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Asian Journal of Social Sciences and Legal Studies

ISSN(p):2707-465X | ISSN(e):2707-4668
Journal Papers (43) Details
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Indexed Journal

1 Empowerment State of Transgender People in Bangladesh: A Study on Savar National Memorial Based Area in Dhaka City   , Sakina Akter Sema1, 2*, and Md. Touhidul Islam3, 4 1Dept. of English, Pundra University of Science and Technology, Bogura, Bangladesh; 2M.Phil Research Fellow, Dept. of English, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh; and 3Dept. of Business Administration, Gono Bishwabidyalay, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh; and  4M.Phil Research Fellow, Dept. of Finance and Banking, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh *Correspondence: sakinaseema40@gmail.com  
Still today at 21st century Transgender is a mysterious issue to the common people. General people are curious to know about their lifestyle, how they fight for their livelihoods by struggling with various obstacles against them. In Bangladesh, the scenario is not different from the other neighboring countries. But presently some NGOs, Organizations and groups have come out to help them with the government. They are trying to facilitate them by involving the transgender people in various social and economic activities by giving them some training and proper counseling. Through this sort of activity they are being empowered. This research paper has quantified the extent to which the transgender people are being empowered and enjoying their empowerment as a recognized citizen of Bangladesh respects social, political-legal and economic aspects. The study has applied a descriptive research design with a quantitative approach to determine the extent of each factor in the analysis. Data were collected through a close-end structured liker scale questionnaire. The sample size was 28 respondents from the 60-80 population who live in the Savar National Memorial based area in Dhaka city. Data was analyzed by using descriptive analysis (means and standard deviation) and multiple linear regression analysis. The study found that, Social Empowerment of Transgender People (SocEm) and Economic Empowerment of Transgender People (EcoEm) have a significant positive relationship with empowerment state of transgender people while Political/Legal Empowerment of Transgender People (PoLeEm) does not have any significant positive relationship with the empowerment state of transgender people in Bangladesh respect to Savar National Memorial based area in Dhaka city. The coefficient of determination (Adjusted R2=0.901) showed that 90.10% of the success recorded in the empowerment state of the transgender people in Bangladesh accounted for Economic Empowerment of Transgender People (EcoEm), Political/Legal Empowerment of Transgender People (PoLeEm), Social Empowerment of Transgender People (SocEm) respect to selected transgender people those who live in Savar National Memorial based area in Dhaka City.
2 A Critical Analysis on Violation of Human Rights Caused by Extra-Judicial Killings with Special Reference to the Role of Police: Bangladesh Perspective   , Md. Nahidul Islam* Department of Law, Gono Bishwabidyalay, Savar, Dhaka-1344, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: jsnahid07law@gmail.com (Dr. Md. Nahidul Islam, Assistant Professor, Department of Law, Gono Bishwabidyalay, Savar, Dhaka-1344, Bangladesh).  
This paper mostly dwells on the certain examples of violation of human rights extremely committed by the law enforcement agency i.e., the police emphasizing on the human rights situation in Bangladesh. The utmost negative role of Police has been highlighted here considering the state of human rights regarding the violations especially caused by Extra-Judicial Killings. Furthermore, Human Rights situation demanded its due concepts with the present justice system. In this study, police administration has been taken under close scrutiny. In addition to this, an attempt has been made to unveil the relationship between Human Rights and Police Administration. Most importantly, there is a further attempt to uphold the facts of human rights’ violations especially in extra-judicial killings mentioning and studying sensational cases too. Finally, in this paper, the researcher has endeavored to bring out the actual situation of violations analyzing the extra-judicial facts in different perspectives in connection with the activities of the law enforcing agencies i.e., the police where this agencies are always on action having the responsibilities to protect and ensure the human rights of the citizens in a democratic and developing country like Bangladesh.   
3 Historic 7th March Speech of Bangabandhu: Democracy and Civility in Leadership   , Jubaida Sultana1 and Md. Al Amin2* 1&2History & Civilization Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna, Bangladesh *Correspondence: alaminbn8@gmail.com (Md. Al Amin, Lecturer, History & Civilization Discipline, Khulna University, Bangladesh)  
Sheikh Mujibur Rahman is the name that the Bengali nation remembers and cheers, who inspired millions with his leadership. His speech of 7th March, 1971 electrified the nation and set the tone for the great war of liberation. His speech has manifested the belief in freedom and equality between people and his enthusiastic courtesy and warmth in guiding the people to their destined future. Democracy is a situation, system or organization in which everyone has equal rights and opportunities. It is the belief that everyone in the country has the right to express their opinion and can help in making decisions. And civility is defined as civilized conduct or the quality of being polite. The objective of this research is to highlight the fact that how the Father of the Bengali Nation, Bangabandhu had shown civility and put importance on democracy in his 7th March speech. These two most important things, emphasized in his speech are the reasons behind Bangabandhu being loved and adored by the people. His genuine devotion and affection for his people was clearly cognized through his speech of 7th March. This qualitative research includes data collected from historical sources. Newspaper, government files (archival sources) and interviews are the primary sources used in this research. And books and articles published in different journals are used as the secondary sources.  
4 Bhagabania, Nigamananda and Baha’i of Jashore in Bangladesh: A Study of Women   , Md. Kohinoor Hossain* Department of Islamic History & Culture, Dargahpur Fazil Degree Madrasha, Bagherpara, Jashore, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: ap.m.k.hossain@gmail.com (Md. Kohinoor Hossain, Assistant Professor, Dept. of Islamic History & Culture, Dargahpur Fazil Degree Madrasha, Jashore, Bangladesh).  
Jashore, a renowned district of Bangladesh whose has own ancient tradition and heritage which is surrounded by the various rivers, forests and various folk religious communities who lead their life like the heart of rivers. The Bhairav, the Chitra, the Begobati, the Kaputakhya, the Icchamati, the Mukteswaree, the Nabagonga, the Kumar, the Harihar, the Kobadak, the Mathabhanga, the Afra Khal, the Khatki, the Fatki and the Bhadra are the ancient rivers of Jashore. The rivers have changed their own speed and path by the rules of eternal geonatural world and in these ways, watery, salty and sweet areas people follow the extraordinary style of religious beliefs which focus on the rivers and religious beliefs which focus on the rivers and religious paramount where the deities and entities of the people make up a resourceful religious culture. Like rivers and religions have changed their own facets and beliefs. The World religions are divided into two divisions. They are: (a) State recognized religions and (b) Folk religions. There is a good number of discrimination between state recognized religions and Folk religions. The state recognized religions are in two sections. They are: (a) Abrahamic religions and (b) Indian religions. Folk religions are community based religions which may be national and international. Here will be showed about state recognized where there women in what is how. The reviewer attempts to examine between state recognized religions and folk religions where both of two, how to treat to the women.   
5 Analysis of Cyclone Shelter Patterns to Build a Better Shelter Management: A Case Study of Bangladesh Southern Region   , Md. Rasheduzzaman1*, Azim Uddin2, Md. Shamsuzzoha3, and Muhammad Arifur Rahman4 1-3Department of Emergency Management, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Dumki, Patuakhali-8602, Bangladesh; and 4Department of Environmental Science, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Dumki, Patuakhali-8602, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: rashederm@pstu.ac.bd (Md. Rasheduzzaman, Lecturer, Department of Emergency Management, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Bangladesh).  
Bangladesh is located geographically in a vulnerable location. Every year different types of natural disasters like cyclone, flood, Nor'wester, tornado, storm surge, salinity, drought, river erosion, river bed siltation, land slide, etc. visit in our country. Cyclone is a very common phenomenon in our country. Cyclone shelter is the haven place for the coastal people during the cyclonic event. There are various types of cyclone shelters in the coastal areas of Bangladesh. The overall aim of the research is to identify the best types of cyclone shelters for better shelter management. A total of ten types of cyclone shelters are considered to conduct this research work. The qualitative and quantitative data were analyzed. A priority index matrix is made to identify the best types of cyclone shelters. Different types of data were analyzed viz. access road conditions, enter and exit facilities, physical elements of the cyclone shelters. From the data analysis, it is identified that type 6 cyclone shelter is the best pattern among ten cyclone shelters. This research finds out some weaknesses of the current shelter management practices like a warning signal, poor condition of the shelter, relief work-related problem, electricity, drinking water and limited logistic support. Finally, the research also made some recommendations for new builds, existing, and institutional arrangements of cyclone shelters that may help to improve the future establishment of cyclone shelters in coastal areas of Bangladesh. So, the identified better pattern of cyclone shelter will improve the emergency management system by providing better shelter management facilities during emergency situation of any cyclonic event.  
6 Effectiveness of Microfinance on Household Income Generation Strategy in the Southwest Region of Bangladesh   , Sudipa Basu1, Apurba Roy1*, and Sanjit Karmokar2 1Department of Economics, University of Barishal, Barishal-8200, Bangladesh; and 2Assistant Director of Community Engagement, Bangladesh Relief Initiative for Communities in Khulna (BRICK), Inc. Virginia, USA. *Correspondence: aroy@bu.ac.bd (Apurba Roy, Assistant Professor, Dept. of Economics, University of Barishal, Barishal, Bangladesh).  
The primary purpose of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of microfinance on household income generation in the south-west region of Bangladesh. A set of statistical tools such as descriptive analysis, t-test, correlation analysis and log-linear multiple regression models have been used to achieve the objective of the study. It has been found that the difference between household income, expenditure, saving, working hours and capital is statistical and significant after joining the microfinance program. Also, results from correlation analysis show a positive and meaningful relationship between credit and household monthly income, expenditure, and savings. Besides, the regression analysis confirms that the age of the respondent, family members and loan amount have a positive and statistically significant impact on income generation for the microfinance receiver. The finding of the research is crucial and meaningful to the policymaker to take practical steps in reducing poverty and sustainable rural development.  
7 Can ‘Control-Order’ be Implanted into the Counter-Terrorism Policy of Bangladesh? A Critical Assessment   , Mohammed Shahjalal1&2* 1Department of Law, East West University, Bangladesh; and 2PhD Fellow, Glasgow Caledonian University, UK. *Correspondence: shahjalal@ewubd.edu (Mohammed Shahjalal, Senior Lecturer, Department of Law, East West University, Bangladesh).  
This research will be specifically focusing on implemented legislations for eliminating terrorism. There is no need to mention exclusively again that it began many years ago. It ignited mostly after the post 9/11 era. The Bush & Blair management then immediately applied many different and notorious counter-terrorism tactics. Among all; the infamous “Control Order” was authorized by most of the regimes like Guatemala to Tihar Jail, India. Arguably except Bangladesh, this brutal method of torture was applied in almost every counter-terrorism cell. Needless to say it started mostly after the ‘Twin Tower’ destruction. The Allied Forces (Mainly UK and USA) had literally chosen to instigate ‘Control-Order’ on almost every Muslim individual and almost every counter-terrorism agencies started to implement ‘control-order’ within regular basis.  
8 A Judicial Exploration of Portia in The Merchant of Venice: A Critical Study   , Muhammed Asgor Hossain1   and Md. Shaon Akter2* 1Department of English, Islamic University, Kushtia, Bangladesh; and 2Department of English, Khwaja Yunus Ali University, Sirajgonj, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: shekhshaon1989@gmail.com (Md. Shaon Akter, Lecturer, Department of English, Khwaja Yunus Ali University, Sirajgonj, Bangladesh).    
The term “Judicial” stands for an idea relating to the administration of justice or a phenomenon appropriate to the law or judgement. In the present study, we have an interesting character Portia in William Shakespeare’s The Merchant of Venice who disguises herself as the judiciary personality to explore a judiciary case in the court of Venice. She submitted her identity before the judge as a legal pleader appointed by the Duke of Venice to run the case between Antonio and Shylock. Shylock gets ready to cut one pound of flesh from the heart of Antonio according to the contract between them. Antonio is quite disappointed finding no other alternatives to rescue his life. The audience also gets disheartened that there is no way left for Antonio’s life and this trial will finally come to an end. In that crucial moment of utter helplessness, Portia arrives as a heavenly savior for Antonio to rescue him as a competent lawyer. So in this study, it shows Portia’s judicial portrait and as a successful  female lawyer.  
9 Familial Support as a Determinant of Women Career Development: A Qualitative Study   , Tasnuva Yasmin1* and Chisty Asmaul Husna2 1&2Development Studies Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna-9208, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: snigdhaa96@gmail.com (Tasnuva Yasmin, Lecturer, Development Studies Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna-9208, Bangladesh).    
Although women’s participation in the workforce has increased remarkably in recent times but women are still lagging behind because of the traditional thinking and attitudes of their families in the context of Bangladesh. The purpose of the current study was to explore the role of the family in shaping women’s career development. The study was conducted in a qualitative approach and it was exploratory in nature. The study was conducted during November-December, 2019 in Khulna division, Bangladesh. The purposive sampling procedure was used to select the 25 respondents of the study. The respondents constituted of working women from different professions. Primary data was collected through semi-structured in-depth interviews extending from 35 to 45 minutes. The collected data were analyzed using thematic analysis method and nine themes emerged from the transcripts. The emerged themes were acceptance and aspiration from family, spousal support, being a mother, grown-up children as helping hands, family and work balance, family as a social network, family as a barrier, family as a lever, and gender inequality. This research highlighted the fact that women’s career practices and its development depended highly on familial roles. The family possesses the ability to affect women’s career success both positively and negatively. The study revealed that women who received positive support from their families were more motivated and achieved greater success in their professional life. Family can serve both as a lever as well as a barrier in shaping a woman’s career.   
10 Prospects of Digital Financial Services in Bangladesh in the Context of Fourth Industrial Revolution   , Md. Harunur Rashid* Department of Public Administration and Governance Studies, Jatiya Kabi Kazi Nazrul Islam University (JKKNIU), Trishal, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: harun_du.rashid92@yahoo.com (Md. Harunur Rashid, Lecturer, Department of Public Administration and Governance Studies, JKKNIU, Trishal, Mymensingh, Bangladesh).    
This paper attempts to reveal the prospects of Digital Financial Services (DFS) in Bangladesh with introducing associated concepts-fourth industrial revolution, digital economy, and digital financial services.  Required data and information was collected primarily from the numerous sources of a secondary resource. It finds that Bangladesh has achieved remarkable progress in mobile phone penetration and secured among the top four countries advancing towards the digital economy rapidly. The country has tremendous prospects of DFS ahead; it will bring impressive economic growth and reduce poverty with huge strategic opportunities through connecting and using cutting edge technologies of the 4th industrial revolution. Bangladesh government’s effective policy reforms, digital Bangladesh’s vision and a2i program ran by Prime Minister Office made this boom in spreading digital financial services. It was projected by Bangladesh Bank and Light Castle that the MFS trend will be grown consistently; there will be 407 million clients and BDT 121 billion will be transacted in 2022.  Challenged IT infrastructures, few regulatory and operational constraints including digital illiteracy are considered as the barriers to using the full potentials of digital financial service. In realizing the goals of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the article will be useful for policy-makers, academia, learners, policy advocates, experts, and stakeholders of digital financial services.   
11 Study on the Importance of Open Space Due to Create Dhaka as a Child Friendly City   , Sharif Tousif Hossain1* and Zarin Tasnim2 1Department of Architecture, Stamford University Bangladesh, Dhanmondi, Dhaka, Bangladesh; and 2Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: imon_architecture@yahoo.com (Sharif Tousif Hossain, Senior Lecturer, Department of Architecture, Stamford University Bangladesh, Dhanmondi, Dhaka, Bangladesh).    
Though open spaces are considered a lifeline not just for urban residents but also for children's physical and mental development, Dhaka city is alarmingly losing its parks, playgrounds, and other public spaces to people for numerous causes, such as interference, lack of proper preparation, political and economic power, or simply due to the incompetence and corruption of city officials. This research paper aims to study on open spaces like the playground, parks, and amusement parks in Dhaka which is an important element due to creating a child-friendly city. There is no proper planning and guideline of open spaces for children in Dhaka where e importance of play for a child’s cognitive, social, physical, and emotional development has been recognized by researchers worldwide. Children’s need to open space to play, learn, exercise, leisure, which is very important for the growth of children’s and the training of cognitive, affective, and psychomotor skills, to be able to grow and develop properly. Dhaka lacks these sufficient open spaces for children and will strive to build a child-friendly atmosphere immediately.  
12 Fourth Industrial Revolution in Bangladesh: Prospects and Challenges   , Maruf Hasan Rumi1, Md. Harunur Rashid2*, Niaz Makhdum1, and Nesur Uddin Nahid1 1Department of Public Administration, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh; and  2Department of Public Administration and Governance Studies, Jatiya Kabi Kazi Nazrul Islam University, Trishal, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: harun_du.rashid92@yahoo.com (Md. Harunur Rashid, Lecturer, Department of Public Administration and Governance Studies, Jatiya Kabi Kazi Nazrul Islam University, Trishal, Mymensingh, Bangladesh).    
The stream of globalization is impelling Bangladesh to adopt the technologies of the Fourth Industrial Revolution (FIR). This study examined the opportunities and problems created by the adoption of FIR in Bangladesh. Findings show that the adaptation of FIR can create enormous difficulties for the country with some new opportunities. Sustainable ICT development, increase in productivity, women, and citizen empowerment will bring positive effects. However, social inequality, colossal unemployment, a threat to social security, the domination of MNCs will increase that can harm the economy badly. FIR will also influence the political system. Hence, a comprehensive plan and sound policymaking can help to exploit the opportunity of FIR. Professional development training for human resources, job-based educational system, sensitive labor policies, alternative employment sector with updated technologies, investment in SMEs is expected to tackle the challenges of FIR in Bangladesh. Furthermore, the findings may be used to take the anticipatory role in the future for becoming a beneficiary of the FIR.  
13 Labor Demand and Export-Oriented Industrialization of Bangladesh   , Taharima Sultana* Department of Economics, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Noakhali, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: taharimahashi52@gmail.com    
This thesis based on the findings of a study on labor demand and export-oriented industrialization in Bangladesh at the time of 1992-93 to 2016-17. For this persistence, secondary data from different sources (BBS, WDI, EPB, BER, WB, BB, etc) for the time duration 1992-2017 has been composed and analyzed through econometric tools. The test approves that the disturbance terms are normally distributed. To detect that the data suffer from multicollinearity, heteroscedasticity, and autocorrelation problem, the diagnostic test has been adopted. From the diagnostic test, it is detected that while the data free from heteroscedasticity and autocorrelation problems, however, the data suffer from severe multicollinearity problem. The multi-collinearity problem is removed using remedial measures. The Unit root test has been detected to test the stationarity of the composed data. Among different unit root test, ADF-test is adopted. The test displays that the data are stationary at the first difference level for export-oriented industrialization and the second difference level for labor demand. The Johansen co-integration test is adapted to test whether the data are cointegrated at any level. The test results approve that six variables are cointegrated on labor demand and one variable cointegrated on export-oriented industrialization. The Granger causality test under VAR (Vector Autoregressive Regression) framework displays the variable has a unidirectional causal relationship with the dependent variable where all independent variables lead, and the dependent variable follows. However, these relationships have found a statistically significant positive impact of labor demand and export-oriented industrialization in Bangladesh. Thus, there is a dynamic relationship between domestic labor demand, export, and economic progress in Bangladesh.  
14 Impact of Mass Media to Creates Awareness among the Poor Parents against Child Labor   , Md. Farhad Hossain* Department of Statistics, Comilla University, Cumilla, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: farhad390ju@gmail.com (Md. Farhad Hossain, Assistant Professor, Department of Statistics, Comilla University, Cumilla, Bangladesh).    
Child labor is a widespread phenomenon. It is globally known to be an aspect of child abuse. The present study discussed the impact of mass media to create awareness among poor parents against child labor. For this purpose, data were collected from parents of a child laborer, child laborer, and employers who recruited child labor from Cumilla districts. The findings revealed that male adolescents have been involved as child laborers compared to female adolescents. Downcast literacy rate observed of the parents of the child laborer. Sample characteristics indicated that child laborer belongs to a large family. Also, the study observed that the dropout rate is high for working children. Two of the greatest usual reasons for the kiddies to reasoning the job were poorness and careless outlook unto study as reported. The finding of that study will help our parents to be more conscious of their kids.   
15 Sketch of the Copyright Act, 2000 in Bangladesh: Enforcement, Impediments and Solutions   , Shahidul Alam1*, Md. Al-Amin1, and Sharifa Yasmin Mukta2 1Department of Law, Gono Bishwabidyalay, Savar, Dhaka-1344, Bangladesh, and 2Department of Law, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Science and Technology University, Gopalganj-8100, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: mr.rana59@gmail.com (Shahidul Alam, Lecturer, Department of Law, Gono Bishwabidyalay, Dhaka, Bangladesh).  
In the Modern era, the concept of intellectual property is a matter of significance, and copyright (CR) is a great part of it. Copyright provides the author and the creator of the original works a negative right on literature, dramatics, musical art, cinematograph, and sound recording. By virtue of modern technology among intellectual property, CR is getting more important. Though there is The Copyright Act, 2000 (CA) in Bangladesh is going to be difficult to protect copyright for some defect in the act and the lack of necessary scheme and mechanisms of the government. It is proper time to protect the authors and the creators of copyright by preventing the infringement of copyright through various measures of the state. To protect copyright state should take steps to implement The Copyright Act, 2000 (CA) and it is needed to make some necessary amendments in the present act. Through this research, the researcher tries to highlight current copyright status of Bangladesh, an overview of The Copyright Act, 2000 (CA), impediments and solutions to remove the impediments.  
16 Exploring the Social Status with Psychoactive and Physical Impacts of HIJRA Community: An Evidence Based Study on Khulna City, Bangladesh   , Mohammad Asif Khan1 and Umme Habiba2* 1&2Development Studies Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: habiba.ds@ku.ac.bd (Umme Habiba, Assistant Professor, Development Studies Discipline, Khulna University, Bangladesh).  
The transgender people called HIJRA are one of the minor communities in Bangladesh. This research study was intended to explore the social status (education, religion, economy, civil-rights) and physical-psychoactive impacts of HIJRA community in Khulna, Bangladesh. We have already spent more than 48 years of liberation, but we haven’t ensured the proper human rights for HIJRAs. The following study aims to find out some major issues (like social status and psychological behavior) from HIJRAs. To acquire those results it uses the questionnaire survey. The study exposed that they are one of the underprivileged and unlearned communities in Bangladesh. Though they have their own gender recognition, they are subjected to a terrifying tribulation in their daily life. In the development policy, this discrimination hinders the goals of inner and outer development. For fetching the outcome of this study, researchers used both exploratory and descriptive analysis method with qualitative and quantitative research approach. Furthermore, the findings of this study are - (a) Economic condition of the HIJRAs. (b) Religious and educational information of the HIJRAs, and (c) Physical and psychoactive issues which caused some dangerous issues on their life.   
17 Empowerment State of Transgender People in Bangladesh: A Study on Savar National Memorial Based Area in Dhaka City   , Sakina Akter Sema1, 2*, and Md. Touhidul Islam3, 4 1Dept. of English, Pundra University of Science and Technology, Bogura, Bangladesh; 2M.Phil Research Fellow, Dept. of English, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh; and 3Dept. of Business Administration, Gono Bishwabidyalay, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh; and  4M.Phil Research Fellow, Dept. of Finance and Banking, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh *Correspondence: sakinaseema40@gmail.com  
Still today at 21st century Transgender is a mysterious issue to the common people. General people are curious to know about their lifestyle, how they fight for their livelihoods by struggling with various obstacles against them. In Bangladesh, the scenario is not different from the other neighboring countries. But presently some NGOs, Organizations and groups have come out to help them with the government. They are trying to facilitate them by involving the transgender people in various social and economic activities by giving them some training and proper counseling. Through this sort of activity they are being empowered. This research paper has quantified the extent to which the transgender people are being empowered and enjoying their empowerment as a recognized citizen of Bangladesh respects social, political-legal and economic aspects. The study has applied a descriptive research design with a quantitative approach to determine the extent of each factor in the analysis. Data were collected through a close-end structured liker scale questionnaire. The sample size was 28 respondents from the 60-80 population who live in the Savar National Memorial based area in Dhaka city. Data was analyzed by using descriptive analysis (means and standard deviation) and multiple linear regression analysis. The study found that, Social Empowerment of Transgender People (SocEm) and Economic Empowerment of Transgender People (EcoEm) have a significant positive relationship with empowerment state of transgender people while Political/Legal Empowerment of Transgender People (PoLeEm) does not have any significant positive relationship with the empowerment state of transgender people in Bangladesh respect to Savar National Memorial based area in Dhaka city. The coefficient of determination (Adjusted R2=0.901) showed that 90.10% of the success recorded in the empowerment state of the transgender people in Bangladesh accounted for Economic Empowerment of Transgender People (EcoEm), Political/Legal Empowerment of Transgender People (PoLeEm), Social Empowerment of Transgender People (SocEm) respect to selected transgender people those who live in Savar National Memorial based area in Dhaka City.
18 A Critical Analysis on Violation of Human Rights Caused by Extra-Judicial Killings with Special Reference to the Role of Police: Bangladesh Perspective   , Md. Nahidul Islam* Department of Law, Gono Bishwabidyalay, Savar, Dhaka-1344, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: jsnahid07law@gmail.com (Dr. Md. Nahidul Islam, Assistant Professor, Department of Law, Gono Bishwabidyalay, Savar, Dhaka-1344, Bangladesh).  
This paper mostly dwells on the certain examples of violation of human rights extremely committed by the law enforcement agency i.e., the police emphasizing on the human rights situation in Bangladesh. The utmost negative role of Police has been highlighted here considering the state of human rights regarding the violations especially caused by Extra-Judicial Killings. Furthermore, Human Rights situation demanded its due concepts with the present justice system. In this study, police administration has been taken under close scrutiny. In addition to this, an attempt has been made to unveil the relationship between Human Rights and Police Administration. Most importantly, there is a further attempt to uphold the facts of human rights’ violations especially in extra-judicial killings mentioning and studying sensational cases too. Finally, in this paper, the researcher has endeavored to bring out the actual situation of violations analyzing the extra-judicial facts in different perspectives in connection with the activities of the law enforcing agencies i.e., the police where this agencies are always on action having the responsibilities to protect and ensure the human rights of the citizens in a democratic and developing country like Bangladesh.   
19 Historic 7th March Speech of Bangabandhu: Democracy and Civility in Leadership   , Jubaida Sultana1 and Md. Al Amin2* 1&2History & Civilization Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna, Bangladesh *Correspondence: alaminbn8@gmail.com (Md. Al Amin, Lecturer, History & Civilization Discipline, Khulna University, Bangladesh)  
Sheikh Mujibur Rahman is the name that the Bengali nation remembers and cheers, who inspired millions with his leadership. His speech of 7th March, 1971 electrified the nation and set the tone for the great war of liberation. His speech has manifested the belief in freedom and equality between people and his enthusiastic courtesy and warmth in guiding the people to their destined future. Democracy is a situation, system or organization in which everyone has equal rights and opportunities. It is the belief that everyone in the country has the right to express their opinion and can help in making decisions. And civility is defined as civilized conduct or the quality of being polite. The objective of this research is to highlight the fact that how the Father of the Bengali Nation, Bangabandhu had shown civility and put importance on democracy in his 7th March speech. These two most important things, emphasized in his speech are the reasons behind Bangabandhu being loved and adored by the people. His genuine devotion and affection for his people was clearly cognized through his speech of 7th March. This qualitative research includes data collected from historical sources. Newspaper, government files (archival sources) and interviews are the primary sources used in this research. And books and articles published in different journals are used as the secondary sources.  
20 Bhagabania, Nigamananda and Baha’i of Jashore in Bangladesh: A Study of Women   , Md. Kohinoor Hossain* Department of Islamic History & Culture, Dargahpur Fazil Degree Madrasha, Bagherpara, Jashore, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: ap.m.k.hossain@gmail.com (Md. Kohinoor Hossain, Assistant Professor, Dept. of Islamic History & Culture, Dargahpur Fazil Degree Madrasha, Jashore, Bangladesh).  
Jashore, a renowned district of Bangladesh whose has own ancient tradition and heritage which is surrounded by the various rivers, forests and various folk religious communities who lead their life like the heart of rivers. The Bhairav, the Chitra, the Begobati, the Kaputakhya, the Icchamati, the Mukteswaree, the Nabagonga, the Kumar, the Harihar, the Kobadak, the Mathabhanga, the Afra Khal, the Khatki, the Fatki and the Bhadra are the ancient rivers of Jashore. The rivers have changed their own speed and path by the rules of eternal geonatural world and in these ways, watery, salty and sweet areas people follow the extraordinary style of religious beliefs which focus on the rivers and religious beliefs which focus on the rivers and religious paramount where the deities and entities of the people make up a resourceful religious culture. Like rivers and religions have changed their own facets and beliefs. The World religions are divided into two divisions. They are: (a) State recognized religions and (b) Folk religions. There is a good number of discrimination between state recognized religions and Folk religions. The state recognized religions are in two sections. They are: (a) Abrahamic religions and (b) Indian religions. Folk religions are community based religions which may be national and international. Here will be showed about state recognized where there women in what is how. The reviewer attempts to examine between state recognized religions and folk religions where both of two, how to treat to the women.   
21 Analysis of Cyclone Shelter Patterns to Build a Better Shelter Management: A Case Study of Bangladesh Southern Region   , Md. Rasheduzzaman1*, Azim Uddin2, Md. Shamsuzzoha3, and Muhammad Arifur Rahman4 1-3Department of Emergency Management, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Dumki, Patuakhali-8602, Bangladesh; and 4Department of Environmental Science, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Dumki, Patuakhali-8602, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: rashederm@pstu.ac.bd (Md. Rasheduzzaman, Lecturer, Department of Emergency Management, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Bangladesh).  
Bangladesh is located geographically in a vulnerable location. Every year different types of natural disasters like cyclone, flood, Nor'wester, tornado, storm surge, salinity, drought, river erosion, river bed siltation, land slide, etc. visit in our country. Cyclone is a very common phenomenon in our country. Cyclone shelter is the haven place for the coastal people during the cyclonic event. There are various types of cyclone shelters in the coastal areas of Bangladesh. The overall aim of the research is to identify the best types of cyclone shelters for better shelter management. A total of ten types of cyclone shelters are considered to conduct this research work. The qualitative and quantitative data were analyzed. A priority index matrix is made to identify the best types of cyclone shelters. Different types of data were analyzed viz. access road conditions, enter and exit facilities, physical elements of the cyclone shelters. From the data analysis, it is identified that type 6 cyclone shelter is the best pattern among ten cyclone shelters. This research finds out some weaknesses of the current shelter management practices like a warning signal, poor condition of the shelter, relief work-related problem, electricity, drinking water and limited logistic support. Finally, the research also made some recommendations for new builds, existing, and institutional arrangements of cyclone shelters that may help to improve the future establishment of cyclone shelters in coastal areas of Bangladesh. So, the identified better pattern of cyclone shelter will improve the emergency management system by providing better shelter management facilities during emergency situation of any cyclonic event.  
22 Effectiveness of Microfinance on Household Income Generation Strategy in the Southwest Region of Bangladesh   , Sudipa Basu1, Apurba Roy1*, and Sanjit Karmokar2 1Department of Economics, University of Barishal, Barishal-8200, Bangladesh; and 2Assistant Director of Community Engagement, Bangladesh Relief Initiative for Communities in Khulna (BRICK), Inc. Virginia, USA. *Correspondence: aroy@bu.ac.bd (Apurba Roy, Assistant Professor, Dept. of Economics, University of Barishal, Barishal, Bangladesh).  
The primary purpose of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of microfinance on household income generation in the south-west region of Bangladesh. A set of statistical tools such as descriptive analysis, t-test, correlation analysis and log-linear multiple regression models have been used to achieve the objective of the study. It has been found that the difference between household income, expenditure, saving, working hours and capital is statistical and significant after joining the microfinance program. Also, results from correlation analysis show a positive and meaningful relationship between credit and household monthly income, expenditure, and savings. Besides, the regression analysis confirms that the age of the respondent, family members and loan amount have a positive and statistically significant impact on income generation for the microfinance receiver. The finding of the research is crucial and meaningful to the policymaker to take practical steps in reducing poverty and sustainable rural development.  
23 Can ‘Control-Order’ be Implanted into the Counter-Terrorism Policy of Bangladesh? A Critical Assessment   , Mohammed Shahjalal1&2* 1Department of Law, East West University, Bangladesh; and 2PhD Fellow, Glasgow Caledonian University, UK. *Correspondence: shahjalal@ewubd.edu (Mohammed Shahjalal, Senior Lecturer, Department of Law, East West University, Bangladesh).  
This research will be specifically focusing on implemented legislations for eliminating terrorism. There is no need to mention exclusively again that it began many years ago. It ignited mostly after the post 9/11 era. The Bush & Blair management then immediately applied many different and notorious counter-terrorism tactics. Among all; the infamous “Control Order” was authorized by most of the regimes like Guatemala to Tihar Jail, India. Arguably except Bangladesh, this brutal method of torture was applied in almost every counter-terrorism cell. Needless to say it started mostly after the ‘Twin Tower’ destruction. The Allied Forces (Mainly UK and USA) had literally chosen to instigate ‘Control-Order’ on almost every Muslim individual and almost every counter-terrorism agencies started to implement ‘control-order’ within regular basis.  
24 A Judicial Exploration of Portia in The Merchant of Venice: A Critical Study   , Muhammed Asgor Hossain1   and Md. Shaon Akter2* 1Department of English, Islamic University, Kushtia, Bangladesh; and 2Department of English, Khwaja Yunus Ali University, Sirajgonj, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: shekhshaon1989@gmail.com (Md. Shaon Akter, Lecturer, Department of English, Khwaja Yunus Ali University, Sirajgonj, Bangladesh).    
The term “Judicial” stands for an idea relating to the administration of justice or a phenomenon appropriate to the law or judgement. In the present study, we have an interesting character Portia in William Shakespeare’s The Merchant of Venice who disguises herself as the judiciary personality to explore a judiciary case in the court of Venice. She submitted her identity before the judge as a legal pleader appointed by the Duke of Venice to run the case between Antonio and Shylock. Shylock gets ready to cut one pound of flesh from the heart of Antonio according to the contract between them. Antonio is quite disappointed finding no other alternatives to rescue his life. The audience also gets disheartened that there is no way left for Antonio’s life and this trial will finally come to an end. In that crucial moment of utter helplessness, Portia arrives as a heavenly savior for Antonio to rescue him as a competent lawyer. So in this study, it shows Portia’s judicial portrait and as a successful  female lawyer.  
25 Familial Support as a Determinant of Women Career Development: A Qualitative Study   , Tasnuva Yasmin1* and Chisty Asmaul Husna2 1&2Development Studies Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna-9208, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: snigdhaa96@gmail.com (Tasnuva Yasmin, Lecturer, Development Studies Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna-9208, Bangladesh).    
Although women’s participation in the workforce has increased remarkably in recent times but women are still lagging behind because of the traditional thinking and attitudes of their families in the context of Bangladesh. The purpose of the current study was to explore the role of the family in shaping women’s career development. The study was conducted in a qualitative approach and it was exploratory in nature. The study was conducted during November-December, 2019 in Khulna division, Bangladesh. The purposive sampling procedure was used to select the 25 respondents of the study. The respondents constituted of working women from different professions. Primary data was collected through semi-structured in-depth interviews extending from 35 to 45 minutes. The collected data were analyzed using thematic analysis method and nine themes emerged from the transcripts. The emerged themes were acceptance and aspiration from family, spousal support, being a mother, grown-up children as helping hands, family and work balance, family as a social network, family as a barrier, family as a lever, and gender inequality. This research highlighted the fact that women’s career practices and its development depended highly on familial roles. The family possesses the ability to affect women’s career success both positively and negatively. The study revealed that women who received positive support from their families were more motivated and achieved greater success in their professional life. Family can serve both as a lever as well as a barrier in shaping a woman’s career.   
26 Prospects of Digital Financial Services in Bangladesh in the Context of Fourth Industrial Revolution   , Md. Harunur Rashid* Department of Public Administration and Governance Studies, Jatiya Kabi Kazi Nazrul Islam University (JKKNIU), Trishal, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: harun_du.rashid92@yahoo.com (Md. Harunur Rashid, Lecturer, Department of Public Administration and Governance Studies, JKKNIU, Trishal, Mymensingh, Bangladesh).    
This paper attempts to reveal the prospects of Digital Financial Services (DFS) in Bangladesh with introducing associated concepts-fourth industrial revolution, digital economy, and digital financial services.  Required data and information was collected primarily from the numerous sources of a secondary resource. It finds that Bangladesh has achieved remarkable progress in mobile phone penetration and secured among the top four countries advancing towards the digital economy rapidly. The country has tremendous prospects of DFS ahead; it will bring impressive economic growth and reduce poverty with huge strategic opportunities through connecting and using cutting edge technologies of the 4th industrial revolution. Bangladesh government’s effective policy reforms, digital Bangladesh’s vision and a2i program ran by Prime Minister Office made this boom in spreading digital financial services. It was projected by Bangladesh Bank and Light Castle that the MFS trend will be grown consistently; there will be 407 million clients and BDT 121 billion will be transacted in 2022.  Challenged IT infrastructures, few regulatory and operational constraints including digital illiteracy are considered as the barriers to using the full potentials of digital financial service. In realizing the goals of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the article will be useful for policy-makers, academia, learners, policy advocates, experts, and stakeholders of digital financial services.   
27 Study on the Importance of Open Space Due to Create Dhaka as a Child Friendly City   , Sharif Tousif Hossain1* and Zarin Tasnim2 1Department of Architecture, Stamford University Bangladesh, Dhanmondi, Dhaka, Bangladesh; and 2Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: imon_architecture@yahoo.com (Sharif Tousif Hossain, Senior Lecturer, Department of Architecture, Stamford University Bangladesh, Dhanmondi, Dhaka, Bangladesh).    
Though open spaces are considered a lifeline not just for urban residents but also for children's physical and mental development, Dhaka city is alarmingly losing its parks, playgrounds, and other public spaces to people for numerous causes, such as interference, lack of proper preparation, political and economic power, or simply due to the incompetence and corruption of city officials. This research paper aims to study on open spaces like the playground, parks, and amusement parks in Dhaka which is an important element due to creating a child-friendly city. There is no proper planning and guideline of open spaces for children in Dhaka where e importance of play for a child’s cognitive, social, physical, and emotional development has been recognized by researchers worldwide. Children’s need to open space to play, learn, exercise, leisure, which is very important for the growth of children’s and the training of cognitive, affective, and psychomotor skills, to be able to grow and develop properly. Dhaka lacks these sufficient open spaces for children and will strive to build a child-friendly atmosphere immediately.  
28 Fourth Industrial Revolution in Bangladesh: Prospects and Challenges   , Maruf Hasan Rumi1, Md. Harunur Rashid2*, Niaz Makhdum1, and Nesur Uddin Nahid1 1Department of Public Administration, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh; and  2Department of Public Administration and Governance Studies, Jatiya Kabi Kazi Nazrul Islam University, Trishal, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: harun_du.rashid92@yahoo.com (Md. Harunur Rashid, Lecturer, Department of Public Administration and Governance Studies, Jatiya Kabi Kazi Nazrul Islam University, Trishal, Mymensingh, Bangladesh).    
The stream of globalization is impelling Bangladesh to adopt the technologies of the Fourth Industrial Revolution (FIR). This study examined the opportunities and problems created by the adoption of FIR in Bangladesh. Findings show that the adaptation of FIR can create enormous difficulties for the country with some new opportunities. Sustainable ICT development, increase in productivity, women, and citizen empowerment will bring positive effects. However, social inequality, colossal unemployment, a threat to social security, the domination of MNCs will increase that can harm the economy badly. FIR will also influence the political system. Hence, a comprehensive plan and sound policymaking can help to exploit the opportunity of FIR. Professional development training for human resources, job-based educational system, sensitive labor policies, alternative employment sector with updated technologies, investment in SMEs is expected to tackle the challenges of FIR in Bangladesh. Furthermore, the findings may be used to take the anticipatory role in the future for becoming a beneficiary of the FIR.  
29 Labor Demand and Export-Oriented Industrialization of Bangladesh   , Taharima Sultana* Department of Economics, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Noakhali, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: taharimahashi52@gmail.com    
This thesis based on the findings of a study on labor demand and export-oriented industrialization in Bangladesh at the time of 1992-93 to 2016-17. For this persistence, secondary data from different sources (BBS, WDI, EPB, BER, WB, BB, etc) for the time duration 1992-2017 has been composed and analyzed through econometric tools. The test approves that the disturbance terms are normally distributed. To detect that the data suffer from multicollinearity, heteroscedasticity, and autocorrelation problem, the diagnostic test has been adopted. From the diagnostic test, it is detected that while the data free from heteroscedasticity and autocorrelation problems, however, the data suffer from severe multicollinearity problem. The multi-collinearity problem is removed using remedial measures. The Unit root test has been detected to test the stationarity of the composed data. Among different unit root test, ADF-test is adopted. The test displays that the data are stationary at the first difference level for export-oriented industrialization and the second difference level for labor demand. The Johansen co-integration test is adapted to test whether the data are cointegrated at any level. The test results approve that six variables are cointegrated on labor demand and one variable cointegrated on export-oriented industrialization. The Granger causality test under VAR (Vector Autoregressive Regression) framework displays the variable has a unidirectional causal relationship with the dependent variable where all independent variables lead, and the dependent variable follows. However, these relationships have found a statistically significant positive impact of labor demand and export-oriented industrialization in Bangladesh. Thus, there is a dynamic relationship between domestic labor demand, export, and economic progress in Bangladesh.  
30 Impact of Mass Media to Creates Awareness among the Poor Parents against Child Labor   , Md. Farhad Hossain* Department of Statistics, Comilla University, Cumilla, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: farhad390ju@gmail.com (Md. Farhad Hossain, Assistant Professor, Department of Statistics, Comilla University, Cumilla, Bangladesh).    
Child labor is a widespread phenomenon. It is globally known to be an aspect of child abuse. The present study discussed the impact of mass media to create awareness among poor parents against child labor. For this purpose, data were collected from parents of a child laborer, child laborer, and employers who recruited child labor from Cumilla districts. The findings revealed that male adolescents have been involved as child laborers compared to female adolescents. Downcast literacy rate observed of the parents of the child laborer. Sample characteristics indicated that child laborer belongs to a large family. Also, the study observed that the dropout rate is high for working children. Two of the greatest usual reasons for the kiddies to reasoning the job were poorness and careless outlook unto study as reported. The finding of that study will help our parents to be more conscious of their kids.   
31 Sketch of the Copyright Act, 2000 in Bangladesh: Enforcement, Impediments and Solutions   , Shahidul Alam1*, Md. Al-Amin1, and Sharifa Yasmin Mukta2 1Department of Law, Gono Bishwabidyalay, Savar, Dhaka-1344, Bangladesh, and 2Department of Law, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Science and Technology University, Gopalganj-8100, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: mr.rana59@gmail.com (Shahidul Alam, Lecturer, Department of Law, Gono Bishwabidyalay, Dhaka, Bangladesh).  
In the Modern era, the concept of intellectual property is a matter of significance, and copyright (CR) is a great part of it. Copyright provides the author and the creator of the original works a negative right on literature, dramatics, musical art, cinematograph, and sound recording. By virtue of modern technology among intellectual property, CR is getting more important. Though there is The Copyright Act, 2000 (CA) in Bangladesh is going to be difficult to protect copyright for some defect in the act and the lack of necessary scheme and mechanisms of the government. It is proper time to protect the authors and the creators of copyright by preventing the infringement of copyright through various measures of the state. To protect copyright state should take steps to implement The Copyright Act, 2000 (CA) and it is needed to make some necessary amendments in the present act. Through this research, the researcher tries to highlight current copyright status of Bangladesh, an overview of The Copyright Act, 2000 (CA), impediments and solutions to remove the impediments.  
32 Exploring the Social Status with Psychoactive and Physical Impacts of HIJRA Community: An Evidence Based Study on Khulna City, Bangladesh   , Mohammad Asif Khan1 and Umme Habiba2* 1&2Development Studies Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: habiba.ds@ku.ac.bd (Umme Habiba, Assistant Professor, Development Studies Discipline, Khulna University, Bangladesh).  
The transgender people called HIJRA are one of the minor communities in Bangladesh. This research study was intended to explore the social status (education, religion, economy, civil-rights) and physical-psychoactive impacts of HIJRA community in Khulna, Bangladesh. We have already spent more than 48 years of liberation, but we haven’t ensured the proper human rights for HIJRAs. The following study aims to find out some major issues (like social status and psychological behavior) from HIJRAs. To acquire those results it uses the questionnaire survey. The study exposed that they are one of the underprivileged and unlearned communities in Bangladesh. Though they have their own gender recognition, they are subjected to a terrifying tribulation in their daily life. In the development policy, this discrimination hinders the goals of inner and outer development. For fetching the outcome of this study, researchers used both exploratory and descriptive analysis method with qualitative and quantitative research approach. Furthermore, the findings of this study are - (a) Economic condition of the HIJRAs. (b) Religious and educational information of the HIJRAs, and (c) Physical and psychoactive issues which caused some dangerous issues on their life.   
33 Exploration of Poverty and Human Rights Violation: A Legal Analysis   , Md. Arifuzzaman1*, Farhana Esmay Roquiya Rafee2, and Md. Jahurul Islam3  1Department of Law, Green University of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2Advocate, Judge Court, Dhaka, Bangladesh; and 3Advocate, Judge Court, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.  *Correspondence: arif@law.green.edu.bd (Dr. Md. Arifuzzaman, Senior Lecturer, Department of Law, Green University of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh).
In light of human rights, poverty has multidimensional faces, so it is quite complicated to define the term poverty. Some scholars have argued that poverty is a cause and consequence of human rights violation, whereas, rest of others found that poverty itself is a violation of human rights. So it is not clear to what extent poverty violates human rights. This ambiguity leads to some other issues such, the exact definition of poverty, the approach of human rights, the link between discrimination and poverty, whether the poverty line standard maintains equity, the legal obligations of duty holders, and the human rights approach in incorporate in poverty-reducing plans. All through the world, there are various types of human rights discriminatory laws that exist and which lead to poverty. It can be said that State actions fail to reduce poverty owing to the absence or inadequacy of policies and programs and the lack of appropriate government expenses, in cases where resources are available. This paper is made with the purpose to clarify the term human rights and poverty. It is necessary to draw a link between human rights and poverty. This paper also has some other purposes, such as, try to find out reasons for poverty, giving importance to the duty bearer obligations, and designing the poverty reduction strategies under the human rights approach. 
34 Resistance, Unrest, Protest and Demonstration Provoked by COVID-19: A Case Study of Bangladesh , A H M Nahid* Department of Development Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, Islamic University, Kushtia-7003, Bangladesh.  *Correspondence: nhasnatnahid@gmail.com (A H M Nahid, Lecturer, Department of Development Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, Islamic University, Kushtia-7003, Bangladesh).
Covid-19, the pandemic, has been wreaking havoc all around the globe including Bangladesh since its inception in China. Not only has the virus been a great threat to human life, but it has also affected the economic, political, and social aspects of life-generating resistance issues, a number of unrests, protests, and demonstrations. This study, following a mixed methodology, tries to identify the incidence and nature of these social issues brought about by Covid-19. The study finds that both the expatriates and the residents of the country continuously defied the lockdown and social distancing rules as the government had tried to contain the covid-19 through those measures. While the motive for the expatriates was to get away from the authorities and get back home, apathy to follow the new rules, food and work opportunities, job security, and even marriage was the stimulus for the general people to bypass the laws. Unrests like the spreading of rumors, price hikes, a rise of crime, etc. shook all 64 districts of the country. Covid-19, directly or indirectly, provoked more than 250 protests and demonstrations. While the existence of demand for relief or complaints regarding relief distribution was the main incentive for the people of all ages and occupations, reasons such as demand for remuneration and incentives, safety equipment and facilities, closure of educational institutions as well as hospitals, halting specialized hospitals were evident.
35 Conflict among Indigenous Communities and Settler Bengali Community of Chittagong Hill Tracts: Is There a Way to Peace? , Rafia Rahman* Department of Anthropology, Jatiya Kabi Kazi Nazrul Islam University, Trishal-2220, Bangladesh.  *Correspondence: rafiarahman.duanthro@gmail.com (Lecturer, Department of Anthropology, Jatiya Kabi Kazi Nazrul Islam University, Trishal-2220, Bangladesh).
The Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT)  of southeastern Bangladesh is the most isolated and geographically unique region of the country, with its hilly composition, vast valleys, cascading streams, and rivers. It is also home to at least 11 indigenous communities, each with its distinct language, culture, and traditions, and a large quantity of Bengali settler population. Since the beginning, there has been tension between the indigenous communities and the Bengali settler community residing in CHT. Now, this tense situation is becoming more and more intense with each passing year, where you almost can’t have a conversation about CHT without discussing ethnic conflict. Therefore, we need to look for ways out of the current juncture. During my visit to CHT, I found that a lack of understanding between the two entities and unsatisfactory implementation of the 1997 peace accord is causing distrust and frustrations among the ethnic groups, leading them toward increased ethnic violence and eradicating the likelihood of peace further from this hilly region. Therefore, we have to look for ways to foster understanding between the indigenous communities and settler community, in order to create a sense of interconnectedness among them which, in turn, will persuade them to overcome their differences and sympathize with one another. In addition, the unimplemented clauses of the Peace Accord should be implemented as soon as possible to regain indigenous populations' trust and to give them a sense of security on their own ancestral land. 
36 Political Modernization in the Developing Countries: Challenges and Prospects   , Nazmul Hasan* Dept. of Public Administration and Governance Studies, Jatiya Kabi Kazi Nazrul Islam University, Trishal, Mymenshingh.  *Correspondence: nazmul.pags23@gmail.com (Nazmul Hasan, Lecturer, Department of Public Administration and Governance Studies, Jatiya Kabi Kazi Nazrul Islam University, Trishal, Mymenshingh).
This paper is all about the political modernization of the developing world. The political party, Bureaucrats, Law enforcement forces have been a source of political modernization in the traditional as well as transitional democracies. But the primary duty of the political party serves as the main tool of running the state. Bureaucrats implemented the policy of government and Law enforcement force established the rule of law.  Political parties, Bureaucrats, and Law enforcement forces are closely involved in bringing political modernization. Unfortunately, it is impossible to ensure political modernization without any one agent.  The first part of this article is an attempt to discuss on meaning and conditions of political modernization. The second part of this study explained serious stumbling blocks in the implementation of political modernization in developing countries. The final part of the study highlights the prospects of political modernization based on different agencies like Political parties, Bureaucrats, and Law enforcement forces and makes a concluding remark on the overall concept. 
37 Digitalization of Bangladesh Judiciary and Access to Justice   , Mohammad Ikbal Hasan1* and Fahmida Johura Rupa2 1&2Department of Law, University of Information Technology and Sciences (UITS), Dhaka, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: ikbalhbd@gmail.com (Mohammad Ikbal Hasan, Assistant Professor, Department of Law, UITS, Dhaka, Bangladesh).
The vision of ‘Digital Bangladesh’ as articulated by the present government of Bangladesh is inseparably related to establishing the delivery of justice to the citizens through maximum use of technology. Judiciary, being the one of three main organs of the government, is the key governance and rule of law institution. Independence of Judiciary is ensured in the Constitution of Bangladesh to ensure access to justice for all. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are today considered to be an indispensable tool for both case management and efficient delivery of judicial services. Much like other developing and transitional countries, the judicial system in Bangladesh faces the same constraints and bottlenecks. More than 3 million pending cases have created a high backlog in the judiciary. Consequently, the cases take an inordinately long time to reach their logical end and litigation costs keep on mounting. The vulnerable and marginalized sections of society suffer the most. Perhaps the biggest challenge for the judiciary in the country is to reduce the delay in the court process and remove the backlog of cases. The pragmatic step to E-judiciary is inevitable to integrate the existing efforts and to digitalize the judiciary of Bangladesh aiming at reducing citizens’ time, cost, and hassle to access judicial services and to make the system more efficient and transparent. E-judiciary, a whole tech-based judicial system, may bring a radical change in the field of the administration of justice. This paper identifies the nexus between access to justice and digitalization, analyzes the current pattern of administration of justice, and upholds the loopholes of the traditional justice delivery system and core necessity of E-judiciary. Finally, it concludes with challenges and a way out for a digitalized judiciary to accelerate access to justice for mass people. 
38 The Gateway to Well-being and Happiness: Re-defining Individualism, Voluntary Simplicity and Civilization , Habtamu Girma Demiessie1*, Md. Rasel Hossain2, and Sonia Shirin3 1Department of Economic Policy Analysis, Jigjiga University, Ethiopia; 2Dept. of Statistics, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Noakhali, Bangladesh; and 3Dept. of English, Gono Bishwabidyalay, Dhaka, Bangladesh.  *Correspondence: ruhe215@gmail.com
This article is an attempt to depict principles and philosophical lines so as to promote the well-being and happiness of people and communities. The principles of theoretical research govern the methods and tools of making analysis and inferences. In this regard, theories from positive psychology, behavioral & institutional economics, sociology, and anthropology were consulted. The study starts by reviewing the theoretical and empirical literature on the two interrelated concepts, well-being and happiness. Doing so, it looks into a systematic analysis into what factors are weighing in determining well-being and happiness at individual and collective levels. In this regard, it identifies individualism, voluntary simplicity, and civilization concepts as key variables. With the benchmark being the conventional narratives, the study tries to characterize those concepts in a way that better appeals to pillars of well-being and happiness concepts. While making characterizations on individualism, voluntary simplicity, and civilization, the study infers the drawbacks of the underlying constructs of the conventional understandings and comes up with alternative ones in a way that better serves the affective and eudemonic well-being of people. In this regard, it came up with concepts of individualism-proper, a theoretical contribution of this work in redefining the concept of individualism in a better way to promote collective well-being and happiness. It also revisits the notion of voluntary simplicity in a way to appeal business of life and at all levels, from individual to societal to country level. As such, the paper tries to frame the foundation of collective happiness and well-being by pinpointing philosophical lines, depicting moral standards and/or principles that people shall pursue in their intra-personal and inter-personal relationships. The study further evokes the academia and policy regimes to consider why and how well-being and happiness issues should be the pinpoint of their respective endeavors. 
39 Indian Paintings: An Analysis of Geographical and Chronological Context   , Masum Hawladar1* and Mohammad Fakaruddin1 1Dept. of Fine Arts, Jatiya Kabi Kazi Nazrul Islam University, Trishal, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: masum.engrain@yahoo.com (Masum Hawladar, Assistant Professor, Dept. of Fine Arts, Jatiya Kabi Kazi Nazrul Islam University, Trishal, Mymensingh, Bangladesh).
The development of various genres of painting can be traced back to the beginning of history on the basis of various archeological evidences. Even within the limitations of the materials and techniques in the distant past, the people spread their aesthetic sense and sensibility through wonderful creations. Artists have drawn portraits, combining capacity and expectation together and with the passage of time, it has been expressed inside caves, on temple walls, on floors, on doors, on earthenware, on cloth, etc. Although the paintings of the ancient period were based on various supernatural beliefs, rituals of worship, etc., later on, it has been transformed into special aesthetic forms. Initially, the totem was developed as a symbol of faith and adherence to various supernatural beings, but later it reflected the diverse geographical locations, environment-nature, and the tastes of the ruling society. In the course of time, the subject of this change has become clear in the art-form of India, as well. The diverse tastes of rulers from different parts of the world, who ruled the Indian subcontinent, have also contributed to the rise of the Indian art-form. This article on Indian painting attempts to provide a regional and chronological analysis of the material, morphological and characteristic changes in paintings from prehistoric times to the contemporary era. 
40 Forced labor and the legal issues: In the context of Bangladesh   , Ibtida Farhat Tropa* Department of Law, Faculty of Law, Eastern University, Dhaka-1345, Bangladesh.  *Correspondence: ibtidatropa@gmail.com (Ibtida Farhat Tropa, Senior Associate, A. S & Associates, Dhaka, Bangladesh).
Modern slavery is currently the most talked about topic in the world. One of the most common forms of modern slavery is forced labor, which is very common in underdeveloped countries like the countries in South Asia. Forced labor means any work which is done by the worker without his willingness but the worker is bound to do the work due to the circumstances like poverty, the threat of life or property, etc. Therefore, mostly the countries which are fighting for survival like Bangladesh are mostly affected by this problem. However, in Bangladesh, forced labor is a punishable offense and also prohibited by the Constitution of the Peoples’ Republic of Bangladesh. Accordingly, Bangladesh has enacted an Act to prohibit forced labor. But due to the economic struggle, unstable political situation, and other issues the country is failing to prevent the offense. The only collective attempt may prevent forced labor from the country. 
41 Determinants of Early Marriage among the Women: A Study on Khulna District   , Md. Jahidul Islam1* and Mojahidul Islam2 1&2Sociology Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna-9208, Bangladesh.  *Correspondence: jahidsoc14ku@gmail.com (Md. Jahidul Islam, Sociology Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna-9208, Bangladesh).
Early marriage is one of the major social problems in Bangladesh. Poverty has been the major factor leading to early marriage in Bangladesh. However, this study was an attempt to investigate the determinants affecting the early marriage. The study is explanatory in nature as it tries to explain the determinants that affect early marriage in the Khulna district of Bangladesh. The study was carried out in two areas, i.e, Paikgacha Village under Paikgacha Upzilla and 23 No. ward of Khulna city. The study adopted a survey research design. The population targeted by the study included only female respondents of 18 ages or above age group. 287 respondents were selected through a simple random sampling procedure using an interview schedule as survey research for data assortment. The major finding of the revision was that most of the respondents (64.5%) were married and got at an early age. Results revealed that the majority of the respondents were affected by socio-economic factors as for their early marriages. The study, however, identified the association of premature marriage of the respondents with socio-cultural factors (p<.001), economic factors (p<.005), areas of residence (p<.001) at a strong significant level. So the study concluded that early marriage is affected by different socio-demographic factors such as parental education and income, parental early marriage, husband education, and income, area of residence. 
42 Statelessness in South Asia: Present Scenario, Violation of Human Rights, Grounds and Redresses   , Shahidul Alam1*, Sharifa Yasmin Mukta2, Farah Iqbal1 and Towhida Sarker1 1Dept. of Law, Gono Bishwabibyalay, Savar, Dhaka-1344, Banglades; and 2Dept. of Law, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Science and Technology University, Gopalganj-8100, Bangladesh.  *Correspondence: mr.rana59@gmail.com (Shahidul Alam, Senior Lecturer, Department of Law, Gono Bishwabidylay, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh).
After a lengthy and troublesome journey, statelessness (Stlsns) has now reached as a recognized emphasis of both theoretical and policy-oriented study. This article discourses how the issue has received great attention from scholars over the world. A broad examination through practical, theoretical, and legal lenses of violation of human rights (HRs) of stateless persons (SPs) is presented by this article. The article outlines the present scenario of Stlns in South Asia and several HRs of SPs as contained in several HRs treaties; Shows how these HRs are violated and illustrates the real struggles of SPs highlighting the difficulties of various stateless inhabitants; Scrutinizes how the issues of Stlns are being addressed; Considers the multifaceted regional and political forces touching rules regarding SPs. The article ends with references concerning remedies and keys for Stlns. 
43 Identifying Cyclone Shelter Facilities and Limitations for Enhancing Community Resiliency in Coastal Areas of Bangladesh , Most. Nusrat Binte Nur1*, Md. Abdur Rahim1 and Md. Rasheduzzaman2 1Dept. of Disaster Resilience and Engineering, Faculty of Environmental Science and Disaster Management, Patuakhali Science and Technology University (PSTU), Dumki, Patuakhali-8602, Bangladesh and 2Dept. of Emergency Management, Faculty of Environmental Science and Disaster Management, Patuakhali Science and Technology University (PSTU), Dumki, Patuakhali-8602, Bangladesh.  *Correspondence: nusratdre@pstu.ac.bd (Most. Nusrat Binte Nur, Lecturer, Dept. of Disaster Resilience and Engineering, Faculty of Environmental Science and Disaster Management, PSTU, Dumki, Patuakhali-8602, Bangladesh).
Amtali is a vulnerable coastal Upazila in the Barguna district of Bangladesh. It is more vulnerable to cyclone disasters. The devastating cyclone is frequently a phenomenon here. Cyclone shelter is a structural measure to decrease cyclone vulnerabilities. The main purpose of this study is to identify facilities and problems of the cyclone shelter from the people's perceptions of the study space. To accomplish the aim, a semi-structured, household questionnaire (100 individual responses) survey is used. Besides ten key informer interviews are also used to authenticate the collected information. The key findings of these lessons are insufficient shelter facilities (65% opined), unhealthy sanitation, scarcity of safe drinking water, inadequate medical facilities, limited or almost no facilities for women, especially for pregnant women. Overall facilities are not enough for the public. Perception shows that women are more vulnerable due to improper management of shelter including harassment. Many types of limitations are found in the shelters. For those reasons, individuals don’t seem to be interested to travel to cyclone shelters. Proper early warning as well as information dissemination systems are not well developed and not properly working in due times. About 70% of respondents viewed that the supervision method of cyclone shelters is unhealthy, unhygienic, and unsatisfactory levels. For enhancing people's encouragement and participation to go to cyclone shelters, healthy sanitation, safe beverage provides, proper medical facilities, separate rooms, and bogs for women must be needed to build the community more resilient. Sufficient and frequent training on cyclone shelter usability and management, communities' early warning understanding and reception, awareness-raising programs, and proper information on disaster management should be strengthened for enhancing community resiliency to cyclonic disasters.