1 Empowerment State of Transgender People in Bangladesh: A Study on Savar National Memorial Based Area in Dhaka City   , Sakina Akter Sema1, 2*, and Md. Touhidul Islam3, 4 1Dept. of English, Pundra University of Science and Technology, Bogura, Bangladesh; 2M.Phil Research Fellow, Dept. of English, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh; and 3Dept. of Business Administration, Gono Bishwabidyalay, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh; and  4M.Phil Research Fellow, Dept. of Finance and Banking, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh *Correspondence: sakinaseema40@gmail.com  
Still today at 21st century Transgender is a mysterious issue to the common people. General people are curious to know about their lifestyle, how they fight for their livelihoods by struggling with various obstacles against them. In Bangladesh, the scenario is not different from the other neighboring countries. But presently some NGOs, Organizations and groups have come out to help them with the government. They are trying to facilitate them by involving the transgender people in various social and economic activities by giving them some training and proper counseling. Through this sort of activity they are being empowered. This research paper has quantified the extent to which the transgender people are being empowered and enjoying their empowerment as a recognized citizen of Bangladesh respects social, political-legal and economic aspects. The study has applied a descriptive research design with a quantitative approach to determine the extent of each factor in the analysis. Data were collected through a close-end structured liker scale questionnaire. The sample size was 28 respondents from the 60-80 population who live in the Savar National Memorial based area in Dhaka city. Data was analyzed by using descriptive analysis (means and standard deviation) and multiple linear regression analysis. The study found that, Social Empowerment of Transgender People (SocEm) and Economic Empowerment of Transgender People (EcoEm) have a significant positive relationship with empowerment state of transgender people while Political/Legal Empowerment of Transgender People (PoLeEm) does not have any significant positive relationship with the empowerment state of transgender people in Bangladesh respect to Savar National Memorial based area in Dhaka city. The coefficient of determination (Adjusted R2=0.901) showed that 90.10% of the success recorded in the empowerment state of the transgender people in Bangladesh accounted for Economic Empowerment of Transgender People (EcoEm), Political/Legal Empowerment of Transgender People (PoLeEm), Social Empowerment of Transgender People (SocEm) respect to selected transgender people those who live in Savar National Memorial based area in Dhaka City.
2 A Critical Analysis on Violation of Human Rights Caused by Extra-Judicial Killings with Special Reference to the Role of Police: Bangladesh Perspective   , Md. Nahidul Islam* Department of Law, Gono Bishwabidyalay, Savar, Dhaka-1344, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: jsnahid07law@gmail.com (Dr. Md. Nahidul Islam, Assistant Professor, Department of Law, Gono Bishwabidyalay, Savar, Dhaka-1344, Bangladesh).  
This paper mostly dwells on the certain examples of violation of human rights extremely committed by the law enforcement agency i.e., the police emphasizing on the human rights situation in Bangladesh. The utmost negative role of Police has been highlighted here considering the state of human rights regarding the violations especially caused by Extra-Judicial Killings. Furthermore, Human Rights situation demanded its due concepts with the present justice system. In this study, police administration has been taken under close scrutiny. In addition to this, an attempt has been made to unveil the relationship between Human Rights and Police Administration. Most importantly, there is a further attempt to uphold the facts of human rights’ violations especially in extra-judicial killings mentioning and studying sensational cases too. Finally, in this paper, the researcher has endeavored to bring out the actual situation of violations analyzing the extra-judicial facts in different perspectives in connection with the activities of the law enforcing agencies i.e., the police where this agencies are always on action having the responsibilities to protect and ensure the human rights of the citizens in a democratic and developing country like Bangladesh.   
3 Historic 7th March Speech of Bangabandhu: Democracy and Civility in Leadership   , Jubaida Sultana1 and Md. Al Amin2* 1&2History & Civilization Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna, Bangladesh *Correspondence: alaminbn8@gmail.com (Md. Al Amin, Lecturer, History & Civilization Discipline, Khulna University, Bangladesh)  
Sheikh Mujibur Rahman is the name that the Bengali nation remembers and cheers, who inspired millions with his leadership. His speech of 7th March, 1971 electrified the nation and set the tone for the great war of liberation. His speech has manifested the belief in freedom and equality between people and his enthusiastic courtesy and warmth in guiding the people to their destined future. Democracy is a situation, system or organization in which everyone has equal rights and opportunities. It is the belief that everyone in the country has the right to express their opinion and can help in making decisions. And civility is defined as civilized conduct or the quality of being polite. The objective of this research is to highlight the fact that how the Father of the Bengali Nation, Bangabandhu had shown civility and put importance on democracy in his 7th March speech. These two most important things, emphasized in his speech are the reasons behind Bangabandhu being loved and adored by the people. His genuine devotion and affection for his people was clearly cognized through his speech of 7th March. This qualitative research includes data collected from historical sources. Newspaper, government files (archival sources) and interviews are the primary sources used in this research. And books and articles published in different journals are used as the secondary sources.  
4 Bhagabania, Nigamananda and Baha’i of Jashore in Bangladesh: A Study of Women   , Md. Kohinoor Hossain* Department of Islamic History & Culture, Dargahpur Fazil Degree Madrasha, Bagherpara, Jashore, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: ap.m.k.hossain@gmail.com (Md. Kohinoor Hossain, Assistant Professor, Dept. of Islamic History & Culture, Dargahpur Fazil Degree Madrasha, Jashore, Bangladesh).  
Jashore, a renowned district of Bangladesh whose has own ancient tradition and heritage which is surrounded by the various rivers, forests and various folk religious communities who lead their life like the heart of rivers. The Bhairav, the Chitra, the Begobati, the Kaputakhya, the Icchamati, the Mukteswaree, the Nabagonga, the Kumar, the Harihar, the Kobadak, the Mathabhanga, the Afra Khal, the Khatki, the Fatki and the Bhadra are the ancient rivers of Jashore. The rivers have changed their own speed and path by the rules of eternal geonatural world and in these ways, watery, salty and sweet areas people follow the extraordinary style of religious beliefs which focus on the rivers and religious beliefs which focus on the rivers and religious paramount where the deities and entities of the people make up a resourceful religious culture. Like rivers and religions have changed their own facets and beliefs. The World religions are divided into two divisions. They are: (a) State recognized religions and (b) Folk religions. There is a good number of discrimination between state recognized religions and Folk religions. The state recognized religions are in two sections. They are: (a) Abrahamic religions and (b) Indian religions. Folk religions are community based religions which may be national and international. Here will be showed about state recognized where there women in what is how. The reviewer attempts to examine between state recognized religions and folk religions where both of two, how to treat to the women.   
5 Analysis of Cyclone Shelter Patterns to Build a Better Shelter Management: A Case Study of Bangladesh Southern Region   , Md. Rasheduzzaman1*, Azim Uddin2, Md. Shamsuzzoha3, and Muhammad Arifur Rahman4 1-3Department of Emergency Management, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Dumki, Patuakhali-8602, Bangladesh; and 4Department of Environmental Science, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Dumki, Patuakhali-8602, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: rashederm@pstu.ac.bd (Md. Rasheduzzaman, Lecturer, Department of Emergency Management, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Bangladesh).  
Bangladesh is located geographically in a vulnerable location. Every year different types of natural disasters like cyclone, flood, Nor'wester, tornado, storm surge, salinity, drought, river erosion, river bed siltation, land slide, etc. visit in our country. Cyclone is a very common phenomenon in our country. Cyclone shelter is the haven place for the coastal people during the cyclonic event. There are various types of cyclone shelters in the coastal areas of Bangladesh. The overall aim of the research is to identify the best types of cyclone shelters for better shelter management. A total of ten types of cyclone shelters are considered to conduct this research work. The qualitative and quantitative data were analyzed. A priority index matrix is made to identify the best types of cyclone shelters. Different types of data were analyzed viz. access road conditions, enter and exit facilities, physical elements of the cyclone shelters. From the data analysis, it is identified that type 6 cyclone shelter is the best pattern among ten cyclone shelters. This research finds out some weaknesses of the current shelter management practices like a warning signal, poor condition of the shelter, relief work-related problem, electricity, drinking water and limited logistic support. Finally, the research also made some recommendations for new builds, existing, and institutional arrangements of cyclone shelters that may help to improve the future establishment of cyclone shelters in coastal areas of Bangladesh. So, the identified better pattern of cyclone shelter will improve the emergency management system by providing better shelter management facilities during emergency situation of any cyclonic event.  
6 Effectiveness of Microfinance on Household Income Generation Strategy in the Southwest Region of Bangladesh   , Sudipa Basu1, Apurba Roy1*, and Sanjit Karmokar2 1Department of Economics, University of Barishal, Barishal-8200, Bangladesh; and 2Assistant Director of Community Engagement, Bangladesh Relief Initiative for Communities in Khulna (BRICK), Inc. Virginia, USA. *Correspondence: aroy@bu.ac.bd (Apurba Roy, Assistant Professor, Dept. of Economics, University of Barishal, Barishal, Bangladesh).  
The primary purpose of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of microfinance on household income generation in the south-west region of Bangladesh. A set of statistical tools such as descriptive analysis, t-test, correlation analysis and log-linear multiple regression models have been used to achieve the objective of the study. It has been found that the difference between household income, expenditure, saving, working hours and capital is statistical and significant after joining the microfinance program. Also, results from correlation analysis show a positive and meaningful relationship between credit and household monthly income, expenditure, and savings. Besides, the regression analysis confirms that the age of the respondent, family members and loan amount have a positive and statistically significant impact on income generation for the microfinance receiver. The finding of the research is crucial and meaningful to the policymaker to take practical steps in reducing poverty and sustainable rural development.  
7 Can ‘Control-Order’ be Implanted into the Counter-Terrorism Policy of Bangladesh? A Critical Assessment   , Mohammed Shahjalal1&2* 1Department of Law, East West University, Bangladesh; and 2PhD Fellow, Glasgow Caledonian University, UK. *Correspondence: shahjalal@ewubd.edu (Mohammed Shahjalal, Senior Lecturer, Department of Law, East West University, Bangladesh).  
This research will be specifically focusing on implemented legislations for eliminating terrorism. There is no need to mention exclusively again that it began many years ago. It ignited mostly after the post 9/11 era. The Bush & Blair management then immediately applied many different and notorious counter-terrorism tactics. Among all; the infamous “Control Order” was authorized by most of the regimes like Guatemala to Tihar Jail, India. Arguably except Bangladesh, this brutal method of torture was applied in almost every counter-terrorism cell. Needless to say it started mostly after the ‘Twin Tower’ destruction. The Allied Forces (Mainly UK and USA) had literally chosen to instigate ‘Control-Order’ on almost every Muslim individual and almost every counter-terrorism agencies started to implement ‘control-order’ within regular basis.  
8 A Judicial Exploration of Portia in The Merchant of Venice: A Critical Study   , Muhammed Asgor Hossain1   and Md. Shaon Akter2* 1Department of English, Islamic University, Kushtia, Bangladesh; and 2Department of English, Khwaja Yunus Ali University, Sirajgonj, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: shekhshaon1989@gmail.com (Md. Shaon Akter, Lecturer, Department of English, Khwaja Yunus Ali University, Sirajgonj, Bangladesh).    
The term “Judicial” stands for an idea relating to the administration of justice or a phenomenon appropriate to the law or judgement. In the present study, we have an interesting character Portia in William Shakespeare’s The Merchant of Venice who disguises herself as the judiciary personality to explore a judiciary case in the court of Venice. She submitted her identity before the judge as a legal pleader appointed by the Duke of Venice to run the case between Antonio and Shylock. Shylock gets ready to cut one pound of flesh from the heart of Antonio according to the contract between them. Antonio is quite disappointed finding no other alternatives to rescue his life. The audience also gets disheartened that there is no way left for Antonio’s life and this trial will finally come to an end. In that crucial moment of utter helplessness, Portia arrives as a heavenly savior for Antonio to rescue him as a competent lawyer. So in this study, it shows Portia’s judicial portrait and as a successful  female lawyer.  
9 Familial Support as a Determinant of Women Career Development: A Qualitative Study   , Tasnuva Yasmin1* and Chisty Asmaul Husna2 1&2Development Studies Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna-9208, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: snigdhaa96@gmail.com (Tasnuva Yasmin, Lecturer, Development Studies Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna-9208, Bangladesh).    
Although women’s participation in the workforce has increased remarkably in recent times but women are still lagging behind because of the traditional thinking and attitudes of their families in the context of Bangladesh. The purpose of the current study was to explore the role of the family in shaping women’s career development. The study was conducted in a qualitative approach and it was exploratory in nature. The study was conducted during November-December, 2019 in Khulna division, Bangladesh. The purposive sampling procedure was used to select the 25 respondents of the study. The respondents constituted of working women from different professions. Primary data was collected through semi-structured in-depth interviews extending from 35 to 45 minutes. The collected data were analyzed using thematic analysis method and nine themes emerged from the transcripts. The emerged themes were acceptance and aspiration from family, spousal support, being a mother, grown-up children as helping hands, family and work balance, family as a social network, family as a barrier, family as a lever, and gender inequality. This research highlighted the fact that women’s career practices and its development depended highly on familial roles. The family possesses the ability to affect women’s career success both positively and negatively. The study revealed that women who received positive support from their families were more motivated and achieved greater success in their professional life. Family can serve both as a lever as well as a barrier in shaping a woman’s career.   
10 Prospects of Digital Financial Services in Bangladesh in the Context of Fourth Industrial Revolution   , Md. Harunur Rashid* Department of Public Administration and Governance Studies, Jatiya Kabi Kazi Nazrul Islam University (JKKNIU), Trishal, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: harun_du.rashid92@yahoo.com (Md. Harunur Rashid, Lecturer, Department of Public Administration and Governance Studies, JKKNIU, Trishal, Mymensingh, Bangladesh).    
This paper attempts to reveal the prospects of Digital Financial Services (DFS) in Bangladesh with introducing associated concepts-fourth industrial revolution, digital economy, and digital financial services.  Required data and information was collected primarily from the numerous sources of a secondary resource. It finds that Bangladesh has achieved remarkable progress in mobile phone penetration and secured among the top four countries advancing towards the digital economy rapidly. The country has tremendous prospects of DFS ahead; it will bring impressive economic growth and reduce poverty with huge strategic opportunities through connecting and using cutting edge technologies of the 4th industrial revolution. Bangladesh government’s effective policy reforms, digital Bangladesh’s vision and a2i program ran by Prime Minister Office made this boom in spreading digital financial services. It was projected by Bangladesh Bank and Light Castle that the MFS trend will be grown consistently; there will be 407 million clients and BDT 121 billion will be transacted in 2022.  Challenged IT infrastructures, few regulatory and operational constraints including digital illiteracy are considered as the barriers to using the full potentials of digital financial service. In realizing the goals of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the article will be useful for policy-makers, academia, learners, policy advocates, experts, and stakeholders of digital financial services.   
11 Study on the Importance of Open Space Due to Create Dhaka as a Child Friendly City   , Sharif Tousif Hossain1* and Zarin Tasnim2 1Department of Architecture, Stamford University Bangladesh, Dhanmondi, Dhaka, Bangladesh; and 2Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: imon_architecture@yahoo.com (Sharif Tousif Hossain, Senior Lecturer, Department of Architecture, Stamford University Bangladesh, Dhanmondi, Dhaka, Bangladesh).    
Though open spaces are considered a lifeline not just for urban residents but also for children's physical and mental development, Dhaka city is alarmingly losing its parks, playgrounds, and other public spaces to people for numerous causes, such as interference, lack of proper preparation, political and economic power, or simply due to the incompetence and corruption of city officials. This research paper aims to study on open spaces like the playground, parks, and amusement parks in Dhaka which is an important element due to creating a child-friendly city. There is no proper planning and guideline of open spaces for children in Dhaka where e importance of play for a child’s cognitive, social, physical, and emotional development has been recognized by researchers worldwide. Children’s need to open space to play, learn, exercise, leisure, which is very important for the growth of children’s and the training of cognitive, affective, and psychomotor skills, to be able to grow and develop properly. Dhaka lacks these sufficient open spaces for children and will strive to build a child-friendly atmosphere immediately.  
12 Fourth Industrial Revolution in Bangladesh: Prospects and Challenges   , Maruf Hasan Rumi1, Md. Harunur Rashid2*, Niaz Makhdum1, and Nesur Uddin Nahid1 1Department of Public Administration, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh; and  2Department of Public Administration and Governance Studies, Jatiya Kabi Kazi Nazrul Islam University, Trishal, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: harun_du.rashid92@yahoo.com (Md. Harunur Rashid, Lecturer, Department of Public Administration and Governance Studies, Jatiya Kabi Kazi Nazrul Islam University, Trishal, Mymensingh, Bangladesh).    
The stream of globalization is impelling Bangladesh to adopt the technologies of the Fourth Industrial Revolution (FIR). This study examined the opportunities and problems created by the adoption of FIR in Bangladesh. Findings show that the adaptation of FIR can create enormous difficulties for the country with some new opportunities. Sustainable ICT development, increase in productivity, women, and citizen empowerment will bring positive effects. However, social inequality, colossal unemployment, a threat to social security, the domination of MNCs will increase that can harm the economy badly. FIR will also influence the political system. Hence, a comprehensive plan and sound policymaking can help to exploit the opportunity of FIR. Professional development training for human resources, job-based educational system, sensitive labor policies, alternative employment sector with updated technologies, investment in SMEs is expected to tackle the challenges of FIR in Bangladesh. Furthermore, the findings may be used to take the anticipatory role in the future for becoming a beneficiary of the FIR.  
13 Labor Demand and Export-Oriented Industrialization of Bangladesh   , Taharima Sultana* Department of Economics, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Noakhali, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: taharimahashi52@gmail.com    
This thesis based on the findings of a study on labor demand and export-oriented industrialization in Bangladesh at the time of 1992-93 to 2016-17. For this persistence, secondary data from different sources (BBS, WDI, EPB, BER, WB, BB, etc) for the time duration 1992-2017 has been composed and analyzed through econometric tools. The test approves that the disturbance terms are normally distributed. To detect that the data suffer from multicollinearity, heteroscedasticity, and autocorrelation problem, the diagnostic test has been adopted. From the diagnostic test, it is detected that while the data free from heteroscedasticity and autocorrelation problems, however, the data suffer from severe multicollinearity problem. The multi-collinearity problem is removed using remedial measures. The Unit root test has been detected to test the stationarity of the composed data. Among different unit root test, ADF-test is adopted. The test displays that the data are stationary at the first difference level for export-oriented industrialization and the second difference level for labor demand. The Johansen co-integration test is adapted to test whether the data are cointegrated at any level. The test results approve that six variables are cointegrated on labor demand and one variable cointegrated on export-oriented industrialization. The Granger causality test under VAR (Vector Autoregressive Regression) framework displays the variable has a unidirectional causal relationship with the dependent variable where all independent variables lead, and the dependent variable follows. However, these relationships have found a statistically significant positive impact of labor demand and export-oriented industrialization in Bangladesh. Thus, there is a dynamic relationship between domestic labor demand, export, and economic progress in Bangladesh.  
14 Impact of Mass Media to Creates Awareness among the Poor Parents against Child Labor   , Md. Farhad Hossain* Department of Statistics, Comilla University, Cumilla, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: farhad390ju@gmail.com (Md. Farhad Hossain, Assistant Professor, Department of Statistics, Comilla University, Cumilla, Bangladesh).    
Child labor is a widespread phenomenon. It is globally known to be an aspect of child abuse. The present study discussed the impact of mass media to create awareness among poor parents against child labor. For this purpose, data were collected from parents of a child laborer, child laborer, and employers who recruited child labor from Cumilla districts. The findings revealed that male adolescents have been involved as child laborers compared to female adolescents. Downcast literacy rate observed of the parents of the child laborer. Sample characteristics indicated that child laborer belongs to a large family. Also, the study observed that the dropout rate is high for working children. Two of the greatest usual reasons for the kiddies to reasoning the job were poorness and careless outlook unto study as reported. The finding of that study will help our parents to be more conscious of their kids.   
15 Sketch of the Copyright Act, 2000 in Bangladesh: Enforcement, Impediments and Solutions   , Shahidul Alam1*, Md. Al-Amin1, and Sharifa Yasmin Mukta2 1Department of Law, Gono Bishwabidyalay, Savar, Dhaka-1344, Bangladesh, and 2Department of Law, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Science and Technology University, Gopalganj-8100, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: mr.rana59@gmail.com (Shahidul Alam, Lecturer, Department of Law, Gono Bishwabidyalay, Dhaka, Bangladesh).  
In the Modern era, the concept of intellectual property is a matter of significance, and copyright (CR) is a great part of it. Copyright provides the author and the creator of the original works a negative right on literature, dramatics, musical art, cinematograph, and sound recording. By virtue of modern technology among intellectual property, CR is getting more important. Though there is The Copyright Act, 2000 (CA) in Bangladesh is going to be difficult to protect copyright for some defect in the act and the lack of necessary scheme and mechanisms of the government. It is proper time to protect the authors and the creators of copyright by preventing the infringement of copyright through various measures of the state. To protect copyright state should take steps to implement The Copyright Act, 2000 (CA) and it is needed to make some necessary amendments in the present act. Through this research, the researcher tries to highlight current copyright status of Bangladesh, an overview of The Copyright Act, 2000 (CA), impediments and solutions to remove the impediments.  
16 Exploring the Social Status with Psychoactive and Physical Impacts of HIJRA Community: An Evidence Based Study on Khulna City, Bangladesh   , Mohammad Asif Khan1 and Umme Habiba2* 1&2Development Studies Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: habiba.ds@ku.ac.bd (Umme Habiba, Assistant Professor, Development Studies Discipline, Khulna University, Bangladesh).  
The transgender people called HIJRA are one of the minor communities in Bangladesh. This research study was intended to explore the social status (education, religion, economy, civil-rights) and physical-psychoactive impacts of HIJRA community in Khulna, Bangladesh. We have already spent more than 48 years of liberation, but we haven’t ensured the proper human rights for HIJRAs. The following study aims to find out some major issues (like social status and psychological behavior) from HIJRAs. To acquire those results it uses the questionnaire survey. The study exposed that they are one of the underprivileged and unlearned communities in Bangladesh. Though they have their own gender recognition, they are subjected to a terrifying tribulation in their daily life. In the development policy, this discrimination hinders the goals of inner and outer development. For fetching the outcome of this study, researchers used both exploratory and descriptive analysis method with qualitative and quantitative research approach. Furthermore, the findings of this study are - (a) Economic condition of the HIJRAs. (b) Religious and educational information of the HIJRAs, and (c) Physical and psychoactive issues which caused some dangerous issues on their life.   
17 Exploration of Poverty and Human Rights Violation: A Legal Analysis   , Md. Arifuzzaman1*, Farhana Esmay Roquiya Rafee2, and Md. Jahurul Islam3  1Department of Law, Green University of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2Advocate, Judge Court, Dhaka, Bangladesh; and 3Advocate, Judge Court, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.  *Correspondence: arif@law.green.edu.bd (Dr. Md. Arifuzzaman, Senior Lecturer, Department of Law, Green University of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh).
In light of human rights, poverty has multidimensional faces, so it is quite complicated to define the term poverty. Some scholars have argued that poverty is a cause and consequence of human rights violation, whereas, rest of others found that poverty itself is a violation of human rights. So it is not clear to what extent poverty violates human rights. This ambiguity leads to some other issues such, the exact definition of poverty, the approach of human rights, the link between discrimination and poverty, whether the poverty line standard maintains equity, the legal obligations of duty holders, and the human rights approach in incorporate in poverty-reducing plans. All through the world, there are various types of human rights discriminatory laws that exist and which lead to poverty. It can be said that State actions fail to reduce poverty owing to the absence or inadequacy of policies and programs and the lack of appropriate government expenses, in cases where resources are available. This paper is made with the purpose to clarify the term human rights and poverty. It is necessary to draw a link between human rights and poverty. This paper also has some other purposes, such as, try to find out reasons for poverty, giving importance to the duty bearer obligations, and designing the poverty reduction strategies under the human rights approach. 
18 Resistance, Unrest, Protest and Demonstration Provoked by COVID-19: A Case Study of Bangladesh , A H M Nahid* Department of Development Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, Islamic University, Kushtia-7003, Bangladesh.  *Correspondence: nhasnatnahid@gmail.com (A H M Nahid, Lecturer, Department of Development Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, Islamic University, Kushtia-7003, Bangladesh).
Covid-19, the pandemic, has been wreaking havoc all around the globe including Bangladesh since its inception in China. Not only has the virus been a great threat to human life, but it has also affected the economic, political, and social aspects of life-generating resistance issues, a number of unrests, protests, and demonstrations. This study, following a mixed methodology, tries to identify the incidence and nature of these social issues brought about by Covid-19. The study finds that both the expatriates and the residents of the country continuously defied the lockdown and social distancing rules as the government had tried to contain the covid-19 through those measures. While the motive for the expatriates was to get away from the authorities and get back home, apathy to follow the new rules, food and work opportunities, job security, and even marriage was the stimulus for the general people to bypass the laws. Unrests like the spreading of rumors, price hikes, a rise of crime, etc. shook all 64 districts of the country. Covid-19, directly or indirectly, provoked more than 250 protests and demonstrations. While the existence of demand for relief or complaints regarding relief distribution was the main incentive for the people of all ages and occupations, reasons such as demand for remuneration and incentives, safety equipment and facilities, closure of educational institutions as well as hospitals, halting specialized hospitals were evident.
19 Conflict among Indigenous Communities and Settler Bengali Community of Chittagong Hill Tracts: Is There a Way to Peace? , Rafia Rahman* Department of Anthropology, Jatiya Kabi Kazi Nazrul Islam University, Trishal-2220, Bangladesh.  *Correspondence: rafiarahman.duanthro@gmail.com (Lecturer, Department of Anthropology, Jatiya Kabi Kazi Nazrul Islam University, Trishal-2220, Bangladesh).
The Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT)  of southeastern Bangladesh is the most isolated and geographically unique region of the country, with its hilly composition, vast valleys, cascading streams, and rivers. It is also home to at least 11 indigenous communities, each with its distinct language, culture, and traditions, and a large quantity of Bengali settler population. Since the beginning, there has been tension between the indigenous communities and the Bengali settler community residing in CHT. Now, this tense situation is becoming more and more intense with each passing year, where you almost can’t have a conversation about CHT without discussing ethnic conflict. Therefore, we need to look for ways out of the current juncture. During my visit to CHT, I found that a lack of understanding between the two entities and unsatisfactory implementation of the 1997 peace accord is causing distrust and frustrations among the ethnic groups, leading them toward increased ethnic violence and eradicating the likelihood of peace further from this hilly region. Therefore, we have to look for ways to foster understanding between the indigenous communities and settler community, in order to create a sense of interconnectedness among them which, in turn, will persuade them to overcome their differences and sympathize with one another. In addition, the unimplemented clauses of the Peace Accord should be implemented as soon as possible to regain indigenous populations' trust and to give them a sense of security on their own ancestral land. 
20 Political Modernization in the Developing Countries: Challenges and Prospects   , Nazmul Hasan* Dept. of Public Administration and Governance Studies, Jatiya Kabi Kazi Nazrul Islam University, Trishal, Mymenshingh.  *Correspondence: nazmul.pags23@gmail.com (Nazmul Hasan, Lecturer, Department of Public Administration and Governance Studies, Jatiya Kabi Kazi Nazrul Islam University, Trishal, Mymenshingh).
This paper is all about the political modernization of the developing world. The political party, Bureaucrats, Law enforcement forces have been a source of political modernization in the traditional as well as transitional democracies. But the primary duty of the political party serves as the main tool of running the state. Bureaucrats implemented the policy of government and Law enforcement force established the rule of law.  Political parties, Bureaucrats, and Law enforcement forces are closely involved in bringing political modernization. Unfortunately, it is impossible to ensure political modernization without any one agent.  The first part of this article is an attempt to discuss on meaning and conditions of political modernization. The second part of this study explained serious stumbling blocks in the implementation of political modernization in developing countries. The final part of the study highlights the prospects of political modernization based on different agencies like Political parties, Bureaucrats, and Law enforcement forces and makes a concluding remark on the overall concept. 
21 Digitalization of Bangladesh Judiciary and Access to Justice   , Mohammad Ikbal Hasan1* and Fahmida Johura Rupa2 1&2Department of Law, University of Information Technology and Sciences (UITS), Dhaka, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: ikbalhbd@gmail.com (Mohammad Ikbal Hasan, Assistant Professor, Department of Law, UITS, Dhaka, Bangladesh).
The vision of ‘Digital Bangladesh’ as articulated by the present government of Bangladesh is inseparably related to establishing the delivery of justice to the citizens through maximum use of technology. Judiciary, being the one of three main organs of the government, is the key governance and rule of law institution. Independence of Judiciary is ensured in the Constitution of Bangladesh to ensure access to justice for all. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are today considered to be an indispensable tool for both case management and efficient delivery of judicial services. Much like other developing and transitional countries, the judicial system in Bangladesh faces the same constraints and bottlenecks. More than 3 million pending cases have created a high backlog in the judiciary. Consequently, the cases take an inordinately long time to reach their logical end and litigation costs keep on mounting. The vulnerable and marginalized sections of society suffer the most. Perhaps the biggest challenge for the judiciary in the country is to reduce the delay in the court process and remove the backlog of cases. The pragmatic step to E-judiciary is inevitable to integrate the existing efforts and to digitalize the judiciary of Bangladesh aiming at reducing citizens’ time, cost, and hassle to access judicial services and to make the system more efficient and transparent. E-judiciary, a whole tech-based judicial system, may bring a radical change in the field of the administration of justice. This paper identifies the nexus between access to justice and digitalization, analyzes the current pattern of administration of justice, and upholds the loopholes of the traditional justice delivery system and core necessity of E-judiciary. Finally, it concludes with challenges and a way out for a digitalized judiciary to accelerate access to justice for mass people. 
22 The Gateway to Well-being and Happiness: Re-defining Individualism, Voluntary Simplicity and Civilization , Habtamu Girma Demiessie1*, Md. Rasel Hossain2, and Sonia Shirin3 1Department of Economic Policy Analysis, Jigjiga University, Ethiopia; 2Dept. of Statistics, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Noakhali, Bangladesh; and 3Dept. of English, Gono Bishwabidyalay, Dhaka, Bangladesh.  *Correspondence: ruhe215@gmail.com
This article is an attempt to depict principles and philosophical lines so as to promote the well-being and happiness of people and communities. The principles of theoretical research govern the methods and tools of making analysis and inferences. In this regard, theories from positive psychology, behavioral & institutional economics, sociology, and anthropology were consulted. The study starts by reviewing the theoretical and empirical literature on the two interrelated concepts, well-being and happiness. Doing so, it looks into a systematic analysis into what factors are weighing in determining well-being and happiness at individual and collective levels. In this regard, it identifies individualism, voluntary simplicity, and civilization concepts as key variables. With the benchmark being the conventional narratives, the study tries to characterize those concepts in a way that better appeals to pillars of well-being and happiness concepts. While making characterizations on individualism, voluntary simplicity, and civilization, the study infers the drawbacks of the underlying constructs of the conventional understandings and comes up with alternative ones in a way that better serves the affective and eudemonic well-being of people. In this regard, it came up with concepts of individualism-proper, a theoretical contribution of this work in redefining the concept of individualism in a better way to promote collective well-being and happiness. It also revisits the notion of voluntary simplicity in a way to appeal business of life and at all levels, from individual to societal to country level. As such, the paper tries to frame the foundation of collective happiness and well-being by pinpointing philosophical lines, depicting moral standards and/or principles that people shall pursue in their intra-personal and inter-personal relationships. The study further evokes the academia and policy regimes to consider why and how well-being and happiness issues should be the pinpoint of their respective endeavors. 
23 Indian Paintings: An Analysis of Geographical and Chronological Context   , Masum Hawladar1* and Mohammad Fakaruddin1 1Dept. of Fine Arts, Jatiya Kabi Kazi Nazrul Islam University, Trishal, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: masum.engrain@yahoo.com (Masum Hawladar, Assistant Professor, Dept. of Fine Arts, Jatiya Kabi Kazi Nazrul Islam University, Trishal, Mymensingh, Bangladesh).
The development of various genres of painting can be traced back to the beginning of history on the basis of various archeological evidences. Even within the limitations of the materials and techniques in the distant past, the people spread their aesthetic sense and sensibility through wonderful creations. Artists have drawn portraits, combining capacity and expectation together and with the passage of time, it has been expressed inside caves, on temple walls, on floors, on doors, on earthenware, on cloth, etc. Although the paintings of the ancient period were based on various supernatural beliefs, rituals of worship, etc., later on, it has been transformed into special aesthetic forms. Initially, the totem was developed as a symbol of faith and adherence to various supernatural beings, but later it reflected the diverse geographical locations, environment-nature, and the tastes of the ruling society. In the course of time, the subject of this change has become clear in the art-form of India, as well. The diverse tastes of rulers from different parts of the world, who ruled the Indian subcontinent, have also contributed to the rise of the Indian art-form. This article on Indian painting attempts to provide a regional and chronological analysis of the material, morphological and characteristic changes in paintings from prehistoric times to the contemporary era. 
24 Forced labor and the legal issues: In the context of Bangladesh   , Ibtida Farhat Tropa* Department of Law, Faculty of Law, Eastern University, Dhaka-1345, Bangladesh.  *Correspondence: ibtidatropa@gmail.com (Ibtida Farhat Tropa, Senior Associate, A. S & Associates, Dhaka, Bangladesh).
Modern slavery is currently the most talked about topic in the world. One of the most common forms of modern slavery is forced labor, which is very common in underdeveloped countries like the countries in South Asia. Forced labor means any work which is done by the worker without his willingness but the worker is bound to do the work due to the circumstances like poverty, the threat of life or property, etc. Therefore, mostly the countries which are fighting for survival like Bangladesh are mostly affected by this problem. However, in Bangladesh, forced labor is a punishable offense and also prohibited by the Constitution of the Peoples’ Republic of Bangladesh. Accordingly, Bangladesh has enacted an Act to prohibit forced labor. But due to the economic struggle, unstable political situation, and other issues the country is failing to prevent the offense. The only collective attempt may prevent forced labor from the country. 
25 Determinants of Early Marriage among the Women: A Study on Khulna District   , Md. Jahidul Islam1* and Mojahidul Islam2 1&2Sociology Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna-9208, Bangladesh.  *Correspondence: jahidsoc14ku@gmail.com (Md. Jahidul Islam, Sociology Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna-9208, Bangladesh).
Early marriage is one of the major social problems in Bangladesh. Poverty has been the major factor leading to early marriage in Bangladesh. However, this study was an attempt to investigate the determinants affecting the early marriage. The study is explanatory in nature as it tries to explain the determinants that affect early marriage in the Khulna district of Bangladesh. The study was carried out in two areas, i.e, Paikgacha Village under Paikgacha Upzilla and 23 No. ward of Khulna city. The study adopted a survey research design. The population targeted by the study included only female respondents of 18 ages or above age group. 287 respondents were selected through a simple random sampling procedure using an interview schedule as survey research for data assortment. The major finding of the revision was that most of the respondents (64.5%) were married and got at an early age. Results revealed that the majority of the respondents were affected by socio-economic factors as for their early marriages. The study, however, identified the association of premature marriage of the respondents with socio-cultural factors (p<.001), economic factors (p<.005), areas of residence (p<.001) at a strong significant level. So the study concluded that early marriage is affected by different socio-demographic factors such as parental education and income, parental early marriage, husband education, and income, area of residence. 
26 Statelessness in South Asia: Present Scenario, Violation of Human Rights, Grounds and Redresses   , Shahidul Alam1*, Sharifa Yasmin Mukta2, Farah Iqbal1 and Towhida Sarker1 1Dept. of Law, Gono Bishwabibyalay, Savar, Dhaka-1344, Banglades; and 2Dept. of Law, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Science and Technology University, Gopalganj-8100, Bangladesh.  *Correspondence: mr.rana59@gmail.com (Shahidul Alam, Senior Lecturer, Department of Law, Gono Bishwabidylay, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh).
After a lengthy and troublesome journey, statelessness (Stlsns) has now reached as a recognized emphasis of both theoretical and policy-oriented study. This article discourses how the issue has received great attention from scholars over the world. A broad examination through practical, theoretical, and legal lenses of violation of human rights (HRs) of stateless persons (SPs) is presented by this article. The article outlines the present scenario of Stlns in South Asia and several HRs of SPs as contained in several HRs treaties; Shows how these HRs are violated and illustrates the real struggles of SPs highlighting the difficulties of various stateless inhabitants; Scrutinizes how the issues of Stlns are being addressed; Considers the multifaceted regional and political forces touching rules regarding SPs. The article ends with references concerning remedies and keys for Stlns. 
27 Identifying Cyclone Shelter Facilities and Limitations for Enhancing Community Resiliency in Coastal Areas of Bangladesh , Most. Nusrat Binte Nur1*, Md. Abdur Rahim1 and Md. Rasheduzzaman2 1Dept. of Disaster Resilience and Engineering, Faculty of Environmental Science and Disaster Management, Patuakhali Science and Technology University (PSTU), Dumki, Patuakhali-8602, Bangladesh and 2Dept. of Emergency Management, Faculty of Environmental Science and Disaster Management, Patuakhali Science and Technology University (PSTU), Dumki, Patuakhali-8602, Bangladesh.  *Correspondence: nusratdre@pstu.ac.bd (Most. Nusrat Binte Nur, Lecturer, Dept. of Disaster Resilience and Engineering, Faculty of Environmental Science and Disaster Management, PSTU, Dumki, Patuakhali-8602, Bangladesh).
Amtali is a vulnerable coastal Upazila in the Barguna district of Bangladesh. It is more vulnerable to cyclone disasters. The devastating cyclone is frequently a phenomenon here. Cyclone shelter is a structural measure to decrease cyclone vulnerabilities. The main purpose of this study is to identify facilities and problems of the cyclone shelter from the people's perceptions of the study space. To accomplish the aim, a semi-structured, household questionnaire (100 individual responses) survey is used. Besides ten key informer interviews are also used to authenticate the collected information. The key findings of these lessons are insufficient shelter facilities (65% opined), unhealthy sanitation, scarcity of safe drinking water, inadequate medical facilities, limited or almost no facilities for women, especially for pregnant women. Overall facilities are not enough for the public. Perception shows that women are more vulnerable due to improper management of shelter including harassment. Many types of limitations are found in the shelters. For those reasons, individuals don’t seem to be interested to travel to cyclone shelters. Proper early warning as well as information dissemination systems are not well developed and not properly working in due times. About 70% of respondents viewed that the supervision method of cyclone shelters is unhealthy, unhygienic, and unsatisfactory levels. For enhancing people's encouragement and participation to go to cyclone shelters, healthy sanitation, safe beverage provides, proper medical facilities, separate rooms, and bogs for women must be needed to build the community more resilient. Sufficient and frequent training on cyclone shelter usability and management, communities' early warning understanding and reception, awareness-raising programs, and proper information on disaster management should be strengthened for enhancing community resiliency to cyclonic disasters. 
28 Company’s Corporate Legal Capacity: Problems of the Ultra Vires Rule, Modern Shift and Position of Bangladesh , Md. Omar Faruque Munshi* Supreme Court of Bangladesh, Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh.  *Correspondence: omarfaruque.munshi@gmail.com (Md. Omar Faruque Munshi, Advocate, Supreme Court of Bangladesh, Ex Research Fellow, Institute of Bangladesh Studies (IBS), University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh).
ABSTRACT The traditional ultra vires rule has been applied to restrict the corporate capacity of an incorporated entity. It is a ‘legal person’ that can function only within the defined objects of its constitution. Long experience of applying this rule shows that the doctrine served no positive purpose (e.g. limiting the company’s transactions to some precise line of the stated objectives in its constitution), rather it produced many unsatisfactory states of affairs and difficulties like operating as a fetter on company’s new business opportunities, risk of company’s transaction being treated as void in court’s proceedings interpreting it “outside the company’s constitution” and is unenforceable. Thus, the parties in a corporate transaction are always at risk to suffer irremediable loss if at any stage either of the parties renounces the contractual obligation. For the said and many other unsatisfactory results of the traditional ultra vires rule, many developed countries have either completely abolished it from their company law or greatly limited its applications to some statutorily defined cases only. But Bangladesh still retained the century’s old outmoded tradition, even though recently the Companies (Amendment) Act 2020 passed. In the array of the vast literature on this particular issue and a great number of legislative reform proposals in many other countries and instances of their legislative reforms, it is not understandable in the legislative policy of Bangladesh for retaining it. This article analyses the historical factors behind applying this rule, the irrationality of those considerations, and its present time irrelevance. 
29 The Present Scenario of Women Laborer in the Informal Sector: A Study on Dhaka city , Mst. Tahmina Sultana1*, Md. Mokter Ali1, Rehena Parvin1 and Mahmudul Hasan1 1Dept. of  Sociology and Social Work, Gono Bishwabidyalay (University), Mirzanagar, Savar, Dhaka-1344, Bangladesh.  *Correspondence: tahmina.gono@gmail.com (Mst. Tahmina Sultana, Assistant Professor, Dept. of Sociology and Social Work, Gono Bishwabidyalay, Mirzanagar, Savar, Dhaka-1344, Bangladesh).
ABSTRACT Informal sectors play a significant role in the economic growth of Bangladesh. Here women workers are the main impetus factor for economic growth. So, the key objective of our research was to find out the present situation of women laborers in the informal sector and they are facing such problems in their working place. We have selected 60 women from the informal industrial area of Dhaka city. This area of different field and the majority of them were from garments sector, those are 43%. We have collected their demographic and socio-economic information to understand their livelihood process. We found utmost of them are 25-30 years old and 50% of workers are married. 82% of employees live in a nuclear family because most working women earn 6000-7000 taka (which is 22%) which is not sufficient to maintain a joint family. This research also finds that 70% of the workers are migrated from rural to urban areas and they have left their families behind in the villages. There are a lot of causes for them to migrate. This study also finds very important and shocking data that almost every woman (99.33%) is facing several types of problems in their workplaces. Our intention of this research was to trace out the real scenario of the present situation of women workers in the informal sector and we have attempted our best to do. The researcher, to develop the present condition and banishing the obstructions for the women laborer in their working place, this study will be helpful to the policymakers and a proper policy can be introduced by the appropriate authority of Bangladesh for the welfare of women the informal sector workers. That will help the nation to gain more economic growth. 
30 Personnel Management in Bangladesh: From Old Public Administration to New Public Management   , Harun Ar- Rashid Mamun1*, Md. Tajul Islam2 and Zahedul Islam3 1Social Research Group (SRG), Kotbari, Cumilla 3506, Bangladesh; 2Department of Public Administration, Comilla University, Kotbari, Cumilla 3506, Bangladesh; and 3Department of Public Administration, Comilla University, Kotbari, Cumilla 3506, Bangladesh.  *Correspondence: rashidmamuncou40@gmail.com (Harun Ar- Rashid Mamun, Social Research Group (SRG), Kotbari, Cumilla 3506, Bangladesh).
ABSTRACT The article "Personnel Management in Bangladesh: From Old Public Administration to New Public Service" caries clear information about changing patterns and changing factors in the Personnel Management of Bangladesh public administration. There are meaningful descriptions of how administrative changes have occurred now in Personnel Management in Bangladesh since independence and why changes have occurred. From the British period to the Bangladesh period, organizational changes and the current state of new public service have been highlighted by this study too. Secondary data have accomplished the article. For instance, from the literature review, book review, and other sources. Although there was a lack of information on this topic, attempts have been made to provide more information than other articles. 
31 Impact of Socio-economic Factors on Undergraduate Students’ Academic Performance in Bangladesh: A Case Study at Social Science Faculty, University of Dhaka , Mamunur Rahman* Dept. of Economics, University of Barishal, Barishal-8200, Bangladesh.  *Correspondence: mamuneco151@gmail.com (Mamunur Rahman, Lecturer, Dept. of Economics, University of Barishal, Barishal-8200, Bangladesh).
ABSTRACT This study attempts to identify the potential impacts of socio-economic factors on undergraduate students’ academic performance in Bangladesh. In this study, cross-sectional primary data have been collected from 300 randomly selected undergraduate students of the Social Science faculty, University of Dhaka. Among them, 164 are male students and 136 are female students. Sample students have been selected randomly through a simple random sampling method and a structured questionnaire containing both closed and open-ended questions has been used to collect data. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) model is used to find out the impacts of all these socio-economic variables on undergraduate students’ academic performance or CGPA (Cumulative grade point average). The OLS estimation technique is used for estimating slope coefficients of independent variables. The main findings of this study show that class attendance, study hour, previous academic results, university admission test scores, family income, father’s education, mother’s education, and group study have a positive and significant impact on under-graduate students’ CGPA (Cumulative grade point average). And the dummy variables of gender, participation of part time-job, and extra-curriculum activities have a negative impact on CGPA. By analyzing the findings of this paper, it can be concluded that the academic performance of undergraduate students can be improved by motivating students about their regular class attendance and per day study hours, providing strong educational basement at the school and college level, providing free adult education, giving financial support to the students of a poor family, ensuring ICT based education system and free internet access for both teachers and students. 
32 Global Climate Change and Suffering of Woman; A Case of Bangladesh , Mohammed Shahjalal* Department of Law, East West University, Dhaka, Bangladesh  *Correspondence: shahjalal@ewubd.edu (Mohammed Shahjalal, Senior Lecturer, Department of Law, East West University, Dhaka, Bangladesh).
ABSTRACT Bangladesh, a South Asian country, is critical because of its vulnerability to climate-sensitive diseases, reliance on climate-sensitive livelihoods, anticipated crop losses, and high rates of poverty and malnutrition. Women are disproportionately affected by climate change, and it has a disproportionate effect on them across a range of extreme events. The goal of this project is to gain a better understanding of climate change, its effects, and the climate resilience of women in South Asia. Additionally, it discusses discrepancies and proposes future policy recommendations. Climate change is increasingly recognized as a cause for concern, and the current review is appropriate given the devastating effects of climate change on South Asian countries. 
33 Farm Size, Tenancy and Productivity: An Overview , Lutfunneher1* and Md. Nazrul Islam2 1&2Department of Economics, Jatiya Kabi Kazi Nazrul Islam University, Trishal, Mymensingh, Bangladesh.  *Correspondence: luttfunnahar@gmail.com (Lutfunneher, Lecturer, Department of Economics, Jatiya Kabi Kazi Nazrul Islam University, Trishal, Mymensingh, Bangladesh).
ABSTRACT The present study intends to investigate the relationship between farm size and productivity. The objectives of the study are: to investigate the relationship between farm size and productivity, to suggest some policy implications. The study is based on secondary data. Data were collected from different published and unpublished documents. The main findings of the study are: the small farms have the higher productivity of land than the larger ones, there exists the inverse farm size productivity relationship, few studies showed that although there exists an inverse relationship between these two this inverse relationship got weakened or even disappeared in the regions adopting new technology, some cases there also exists the positive relationship between farm size and productivity, the output level of owner cultivator is likely to be higher than the share-cropper. Few researchers pointed out the higher productivity of sharecroppers than the owner cultivators. In view of the above findings, the following policy measures are suggested: emphasis should be given to farm-related research, the assistance of small farmers in order to form associations for enhancing production, absorbing credit, and adopting farm technologies. 
34 The Bad Effects Caused by Policy Prescription and Financial Assistance by IMF on Developing Countries , Shabikunnahar Bonna* Department of Economics, Jatiya Kabi Kazi Nazrul Islam University, Trishal, Mymensingh, Bangladesh.  *Correspondence: bonnashabikunnahar@gmail.com (Shabikunnahar Bonna, Lecturer, Department of Economics, Jatiya Kabi Kazi Nazrul Islam University, Trishal, Mymensingh, Bangladesh).
ABSTRACT Actually in some cases, the IMF has a little positive effect on developing economics while has a vast bad effect on all developing economics. The main purpose of the study is to examine the impact of IMF on developing countries. The globalization of the world economy gives rise to large global inequalities.  The inequalities are responsible for increasing absolute poverty and starvation. Low-income countries are suffering from financial crises to reduce their absolute poverty and starvation.  So they have to depend on IMF and various financial institutions. But the IMF policies are heavily criticized and unhelpful. The IMF sometimes led to an increased dependency of developing countries upon developed countries. The social sectors of developing countries such as the health and education sectors are most affected by these policies. So these policies increase poverty and underdevelopment of the developing world.
35 Flood Impacts Analysis and Mitigation Approach towards Community Resiliency at Nageshwari Upazila, Kurigram , Most. Nusrat Binte Nur1*, Md. Abdur Rahim1 and Md. Rasheduzzaman2 1Dept. of Disaster Resilience and Engineering, Faculty of Environmental Science and Disaster Management, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Patuakhali, Bangladesh; 2Dept. of Emergency Management, Faculty of Environmental Science and Disaster Management, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Patuakhali, Bangladesh.  *Correspondence: nusratdre@pstu.ac.bd (Most. Nusrat Binte Nur, Lecturer, Dept. of  Disaster Resilience and Engineering, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Patuakhali, Bangladesh).
ABSTRACT Nageshwari is an upazila of Kurigram locality of Bangladesh. It is one of the most vulnerable areas to flood disasters. Every year many devastating floods occurred in this area. One of the main purposes of the study is to identify flood hazards and their impacts on the people's perception of the study area. Another purpose is to recognize mitigation approaches (both scientific and indigenous practices). To complete the aim, semi-structured questionnaires are used. Besides some key informant interviews and focus groups, discussions are also used to validate the collected data. The key findings of the study are the larger impact of inundation on health, agriculture, fisheries, road and transport, water and hygiene, and housing. From the overall impacts in the study area, the most affected sector is agriculture and roads. From people’s perception, many problems are found due to devastating floods. Unemployment, food scarcity, communication problems, etc. are the common problems in the study area. People practice some indigenous knowledge to reduce the flood impacts. Scientific practices are also applied by the authority to mitigate the flood impacts. But these mitigation measures are not enough toward accomplishes the demand. Some appropriate measures must be needed to decrease the flood impacts. Early warning systems and information dissemination on floods are not well developed. Sufficient and frequent training is needed about proper flood management, early warning, and dissemination within the lessons area. People take some adaptation techniques to diminish the flood. The local Government also takes some initiatives to decrease the flood impacts. But proper flood management needs to be improved to decrease the flood impacts. Proper management and awareness-raising programs will reduce the impact of inundation to enhance the community resiliency of the area.
36 Do the Differences in Ideas about Social Action Influence Sociological Analysis? A Review Article , Ashim Kumar Nandi* Department of Sociology, University of Barishal, Barishal-8254, Bangladesh.  *Correspondence: aknandi@bu.ac.bd (Ashim Kumar Nandi, Assistant Professor, Department of Sociology, University of Barishal, Barishal-8254, Bangladesh).
ABSTRACT This article reviews different thoughts of modern sociologists about social action to examine how the differences in the meaning of social action influence sociological analysis. This article also discusses the implication of these differences in the meaning of social action to sociological analysis. Four articles and two books of selected modern sociologists have been reviewed to explore the research questions of this article. This article finds that modern sociologists take social action as an important concept in sociological analysis. Classical sociologists, such as Max Weber, also suggest taking social action as a central focus in sociological study. This article observes that whether action is exerted based on structure or the actor’s self-interpreting power is one of the key issues in the ideas of modern sociologists. 
37 Analyzing the Gender Stereotypes in Media: Perception & Impact on Bangladeshi Adolescents , Anika Subah Ahmad Upoma* Department of English, Canadian University of Bangladesh, Pragati Sharani, Bir Uttam Rafiqul Islam Ave, Dhaka-1212, Bangladesh.  *Correspondence: asa.upoma2020@gmail.com (Anika Subah Ahmad Upoma, Lecturer and Acting Head, Department of English, Canadian University of Bangladesh, Pragati Sharani, Bir Uttam Rafiqul Islam Ave, Dhaka-1212, Bangladesh).
ABSTRACT There exists broad recognition of the pivotal role of media in bringing about social change through transformation, as media clearly reflects the values of any given civilization. But the misrepresentation of women in media is on the whole a national problem because the majority of Bangladeshi teenagers look up to and emulates the personalities shown in the media, leading to gender stereotypes and even violence at times. This study seeks to discover how Bangladeshi teenagers feel about women being portrayed in media, and how relevant those portrayals are to their everyday lives. A purposive sampling strategy was used to pick a random sample of 100 14- to 20-year-old pupils. Of the 100 pupils who participated in the survey, half were boys and half were girls. The research data was collected with the aid of a self-constructed questionnaire, including 30 questions. The study shows how the media in Bangladesh, including movies, dramas, and commercials, etc perpetuate sexist stereotypes on multiple levels. In addition, this depiction reinforces old patriarchal gender notions, which adolescents tend to accept. One of the findings showed, female students were more likely to support traditional stereotypes about women and were more in favor of government regulation of media content compared to male students. 
38 Measuring Motivating Potential Score of Diversified Academic Staffs of the Government Primary Schools in Bangladesh , Sayed Azharul Islam1*, Samia Shanjabin1, Zona Zaman1, and Md. Mahdi Al Muhtasim Nibir2 1Human Resource Management Discipline, Khulna University, Bangladesh; 2Mass Communication & Journalism Discipline, Khulna University, Bangladesh.  *Correspondence: azharulsayed@gmail.com (Sayed Azharul Islam, Assistant Professor, Human Resource Management Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna-9208, Bangladesh).
ABSTRACT Job Characteristics Model of Hackman and Oldham is an established tool that helps calculate the Motivating Potential Score (MPS) used in understanding the extent to which employees are motivated in their workplace from different perspectives. High MPS indicates positive work outcomes like high motivation, high employee satisfaction, high performance, low absenteeism, low turnover, etc. In human resource management, a motivating potential score (MPS) is used to track the perceived mental state of the workforce towards their jobs. Understanding this score is vital for both HR and line managers in decision-making. So it has become a part of regular action research by business professionals. This study measures the MPS of government primary school teachers while considering different dimensions of workforce diversity like- academic qualification, educational background, level of experience, gender. The established formula for calculating MPS has been used here. A total of 100 school teachers working in different state-run primary schools of Bangladesh have been considered as respondents of this study. The study finds an overall MPS of 69.78 out of a maximum possible score of 125. However, the study does not show any significant change in MPS due to the presence of workforce diversity. Rather, it shows a moderate level of MPS for all. Policy makers and government officials working for workforce improvement of the primary schools can use these findings to take further steps, though a moderate score may indicate that they have already done a lot to develop the index. Similar studies considering a better sample size might provide better insights and help in decision-making. Moreover, since ensuring quality education is one of the pillars of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) adopted by the United Nations, this research is expected to be a good contribution in this regard as the ultimate intention of the study is related to ensuring quality education through skilled, motivated, engaged, and dedicated teachers. 
39 Needs Assessment and Survival Pattern of Elderly People in Rural Bangladesh , Rehena Parvin1*, Mst. Tahmina Sultana1, Mahmudul Hasan1, and Md. Mokter Ali1 1Department of Sociology and Social Work, Gono Bishwabidyalay, Mirzanagar, Savar, Dhaka-1344, Bangladesh.  *Correspondence: rehenapeya@gmail.com (Rehena Parvin, Lecturer, Department of Sociology and Social Work, Gono Bishwabidyalay, Mirzanagar, Savar, Dhaka-1344, Bangladesh).
ABSTRACT At present, aging is a buzzword that is recognized as a global issue. Bangladesh recently experiences a significant number of people who have faced many types of challenges due to its huge number of elderly people. It is the multidimensional process of physical, mental, and social change, both males & females aged 60+ years. Aging is now a global problem and an upcoming threat for developing countries like Bangladesh. Major social problems of elder people in a rural area are their adjustment in their surroundings, special needs, care giving and care receiving, neglect and harassment. This research aimed to know the needs assessment and survival pattern of elderly people in a rural area. The study has been conducted qualitative and quantitative in nature with a sample size of 120. Necessary data were collected through structured interview schedules, observation, questionnaires, and case study techniques. The survey findings indicate that elderly people are lack access to educational facilities, agricultural resources, decision-making process, sufficient family income, basic health care and they have faced social and physical problems such as lack of social security, personal security, burden feeling, loneliness, special services, heart disease, diabetics, sleeping disturbances, urinary and stomach problem, eye, hearing, dental problem. The government should have a social welfare policy to give special health and medical services through separate wards and units for elderly people. 
40 New Public Management in Bangladesh: Implementation Challenges and Ways Forward , Shajada Ahsan Habib1 and Nazmul Hasan1* 1Department of Public Administration and Governance Studies, Jatiya Kabi Kazi Nazrul Islam University, Trishal, Mymenshing, Bangladesh.  *Correspondence: nazmul.pags23@gmail.com (Nazmul Hasan, Lecturer, Department of Public Administration and Governance Studies, Jatiya Kabi Kazi Nazrul Islam University, Trishal, Mymenshing, Bangladesh).
ABSTRACT New Public Management (NPM) is currently a global trend that is dominating all governments' reform agendas. Bangladesh is not an outlier. This paper begins by defining NPM and then moves on to examine critical preconditions for successful NPM implementation. Following that, this research revealed significant roadblocks in Bangladesh's implementation of modern public management. The final section of the study focuses on the next steps in implementing modern public management in Bangladesh and concludes with a final comment on the overall concept. 
41 Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman in the Formation of War-torn Bangladesh , Md. Hasan Tawhid1 and Md. Rajaul Karim2 1Department of MIS, Khwaja Yunus Ali University, Enayetpur, Sirajganj, Bangladesh; 2Bangladesh Studies, Khwaja Yunus Ali University, Enayetpur, Sirajganj, Bangladesh.  *Correspondence: mdrezaulkarim801@gmail.com (Dr. Md. Rajaul Karim, Senior Lecturer, Bangladesh Studies, Khwaja Yunus Ali University, Enayetpur, Sirajganj, Bangladesh).
ABSTRACT The main consciousness of the Pakistan movement was the economy. At least in the case of Bengal, it was truer. At one stage the religion movement became stronger when it was associated with religion. In the context of which Pakistan was established with the sacrifice and support of the people of Bengal. But the continued absence of democracy and constitutional rule in Pakistan complicates the situation. The people of Bengal joined the movement under the leadership of Bangabandhu to change the situation. Forced to do so, the Pakistani authorities held the first general election in 1970. In the election, the popular political party of Bengalis, Awami League, won a single majority. Even after the Awami League gained a single majority, the Pakistani authorities did not hand over-power. As a result, Bangabandhu declared the independence of Bangladesh. Bangladesh gained independence after a long nine-month war. At the end of the war, Bangabandhu took over the responsibility of the head of state and devoted himself to the formation of the country. In the present article, Bangabandhu's various steps in the formation of war-torn Bangladesh have been explored. 
42 Contemporary Mainstream Bengali Movies and Societal Perceptions towards Rape: Legal Perspectives , Jannatul Shareat Disha1&2* 1Department of Law and International Law, Bangladesh University of Professionals, Dhaka, Bangladesh; and 2MBA, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China.  *Correspondence: disha.bnu2021@gmail.com (Jannatul Shareat Disha, Dept. of Law and International Law, Bangladesh University of Professionals, Dhaka, Bangladesh; and MBA, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China).
ABSTRACT Incidents like the rape of late have been grabbing the spotlight which is one of the most significant challenges in Bangladesh. This paper aims to assess people's perceptions by establishing a link between movies and society. This paper goes on to discuss people's perceptions of rape as well as how rape is depicted in Bengali films. While addressing how these portrayals affect people's perceptions in general, this research will also address whether or not the filmmakers open themselves up to any social or legal responsibilities to society. As a result, this study sought to examine to extend a film could indeed change a viewer’s perceptions and behavior from a socio-legal context. This paper further briefly discusses the existing laws to prevent rape and censorship rules for Bengali movies. The paper will identify the major setbacks in existing legal instruments and possible legal recourses to address the setbacks. 
43 Decay of Fanatical Nationalism in Pakistan: Looking Back to the Election of 1970 , Md. Tanziul Islam, Md. Jubaer Ibna Taher, Md. Asaduzzaman Mondol Asad, and Ram Proshad Barman
ABSTRACT Pakistan and India were bloomed as independent countries in 1947 on the basis of two nation theory of Muhammad Ali Jinnah. He promulgated two nation theories in light of religious dogmatism. Pakistan had been divided into two parts namely East and West Pakistan considering the distance of 1200 km between two territories. There was no resemblance between these two parts except religious similarities. Later, Bengali nationalism had gradually been developed in West Pakistan through various events i.e., language movement in 1952, United Front election in 1954, 6-point movement in 1966, and the election of 1970. The duration of united Pakistan was the history of exploitation, oppression, and deprivation of the East by the West. The present paper attempts to explore how fanatical nationalism had been decaying during the regime of Pakistan. Additionally, the study tries to search out the core consequences of the election of 1970 towards the liberation movement. This paper also provides the evaluation of present politics viewing the historical events as well. Finally, this present study gives some remedial recommendations against the Socio-political problem relevant to the findings. 
44 Religion from Sociological Perspectives: An Overview , Ram Proshad Barman
ABSTRACT The prime purpose of this article is to study religion from different paradigms or perspectives from a sociological viewpoint. Religion is defined as a social institution while economic reality, ideological support, and everyday interactions of people are also undertaken as core concepts. In fact, this article is an overview of the religion of three theoretical perspectives of sociology focusing on the work of Emile Durkheim, Robert K. Merton (the functionalist), Karl Marx, Max Weber, Friedrich Engels (the conflict), and Peter Berger (the interactionist). A brief discussion of each perspective is articulated clearly, followed by secondary sources including published books, book sections, blogs, research articles, and WebPages highlighting the foundations of the relevant theory. Afterward, the author reviews the discourses of the theorists regarding religion with its application to human society. Finally, the article provides a summary of these perspectives continuing to develop the field. 
45 User’s Perception of Application-Based-Ride-Sharing-Services in Dhaka City: A Study on Uber , Abdullah Al Noman
22nd November 2016, a historic date on the horizon of the transportation system of Bangladesh. ‘Uber’ Bangladesh has launched its operation in Dhaka, the capital city. Uber is a growing - application-based ride-sharing service and popular transportation media, known worldwide as of late. Dhaka, Chattogram, and Sylhet, people living in these three big cities have been availing of this innovative ride-sharing service. This study attempts to interpret the context of consumer behavior of this service i.e., why people do prefer Uber services over other existing public transport and post evaluation of that service offered by Uber. A short-range questionnaire survey has been undertaken. Secondary sources of data were also collected for literature. For this study, 100 respondents were surveyed following the purposive sampling method in different areas of Dhaka city. The equal Male-Female ratio of data size has been maintained. Data were analyzed using the SPSS-16 version maintaining the standard of research ethics and validity. The perception of users has been found positive towards this ride-sharing service. 77% of respondents said they are happy availing service from Uber and 23% of them are unhappy with the Uber service. Data concludes that the sense of being unhappy derived from some service problems like high costing for short distances, accidents, and lack of commitment of Uber drivers. To attain the goal of ‘Sustainable Cities and Communities’ of SDG-11 further includes the target of ‘providing access to the affordable and sustainable transport system for all by 2030’, this sort of innovation in the transportation sector is sure of blessing for this ‘Mega City’ like Dhaka as well as for Bangladesh. It will help step forward on the ladder of Development for the country. 
46 The Success Factors for Growing Health Tech Startups in Thailand , Kittipong Jeamwittayanukul and Sujira Vuthisopon
Startups have served as one of the Thai government’s mechanisms for promoting economic stability and growth. The health tech startup is a global trend toward new innovative industries. In Thailand, there are many health tech startups born each year. However, the healthcare business characteristic and business model differing from other businesses urge the need to understand the relevant factors of success. This knowledge can help you lower your chances of failing and enhance your chances of succeeding. The success elements that influence success, as well as the ones that are most crucial for health tech firms, were investigated in this study. This research used quantitative methodologies to create a systemic approach. The researchers used data from 240 samples to assess basic statistics and confirmatory second-order factor analysis based on the idea of latent variables in Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). It was found that health tech startups in Thailand can be successful because of 6 elements, which are government policy, startup support, human capital, market, finance, and culture. Culture is the most influential factor, followed by startup support, human capital, market, government policy, and finance. It's worth noting that tax relief and low-interest financing aren't high on the priority list. Internal elements such as entrepreneurial inspiration or knowledge, experience, and product prominence, on the other hand, take precedence.
47 The Legal Aspect of Rape: A Review of the 2020 Amendment of Nari O Shishu Ain (Act No VIII of 2000) , Syed Menhazul Bari
The detriment of rape even with the upsurge is received by the general mass with shock and the trauma enveloping the inflicted is incomprehensible. In a developing country like Bangladesh, the chastity of a woman is her ultimate pride and possession and when such is violated, considering the social predicament, the victim is usually humiliated in lieu of availing the much-required moral support to disposal. Falsely implicating an innocent is also evident in the trend. In the recent amendment, incarceration for life was substituted by the death penalty. Such incorporation endeavors toward the deterrent aspect of the penalty warning future perpetrators to avert from committing such mischief. This article aspires to illuminate the unexpanded idea of consent, extract the constitutional and legal justification of the recent amendment, the ends of statutory justice provided to the protected and sabotage of the very protective law, i.e., misapplication of it falsely incriminating an innocent. 
48 Kamala Das: Tragedy of Contrast between Childhood and Adulthood , Ismet Jerin Khan
This paper attempts to focus on Kamala Das’s vision of her secure and happy childhood and her frustrating adulthood exploring her poems critically. Her innocent past is juxtaposed with her sexually experienced present life in many of her poems. Her nostalgia is enrooted in her exhaustion from the current situation of life. Her loneliness and dissatisfaction compel her to fall back on her childhood memories which provide her with momentary relief but at the same time make her present predicament more pathetic. It seems that her nostalgia for childhood is the outcome of her realization of the lovelessness of this cruel world of adulthood. In a very confessional tone, Mrs. Das describes the autobiographical elements of her personal life in her poems. Her ancestral house, Nalapat House, and her grandmother are one of the central themes of her poems. She compares the selfless unconditional true love of her grandmother to the sexual selfish lust of her life partner in her poems. The vivid picture of her childhood incidents in her nostalgic poem is actually a retreat for her which helps her to get some relief from her present tortured self. 
49 The Legal Journey from Legal Education to Lawyering in Bangladesh: A Boon or A Menace , Syed Menhazul Bari
Adversarial System of Courts within the legal realm of the Common Law such as in Bangladesh designates lawyers to high social prominence as professionals of law are the primary interpreters of various laws of the land. Lawyers being social engineers principally act as the consciousness and voice of the citizens of the state. These two characteristics are naturally inherited as energizers by lawyers in the early stages of student-hood. However, how long does that very enthusiasm last, and are there any catalysts to further it? Is the question to reckon with? The profession of law like any other occupation circumnavigates a set of etiquettes that dictates the natural course of the profession. The prime rationale of this paper is to contemplate the etiquettes of the profession, the uncompromisable duties of a practitioner, the grounds that coherently result in either suspension or revocation of practitioners’ licenses along with justifying to its readers the social necessity for ethical lawyers. 
50 Nexus between Motivation and Newly Appointed Employee’s Job Performance: A Review on Intrinsic and Extrinsic Incentives , Azizur Rahman and Md. Tariqul Islam
Employees’ job performance is explicitly influenced by both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation is defined as behavior motivated by internal rewards while extrinsic motivation is defined as a desire to engage in an activity in order to achieve an external goal, such as receiving praise and acceptance. The principal objective of this study is to explore how intrinsic and extrinsic motivation influence the job performance of newly appointed employees. In so doing, the study undergoes an extensive review of the literature. The study finds that intrinsic incentives have a significant impact on higher job performance. It further claims, that intrinsically motivated employees provide superior organizational output compared to their extrinsically motivated counterparts. 
51 Social Interaction between 'Host' and 'Guest': Rohingya Refugee Context in Bangladesh , Sazzadul Alam, Noor Kutubul Alam Siddique, and Rasheda Akhta
The juxtaposition of Rohingya refugees and the host community will be explored in this article, where two parties are not only in a hostile situation but also create an amicable situation through their social interactions. This relationship will be examined using the theoretical concepts of conflict and cultural assimilation. Though the two groups did not originate from the same place, they today have a common socio-cultural heritage. That is why, to function in society, the host community and Rohingya refugees are involved in new social interactions over time and in flourishing mixed kinds of kin networks like marriage and patron-client relations. It is noted that the host community is becoming hostile, but at the beginning of the influx, they were not unsympathetic. Both groups (Rohingya refugees and host community) also have social communication with working aid agencies. On the other hand, through capitalizing on the current situation, a new economic class has emerged in the host community. It is also significant to recognize the ongoing social pattern. So, to understand the relationship profoundly between the host community and Rohingya refugees, those kinds of social interactions should count in similar social research. 
52 Assessment of the Legal Framework Regulating Waste Management in Bangladesh , Khan Md. Arman Shovon, Mohammad Abdul Hannan, and Md. Redwanur Rahman
In Bangladesh, the difficulties associated with waste management have taken on a major dimension during the past several decades. The high population growth rate and rise in economic activity in Bangladesh's metropolitan regions, along with a lack of waste management training, make attempts to enhance waste management services difficult. In Bangladesh, per capita, trash output in urban residential areas is much greater than in rural residential areas. The nations' capacity to collect, handle, dispose of, or recycle the trash in a cost-effective way is severely constrained. Bangladesh, like the rest of the globe, has seen a considerable increase in environmental threats. Attackers in the atmosphere represent an overwhelming danger to humans and other living things. Wetlands, aquatic bodies, coral reefs, and the seas are all threatened by the dumping of hazardous waste and pollution from land-based sources. There is also rising worry about the negative socioeconomic, public health, and environmental effects of e-waste toxicity. Standard technology, infrastructure, skilled staff, and budgetary constraints are significant problems for private business owners. They now require e-waste management standards and guidelines in order to do business in an environmentally sustainable manner. Whereas many developed and developing nations have established a scientific method for efficient garbage disposal, Bangladesh has yet to formulate a "Comprehensive National Strategy" to effectively manage the problem of trash disposal. Some laws and regulations, such as the Environment Conservation Act of 1995, contain measures for the reduction and control of waste emissions from diverse sources, as well as their disposal. The goal of this study is to look into and evaluate how useful Bangladesh's current laws are for managing waste. 
53 A Critical Analysis of the Right to Equality of the Hermaphrodites in Bangladesh: Rights Based Approach, Mirza Farzana Iqbal Chowdhury* Department of Law, Green University of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: farzana@law.green.edu.bd (Mirza Farzana Iqbal Chowdhury, Assistant Professor, Department of Law, Green University of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh).
Mirza Farzana Iqbal Chowdhury* Department of Law, Green University of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: farzana@law.green.edu.bd (Mirza Farzana Iqbal Chowdhury, Assistant Professor, Department of Law, Green University of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh).
54 Human Rights Violation of the Child and the Legal Protection in Bangladesh, Sumon Matubbar1 and Md. Arifuzzaman1* 1Department of Law, Green University of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: arif@law.green.edu.bd (Dr. Md. Arifuzzaman, Assistant Professor, Department of Law, Green University of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh).
ABSTRACT Bangladesh is a very densely populated country in southern Asia. It is a small country but its population is about 160 million. But half of the population of Bangladesh is under the age of 18 and is considered children. Twenty million of them are under the age of 5 and about 73% of the child lives in village/ rural areas and 27% in urban areas. However, one-third of these children spend their life below the international poverty line. The violation of the human rights of a child is a common affair in Bangladesh. The children have basic rights to education, health and nutrition, a balanced diet, protection, safe water, participation, recreation, sanitation, and hygiene. Many of the children of Bangladesh are deprived of these basic rights. The government of Bangladesh with UNICEF has taken many steps for schooling of the children and decreasing child labor and abuses. This paper scrutinized the scenario of child rights in Bangladesh from a legal perspective to create a child-friendly environment. This paper also reviewed the existing relating to the human rights of children. There are different statistics between 2001 to 2021 in Bangladesh. This paper provides recommendations on how to protect the rights of children in Bangladesh.
55 The Position of a Child under Hostile Parental Relation: A Critique, Md. Jahurul Islam1*, Md. Rezaul Haque2, Maksuda Nishat Urmi3, and Md. Rakibul Hasan4 1,2,3&4Departmentof Law, Khwaja Yunus Ali University, Sirajgong, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: jahurul.isalm00@gmail.com (Md. Jahurul Islam, Assistant Professor, Department of Law, Khwaja Yunus Ali University, Sirajgong, Bangladesh).
ABSTRACT Almighty has designed the family structure of parents and children very uniquely. Both the Children and the Parents are a heavenly gift to one another. A child is very helpless when it sees the light of the world in the first stage. Therefore, parents are entrusted with some indispensable duties so that they can remove the shakiness of a teenager. Unbelievably parents can also make their children deserted by performing certain acts in front of them. It is recognized without any doubt that children suffer terribly when their parents argue. Children go through physical, mental, and social destruction for family problems. Therefore, Parents should develop preventive methods for controlling parental problems so that the children can grow up physically and emotionally in a healthy environment.
56 Victims of Child Labor and Delinquency: An Empirical Study in Tangail City, Mohammad Arifur Rahman1* and Md. Maznu Mia2 1&2Department of Criminology and Police Science, Mawlana Bhashani Science & Technology University, Santosh, Tangail, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: arahman.fdr83@gmail.com (Mohammad Arifur Rahman, Department of Criminology and Police Science, Mawlana Bhashani Science & Technology University, Santosh, Tangail, Bangladesh).
ABSTRACT Child labor is one of the alarming and concerning issues throughout the world. The child labor issue is a major challenge for developing countries like Bangladesh the country has been facing poverty, high population growth, rising unemployment, and so on. The objective of this paper is to find out the vulnerabilities of child laborers in Bangladesh in terms of their victimization at the workplace as well as their involvement in anti-social activities. The data have been collected from child workers aged between 10-18 years working in various workplaces in Tangail town, Bangladesh. This study shows that most of the respondents have been involved in child labor due to poverty (95%). About 68.3% of respondents are aged between 15-18 years and 91.7% of them have joined in child labor at the age of 10-14 years. In terms of education, about 83.3% of respondents left school at the primary level. Most of the respondents (75%) have experienced different types of torture and exploitation in the workplace while 60% experienced mental torture. The study finds that 93% of respondents have been involved in delinquent activities and 61.7% of them have informed that they have learned about drug abuse from their peer groups. The child laborers are mostly very poor and get fewer opportunities and support from the government and even from their own families. Their family status is too low to stop them from working as they are one of the important earning members in their family. Therefore, a well-organized plan should be taken where the government and society will play the prime roles to ensure a child-friendly working atmosphere, and fair salary, reduce exploitation and provide other types of opportunities to enrich their educational, social, familial, and professional condition.
57 Mental and Emotional Well-Being Awareness: Towards a Healthy Behaviour and Expectation, Leovigildo Lito D. Mallillin1*, Giovanni Carlo L. Atendido2, and Paul Anthony L. Tecson3 1Institute of Education, Undergraduate Studies, Far Eastern University, Manila, Philippines; 2Institute of Arts and Sciences, Dept. of Psychology, Far Eastern University, Manila, Philippines; and 3Institute of Arts and Sciences, Interdisciplinary Studies, Far Eastern University, Manila, Philippines. *Correspondence: loviedsunbright_0722@yahoo.com.ph (Leovigildo Lito D. Mallillin PhD, Institute of Education, Under-graduate Studies, Far Eastern University, Manila, Philippines).
ABSTRACT The study identifies mental and emotional well-being awareness toward healthy behavior and expectation. It focuses on challenges of awareness in mental and emotional well-being for healthy behavior and expectation that will be maintained. The research design employs a mixed method using a quantitative and qualitative approach which is appropriate for the study. Purposive sampling is also utilized in the study. This is based on a set of criteria and the selection of the sample size of the study. The study comprised ninety (90) respondents only. Results show that respondents are realizing and thinking clearly about life, especially for ups and downs challenges, show that they are feeling relaxed when behavior and expectation reached satisfaction to the fullest, show that they are emotionally aware, felt being loved by people around them, and show that they set a good example and feeling good about their personality towards other people and are stressing the love of themselves. Findings show that there is a significant correlation between mental and emotional well-being awareness towards healthy behavior and expectation as observed by the respondents.
58 Climate Change Drivers, Effects, and Mitigation-Adaptation Measures for Cities, Md. Abubakkor Siddik1*, Md. Mahmudul Hasan2, Md. Tariqul Islam3, and A.K.M. Mostafa Zaman4 1Dept. of Land Record and Transformation, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Bangladesh; 2Dept. of Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Bangladesh; 3Dept. of Environmental Science, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Bangladesh; 4Dept. of Agronomy, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: siddikjnu98@gmail.com (Md. Abubakkor Siddik, Department of Land Record and Transformation, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Bangladesh).
ABSTRACT Climate change has severe impacts on cities in many countries. This review covered climate change sources, consequences, and options for mitigation and adaptation in cities. The global rate of urbanization rose from 13% in 1900 to 52% in 2011. However, the links between urbanization and greenhouse gas emissions remain complicated, influenced by factors such as demographic structure, economic growth, individual income and lifestyles, the nature of urban systems, urban form, and geographical location. These drivers cause climate-induced vulnerabilities in cities, such as drinking water shortages, health impacts, and severe extreme events. Population, urban form, and infrastructure might increase these vulnerabilities. In cities, efficient energy consumption, multi-modal transportation, hydroelectrically powered transportation, land use planning, building direction, height-spacing densification of structures, multiple centers, mass transportation, and non-motorized transportation are found as the main mitigation measures. Likewise, adaptation measures include space greening, green infrastructure, ventilation and air-conditioning, blue spaces, flood protection embankments, polders, dams, etc. Spatial planning is crucial for executing local, regional, and international mitigation and adaptation policies and agreements. To make cities and communities less vulnerable to climate change, these policies and agreements might include: how land is used and developed; how non-fossil fuel energy is promoted; and how buildings and transportation systems use less energy.
59 Social Capital and its Transformative Influence in Relation to Violent Conflicts: An Interpretative Study on Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHTs) in Bangladesh, Mst Kamrun Naher1*, Md. Oly Ullah Chowdhury2, and AHM Mahbubur Rahman2 1Faculty of Social Science, Bangamata Sheikh Fojilatunnesa Mujib Science & Technology University, Jamalpur-2012, Bangladesh; and 2Department of Social Work, Bangamata Sheikh Fojilatunnesa Mujib Science & Technology University, Jamalpur-2012, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: kamrunnaher@bsfmstu.ac.bd (Mst Kamrun Naher, Lecturer, Faculty of Social Science, Bangamata Sheikh Fojilatunnesa Mujib Science & Technology University, Jamalpur-2012, Bangladesh).
ABSTRACT The Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHTs) have been witnessing recurring clashes between the Indigenous Peoples (IPs) and the Bengali Settlers (BSs) over a long period of time. However, being a relatively new term, social capital provides a critical lens through which this paper might evaluate the nature of violent conflicts in the CHTs. A thorough consideration of the notion of social capital and its application to a conflict analysis allows for a more comprehensive understanding of how violent conflict occurs and impacts social cohesion in the region. The consequence is twofold: first, a better knowledge of how violent conflicts allows for the creation of conflict prevention techniques that not only reduce the chances of violent conflicts but also make use of existing networks to boost social capital. Second, a thorough grasp of social capital aids in the planning and implementation of post-conflict reconstruction. This study aims to examine the literature on social capital and conflicts, as well as to present a critical analysis of how social capital influences violent conflicts in CHTs.
60 Does Socioeconomic Status of Students Influence Their Career Choice? A Study on the Tertiary Level Students, Asifa Afrin Jamim1*, Feroz Ahmed2, and Shahanaz Akter3 1&3Independent researcher, Khulna University, Khulna-9208, Bangladesh; and 2Business Administration Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna-9208, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: jamimhrm17@gmail.com (Asifa Afrin Jamim, Independent researcher, Khulna University, Khulna-9208, Bangladesh).
ABSTRACT In the Indian subcontinent, students pay utmost importance to choosing a career as it determines people’s status in society. The notion of the research was to explore the influence of socioeconomic status on students’ career choices. A survey was administered among tertiary level students of Bangladesh and the respondents were found through convenient sampling. A structured questionnaire consisting of 24 items based on Social Cognitive Career Theory was developed. The questionnaire was uploaded through Google form and eventually, 563 valid responses were obtained. The results revealed that age, religion, place of residence, residing while studying, parents’ education, and parents’ occupation have positive impacts on students’ career choices. Besides, it also indicated that family members have an influence on the overall career decision-making process of the students. Oppositely, fathers’ income has little bearing, whereas mothers’ monthly income has a positive impact. Again, gender differences were found to have a negative impact. The findings are in line with previous studies and parties involved with career guidance and counseling may utilize the findings.
61 Enhancing Youth Capacities on Climate Change Adaptation and Drinking Water Management, Bilqis Amin Hoque1, Sufia Khanam2, and Md. Abubakkor Siddik3* 1Environment and Population Research Center (EPRC), Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2Environment and Population Research Center (EPRC), Dhaka, Bangladesh; and 3Department of Land Record and Transformation, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Dumki, Patuakhali-8602, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: siddikjnu98@gmail.com (Md. Abubakkor Siddik, Assistant Professor and Chairman, Dept. of Land Record and Transformation, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Dumki, Patuakhali-8602, Bangladesh).
This was a small study to improve knowledge and build capacity among the youths of the selected four secondary schools on the impacts of climate change and its adaptation and mitigation in drinking water management, as well as its use perspectives inside the Chitra-Nabaganga Area Water Partnership at Narail District in Bangladesh. The study was implemented by the Environment and Population Research Centre, Bangladesh, in financial collaboration with Bangladesh Water Partnership and the Global Applied Research Network - South Asia. The study included classroom training focusing on climate change and its impacts, water safety and its management, and knowledge about water disinfection methods during floods. This study found that knowledge about water disinfection methods during floods, such as "boiling arsenic-free water" and "using chlorine solution," improved significantly p
62 Stay of Proceedings in Favour of International Commercial Arbitration in Bangladesh: A Comparative Analysis between Arbitration Act 1940 and 2001, Assaduzzaman Khan* Department of Law, Independent University, Bangladesh (IUB), Dhaka, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: assadng@iub.edu.bd (Assaduzzaman Khan Ph.D, Associate Professor, Dept. of Law, Independent University, Bangladesh (IUB), Dhaka, Bangladesh).
This is a settled rule in international commercial arbitration where parties have agreed to resolve their dispute through arbitration, there is inevitably the right and expectation to have any reference to the court to have stayed in favour of arbitration. This rule, however, may not necessarily be the case in a jurisdiction that is less exposed to arbitration practice. Settling disputes through arbitration in Bangladesh is not a new method but this practice had been in place for many years and was previously governed by the Arbitration Act of 1940. After 1971 the same Act continued to be the applicable law in Bangladesh till the Arbitration Act was enacted in 2001. When the Arbitration Act 2001 was enacted many expected a major change in the court’s approach to dealing with a stay of proceedings in favour of Arbitration. Previously, upon the applicant fulfilling certain conditions, the court had the discretion whether to grant stay proceedings. However, under Arbitration Act 2001 granting the stay proceedings are now authorized upon the fulfillment of certain conditions. This paper will discuss the provisions under the Arbitration Act 1940 in relation to staying proceedings followed by examining the efficacy of stay proceeding in the Arbitration Act 2001.
63 Effectiveness of the Education in Building Self-Reliance Skills among Refugee Students in Uganda, Peter Ssimbwa1*, Asiimwe Solomon2, and Michael Mawa3 1Directorate of Post Graduate Studies and Research, Nkumba University, Uganda; 2Directorate of Post Graduate Studies and Research Nkumba University, Uganda; and 3Directorate of Post Graduate Studies and Research Nkumba University, Uganda. *Correspondence: petssimbwa@gmail.com (Peter Ssimbwa, Directorate of Post Graduate Studies and Research, Nkumba University, Uganda).
The study sought to find out the effectiveness of education interventions for refugees in refugee communities in Uganda’s Districts of Kiryandongo and Kampala. It explored practices used in the management of education programs, how programs enabled refugees to become self-reliant, and the efficiency ratios obtained across education initiatives implemented by mandated organizations in the beneficiary schools. Stories of change through the output of education in terms of relevant training and solving major refugee challenges of mutual existence with host communities in diverse and complex refugee settlement environments. For example, the implementation of Refugee regulations (2010) and the refugee response framework called for integrated support and cooperation of all stakeholders including the beneficiaries. 193 persons participated in the studies which were students, staff of education civil society organizations, teachers and district education leaders, and heads of schools. Implementation mechanisms were examined to ascertain facts about creative initiatives, participation of parents, and community leaders as well as efficiency ratios achieved in the performance of students. The study revealed educational facilities provided and enrolment rates at different educational levels. The significance of the impact and outcomes made through education infrastructure available in schools, and competencies built for students among refugee communities to be able to reconstruct their life increased. Enrollment in several practical education programs increased and students gained useful knowledge and skills to resolve the major challenges in refugee settlements or returned home capable of getting employed or starting their own businesses.
64 Sexual Harassment in Public Transport in Dhaka City: A Socio-legal Assessment , Humayun Kabir1* and Shariful Islam2 1Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Green University of Bangladesh; and 2Department of Law, Green University of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: humayun@soc.green.edu.bd (Humayun Kabir, Lecturer and Program Coordinator, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Green University of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh).
The present study is undertaken to find out the current legal framework on sexual offences in Bangladesh and the prevalent status of sexual offences in public transport in Dhaka, the capital city of Bangladesh. The present legal framework on sexual offences is not appropriate to address the ongoing problems. Enactment of appropriate laws is imperative to fill up the present legal vacuum in addressing sexual offences in Bangladesh. To understand the current scenario of sexual offences in public transport in Dhaka city a systematic approach was adopted in this study. The paper finds that the incidence of sexual harassment in public transport in Dhaka city is unfortunately very high. The primary victims of such incidents are women and so sexual harassment in public transport in Dhaka city is predominantly gender-based violence. The study also finds the causes and barriers to redressing the current sexual offences in transport. It is shown in the paper that the victims are in many respects not willing or capable to resort to legal assistance for so many reasons. The article finally suggested some possible solutions suggested by the victims to the problems of sexual violence in public transport in Dhaka city.
65 Homonhon Island the Correct Site of the First Mass in the Philippines: A Book Review, Fernando M. Tan, Jr.* Master of Arts in Theology, St. John the Evangelist School of Theology in Palo, Leyte, Philippines. *Correspondence: tanfernando14@gmail.com (Fernando M. Tan, Jr., Master of Arts in Theology, St. John the Evangelist School of Theology in Palo, Leyte, Philippines).
This review intends to examine the merits of the book entitled, Homonhon Island: The Correct Site of the First Mass in the Philippines written by Msgr. Lope C. Robredillo, SThD. The author presents his arguments using a sociological-theological approach against proponents of Butuan, Limasawa, and Bolinao Islands, who earlier were claimed to be the correct site of the first Mass, respectively. The book contains 4 chapters the first of which deals with a historical background of the current sites of the first Mass while the rest focus on the author’s arguments backed up by logical reasoning and a revisit of Antonio Pigafetta’s accounts. Content analysis revealed themes of diversity, regionalism, and dynamism characterizing the historian’s representations of their narratives. The rich discussion and well-organized layout of interesting data that are rarely found in other theological books make this masterpiece a must-read for historians, scholars, teachers, and students probing into the controversy behind the true site of the first mass in the Philippines.
66 Socio-Economic Status of Pineapple Growers in Bangladesh: A Study on Tangail District, Shabikunnahar Bonna1* and Laily Akter1 1Department of Economics, Jatiya Kabi Kazi Nazrul Islam University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: bonnashabikunnahar@gmail.com (Shabikunnahar Bonna, Assistant professor, Department of Economics, Jatiya Kabi Kazi Nazrul Islam University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh).
Pineapple is an important fruit worldwide due to its many nutritional and economic uses. To determine the overall lifestyle of the pineapple growers socio-economic indicators are the most important indicators. The aim of our study is to examine the socio-economic status of the pineapple farmers. The researchers selected the madhupur upzilla of Tangail district. Data were randomly collected from 98 farmers. A well-structured questionnaire was used for collecting data. We have used both descriptive and functional analysis in this study. Descriptive statistics including frequency, sum, average, percentage, and ratios were used to analyze the data. The study revealed that the majority of the farmers were small (73.47 percent) and medium (15.31 percent) categories. Most of the pineapple growers were middle-aged (31- 50 years), whereas a little portion of them were older aged (greater than 51). In the study area, it was found that 92.86 percent of the respondents were married. Almost all farmers were literate and more than 25.51 percent of them had primary education in the study areas. The majority of the farmers had below 10 years of farming experience and their primary occupation of them (81.63 percent) was agriculture including pineapple cultivation. Only 6.12 percent of people received training from the government agriculture extension office and 62.24 percent of pineapple farmers received credit from both banks and NGOs. The total cost for pineapple cultivation in the study area was 38206100 taka. Net return was 26917700 taka in the study area. The average BCR was 1.70 but farmers face various problems like lack of capital processing industry or factory storage of pineapple marketing natural calamities etc. This research study will try to analyze socio-economic profile of pineapple growers, the financial significance of pineapple production, and solutions to specific problems. It will also provide some recommendations for improving the condition of pineapple production and processing by using the latest agro-technology.