision-making in international markets are affecting Bangladesh Market as well. Issues like MACD and RSI as a technical investigator and financial ratio aspects of EPS and PE Ratio play an important role in the selection of assets in DSE. Given adequate training in line with intended functionality models, RNN has the potential to think through in a similar manner and the probable results are exhibited in this paper. Because of the Gated Structure, which refers to retaining important information and discarding irrelevant information through diminishing gradient and exploding gradient, LSTM has achieved significant advances in nonlinear forecasting that is based on human behavior. In this study, we compared two alternative portfolios that will be dependent on LSTM's future forecasting capabilities in terms of projecting the greatest potential output, which is demonstrated using Portfolio Optimization principles.
An analysis on the job preference of Jatiya Kabi Kazi Nazrul Islam University Students
Department of Economics, Jatiya Kabi Kazi Nazrul Islam University, Trishal, Mymensingh.
*Correspondence: email@example.com (Lecturer, Department of Economics, Jatiya Kabi Kazi Nazrul Islam University, Trishal, Mymensingh).
ABSTRACT This study examined the job preference among students of different subjects of different faculties in the campus of Jatiya Kabi Kazi Nazrul Islam University, Trishal, Mymensingh. Qualitative variables and variables which are quantitative in nature have been used for this study. We have chosen the topic job preference of students of the different faculties because now-a-days every sector for a job is strict about their rules and regulations. At present time students are frustrated about the lengthy process of jobs and dissimilarities between academic studies and job conditions. The main aims and objectives of this study were to find out information about the job preference of University students in Bangladesh. The research ensured the following objectives; such as Known about the present condition of job preference of Jatiya Kabi Kazi Nazrul Islam University. Found out and identified factors affecting their Job Preference. So the aims and objectives of this research contained various issues. Such as knowing how many students are expected, how many students want to be an entrepreneur, and how many students are going to be in a foreign country for a job. Study of the plan decorated sequentially.
Some Characterizations of the Extended Beta and Gamma Functions: Properties and Applications
Department of Basic Sciences, Prep. Year, P.O. Box 2440, University of Ha’il, Ha’il, Saudi Arabia.
*Correspondence: firstname.lastname@example.org (Dr. Bachioua Lahcene, Associate Professor, Department of Basic Sciences, Prep. Year, P.O. Box 2440, University of Ha’il, Ha’il, Saudi Arabia).
ABSTRACT The article represents the elementary and general introduction of some characterizations of the extended gamma and beta Functions and their important properties with various representations. This paper provides reviews of some of the new proposals to extend the form of basic functions and some closed-form representation of more integral functions is described. Some of the relative behaviors of the extended function, the special cases resulting from them when fixing the parameters, the decomposition equation, the integrative representation of the proposed general formula, the correlations related to the proposed formula, the frequency relationships, and the differentiation equation for these basic functions were investigated. We also investigated the asymptotic behavior of some special cases, known formulas, the basic decomposition equation, integral representations, convolutions, recurrence relations, and differentiation formula for these target functions by studying. Applications of these functions have been presented in the evaluation of some reversible Laplace transforms to the complex of definite integrals and the infinite series of related basic functions
Determination of Piles Bearing Capacity using Empirical Methods and (AllPile 6) Software -Cases studies Portsudan and Khartoum Cities
Abusamra A. A. Yousif1* and Elkhomuini H. M. Ali2
1Dept. of Civil Engineering and Faculty of Engineering, Albaha University, Aqiq, Kingdom Saudi Arabia; 2Dept. of Civil Engineering and Faculty of Engineering Sciences, Omdurman Islamic University, Omdurman, Sudan.
*Correspondence: Abusamra32@hotmail.com (Abusamra A. A. Yousif, Assistant Professor, Dept. of Civil Engineering and Faculty of Engineering, Albaha University, Aqiq, Kingdom Saudi Arabia).
ABSTRACT Different methods have been used to determine the pile bearing capacity such as static equations, dynamic equations, empirical methods (EMs), numerical methods, computer software programs, and the pile static load test, these methods were giving different values for pile bearing capacity. In this paper, three empirical methods (Ems) have been selected (Brinch-Hansen, Chin-Kondner, and Decourt) and (AllPile 6) software (AP) has been applied to determine the capacity load of piles for six cases study of drilled concrete piles with a diameter ranging from 800 mm to 1500mm and embedded length ranged 10.5m to 26m. Four of those six piles are located at Portsudan city near the red seacoast and two piles are located in Khartoum city. The results of the pile bearing capacity (PC) calculations obtained using the above-mentioned different methods were compared with results produced by the pile load test. In all six cases study, the settlement of piles was limited, settlement failure was not reached. The results show that the AllPile 6 (AP) and the three mentioned empirical methods (Ems) gave reasonable piles bearing capacity, the (AP) and (BHM) gave the better result than the CKM and DM. While (DM) gave results similar to results determined using the (CKM). However, it was not preferred to use the (CKM) and (DM), unless the failure settlement has occurred in the pile load test.
Investigation of the Effect of 3d TM-TM Atom Co-Doped in Graphene Nanosheet: DFT Based Calculations
Maliha Nishat1, Rojina Islam2, and Md. Atikur Rahman1*
1Department of Physics, Pabna University of Science and Technology, Pabna-6600, Bangladesh; 2Deptarment of Physics, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka-1342, Bangladesh.
*Correspondence: email@example.com (Md. Atikur Rahman, Department of Physics, Pabna University of Science and Technology, Pabna-6600, Bangladesh).
ABSTRACT Graphene, an interesting 2D system has a rare electronic structure of two inverted Dirac cones touching at a single point, with great electron mobility and promising microelectronics applications. In the present article, a theoretical investigation has been performed on the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of pristine graphene nanosheet and also the effect of 3d transition metal (TM) co-doped in graphene nanosheet within the density functional theory framework. 3d TM is categorized into two groups: Cr- group (Cr-Cr, Cr-Mn, and Cr-Fe) and Ni-group (Ni-Cr, Ni-Ti, Ni-Mn). After co-doping TM atoms on graphene, it still holds its planar shape which refers to the stability of these co-doped graphene nanosheets. This is also confirmed by the increasing bond length of carbon and TM atoms on graphene nanosheets. Highest zero-point energies have been found of -12049.24eV and -10936.87eV respectively for Cr-Cr and Ni-Cr co-doped graphene nanosheet. According to Mulliken's charge and electron density differences, all the TM atoms can act as electron donors while the graphene nanosheet is electron acceptor. All the TMs co-doped graphene nanosheet show metallic behavior in terms of band structures and DOS plots except Ti-Ni which has shown a little band gap. In terms of electronic properties, Cr-Cr and Ni-Cr co-doped graphene nanosheets are found most stable among the other studied systems and they can exhibit magnetic behavior as there is a variation in their up and down spin as shown in spin polarized DOS. That’s why they are beneficial to the application of various magnetic devices as well as sectors. Besides Cr-group co-doped graphene nanosheet can exhibit better magnetic properties than Ni-group.
Design of 2500 KVA 11/0.4 KV Distribution Substation Based on Load Flow Analysis Using ETAP Software
Md. Sarowar Hossain Chowdhury, Md. Taslim Uddin, Md. Moniruzzaman, Dipa Saha, A. Helal, Md. Motasim Billah, and Md. Aliuzzaman Sarder
ABSTRACT For the development and growth of economy and social condition of any country, constant supply of good quality electrical power is essential. The main barrier to achieving this goal is the variation of voltage in the network. The load connected in a system varies with time, which causes the variation in the bus voltages. By properly designing and installing the substation, these voltage regulations can be reduced. Load flow analysis provides the steady-state characteristic data and generates reports for voltage magnitude, phase angle, the flow of active and reactive power, losses in the system, etc. Accurate and highly reliable results of Load Flow Analysis (LFA) can be obtained by using ETAP (Electrical Transient Analyzer Program) software. In this research, ETAP software, which utilizes the Adaptive Newton-Raphson method, has been used for performing the load flow analysis of 2500 KVA 11 /.4 KV substation. Actual manufacturer data is utilized for transformers, VCBs, circuit breakers, cables, and other components, whereas computed data is used for loads on the system. The main focus of this study is to improve the voltage regulation and the overall power factor (PF) of the network by inserting capacitor bank also known as the PFI plant in the system. This technique also minimizes the input current and power losses.
Numerical Solution of Diffusion Equation with Caputo Time Fractional Derivatives Using Finite-Difference Method with Neumann and Robin Boundary Conditions
Shafiullah Niazai, Ariana Abdul Rahimzai, Mustafa Danesh, and Burhanuddin Safi
ABSTRACT Many problems in various branches of science, such as physics, chemistry, and engineering have been recently modeled as fractional ODEs and fractional PDEs. Thus, methods to solve such equations, especially in the nonlinear state, have drawn the attention of many researchers. The most important goal of researchers in solving such equations has been set to provide a solution with the possible minimum error. The fractional PDEs can be generally classified into two main types, spatial-fractional, and time-fractional differential equations. This study was designed to provide a numerical solution for the fractional-time diffusion equation using the finite-difference method with Neumann and Robin boundary conditions. The time fraction derivatives in the concept of Caputo were considered, also the stability and convergence of the proposed numerical scheme have been completely proven and a numerical test was also designed and conducted to assess the efficiency and precision of the proposed method. Eventually, it can be said that based on findings, the present technique can provide accurate results.
Solution of Large-Scale Linear Programming Problem by Using Computer Technique
Shohal Hossain, Shamima Aktar, and Samme Akter Mithy
ABSTRACT Linear programming (LP) is an important part of applied mathematics. This method has found its applications to important areas of product mix, blending, and diet problems. Steel, chemical, food processing industries and Oil refineries industry are also using LP with considerable success. But in practical LP can be very large. In this paper, our intent is to formulate an LP model of some large-scale real-life-oriented problems and to apply computer techniques for solving these problems. Starting with the graphical procedure which provides an ample amount of understanding into some fundamental concepts, the simple procedure of solving LP problems is developed. Finally, a special class of LP problem, namely Transportation is taken up and solved. We also solved the simplex system by using FORTRAN programming.
A Numerical Investigation of the Structural Performance of Double-layered Grid Domes Using Software Packages
Abusamra A. A. Yousif and Salih Y. Arbab
In the 21th-century, large exhibitions halls covered by domes were constructed. Development of domes promoted by using metal structures, which has opened a new era for civil engineers in connection with the decision of maintenance problems of high strength and weight reduction of structures. Grid domes are a preferred structural form of roofs coverage. The paper aims to study the structural performance of double-layered grid domes using SAP2000 (v.14) and ETABS18. Four different types of double-layered grid domes considered in this work were the Schwedler dome (Type 1), three-way grid dome (Type 2), grid dome with different layers (Type 3), and grid dome with hexagonal patterns (Type 4). The configurations of grid domes were generated by Formian program software. The static linear analysis and design of mentioned grid domes were done and different load cases and their combinations were applied according to ASCE 7-10. It was observed that a double-layered grid dome with different layers (Type 3) was the most efficient in structural performance because the density of members per joint gave a very good distribution of axial forces distribution of the whole dome and then minimized the axial force in members and vertical deflections. The present study indicates that further detailed studies of the subject may lead to a more precise understanding of the performance of grid domes subjected to different load cases and this may bring about increased structural safety and serviceability and the economy in cost constructions.
Home-Based Learning (HBL) Practice Theory and Support: An Approach to Curriculum Development Program
Leovigildo Lito D. Mallillin
The study aims to examine the contribution of curriculum development programs on home-based learning practice theory support among educational institutions in the area of modular set-up, task accomplishment, learning process, and attitude toward home-based learning. Mixed methods are employed in the study as the application of qualitative and quantitative research design which also includes the Focus Group Discussion (FGD). Purposive sampling is utilized in gathering the samples and data. Thirty (30) respondents are utilized in the study. Results show that modular set-up in the home-based learning modular structure provides an opportunity to practice, apply, analyze, or synthesize new information exercises among students, accomplishment of tasks show that students are provided to work, solve the real challenges, and issues on the task provided such as information, ideas, and thoughts for better outcome, learning process shows to provide specific and clear instructions in the learning process which engage a complete activity outline in the modular lesson on home-based learning and analyzes the implementation and needs of an active learning strategy to provide evidence in a particular active learning techniques for home-based learning teaching of student improvement, and attitude of students toward their home-based learning shows that students explore their home based-learning modular lesson activities and the ability to control the technology expectation and experiences in managing the learning spaces on students' role and engagement. This includes students who have a negative attitude toward their home based-learning especially when there is an inadequacy of personal interaction among them. Findings show that there is a significant correlation between the curriculum development program on home-based learning practice theory and support among the educational institutions in modular set-up, an accomplishment of the task, learning process, and attitude toward home-based learning as observed by the respondents.
|29 Study of Properties of Local Polypropylene Compared to International Standard Properties, Yasmin Abd Elrazeg1*, Muhammed Rukshanul Kabir2, Mohammad Zahirul Haque3, and Seedahmed Ahmed I.4
1Graduate Collage, Sudan University of Science and Technology, Khartoum, Sudan; 2Dept. of Chemistry, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 3Dept. of Applied Chemistry & Chemical Engineering Rajshahi University, Rajshahi, Bangladesh; and 4Dept. of Plastic Engineering, College of Industries Engineering & Technology, Sudan University of Science and Technology, Khartoum, Sudan.
*Correspondence: Yasabao01@gmail.com (Yasmin Abd Elrazeg, Graduate Collage, Sudan University of Science and Technology, Khartoum, Sudan).
ABSTRACT This study was conducted in the Khartoum refinery in Algylee to study the properties of polypropylene (grade 113 &114) which are produced by the addition technique; they used refined propylene from Liquefied Petroleum Gas and Ziegler-Natta catalyst. The samples were taken from samples which are produced in (1-15)/08/2010 in three features (powder, granulates, and specimens). Both grades are homopolymer and isotactic polypropylene. They checked the component of liquefied petroleum gas by using a gas chromatography instrument and determination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties. From the result, both grades differed in their properties according to molecular weight. Grade 113 has a large molecular weight which is suitable for the extrusion process while grade 114 has a small molecular weight which is suitable for the injection molding process. Each grade of polypropylene is within the standard range but they contain a slight amount (˂0.5ppm) of sulfur and moisture (49.1ppm) which are affecting product quality. However, if there is no separation unit the product will become yellowish and toxic.
|30 Synthesis a Clay Based Photocatalyst for the Removal of Eosin Yellow in Aqueous Solution, Debadas Halder1&2, Md Nazrul Islam2, M Mufazzal Hossain3, Md Ataur Rahman3, Rajib Samadder2, and Mohammad Mostafizur Rahman4*
1Institute of Education and Research, University of Dhaka, Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh; 2Department of Chemistry, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh; 3Department of Chemistry, University of Dhaka, Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh; and 4Department of Chemistry, Jagannath University, Dhaka-1100, Bangladesh.
*Correspondence: firstname.lastname@example.org (Dr. Mohammad Mostafizur Rahman, Professor, Department of Chemistry, Jagannath University, Dhaka-1100, Bangladesh).
ABSTRACT Composite photocatalysts of clay and ZnO have been prepared using three different compositions and characterized by various techniques such as SEM, EDX, FTIR, and XRD. SEM micrographs in different magnifications revealed different morphology of composite particles rather than commercial ZnO and clay. The particle size of the prepared composite decreased with the increasing amount of clay and thus improves the catalyst surface area. EDX revealed that the composite contains clay and ZnO only. According to FTIR spectrum data, when the ratios of clay to ZnO are 12:88 and 25:75, all the clay particles are completely covered. The shift in the peak position of XRD patterns indicates the molecular level interaction between clay and ZnO. The composite photocatalyst with a composition of clay: ZnO = 25:75 has the highest capability to eliminate Eosin Yellow (EY) by both adsorption and photodegradation among the tested composite photocatalysts. At this composition, the degrading rate of 0.2 g of material in a 2×10-5 M aqueous solution was around 44.48% EY. However, after 60 minutes of photodegradation using UV light, the entire elimination of dye, including adsorption and photodegradation, is around 68.32%. As the concentration of EY increased, the degradation rate of EY reduced. It was discovered that the consequences of HCO3-, CO32-, Cl-, NO3-, and SO42- ions were deleterious to the photodegradation of EY. It was also discovered that the UV source was more effective than the visible source. An intense UV light causes EY to completely degrade.
|31 Synthesis of Titanium Dioxide by Sol-Gel Method and Comparison with Titanium Dioxide Pure, Yasmin Abd Elrazeg1*, Md. Badiruzzaman2, Mazharul Islam3, Md. Mahbub Morshed4, and Ahmed A. Elmugdad1
1College of Science, Dept. of Chemistry, Sudan University of Science & Technology, Sudan and 2Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh; and 3Dept. of Chemistry, Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, Bangladesh; and 4Dept. of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Mawlana Bhashani Science and Technology University, Bangladesh.
*Correspondence: email@example.com (Yasmin Abd Elrazeg, College of Science, Dept. of Chemistry, Sudan University of Science & Technology, Sudan).
ABSTRACT This paper study the synthesis of the TiO2 nanoparticles using the sol-gel method and TiCl4 as raw material (TiO2 sol-gel) and characterize it and TiO2 pure by Powder X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), both samples show they are anatase phase with high crystallinity and purity. Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FTIR) both samples it showed in the graph that TiO2 pure, TiO2 sol-gel various frequency vibrations which are shown by different peaks formed, The specific surface area and porosity of the TiO2 pure (46.962 m²/g) and TiO2 sol-gel (38.264 m²/g) were evaluated by using the nitrogen adsorption and desorption isotherms by using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method. Using Ocean Optio USB- 2000 spectrometer for optical properties which are related to the absorption spectrum but using diffuse reflectance spectrum in the state of the Kubelka-Munk remission function replaces the Lambert-Beer law.
|32 Theoretical Results of the Extended Gamma Function and Its Applications, Bachioua Lahcene1*, Al Mahmud Al Mamun2, Md. Rasel Hossain3, and Soriful Islam4
1Dept. of Mathematics, Faculty of Exact Sciences, University of Bejaia, Algeria; 2Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering, Prime University, Bangladesh; 3Dept. of Statistics, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Noakhali, Bangladesh; and 3Dept. of Applied Mathematics, Gono Bishwabidyalay, Savar, Dhaka 1344, Bangladesh.
*Correspondence: firstname.lastname@example.org (Dr. Bachioua Lahcene, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mathematics, Faculty of Exact Sciences, University of Bejaia, Algeria).
ABSTRACT In recent years, there has been a lot of interest in the special functions of extended functions and their uses, some of which define the totality of partial analyses, provide useful tools for describing natural phenomena, and are thus more suitable for describing some applicable models. This work illustrates some of the rich theoretical and applied behaviors found in models of special functions, especially expansion-generalized gamma delta, and approaches to generalizing integrals and derivatives more comprehensively, through the weights provided by extended gamma functions. The researcher tried to link all the basic modifications that were obtained previously, and with a summary of the modifications that appeared on the most important special functions related to the extended generalized gamma function and the special functions overlapping with it related to the fractional calculus and more results about the generalized gamma function that occur in the diffraction theory, and some special functions related to fractional functions. Calculus and more results about the extended gamma function that occurs in diffraction theory that occurs in diffraction theory in most applications with full control over diffraction access to functions (of different scale) diffraction of light waves, in traditional diffraction theory.