1 The Emergence of University Entrepreneurial Orientation in a Technological University: A Case of a Sri Lankan National University , G.D Samarasinghe, D.M. Mudalige, N.C Samarasiri, G.N Kuruppu
The role of higher education institutes is gaining increased attention as a key determinant in economic and social development of a country. Education systems in South Asian countries especially the technology stream concentrates on development of knowledge where entrepreneurial attitude and skills development aspects have been mostly neglected. However, by re-designing and reforming university system to facilitate and promote entrepreneurial ecosystems, few universities have gained attention. In addressing this need, ABC University, the most sought after technological university in Sri Lanka, launched a range of entrepreneurial initiatives to craft the enterprise capabilities of undergraduates. ABC University has been able to facilitate an increasing number of start-ups. However, the dynamics and perceived effectiveness of such phenomena are relatively less explored, and its successful implementation requires the adoption of different approaches, in different contexts. The main motivation of the study was to investigate stakeholders' attitudes towards these initiatives while exploring the dynamics and key success factors contributing to the effectiveness of entrepreneurial eco-system. The study adopted a qualitative methodology with in-depth interview as the main method. In-depth interviews were conducted with the key stakeholders selected based on purposive sampling Thematic analysis of qualitative interview data revealed that transformational leadership style created a dynamic entrepreneurial strategy and inspirational motivation that facilitated radical change. The analysis revealed many interesting facets of the success including how complex relations to foreign universities and expatriate academics influenced the process, effect of existing reputation of the university and how structural changes reduced the barriers. Student focused programmes have to be initiated before institutionalizing entrepreneurship via curriculum amendments and before changing the university organizational structure. This study provides insights on how to enable entrepreneurship in local public university system.
2 Impact of Labour Dynamics on Foreign Direct Investment Inflows in Asia     , S.G.U.S. Chandrarathne, P.J.S. Fernando, R.M.A.K. Rathnayake
This paper examines the impact of labour dynamics, i.e. skill level of labour force, labour cost and female labour force participation, on Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) inflows in Asia. Employing secondary data of 31 Asian countries from 2000 to 2015, we analyse the impact of labour dynamics on FDI inflows separately for ‘low income and lower-middle income’ (LLMI) countries and ‘high income and upper-middle income’ (HUMI) countries in Asia. Besides, regional differences in Asia are also analysed. The panel data analyses suggest that cost and skill-level of labour are the key labour dynamics that attract FDI inflows to Asia. In addition to labour dynamics, large-market size and infrastructure improvements are also significant determinants of FDI inflows. However, these determinants are significantly different across Asia. FDI inflows into HUMI countries were attracted by large market size, improved infrastructure and low female participation to the labour force. In contrast, the availability of a skilled labour force and high female participation to the labour force and improved infrastructure were key determinants to attract FDI inflows into LLMI countries. Findings clearly revealed that skilled labour is a key determinant of FDI inflows to LLMI countries.  Therefore, developing countries in Asia can attract resource seeking FDI inflows by investing in human capital and developing infrastructure for knowledge-intensive industries.  
3 Religious Orientation and Alcohol Purchase Intention: an Empirical Investigation of Sri Lankan Male Consumers     , B.T.K. Chathuranga, D.T. Rathnayake  
Increasing  level of alcohol consumption around the world has been continuing for many years and Sri Lanka is also facing the same terrible situation. Evidently, liquor consumption in Sri Lanka was approximately 73 million liters in 2016 and the total liquor consumption among Sri Lankans has also been increasing in recent past. Though  alcohol consumption  raises many health and social issues, prevalence of alcohol consumption among the Sri Lankan male consumers (age between 17-64) has grown from 26% to 39.6% during the time period of 2008 – 2014. Therefore, examining the predictors of alcohol usage appears important and timely. Among various predictors, religious orientation seems to be much important, yet,  less examined in extant literature. Therefore, this study aims at investigating the impact of religious orientation on alcohol purchase intention of Sri Lankan male consumers. The independent variables of the study were Intrinsic Religiosity, Extrinsic (Social) Religiosity and Extrinsic (Personal) Religiosity while Alcohol Purchase Intention was the dependent variable. The study was primarily quantitative in nature whereas the study design was single cross-sectional survey. The sample size of the study was 250 which was selected based on purposive sampling technique. The unit of analysis was individual male alcohol consumers in Sri Lanka and the data collection instrument was a self-administered questionnaire. Data was analyzed using structural equation modeling and findings revealed that all three independent variables have a significant impact on alcohol purchase intention. Findings of the study make sense to policy makers in using religious orientations to restrain alcohol consumption. Especially the education system and religious organizations are urged to use these religious orientations to design communication campaigns aiming people in Sri Lanka as a way of discouraging alcohol consumption.
4 Critical Success Factors Affecting E-Procurement Adoption in Public Sector Organizations in Sri Lanka     , K.M. Premathilaka, R. L. S. Fernando  
E-procurement is one of the Information Communication Technology (ICT) applications utilized in both public and private sector organizations. Many countries all over the world including Canada, Korea and Philippine benefited through the government procurement using electronic means as it enables the government to offer more convenient and widespread accessible government services in an efficient, cost-effective and participatory manner. The main objectives of the study are (a) to access the level of e-procurement usage in the public-sector in Sri Lanka; (b) to identify the significant factors affecting the public-sector e-procurement adoption in Sri Lanka; and (c) to identify the barriers in adopting e-procurement in those organizations. The population of the study comprises of the national level public sector entities such as; Ministries, Departments, Statutory Boards and Public Companies.  A sample of 114 officers who involved in the procurement function was selected as key informants based on stratified random sampling method. 74 officers were responded for the study. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were utilized in this study. Quantitative data were collected through a structured questionnaire to identify the determinants of successful e-procurement adoption and the level of e-procurement usage. The qualitative data were collected through 10 interviews to identify barriers in e-procurement adoption. The study found that Relative Advantage, Compatibility, Complexity, Top Management Support, Employee Knowledge and skills and Supplier Readiness are statistically significant (at p<0.01) determinants of e-procurement adoption.  These variables altogether explain 66.2% of variance in e-procurement adoption in the public-sector organizations in Sri Lanka. Among them, Top Management Support and Employee Knowledge are the major determinants of the successful e-procurement adoption. Weak procurement guidelines, Weak Legal framework and ICT infrastructure, and Lack of IT knowledge and experience of employees are the present barriers to e-procurement adoption in public sector organizations in Sri Lanka. Finally, policy recommendations for the e-procurement adoption are proposed.  
5 What attracts students towards Informal Social Learning Spaces? A Case Study of Business School in Sri Lanka     , B. Amarathunge, L.A.P. Madhuwanthi  
It has been found that a considerable portion of students’ learning happens outside of formal spaces (Marsick & Watkins, 2001). Given the modern nature of learning in higher education, the development of purpose-built informal social learning spaces as a strategy to enhance the student experience, has become more prevalent, although empirical research is scant. Despite the unwavering popularity of learning spaces across the higher education sector, a key driver should be that, learning spaces to be updated, novel and be expanded to assure relevancy of them for learners, and those decision making must be evidence based. Therefore, this area of learning space studies requires further research work. The objective of the study is to examine, what attracts students towards purpose-built informal social learning spaces in a Business School in Sri Lanka. A qualitative case study approach is adopted in the study. The data are gathered through focus group discussions held at three different purpose-built informal social learning spaces at the selected Business School and thematic analysis is used. In this exploration, the thoughts, feelings, emotions and judgments of students are brought into discussion. The findings disclosed that students are attracted towards social learning spaces because of both physical environmental characteristics (comfort, functionality, layout and availability of workspaces) and psychological attributes of those spaces (privacy, concentration, social interaction and the ability to personally make the choice). Lack of empirical research in this area would provide little evidence for higher education institutions to focus their attention and invest the resources for designing and building informal SLS as to facilitate improved learning experience for students. This study contributes empirical insight into an under-researched area and implications for administrators in higher education institutions.   
6 Factors influencing Solar Energy Technology adoption by Households in Western Province Sri Lanka     , U. C. Bandara, T. S. M. Amarasena  
The acceptance and slow growth of solar energy is a major barrier for the Sri Lanka’s expansion of Solar. The aim of this study is to identify the factors that important when adopting to solar energy technology. Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), Diffusion of Innovation (DOI), Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Transaction Cost Economics theory (TCE) are the theories that used to develop the research foundation. A self-administrated questionnaire was used to collect data from a sample of 384 household respondents. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to test the hypothesis. The result of the study indicates that perceived ease of use has the most significant impact on adopting to solar energy technology. Awareness of the technology and relative advantage become second and third influential factors of adoption. Perceived behavioral control also has a positive impact on adoption to solar energy technology while cost shows a negative impact. From a managerial viewpoint these findings can be used for implementing the solar energy technology as a household renewable energy source for upcoming future energy crisis. Though geographical unfairness act as the main limitation, since the high density of population, income level and urbanization of observed area, the result can be generalized to the urbanized households.  
7 An Examination of Cinnamon Farmers Entrepreneurial Behaviour in Sri Lankan Context     , K.M.V. Sachithra  
As the oldest and the longest form of economic endeavor, entrepreneurialism has become a key aspect in agricultural sector. As economic changes, the agriculture farmers need to focus on innovation, risk taking and the leadership. This study investigates the entrepreneurial behaviour of farmers, how entrepreneurial behaviour varies in terms of gender, education and experience, the link between entrepreneurial behaviour and farm financial success and the nature of the skills that farmers need to become entrepreneurs in agricultural sectors. The study was carried out with owners who have experience in the commercial cultivation of cinnamon crops in two districts in Sri Lanka. Primary data were collected through a survey using a self-administered structured questionnaire.  In addition, qualitative research design was also used to investigate the nature of the skills that farmers need to become entrepreneurs in agricultural sectors. This study   revealed a moderate level of entrepreneurial behaviour of the farmers. They have shown their attraction towards risk taking; however, practical issues were there that restricted farmers from change-orientation to utilizing opportunities. Further, there was a statistically significant influence of entrepreneurial behaviour to financial performance of cinnamon crop farms. According to the interviews, the farm owners who showed entrepreneurial behaviour are equipped with the skills of learning by doing, centralised decision-making, targeting and analyzing market trends. The study found that entrepreneurial behaviour seems to have its own characteristics in each context which can be varied in different countries. In this study, it is the combination of individual, behavioural strategies and institutional factors. Accordingly, the study discusses the implications and providing a framework that will encourage to make effort on the complexity of entrepreneurial farmer.     
8 Book Review: Transitions and Tools that Support Scholars’ Success by Mary Renck Jalongo and Olivia N. Saracho     , D.G. Dharmarathna    
The prime duty of an academic is to contribute to the economy of knowledge. Academics find new knowledge through research and they disseminate it through lectures and scholarly works. Researchers face a real challenge when they want to publish their work. A scholars’ success solely depends on impactful publications. In accordance with this argument, the book titled ‘Writing for Publication’ discusses the transitions and tools that support a scholars’ success.  
9 Impact of Organizational Factors on Sales Force Unethical Behavior in the Sri Lankan Life Insurance Industry     , W. R. P. K. Chandrarathne, H.M.A. Herath  
As a service providing company the image and the success of the insurance industry vastly depend on the ethical behavior patterns of their salesperson as they are the persons who have direct relationships with customers which in turn build up the customer’s satisfaction and trust towards the organization. Therefore, the managers must have the knowledge of the key determinant of the unethical behavior of their salespersons if they want to ensure the ethical behavior among the salespersons. Different factors contribute to these behavior patterns and organizational factors are more important among them. The main purpose of this research was to identify the organizational factors affecting the unethical behavior patterns of salespersons in the Sri Lankan life insurance industry. An extensive literature review was conducted, and five organizational factors were identified as impacting on unethical behaviour of salespersons in the Sri Lankan life insurance industry. Namely, they were supervisory role, sales targets, organizational culture, code of ethics and a rewarding system. Data were collected from 200 individual salespersons from 10 life insurance companies through structured questionnaires. The stratified random sampling method was used for the selection of the respondents to the sample and data were analyzed using multiple regression. The findings of the research indicated that the supervisory role, sales targets and rewarding system significantly predict the unethical behavior of salespersons. Further, it revealed that sales targets predicted unethical behavior strongly, compared to the rewarding system and the supervisory role. Findings of this research also gave some implications on the code of ethics. It was found that there is no code of ethics in the companies or if exists they are not practiced or enforced. Accordingly, the research provides recommendations that can be used to minimize the unethical behavior patterns of the salespersons. To improve the generalization of the findings, future research should broaden the sample by including general insurance companies and finance companies. Continuing research is needed to analyze the other factors in addition to organizational factors and future research could also look at the customer perspective rather than the salesperson perspective.  
10 Opportunities and Constraints when Balancing Work and Family Roles in Institutional and Non-Institutional Contexts in Sri Lanka     , S.U. Samaranayake, T. Takemura  
This paper offers insight into Sri Lanka’s institutional (state and organizational level) and non-institutional (socio-cultural) context in terms of available opportunities and constraints for achieving balance in work and non-work roles. The paper identifies that state policies, laws, and organizational work-family initiatives/practices sometimes act against their main objective of mitigating the difficulties of employees. These policies seek to advance the quality of employee’s quality of life, and that of their families – especially women and children. These projected benefits can be hindered by the island’s social and cultural setting. Further, it provides some implications for policymakers as well as corresponding authorities to mitigate the above-identified constraints.  
11 Impact of Problems associated with Supply Chain Management Practices of Wholesalers on their Business Performance in the Coconut Industry in Sri Lanka with special reference to Kurunegala District     , M.B.S.M.T. Jayawardhana, B.N.F. Warnakulasooriya  
Plantation sector plays a major role in the export sector in Sri Lanka where Tea, Rubber and Coconut have been the major agricultural export commodities. According to the Export Development Board (2018), coconut accounts for approximately 12% of all agricultural products. As an agricultural commodity, coconut must undergo a series of operations before they reach to the market. It can be observed that in every operation, practices of supply chain management (SCM) are involved.  In developing countries, especially in country like Sri Lanka, traditional supply chain (SC)s are usually involved by many players and they exercise many practices. A wholesaler is a vital player in the SC for a coconut industry. They exercise many practices when they work with the SC, especially with manufacturers and other intermediaries as well as face with many problems in performing these practices. Still whether these problems will have an impact on their business performance is a question that should be answered. However, a comprehensive search of various local and international literature revealed that the impact of problems of SCM practices of wholesalers in the coconut industry on business performance have not been studied in depth in Sri Lankan context.  Therefore, this study is designed to examine the impact of problems associated with SCM practices of coconut wholesalers on their business performance with special reference to Kurunegala district, Sri Lanka. A questionnaire was distributed to a sample of 60 wholesalers in the coconut industry in Kurunegala district, Sri Lanka. Problems cited in the literature were condensed into eight practices of SCM, namely human resource management, technology, facilities, supplier relationship management, customer relationship management, regulatory factors, geographic proximity and logistics and transportation. The collected data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics and discriminant analysis. The results show that these problems discriminate the business performance of the coconut wholesalers. 
12 Important factors in selecting Maritime Education in Sri Lanka: Perception of seafarers’ professions     , L. Edirisinghe  
Maritime Education and Training (MET) are presently faced with many challenges thus  sustaining a pool of qualified and competent marine officers and engineers is a serious issue. Given the very complicated nature of the industry certain grades of seafarers are waiting to be deployed while some categories are invariably short staffed. MET institutes compete with other higher education institutes while improving the overall quality standards of global MET. Also, the demand for seafaring by younger generation is seen declined while the quality of limited applicants also deteriorated. As a result, leading MET institutes are pressurised to be flexible in selection criteria. Accordingly, the objective of this study is to identify the factors that influence students’ choice of maritime education. The study has been conducted by obtaining empirical data from past and present seafarers and the findings may be helpful for MET institutes. It explored key factors pertaining to the seafarers’ profession such as the professional identity and perception; social impact; the family concerns; and gender issues as influencing the choice of maritime education.  
13 The Welfare Impact of Unilateral and Regional Trade Liberalization in South Asia: The Way Forward     , S. Perera  
During the last couple of decades, trade policy reforms have been initiated in almost all South Asian countries with a view to integrating with the world economy and improving their growth prospects. This paper provides a quantitative assessment of the likely implications of trade liberalization in South Asian economies, using a multi-country CGE model with enhanced multihousehold framework. The study examines the impact of trade liberalization in South Asian countries on the economies of South Asia, with particular emphasis on trade and welfare impacts of unilateral trade liberalization and South Asian Free Trade Agreement (SAFTA). The findings revealed that, amongst the two trade policy options considered, unilateral trade liberalization ensures the highest welfare to all South Asian members in compared to SAFTA. Furthermore, the results indicate that overall household income will increase in all South Asian countries under both trade policy options considered though the gains are greater under the unilateral trade liberalization. The industry level projections indicate that, exports and imports increase significantly in all South Asian countries under unilateral trade liberalization than under the SAFTA both in the short-run and long-run. Thus, unilateral trade liberalization may be likely to expand the total trade in South Asia in the world market.
14 Exploring Key Factors for Customer Satisfaction in Online Shopping: A Systematic Literature Review     , P.A. Deyalage, D. Kulathunga  
In the context of online shopping, customer satisfaction is considered as a important matter to be focused by marketers and organizations. Consequently, identification of what really affects customer satisfaction in online context is useful from many aspects. Previous researchers have attempted to address this important concept mostly through their empirical studies, utilizing limited number of factors. A closer examination reveals that those studies have utilized different sets of factors and been performed in different contexts. Overall, prior studies remain broad and appear relatively fragmented. At present, there is a lack of research which have used a systematic literature review process to examine the factors affecting online customer satisfaction. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to perform a comprehensive study on literature related to online customer satisfaction and analyze the factors identified by previous scholars under different criteria. Accordingly, the researchers gathered all possible studies related to online customer satisfaction between the period 2000 and January 2019. The study identified forty-one previous studies done by different researchers which revealed fifty-one different factors affecting online customer satisfaction. The researchers performed a rigorous analysis of those fifty-one factors under different criteria and results are presented in this paper.  
15 HR Practices: A Source of Sustainable Competitive Advantage or Competitive Parity – A Systematic Literature Review     , G.A.S.K. Silva, B.N.F. Warnakulasuriya, B.J.H. Arachchige  
High Performance Work Practices or High Commitment Work Practices in HRM are often said to be a potential source of sustainable competitive advantage. However, some researchers have questioned that notion. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to review and analyze relevant literature to determine whether the HR practices can be considered as a real source of sustainable competitive advantage. This study followed the Systematic Literature Review method. This paper analyzes theoretical base for such claim as well as available empirical evidences and suggests that HR practices (often called as High Performance Work Practices) are more likely to be a source of competitive parity than a source of sustainable competitive advantage. The major significance of this paper is that it addresses a key question within Strategic Human Resource Management: whether HR practices can be considered as a source of sustainable competitive advantage. Further, this may be the first to discuss HR practices as a source of competitive parity. It also highlights research gaps in the area of the relationship between HRM and firm-performance.
16 The Role of Discrete Negative Emotions in Predicting the Behavior of Misusing Time and Resources in Business Organisations in India     , J. Savitha, K.B. Akhilesh  
Counterproductive work behaviors (CWB) are the deviant behaviors of employees that violate the organisational norms, and in turn harm the organisation or its members. Misuse of time and resources (MTR), a form of CWB is of increasing concern to business organisations world-wide. Such behaviors are mainly aimed at the organisations than the individuals, restricting productive time on the job and inappropriate or unauthorized use of organisational resources. Extant literature informs that these behaviors are caused by stressful work conditions mediated by negative emotions. However, the extant literature does not adequately consider multiple discrete emotions to study CWB. This study examines the influence of discrete negative emotions on misuse of time and resources in the context of manufacturing and IT firms in India. It contributes to theory by linking individual emotions to the deviant behaviors relevant to misuse of time and resources. Finally, the managerial implications derived from the study helps to understand employees’ emotional states and their possible consequences.
17 Relationship of knowledge and Attitudes of Managerial Officers with their Solid Waste Management Practices in Sri Lanka     , W.D.C.T. Gunasiri, G.D.V.R. Senadheera  
As in many developing countries, Solid Waste Management (SWM) is a key issue in Sri Lanka, and the quantity and the quality of the waste generated are directly influenced by the knowledge, attitudes and practices of people. Poor community participation is one of the main barriers for finding a sustainable solution for the said problem. The main objective of this study is to investigate the relationship of knowledge and attitudes with the waste management practices followed by managerial officers in Sri Lanka which is considered as a significant group of the society because of their education level and direct involvement of decision making at organizational and national level. Population was selected as students who studied Master of Business Administration (MBA) of University of Sri Jayewardenepura as they are supposed to be the future leaders of the country. Among them hundred students were randomly selected to the sample, representing managerial level officers in different sectors. Knowledge, attitudes and practices were taken as variables and they were measured using few dimensions. Data was mainly collected through self-administered questionnaire. The version 22.0 SPSS package was used for data analysis. According to the findings, majority of MBA students possessed moderate level of knowledge and more than 75% of respondents had moderate level attitudes on solid waste related aspects. However, 15.9% of MBA students had poor attitudes on solid waste and especially on value of waste. Regarding their practices, nearly 40% of respondents follow poor waste management practices and it reached more than 55% in waste segregation and recycling behaviors. Knowledge on solid waste didn’t show a significant relationship with their practices. However, a weak positive correlation was found between overall attitudes and waste management practices (r = 0.267) and a moderate positive correlation between attitudes on responsibility on public participation and practices (r = 0.539). Therefore, among MBA students, only the attitudes showed a significant positive impact towards SWM practices, not the knowledge. Hence, through building correct attitudes which need to be initiated from ground level can effectively contribute to implement sustainable waste management mechanism as attitudes of these future leaders are influential not in individual level but also in organizational and national level.
18 Generic Strategy and Strategic Management Accounting Practices: Case Study of a Sri Lankan Telecommunications Company     , H Rathwatta, D. N. Samudrage  
Organizations depend on different generic strategies to gain competitive advantage (Porter, 1980). Usage of a particular generic strategy is always associated with a set of rules, practices, and procedures within an organization. Amongst them, Strategic Management Accounting (SMA) practices play a vital role in supporting and monitoring the performance of the generic strategy pursued by an organization.However, organizations may change the generic strategies they use over the time due to various changes taking place in the environment including the changes in business environment,technology, competitors, regulation and the global economy (Wickramasinghe & Alawattage, 2007).A change in the strategy is expected to lead to changes in existing policies and practices to match the new strategy (Langfield – Smith, 2007).Thus SMA practices used by the organization should be no exception. Such changes in practices are important for effective implementation of the new strategy. Otherwise, the new strategy is expected to fail. However, studies, which examine the changes in generic strategy and associated changes in SMA practices are scarce in the Sri Lankan context. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to examine whether the change in generic strategy leads to changes in SMA practices used in Alpha Telecom PLC, which is a leading telecommunications company in Sri Lanka. Also, the study expects to recognize other factors contributing to the changes in SMA practices in this company. This study adopted the qualitative research methodology and used the single case study method to conduct an in depth analysis of SMA practices of Alpha Telecom. The data were collected through semi- structured interviews with senior managers and a questionnaire was distributed among middle level executives. Management Accounting (MA) reports and annual reports of the company were used as secondary sources. The study has used new institutional theory as the theoretical lens. The study found that when generic strategy moved from cost leadership to differentiation, the traditional MA practices based on costing shifted to SMA practices such as Balanced scorecard (BSC), Competitor analysis, Quality costing etc. Further, it was found that changes in ownership, culture of parent company, and nature of competition also had an impact towards the usage of new SMA practices within the company. Coercive and mimetic pressures affected for the usage of SMA at Alpha PLC.  
19 Relative Importance of Packaging Elements of Baby Care Products in Sri Lanka: Do Demographic Factors Matter?     , M.F.S. Faris, K.P.L. Chandralal  
 Baby care category has been profitable throughout the years and gained the interest of global players in Sri Lanka amidst the emergence of several local companies. Previous research on FMCG products identified that a 1% shift in packaging will result in 88.9% shift in consumer purchase intention, signifying the role of packaging in buying behavior. But there is mild research done with regards to the Baby Care Category and especially in the Sri Lankan context. This research focuses on the gap of identifying the importance of the different packaging elements of baby care products along with buyers’ demographic factors.  A field survey was conducted with an internet questionnaire to obtain data from a sample of Colombo residents. The results revealed that a weak positive importance was laid on “Graphics” (Color and Artwork) and on “Dimensions” (Design and Shape) of the package. The dimension of “Information” was placed relatively a higher importance in the buying decision. These findings aligned with the insights from buyers and retailers; buyers being more concerned on baby’s safety prioritized ensuring product reliability. Certifications, labels, precautions, and instructions on the package guide them, which evidently is part of the dimension of Information. The results further revealed that the identified importance laid on the three dimensions of packaging elements did not significantly vary on any of the demographic factors; gender, income, and level of education. Baby care, being a sensitive area for parents (unlike generic products), the importance placed on information was much higher due to its role played in assurance, consequently comparative lesser importance was placed on how colorful, big and stylish the packaging is, as the priority was absolute amongst buyers across diverse demographic differences.  
20 Environmental Management Practices on Financial Performance: With special reference to the Rubber Industry in Sri Lanka     , D. Gunathilaka, K.D. Gunawardana  
This study investigates the relationship between environmental management practices (EMPs) on financial performance (FP) using the data from thirty rubber manufacturing organizations by building panel models for the sample during the period of 2012-2016. The study has considered the three different EMPs of energy reduction (amount of furnace oil use per day), waste (amount of waste water generates), and recycle (amount of recycle raw material) in capturing the effect of EMPs on FP. In addition, to elucidate how financial performance is dealing with EMPs, the study used Return on Assets (ROA) as a determinant of financial performance. It is more difficult to identify the general relationship between EMPs and FP of firms due to its heterogeneity during the growth of firms.’ The estimation results suggested that the recycling of waste material had significant negative driving forces on FP. However, waste water treatment and furnace oil consumption had no significant impact on FP. Therefore, it is critical to investigate the relationship between FP and EMPs which is yet to be resolved in order to build up a scope for companies to implement better environmental practices in the organizations.
21 Book Review: A Guide to Academic Writing and Research Reports by Senior Prof. Dr. Mangala Fonseka and Dr. Athula Manawaduge     , N.J. Dewasiri, N. Abeysekera, G.D. Samarasinghe  
Scholarly or academic writing is clear, concise, planned, coherent, and backed up by evidence. Its purpose is to aid the reader’s understanding. Hence, it consists of a formal style and tone. Further, it does not require the use of long sentences and instead uses clear and concise language with simple vocabulary. Research report writing is an integral part of academic writing. Hence, both academic and research report writing play a vital role in developing a multitude of researchers across the globe. The authors of the book entitled “A Guide to Academic Writing and Research Reports” identified such a role to develop prolific researchers amongst the student community both within and outside the university in Sri Lanka.
22 Sustainability Reporting and Its Impact on Financial Performance: A Study of the Sri Lankan Financial Sector     , P. O. De. Silva  
The sustainability reporting which integrates the organization’s economic, environmental and social performance towards achieving better financial performance has become a contemporary issue due to the absence of a precise model or a rigid regulatory framework in this arena. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify whether there is a significant difference in sustainable disclosures among the financial institutes and how sustainability reporting influence on institutional performance. Accordingly, the author derived a disclosure index from the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) guidelines which consist of 119 parameters to evaluate the content of the reports of listed banks and financial sector companies. Analysis provided a comparison between GRI guidelines and Generation four (G4) framework. Furthermore, the study investigated the causal relationship between the level of disclosures and financial performance. To serve this purpose, data was obtained from annual reports in the Security Exchange Commission (SEC), and companies’ websites then analyzed quantitatively using SPSS 16 data analysis package. The results of the study conclude that there’s no significant difference in sustainability disclosures between listed banks and financial institutes and the number of disclosures has no significant influence on institutes’ financial performance. Furthermore, the study confirmed that there’s no significant difference between G4 framework disclosures (Adopted in 2016/2017 reporting period) and GRI guidelines (Adopted in 2017/2018 reporting period). Thereby, the study witnessed that businesses including financial institutes consume scarce resources, while paying poor attention in reporting their accountability towards the sustenance. Therefore, it needs recognizing sustainable responsibility.
23 The Moderating Effect of Leader-Member Relationship on Introverted and Extroverted Personality Traits of Leaders and Organizational Citizenship Behavior of Followers: An Empirical Study of IT Industry in Sri Lanka     , W. A. M. Niranga, M. P. P. Dharmadasa  
This study focuses on investigating the relationship between personality and leadership supports the claim that individual differences may be the predictors of leadership effectiveness in contemporary organizations. Extended studies stress that ‘Big-Five ‘personality dimensions are related to leadership criteria and further identified introversion-extroversion as a key element of an individual personality. In general, the main differences between effective and less effective leaders are that, effective leaders make positive differences to themselves from their personality traits and the relationship building with followers. However, relatively few studies have tested how and why introvert and extrovert leaders’ personality traits relate to follower behaviors. In addition, if so; the mechanisms through which a leader’s personality traits relate to follower behaviors. Accordingly, the aims of the present study are to examine whether the introverted and extroverted personality traits of leaders affect the organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) of followers and to examine the role of leader-member relationship as a moderator, in social exchange process. To advance the understanding of these, simple regression analysis and regression analysis with moderator effects were performed to test hypotheses with a sample size of 46 introvert managers and 50 extrovert managers as leaders and 92 and 100 subordinates as their followers respectively from IT industry in Sri Lanka. The study found that there is a positive direct effect of introverted personality traits of leaders and no negative direct effect of extroverted personality traits of leaders on organizational citizenship behavior of followers. Yet, leader-member relationship moderates the positive and negative relationships between introverted, extroverted personality traits of leaders and organizational citizenship behavior of followers. Present study makes several theoretical contributions to path-goal theory of leadership with the support from theory of trait leadership and big five model. Further, managerial contributions of the present study make IT firms successful through better selection of leaders based on personality traits which facilitates organizational citizenship behavior.  
24 Microfinance Institutions through the Lens of Social Entrepreneurship: Sri Lankan Experience     , P. Uluwaduge, R. Senathiraja  
The objectives of the study are to explore the perception of Microfinance Institutes (MFIs) on Social Entrepreneurship (SE) and to examine the application of Positive Theory of Social Entrepreneurship (PTSE) in the MFIs in Sri Lanka and to identify unique social entrepreneurial characteristics in MFIs in Sri Lanka. This is a qualitative study carried out through primary data collected mainly from in-depth semi-structured interviews with 5 Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) representing 5 microfinance institutes in Sri Lanka who owned the largest microfinance loan portfolios. For the data analysis purpose thematic analysis method was used in the study. MFIs perceived the concept of social entrepreneurship as a social obligation parallel with profit making or as the obligation of the organization towards the society while achieving their commercial objectives. Application of the PTSE in the selected MFIs in Sri Lanka showed that four propositions on SE proposed in the theory can be observed to a considerable extent in the MFIs in Sri Lanka. Unique social entrepreneurial characteristics identified in the MFIs in Sri Lanka were adherence to the deep rooted values of MFIs, much flexible approach when dealing with microfinance clients, impact from other stakeholders on MFI to perform social entrepreneurial role, and the co-operative model of MFIs tended to promote SE.  
25 Impact of Managerial Perception of Intellectual Capital Disclosure Practices on the Credibility of the Financial Statements     , S.D. Jayasooriya, K.D. Gunawardana, Y.K. Weerakoon Banda  
This study aims to investigate the impact of managerial perception of intellectual capital disclosure practices on the credibility of the financial statements. As the method, the primary data was collected through a questionnaire. The targeted sample was the financial managers who are directly involved in preparing financial statements in the public limited companies. 150 questionnaires were distributed covering the financial managers in all the sectors using the stratified random sampling method. There were three hypotheses developed covering the major components of intellectual capital as human, customer and social. Correlation analysis was conducted to test the hypothesis using the SPSS software. It was found that there is a relationship between the managerial perception of intellectual capital disclosure practices and the credibility of the financial statements. Through a regression analysis, it showed that there is an impact of intellectual capital disclosure practices on the credibility of financial statements. The managers believe that the existing reporting practices do not represent the reality of the organizational performance until the intellectual capital is incorporated to the financial statements. Further, they have suggested that there should be a proper mechanism to report the intellectual capital in the financial statements or in the annual reports to avoid such kind of misrepresentation.  
26 Infrastructure Investment with Public-Private Partnership (PPP) and Economic Growth in Developing Countries in Asia     , P.J. Atapattu  
Infrastructure is an important factor of economic growth in developing countries, and economic growth is constrained by the inadequacy of infrastructure, as financing is expensive. The advantage of Public-Private Partnership (PPP) in infrastructure is well recognized, allowing financing for expensive infrastructure investments. This study examines the importance of PPP for infrastructure to economic growth in nine developing countries in Asia. The estimated period is from 1990 to 2015 using panel data with fixed effect. The dependent variable is GDP, and independent variables are PPP infrastructure stock, non-PPP infrastructure stock, labor force and literacy rate as a proxy variable of quality of labor. This study estimates PPP infrastructure stock using the Perpetual Inventory Method and controls for the external effect of the Asian Economic Crisis in 1998.This study finds positive effects of PPP infrastructure stock on economic growth. PPP infrastructure stock is an addition to the existing infrastructure stock. The result of this study encourages more PPP investment in developing countries in Asia for economic growth.  
27 Muslim Consumers’ Purchase Behavior Towards Shariah Compliant Hotels in Malaysia     , A. Haque, N. A. Chowdhury, F. Yasmin, A. K. Tarofder  
As the number of Muslim tourists drastically increased, the concept of Shariah Compliant Hotel (SCH) has become a vital concern particularly in Islamic tourism. Shariah compliance is one of the primary aspects that influence Muslim consumers’ choice of accommodation while travelling. For such reason, the present study has been developed to examine the factors that affect Muslim consumers purchase behavior towards Shariah compliant hotels. Henceforth, a conceptual framework has been constructed based on past literature. The primary data were collected from Muslim travelers specifically in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia using a self-administered questionnaire. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) were employed to analyze data. Based on the results the aspects of halal image, followed by halal awareness along with religiosity have been found to have profound effects on Muslim consumers purchase intention towards Shariah compliant hotels. Further, purchase intention has a significant effect on purchase behavior towards Shariah compliant hotels. The outcomes derived from this research will be of immense importance for destination marketers as well as hoteliers for crafting effective strategies in terms of meeting the needs of Muslim consumers. At the same time, the study would also facilitate future researchers to undertake more studies in Islamic tourism particularly, Shariah compliant hotels.  
28 A Book Review: Sustainable Human Resource Management by Senior Prof. Dr. Henarath H.D.N.P. Opatha     , A. S. Dharmasiri  
There is a growing awareness and enthusiasm on people management in Sri Lankan organizations. This is evident by the increasing number of activities related to Human Resource Management (HRM) in many fronts taking place in the island. Yet, we have a long way to go in unleashing the true potential of our productive workforce, in the wake of a post-war economic expansion and development drive. One key element in such an endeavor is to have clarity of what really HRM is all about and its broad dimensions. Senior Prof. Henarath Opatha has fulfilled a felt void in presenting a prolific volume on “Sustainable HRM”.    
29 An Assessment of the Social Science Research Environment of the Sri Lankan State University System     , R. L. S. Fernando, D. W. K. Hemachandra, A. Muthulingam  
Higher education institutions play a vital role in society in varied capacities, and one major contribution amongst it all is conducting research as a part of knowledge creation and dissemination. Social Science Research thereby provides valuable input for policy makers, decision makers and the public, in order to encourage the well-being of the society. Previous studies have highlighted the importance of conducting social science researches to address social issues and improve quality of life. However, the number of research conducted in this discipline in Sri Lanka is not adequate when compared to that of other countries in the region. Hence, this study aims to explore the present status and challenges that hinder the number of social science research conducted by academics in State Universities in Sri Lanka. The study conducted a detailed literature review that was followed by in-depth interviews with 50 academics representing five state universities in Sri Lanka. The universities were selected based on the availability of Social Sciences and Humanities Faculties/Departments. The data were then analysed qualitatively based on the Grounded Theory Method to achievestudy objectives. The study revealed three main categories that limit the number of social science researches conducted in State Universities in Sri Lanka. They are; organizational factors, individual factors, and policy related factors. In addition, collaboration with other universities/ faculties, publication opportunities, research awards, and research allowance were identified as aspects in support of social science research in Sri Lanka. The study findings significantly helps in policy making, to identify the present status as well as factors that can contribute to enhance the level of social science related research among academics of State Universities in Sri Lanka.  
30 Relation between Sectoral Distribution of Commercial Bank Credit and Economic Growth in Sri Lanka     , V. Muthusamy, N. J. Dewasiri, Y. K. B. Weerakoon, A. A. M. D. Amarasinghe  
This study investigates the impact of sectoral distribution of commercial bank credit on economic growth in Sri Lanka based on data from 2005 to 2017. The Auto-regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) model is used to investigate short and long run impact of sectoral distribution of commercial bank credit on Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The findings of the ARDL Error Correction model indicate that the commercial bank sectoral credit distribution is significantly explaining the short run economic growth. Moreover, ARDL long run form and bounds test shows that there is a long run relation between the variables. The industrial sector has a long run positive relationship with GDP while the other sectors are insignificant in explaining long run economic growth. According to the results, the government can motivate banks to distribute credit facilities to the industry sector to boost GDP in the long-run. This is the first study that discusses the sectoral distribution of commercial bank credit on economic growth of Sri Lanka as per the best of the authors‟ knowledge.
31 Relation between Sectoral Distribution of Commercial Bank Credit and Economic Growth in Sri Lanka     , V. Muthusamy, N. J. Dewasiri, Y. K. B. Weerakoon, A. A. M. D. Amarasinghe  
This study investigates the impact of sectoral distribution of commercial bank credit on economic growth in Sri Lanka based on data from 2005 to 2017. The Auto-regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) model is used to investigate short and long run impact of sectoral distribution of commercial bank credit on Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The findings of the ARDL Error Correction model indicate that the commercial bank sectoral credit distribution is significantly explaining the short run economic growth. Moreover, ARDL long run form and bounds test shows that there is a long run relation between the variables. The industrial sector has a long run positive relationship with GDP while the other sectors are insignificant in explaining long run economic growth. According to the results, the government can motivate banks to distribute credit facilities to the industry sector to boost GDP in the long-run. This is the first study that discusses the sectoral distribution of commercial bank credit on economic growth of Sri Lanka as per the best of the authors‟ knowledge.
32 Educating for Environmental Practices: An Assessment from Bachelor of Commerce (B. Com) Undergraduates in Sri Lankan State Universities     , K. M. V. Sachitra, D. G. P. Kaluarachchi  
Scholarly attention on environmental literacy has been increased in recent years since the knowledge level and interest in environmental issues are decisive to engage in environmental protection functions. The study aims to investigate the environmental literacy level believing that understanding the level of environmental literacy will lead to influence attitudinal changes and actions of undergraduates towards environment. Total number of 650 Bachelor of Commerce undergraduates in state universities of Sri Lanka were selected as the sample of the study. A self-administered structured questionnaire was administered to collect data on the environmental literacy level, the interest and the activity engagement in environmental activities of the respondents. The regression-based path analysis was performed to examine the relationships among the constructs. Based on the descriptive analysis, there was low level of environmental literacy of the selected undergraduates in this study. The overall level of interest in environmental issues and the level of engagement in environmental activities were moderate. The regression-based path analysis indicated that environmental literacy as well as the environmental interest were significant predictors for environmental engagement. Further, interest in environmental issues mediated the relationship between the environmental literacy and the actual engagement in environmental activities. The study exclusively examined the relationship between the undergraduates' knowledge level of the environment and the interest in environmental issues and also examined the factors that influence undergraduates' participation in activities that promote sustainability of the environment, which has been neglected by prior studies. The results facilitate to recommend that the degree programmes should be integrated with environmental areas where such knowledge could lead to promote the interest and the action towards the environmental activities.
33 Impact of Business Ownership Change on Institutional Historical Knowledge Due to Employee Turnover: A Literature Review     , M.A.K.De.S. Jayasekara, M.D. Pushpakumari  
Increasing number of business ownership changes and its impact on human capital is a global concern over the years. Change of business ownership of organisations can be in the form of Business Acquisitions. Mergers and Acquisitions are the most common form of Business Acquisitions. Business Acquisitions have made a significant impact on Human Resources in both acquirer and acquired organisations. Human Resource is also an important component of business integration process. Desired results of post-acquisition hence can be hampered by the demotivated human resources. It is evident from literature that unless this sensitive area of human resources is not handled professionally, employees become reactive. The consequences can be damaging due to employee demotivation which can result in an increase in employee turnover after an ownership change. Retention of employees can be important to the acquirer companies since it can lose the Institutional Historical Knowledge with the parting of employees. The Institutional Historical Knowledge comprises of the knowhow an employee gained over the years of service in that particular institution and it includes ‘tacit’ knowledge which is competitively advantageous to the institution. This moves away with the employees leaving the organisation. The main objective/aim of this study is to identify whether there is an impact of Business Ownership Change, on Institutional Historical Knowledge due to Employee Turnover – ‘through literature. Hence, this paper reviews the theoretical findings in literature from business acquisitions, employee turnover and its impact on loosing Institutional Historical Knowledge-‘the wisdom withdrawal’. The significance of the study is to echo the risk of losing Institutional Historical Knowledge due to employee turnover. Therefore, this study is totally a desk research based on literature review. The study reveals that there is a negative impact of business ownership changes on institutional historical knowledge due to employee turnover.  
34 Improving Innovation Performance by Convergence in Open Innovation: Evidence from Software Firms in Sri Lanka     , S.R. Yapa, R. Senathiraja, I. Kauranen  
Open innovation, which encourages firms to use external knowledge and external partners to accelerate innovation, has become a popular approach among organisations globally. Researchers have highlighted multiple benefits that open innovation offers. Extant literature often discusses factors of open innovation that increase innovation performance. However, open innovation does not always bring higher innovation performance and reasons for this are not adequately addressed in the existing literature. The objective of this research study is to increase understanding of factors that can hinder innovation performance in open innovation implementations. Special attention has given to convergence. In this case, convergence refers to alignment and coordination between innovation partner firms. The empirical data for this research study will be gathered from software firms in Sri Lanka. The background for this study is the software firms in Sri Lanka which have not reached the expectation that have been placed on them.    
35 Prediction of Bankruptcy Risk: Evidence from Listed Manufacturing Companies in Sri Lanka     , K.M.S. Senevirathne, G.N. Kuruppu  
The past experience in number of industries evidenced that even healthy companies can bankrupt and abolish stakeholder confidence while creating a significant damage to country’s economy. Though stakeholders are vulnerable, how they can assess the bankruptcy level is another question that researchers are trying to answer. This creates an urgency to find out the bankruptcy level of manufacturing companies in Sri Lanka using an appropriate model and publicly available information in order to protect stakeholders. Therefore, the objective of the study is to investigate the degree to which bankruptcy risk can be predicted from the business performance of listed manufacturing companies in Sri Lanka. Quantitative approach has been applied in the study align with the ZETA model. Secondary data was used in this study which gathered through the annual reports and the data was analysed through e-views 6 software. The study found that bankruptcy risk can be identified from financial performance and non-financial performance. The finding of the study benefits the different stakeholders to make decisions relevant to manufacturing firms in Sri Lanka.  
36 Empirical Analysis of Corporate Sustainability Performance: Linkage of Japanese Firms' Environmental and Economic Performance     , K. Gnanaweera, N. Kunori  
The linkage between Corporate Environmental Performance (CEP) and Corporate Financial Performance (CFP) has been a long-standing debate since all previous efforts achieved inconsistent results. The current study therefore attempts to present the relationship between corporations’ environmental and financial performance to explore the notion of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in a developed nation. This case derives empirical observational data from corporate sustainability reports and integrated annual reports of Japanese firms. The sample is comprised of observational data of a total of 85 Japanese corporations from 2008 to 2014. The selected firms are listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange in the first section of the market division and are categorized under various industrial sectors. The effort of the current study has revealed that corporate environmental measurements have different effects on financial performance. The evidence was less strong in evaluating the impact level of all variables except firm size (total assets). Three hypotheses (H1, H2, and H3) were developed for further evaluation of the effect of financial indicators on environmental performance. H1 was accepted since environmental performance has a significant impact on firm size. However, the rejected H2 and H3 state that environmental performance has no significant impact on financial leverage and profitability, due to the weak relationship or insignificant outcome, i.e. in the profitability measurement, only Return on Sales (ROS) showed positive correlation between particular CEP variables, but the coefficient of determination (R2 value) does not support the ROS contribution for every model in the study. The other two profitability ratios (return on assets and return on equity) have less contribution. Both the relationship between environmental performance and financial performance according to R2 values and the relationship between CEP and CFP are broad spectrums that yet to be explored.  
37 Determinants of Migrations and Remittances: Evidence from Rural Sector of Sri Lanka     , R.A.P.I.S Dharmadasa  
Agriculture remains as one of the major sources of employment to the rural community in Sri Lanka. However, problems such as inadequate land and capital, low productivity and personal attitudes have pushed the rural agricultural worker to migrate out of the sector. As the decision to migrate is made at the household level, characteristics of the household shape up the decision to migrate and send remittances to the origin communities. Therefore, this study is an attempt to find the determinants of migration and the remittances of the rural sector of Sri Lanka with special emphasis on household level characteristics. In identifying the determinants, the study has estimated several multinomial logit models separately based on the status of migration and receipt of remittances using a nationally representative data set of Household Income and Expenditure Survey (2009/2010). The results reveal that human capital characteristics are not major positive determinants of rural sector migration and receiving remittances implying that households with better education remain in the rural sector. Rural households with more members tend to have more migrants while it is a negative determinant of the receipt of remittances. Results also suggest that rural households receive more remittances from internal migrants when they have school age children. Based on these results, this study concludes that people diversify into different income earning strategies such as migration when they have more household members while education has contributed positively to keep the rural households in the sector. Therefore, the retaining human capital can be used in the rural development process if proper policies are implemented.  
Servitization is type a business model innovation where companies extend their product offers through related services. A 360ºÌ‰ Servitization is when the manufacturing company uses a base, intermediary and advance service portfolio together with their product portfolio to co-create a unique value proposition to each customer. This research aims to understand how an organization ventures to grow the business through a 360ºÌ‰  Servitization. Underpinning the Resource Advantage Theory, a single-case study is conducted in order to achieve the aim of the paper. Data was  collected from semi-structured interviews, company reports and the website. A participatory approach with the company CEO strengthened the esearch findings. A deductive content analysis was conducted and findings were reported. This study identifies the importance of a unique product service bundle for each existing and potential customer to co-create value to enhance business growth. The research further identifies the importance of all service types such as base services, intermediary services and advance services when creating a unique product service bundle. The Product- Service-Customer Matrix developed in this study is an import tool for business to business manufacturing organizations in the 21st century to co-create value with the customer. This matrix is a useful tool for managers in business to business manufacturing companies to amplify businessrowth opportunities. Due to limitations inherent in a qualitative case study approach it is not possible to generalize the findings beyond the case company. Moreover, researches in different manufacturing companies are required to improve the generalizability.  
39 Remittances from International Labour Migrants and the Standard of Living of the Left Behind Households in Sri Lanka     , D. Siriwardhane, S. Amaratunge, I. De Silva  
This study aims to examine the effect of remittances on the standard of living of the remittance receiving households in Sri Lanka. Survey data were analyzed using thematic analysis and stratified matching method in propensity score matching. It was found that, a large majority of labour migrants remit money to their households left behind. However, the volume of remittances varies with the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the labour migrants and their households. Furthermore, it was found that remittance receiving households enjoy income from diversified sources. Average treatment effects estimated through stratified matching analysis reveal that remittance receivers enjoy a higher level of income and higher standard of living compared to their non-remittance receiving counterparts. Improvement of the income by the remittances varies with the income quintile of the households.  
40 Role of Organisational Culture in Open Innovation: An Empirical Study of Service Sector Organisations in Sri Lanka     , K.A.S.K. Kariyapperuma  
Innovation underpins the process of bringing novel products and services to market and is critical to a firm's viability, competitive advantage and performance. Open innovation has been proposed as a new paradigm for the management of innovation. Success in this open innovation paradigm offers great benefits to business organisations. Many firms have succeeded in the open innovation paradigm but failures have also been reported. Being a new area of research, not much is known about the factors affecting open innovation. In view of this, the current research was conducted with the aim to study the effects of organisational culture on open innovation. The main purpose of the study was to identify organisational culture types which enable and retard both in-bound open innovation and out-bound open innovation. Cross-sectional data were collected using the survey method from 124 middle and top managers working in finance and information technology sectors in Sri Lanka. The data analysis has been done using the statistical software packages of SPSS and AMOS. Both cluster analysis method and hierarchical multiple regressions were employed to test the hypothesised relationships. Highly integrative culture was found to relate positively to in-bound open innovation. No evidence of a significant relationship between highly integrative organisational culture and outbound open innovation was found. Hierarchy culture related negatively to both in-bound open innovation and out-bound open innovation. This research paper is probably the first empirical study which investigates the role of organisational culture in open innovation in the Sri Lankan context. Practical implications for the managers are given and suggestions are offered for future research building on the findings of this study.    
41 Values and Diversity of Organisational Work Ethicality: Lessons Learnt from Sri Lankan Entrepreneurs     , G. D. V. R. Senadheera, H.D. Karunaratne  
The aim of this paper is to examine values as a component of organisational work ethicality, uncovering the contextual realities of values and explore the diversity of work ethicality in the entrepreneurial context in Sri Lanka. Organisational work ethicality is explained through egoistic work ethicality, utilitarian work ethicality and deontological work ethicality. With a view to get a deeper understanding of the diversity of organisational work ethicality, a qualitative approach is adopted. Twelve entrepreneurs were selected for in-depth interviews. A thematic analysis was carried out for field notes with the support of NVivo 6 version. Findings of this study reveal that the entrepreneurial thinking and their interpretations derived different social meanings of organisational work ethicality. The final outcome shows that rather than single dominant work ethicality, a combination of work ethicalities was preferred by most of the entrepreneurs. Within this mix of ethicalities, deontological ethicality and egoistic work ethicality seem to be equally practised by the entrepreneurs. The utilitarian ethicality seems to be practised at a minimum level. As a result, the implicational value of this study lies on at the organisational level and policy making level to rethink and reestablish a mechanism to improve ethical aspects of the businesses in order to maximise social well-being while doing the right things for the society and strengthening shareholders’ protection.  
42 An Improved Approach to Line Balancing for Garment Manufacturing     , A. N. Wickramasekara, H. S. C. Perera  
Production managers in the apparel industry frequently face the issue of being unable to complete the orders at the scheduled time. One of the reasons for this issue is the unavailability of a Line Balancing procedure that could encompass the stochastic nature of the sewing process, which is manifested through the likes of variability of sewing times, machine breakdowns, correcting defective products, and operator breakings such as for changing bobbins and drinking water. The objective of this research is to introduce a diverse approach to Line Balancing through giving due consideration to the stochastic nature of the process. The improved approach was developed through case study approach. Having selected a sewing line in an apparel factory, the process times of operations, major random events and the times elapsed between random events were recorded. Then the whole production cycle was simulated using ARENA software. By attempting and analysing different scenarios, a different approach for line balancing was introduced. The initial steps of the algorithm developed includes: collecting processing times and necessary information on manufacturing process, fitting standard probability distributions to both value added and non-value added activities, developing the precedence diagram, developing an initial algorithm for balancing a production line and finally, making necessary adjustments to the algorithm analyzing different scenarios. In order to check the validity of the algorithm, a production line was balanced for two different daily production targets. Thus, the application of proposed algorithm to balance the production line reduces the gap between the expected production target and the real achievement.    
43 Cosmopolitanism Orientation and Fashion Consciousness of Educated Young Consumers of Fashion Related Products in Sri Lanka     , P. G. S. A. Jayarathne, B. N. F. Warnakularsooriya  
Cosmopolitanism has become an integral part of social systems. Fashion consciousness is also a central aspect of the self of the fashion consumer. Thus, cosmopolitanism orientation may be one of the main determinants of fashion consciousness in the world at large regardless the geographical proximity. Most of the studies centred on cosmopolitanism, fashion consciousness, and fashion related products are based upon developed countries reflecting the seldom of developing country-based research. Addressing such gaps in the literature this scrutiny firstly aims to assess the degree of cosmopolitanism orientation in Sri Lankan young consumers, secondly to examine whether or not cosmopolitism orientation varies across the different ethnic groups, and thirdly to examine whether cosmopolitanism orientation discriminates the high from moderate, and moderate from low degree of fashion consciousness of Sri Lankan young educated consumers by performing Multiple Discriminant Analysis. A survey was carried out taking university students as the proxy for Sri Lankan younger generation. 663 usable questionnaires were used for the analysis. The result uncovers that Sri Lankan educated young consumers possess moderate degree of cosmopolitanism orientation and that Sinhalese are more open to Western Values than Tamil and Muslim Community. The results of Multiple Discriminant Analysis divulge that cosmopolitanism orientation discriminates the high from moderate, and moderate from low degree of fashion consciousness though the discriminating power is weak. Finally the paper makes important implications and suggestions for practitioners as well as for academics in the field of fashion and fashion related products.  
44 Managerial Innovation in the Public Sector: An Exploratory Study on the State University Administration in Sri Lanka     , R. L. S. Fernando  
Universities are expected to provide employable and quality graduates. The government of Sri Lanka provides education facilities to the nations and the total expenditure incurred from the General Treasury. However, a lack of financial resources is one of main constraints being faced by the State universities. These situations negatively affect the performance of the students. Even though, the financial and other constraints remain, universities would not reduce the expected service delivery. Thus, this paper argues that universities could perform in innovative ways in managing their educational programmes that would lead to improve the quality and the relevance of the output of the universities leading to more effective and efficient administration. Thus, this study examines the utility of innovation theory in university administration in Sri Lanka. The study attempts to answer two main research questions: Is innovation possible in the university Administration? And what are the main factors affecting on innovation in the university administration? Qualitative research approach with a purposive sample of 20 administrators from four universities from the Western Province was selected by using reputed snowballing technique. Descriptive analysis was undertaken. The study confirmed that innovation is possible and already happening within the university administration. Innovation in university administration means introducing and implementing systems of management by using new ideas to improve the efficiency and the effectiveness of the degree programs. The study presents several innovative practices initiated by the university administration which have created potential benefits to the degree programs. The administrators’ motivation to achieve is the significant determinant of the managerial innovation and supportive environment which is mainly the supports of the academic staff and the external environment are other significant determinants of managerial innovation in the administration of the selected universities in Sri Lanka.  
45 The Role of Sri Lankan Stock Market in the Asian Region     , D. Kuruppuarachchi  
This paper investigates the interaction of the Sri Lankan stock market with other Asian stock markets in terms of cointegration, contemporaneous correlations, information spillovers, and impulse responses. The study consider India, China, Pakistan, Singapore, Malaysia, Hong Kong, Korea, and Japan as neighboring stock markets to the Sri Lankan market. And it use daily data of leading stock indices for each country from 01st January 2000 to 31st December 2012. Findings reveal that the Sri Lankan stock market is cointegrated with the Korean stock market but not with others. Contemporaneous correlations are significant between Sri Lanka and other Asian countries such as India, Singapore, Malaysia, Hong Kong, Korea, and Japan. Pakistan, Malaysian, and Korean stock markets Granger cause in mean to the Sri Lankan stock market while India and Korea Granger cause in variance. Extreme downside risks in Chinese stock market also Granger causes the Sri Lankan stock market. Impulse response analysis provides evidence for the following day’s impact on the Sri Lankan stock market due a current shock on other Asian stock markets. Findings of this paper provide insightful information to both policy makers and investors in order to understand the behavior of Sri Lankan stock market.  
46 Marketing Culture and Corporate Social Responsibility: A Case in Service Firms in Sri Lanka     , B.N.F. Warnakulasooriya  
Literature on marketing culture stresses the importance of establishment of a cultural orientation to guide decision making and problem solving to successful implementation of CSR. The marketing culture (MC) apparently enables frms to emphasize social concern than the frms that do not have this culture. The fundamental question is whether MC has measurable impact on CSR in services organizations. Therefore, this study examines the impact of MC on the degree of CSR in the Sri Lankan context with special reference to service frms. The major objectives are to assess the degree of MC and CSR in service frms, and to examine the association between MC and CSR in the same industry. A single cross sectional design was employed to collect data through a self- administered questionnaire. The unit of analysis was the Service Firms in Sri Lanka, a sample of which was randomly selected from the registry of the Colombo Stock Exchange–2010. The proxies were the service or service related managers of the sampled frms. The analysis shows that the degree of MC and CSR varies across the service frms and that the association between MC and CSR exists and is strong.  
47 Place of Women in Sri Lankan Society: Measures for Their Empowerment for Development and Good Governance     , H.M.A. Herath  
Despite far-reaching economic, social and political developments in Sri Lanka over the last century or so, Sri Lankan women continue to occupy a subordinate status. While women are not subjected to extreme forms of oppression, many adverse structures and forces, such as the patriarchal social structure, woman’s role in the family, traditional values, rituals and myths, the division of labour and unequal pay, and women’s lack of participation in politics contribute to the continuing subordination of Sri Lankan women. In this context, this article seeks to address the socio-economic, cultural and political processes that shape the status and the progress of women in Sri Lanka. It emphasizes the policy makers to ensure that Sri Lankan women are empowered to participate in development. For this to happen, the article, however, argues that an attitudinal change and a paradigm shift in the minds of policy makers and the society at large must be accomplished.  
48 The Employment Status of the Elderly in Sri Lanka: Emerging Patterns and Determinants     , W.G.T.S. Senanayaka, M.H.A. Sisira Kumara  
By using the Sri Lanka Household Income and Expenditure Surveys in 2002, 2006/2007, and 2009/2010, this paper examines patterns and determinants of employment status of the Sri Lankan elderly. The study employs multinomial logit model to realize the research objectives. The results of the study reveal that more than 50 percent of the Sri Lankan elderly are currently inactive, yet five percent of the oldest elderly and 18 percent of the elderly with bad health conditions are engaged in labour market activities. The results further demonstrate that younger male elderly, who are married and living in female-headed households are more likely to be employed than to be inactive. The receipts of remittances, social security payments, and bad health conditions reduce the probability of being employed. At present, ethnicity does not play a significant role in determining employment status of the Sri Lankan elderly.  
49 Waiting Times and Defining Customer Satisfaction     , T.M.B. Palawatta  
Review of literature shows that there is no agreement about the definition of probably the most important, variable Satisfaction/Dissatisfaction. Satisfaction /Dissatisfaction equals Expectation minus Perception is the most widely used definition today. In this definition, there are a number of issues that have to be resolved. First, what exactly Satisfaction is? Is it disconfirmation? That is the gap between expectation and perception. Is it expectation? Or, is it perception? Further, there is no concrete definition about the expectation. Is it predicted service? Is it adequate service? In this study, the definition of satisfaction/dissatisfaction was tested using continuous variables expected waiting time, perceived waiting time, prior predicted waiting time, posterior predicted waiting time and the acceptable waiting time. Study found that disconfirmation between expected waiting time and the perceived waiting time is the best definition for satisfaction/dissatisfaction followed by expected waiting time and perceived waiting time. However, the influence of perceived waiting time is nearly negligible. Therefore, defining satisfaction/dissatisfaction as disconfirmation between expectation and perception is most appropriate. Furthermore, the study found that expectation is not prediction and is also not the acceptable (adequate) service.  
50 Impact of Green Supply Chain Management Practices on Organizational Performance of the Manufacturing Sector in Sri Lanka  , L. N. Priyashani, G.C.I. Gunarathne  
The present study explores the impact of implementing Green Supply Chain Management Practices on Organizational performance, in terms of environmental, operational and financial performance among manufacturing firms in Sri Lanka. 150 no of firms (n = 150) which have already implemented GSCM practices in the Sri Lankan manufacturing industry were selected covering a variety of sectors including automobile (29), garments (36), food and beverage (13), electronics (20), chemicals (20) and other (32) as the sample size of this study. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to analyze the relationship between variables. The empirical evidence verifies that, a significant positive relationship between GSCM practices and organizational performance exists. It can be concluded that higher the adaptation of GSCM practices, higher will be the organizational performance in Sri Lankan Context. Further, it is also concluded that higher the adaptation of GSCM practices, higher will be the environmental, operational and financial performance. This suggests that the impact of GSCM practices lead to reduce air emission, wastage of water and solid wastages and decrease the consumption of hazardous materials, frequency of environmental accidents under the environmental performance. When considering operational performance, the impact of GSCM practices lead to increase amount of goods delivered on time, decrease inventory levels and scrap rate, promote products quality, reducing and eliminating waste, increased product line and finally improved capacity utilization. Decrease of cost for energy consumption, cost for environmental accidents, and decrease in level of production costs, decrease in packing costs can be considered under the financial performance. This study will play an important role for managers and firms, also this study is contributing in increasing the sales through understanding the benefits of practices of the green supply chain management and got the highest benefits from it. Keywords: Green Supply Chain Management, Green Supply Chain Management Practices, Organizational Performance, Structural Equation Modeling (SME)
51 Perceived Trust of E-Services, Perceived Usefulness and Adoption of E-Banking amongst the Students of University of Kelaniya: A Relational Study   , D.A.G. Nayanajith, D.M.R. Dissanayake, R.A.S. Weerasiri, K.A. Damunupola  
This study examines the relationship of perceived usefulness and perceived trust of e-services on adopting e-banking in the context of Sri Lankan private commercial banks. Sample was drawn from the students of University of Kelaniya, those who are possessing e-banking facilities of private banks. Initially 500 questionnaires were distributed and 305 duly completed questionnaires were considered for the final data analysis process. Governing factors on perceived trust of e-services were identified by conducting principal component analysis. TAM has been extended by using the perceived trust of e-services. In order to test the hypotheses, correlation analysis followed by multiple regression analysis using hierarchical method along with diagnosis tests for outliers, residuals, influential cases, were performed whilst supplementary statistical tests, such as trend analysis and contrast test of ANOVA were also used for further analysis of demographic characteristics with special reference to respondents’ income levels. The empirical evidence supported two hypotheses indicating the positive relationships of perceived trust of e-services and perceived usefulness variables towards e-banking adoption. Furthermore, it was revealed that there are differences in adoption of e-banking with regard to several demographic variables. Third hypothesis stating the existence of differences in adoption of e-banking between lower income category customers and higher income category was also supported. Restricted sample selection and time restrictions are limitations. Nevertheless, extending of TAM in relation to present research context could be noted as the originality of the research. Findings would be beneficial for Sri Lankan bankers and banking application developers, alike. In conclusion, future research could be conducted in varied contexts in the field of technology adoption in search of novel findings.
52 Celebrity Endorsement on Consumers' Perception and Attitude towards Globacom Telecommunication Products in Ilorin Metropolis   , Mustapha, Y.I, Issa, B.O, Bello, O.F  
These days, most organisations use celebrity endorsement as a communication technique for inducing consumers' perception and attitude towards buying their products. This paper aims to examine celebrities' credibility on consumers' perception and attitude towards Globacom telecommunication products in Ilorin Metropolis. A total of 273 usable copies of the questionnaire administered to the target respondents were returned. A multi-stage sampling method was employed to select the eligible samples from the study population, and regression analysis was adopted as an analytical technique. The study's findings revealed that celebrity's credibility affected consumers' perception of Globacom telecommunication products in Ilorin metropolis and celebrity endorsement also impacted consumers' attitude in the study area. The study recommended that firms that desire positive consumers' perceptions and attitudes towards their products should use a meticulous process to select celebrities who are credible, reliable, popular and likeable by target consumers to endorse their brands. Key words Celebrity endorsement, celebrity's credibility, celebrity’s popularity, Consumer perception, Consumer attitude
53 Corporate Citizenship Behaviour and Rural Livelihoods: A Study on Multinational Corporations in Sri Lanka   , Sachin Wijayasinghe, Vilani Sachitra  
Corporate citizenship seems a new conceptualization of the role of business in society. Disparity between rural and urban economy is growing and it is essential for multinational companies to address the issues benchmarking best practices. MNCs enter a nation with numerous guarantees but are they equipped for accomplishing objectives as a corporate citizen? Although the role of MNCs on local firms has been measured at different industry levels, rural livelihood perspective is unkempt in developing economies. The study aims to identify the roles of MNCs in enhancing the rural livelihoods of the dairy farmers in Sri Lanka. The study was based on an exploratory approach, adopting a qualitative research design with a thematic data analysis. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews from twenty-five dairy farmers who were directly engaging with MNC subsidiaries operating in the rural community of Sri Lanka. The MNC has been able to enhance the rural livelihoods of the dairy farmers through generating of job opportunities and replacing conventional practices with modern technology, identifying the importance of knowledge management, understanding the value of quality, adhering to policies, standards and guidelines along with maintaining proper documentations and improving the return on invested capital. However, the MNC has failed to build strong relationships with local authorities and struggled to promote dairy farming as a main source of income. MNCs exercises in the developing context is still being contended and coordinating and compiling a policy framework with the local authorities could play a significant role in shaping the livelihoods of the dairy farmers. Keywords: Dairy Farming, Multinational Corporation, Rural livelihoods, Corporate Citizenship
54 Effect of Dress Code of Sri Lankan Female School Teachers on their Job Performance , U.G.L.B. Jayasooriya, Saliya De Silva, W.A.D.P. Wanigasundera  
Abstract The study examined how clothing of Sri Lankan female school teachers affects their job performances. A representative sample was selected among school teachers from Western and Central provinces. A Sequential Explanatory design integrating quantitative survey (n=100) along with qualitative interviews (n=15) and secondary data were used. Results revealed that evolution and current practices of female dress were more into promote nationalism/culture. Though the current dresses of Sri Lankan school teachers are the Saree (for Sinhalese and Tamil teachers) and Abaya (for Muslim teachers), the majority of the respondents preferred to wear casual dresses (54%). Wilcoxon Signed Rank test showed significant differences in terms of perceived comfort and performing given four tasks (washing, ironing, dressing and walking after dressed) in favour of casual dress over traditional dress. Thirty percent of respondents have faced accidents due to their current dress. Aforementioned suggested that, teaching and performing extra-curricular activities would be more productive if they wear casual dresses. Key words: Dress Code, Job performance, Females, School teachers  
55 Motives of Customer Loyalty in Supermarket Patronage in Sri Lanka   , A.C. Karunaratna  
Abstract The supermarket concept has led to a renewed interest among shoppers in the contemporary retailing context. The study was conducted to understand the nature of supermarket patronage in the Sri Lankan context and evaluate the motives behind the choice of supermarket patronage and how those motives impact on customer loyalty. The study is quantitative in nature and the conclusive research design was adopted. Customer survey was conducted to collect data from customers who reside in two major provinces of Western and Southern in Sri Lanka. Data were collected in two stages from two different samples to identify the motives of supermarket patronage and validate the results. The descriptive results provide valuable insight towards the different preferences of male versus female shoppers in supermarket patronage. An exploratory factor analysis was employed for the purpose of identifying key motives of supermarket patronage by shoppers. The results produced three major dimensions which were labelled as ‘product motive’, ‘services motive’ and ‘atmospheric motive’. The structural equation modeling technique was employed to test the impact of motives on customer loyalty. The results are decisive which indicate that all three motives have significant impact on loyalty where the atmospheric motive has the highest impact on loyalty compared to product and services motives. Key words Customer Loyalty, Shopping Motives, Supermarket Patronage  
56 Book Review: How Creating Customer Value Makes You a Great Executive by Gautam Mahajan  , B.S. Galdolage  
Abstract The history of value perceptions in marketing goes back to the end of the 19th century, to the industrial revolution which gave rise to ‘transaction marketing’. It made a dichotomy between the customer and producer, making value one-way directional from the provider to the customer. In the early 1990s, many ‘industrial nations' which were recognised as ‘production-led economies' started transforming into ‘service led’ seeking to establish long-term relationships with customers focusing on customer retention more than attracting new customers. However, value creation in the third millennium, progressively transformed into a new stage giving priority to the collaborative perspective of value creation which termed as co-creation.