The aim of our research is to scientifically consider the concept of local economic development and tourism in the project of European integration as important segments of the overall progress of countries. The presented results, recommendations and defined conclusions will benefit the competent entities in the process of improving the state of local administration, tourism economy and integration into the European Union. Also to other academic workers in further research on current topics. The economic development of local communities is based on the reorganization of business according to the principles of the new public management aimed at the real needs of the population. Tourist resources can be essential postulates of prosperity in all countries, including the Republic of Serbia. The starting hypothesis is that the concept of local economic development and tourism are important areas in the European integration project. At the same time, they mark areas with favorable opportunities for positive trends in society. By applying appropriate methodological procedures of analysis of available contents, synthesis and comparison, we will look at the first-class elements of our topic. The basis of the study is the available materials related to the functioning of local governments and tourism with realistic indicators in various domains of public life. The institutions of the European Union have conceived specific legal legislation in the given areas, as special regulations that are binding for members and countries in certain phases of accession. Our article deals with the improvement of local self-government through the implementation of proven modalities of economic development, where the application of modern management and reforms result in the improvement of the situation at the local level. Public administration needs to learn how to cooperate with local governments in order to gain more support in term of infrastructure investments while gaining more independence in the management of taxes from local touristic activities. Some of the common messages embedded in the abovementioned documents are very important for developing the approach and strategic foundation for sustainable tourism in Republic of Serbia. As it was stated sustainable tourism is positive approach intended to reduce the tensions and frictions created by the complex interactions between the tourism industry, visitors, the environment and the communities which are host to holidaymakers …i.e. it is an approach which involves working for the long- term viability and quality of both natural and human resources. It can be concluded that the successful economic development of local administrations is ensured by applying modern paradigms of public management modeled on the systems of developed countries. Adequately profiled, tourism can be an essential area of ​​the economy in the European integration project. Despite the obvious shortcomings, Serbia has certain comparative advantages and numerous resources important for its expansion. Geographical position, traffic infrastructure, natural resources, cultural heritage and other benefits indicate real possibilities for accelerated prosperity and successful entry into the community of developed countries. We are of the opinion that the leading state entities must eliminate the obvious weaknesses in the work of local administrations and incorporate the legal legislation of the European Union into their own legislation. It is necessary for the state leaders to pay more attention to the planned investments in tourism, hotel industry and processing industry. Implement the funds of the pre-accession funds of the European Union in fruitful development projects at the local level. Use the favorable strategic position with various natural resources and a healthy environment to promote the tourist economy with accompanying facilities. It is necessary to favor paradigms that motivate foreign investors, where business strategies are formulated based on established international principles. Implement current initiatives in cross-border cooperation projects of local communities and regions in accordance with the proclaimed national interests. Key words: local economic development, tourism, resources, Serbia, European Union
Introduction: Nowadays, the tourist phenomenon involves millions of people moving from their permanent home to a temporary residence. To enable tourists to travel these people have different needs: for transport, sleeping, and for meals, etc. The sum of all these services is what we define as the hospitality industry, which is one of the world’s leading economic activities. But what do you mean by economic activity? Economic activity is the coordinated and organized whole of all actions and actions to find the goods and services that are appropriate for achieving the goal. At the core of any economic activity lies the fulfillment of human needs. The need for tourism thus constitutes the core of the economic activity of enterprises operating in the field of tourism. Economic activity generally relies on four very interdependent moments: a) Finding the necessary resources for production. The first phase of this activity consists in providing the necessary factors for production, raw material, work, capital. b) The production of goods or services; The second phase that satisfies the needs consists in: the most appropriate combination of resources used; the transformation of goods and labor into finished products or services (accommodation, restaurant, travel packages, transportation services, etc.)
The fundamental problem in the Telecommunications market, which contributes to slowing down the competition, lies in the local and central access network, necessary to be able to offer regulated services. In order, to be able to stimulate competition in the telecommunications market effectively, the European Commission intervened with a series of directives forcing the only historical operators who own the network, to provide regulated access. This regulation was then extended to all of the operators with the significant market power. The national regulatory authority is the authority that determines the right access price to encourage downstream competition and at the same time encourage the prospects of new operators to build their own infrastructure. Different methodologies are used to allocate costs for calculating access prices by national regulatory authority in European countries. They use accounting methods, preferring them over what economic theory advises, however these methods are affected by a variety of limitation. The telecommunications sector in Albania comprise a similar situation that deserves the attention of operators, regulators and academics. This sector is subject to ex ante regulation and access regulation is of public interest. It is therefore of strategic importance to find the right balance between promoting competition in the short term – allowing new operators to enter in the market – and promoting long-term competition – through appropriate incentives to invest in alternative infrastructure. The research is based in qualitative method. There is no information on the costs of operators and their calculations but a qualitative analysis of the collected facts as well as a qualitative analysis of the author based on his background. Primary sources are obtained from documents published by the regulator and operators, legal and sub-legal acts; secondary data are collected from various scientific and professional articles and publications of academics and researchers, books and documents of regulators of other countries. Electronic and Postal Communications Authority is the Albanian regulator that verifies the compliance of the regulated rates with the method and conditions set for the regulation of the rates. Even though since 2010 the Albanian regulatory has formally accepted the application of the Bottom-up Long-Run Incremental Cost method, it continues to apply a Benchmark model with reference to the rates calculated by the regulators of the Body of European Regulators for Electronic Communications countries. So there has been no evidence of data being used to do a complete research in order to decide whether the results obtained by using the Benchmark model would have been more / less consistent and more / less efficient than those obtained from using the Bottom-up Long-Run Incremental Cost model (cost-oriented model). The author conclude that the regulatory complies with the requirements of the law, but with limited application, it implements the minimum / maximum average rate model of Body of European Regulators for Electronic Communications countries with a gradual correction (glide path). The implementation of bottom-up Long-Run Incremental Cost method would be the best way to reduce the fixed network termination/transition rates thus promoting competition. The regulatory should carry out a full study on the calculation of termination/transition rates according to the pure Bottom-up Long-Run Incremental Cost method and also should prepare a manual of procedures for operators with significant market power on how to identify their costs. Key words: Telecommunication, interconnection rates, cost methodologies, BULRIC, AKEP Field: Social sciences
Tourism development could be even bigger if more could be done in various elements of transportation systems. It is an important for all its stakeholders to take part to develop tourism in their regions. Tourism sector is one of the main important sectors of the economy. Many countries take advantage of covering the budget deficit with the help of profits coming from tourism. That is why tourism sometimes is called a factory without chimney. But tourism has its own unique features that differentiate this sector from the others. Like in the other service industries, in tourism the customers, that is, the tourists come to the destination where the tourism services are provided. As the matter of fact it is difficult to think of tourism sector without transportation. Transportation is the main mean to carry passengers, that is, the tourists to the actual site where tourism services are performed(Mudsuman P) In the first models of tourist systems, the emphasis is placed on the components of the two regions’ connectivity: that of tourism and the reception of tourists. Researcher Marioti, for example, proposes three routes for the movement of tourists from their permanent residence (origin) to the tourist region (destination), which are the entrance and exit routes, which in some cases coincide with each other and the entertainment route. While access and exit routes ensure the connection between the two countries, the entertainment route on the other hand ensures the use of touristic structures during travel even though these structures do not belong to the tourist destination.
5 AN INVESTIGATION OVER POPULATION INCREASE IN URBAN AREAS AND EMPLOYMENT PROSPECTS IN ALBANIA , Mario Òªurçija Faculty of Economy University of Shkoder, Albania Emirjeta Bejleri Faculty of Economy University of Shkoder, Albania
Migratory movements as individual or collective relocation from a place of origin to a place of destination represent a milestone in a person’s life because it implies withdraw from two important places in a person’s life: residence and work. The phenomenon of migration affects demographics of the areas involve:  shrinking populations in areas of origin and increasing in destination areas. Given that the causes of migration may be different, in this paper we focus on factors related to job opportunity as determinants of the decision to migrate. In this paper, our aim is to evaluate the relationship between the number of the population residents in a district and the job opportunities in that district in Albania. To perform this analysis we use quantitative methods: the logit and the multinomial logit regression models based on a dataset of labor force survey for the period 2007-2013 in Albania. In this research we found a positive correlation between the increase in the number of residents in a district and job opportunities in activities different from agriculture, and, in particular the positive effect on job opportunities is higher than the average for women who have attained general education secondary school.  Keywords: job opportunities, demographic trend, transitional economies, Albania JEL Classification: J10, J20, J61,
6 TOURISM INDUSTRY OF THE WESTERN BALKAN COUNTRIES BETWEEN EXISTING RESOURCES AND REGULATION OF THE EUROPEAN UNION , Academician.Prof.Dr. Slobodan Nešković University Business Academy Novi Sad, Serbia,  slobneskovic@gmail.com
The aim of the current research is to scientifically consider the existing potentials of the tourism industry of the Western Balkan countries in their efforts to eliminate the manifested anomalies and join the European Union. The achieved results, recommendations and profiled conclusions will benefit the relevant state actors in the concept of tourism promotion and European integration. It is necessary to determine the legal regulations of the European Union in the field of tourism based on the Resolution of the United Nations General Assembly 39/248, the Law on Consumer Protection, the Law on Environmental Protection and other legal documents. The Western Balkans subregion consists of countries that are in one of the established phases of the European integration process, for which tourism is a significant economic branch. The starting hypothesis is that the tourism industry of the Western Balkans with existing resources and the implementation of European Union regulations represents an objective chance for overall social development, ie integration into the community of developed countries. By applying the methodological procedures of analysis of available materials, synthesis, description and comparison, we will consider the essential postulates of our topic. The focus of the study is the EU legal regulations relating to the tourism of the observed countries and the specifics of the resources of this industry, important for their economic and overall social development. For all these countries, tourism, modified according to modern trends, potentially means a first-class economic branch and a great chance for the prosperity of communities. The institutions of the European Union have conceived specific legal legislation in this area, as special regulations that are binding on members and countries in certain stages of accession. The initial document adopted by the EU is the Council Directive 90/314 of 1990 on package arrangements. It consists of ten members who fully protect the consumer regardless of the position in the contract. Then, Regulation EC 261/2004 related to air transport issues. It provides for the rights of passengers in air traffic with specific conditions and amounts of compensation that airlines pay to damaged passengers. The well-known standards ISO 9001, ISO 14001 and ISO 22000 HACCP specific to the field of tourism are also applied. Our article treats the peculiarities of the tourist resources of the Western Balkan countries as a whole, by considering the positive and negative aspects. The advantages of the physical – geographical and traffic position of Montenegro, Serbia, Macedonia, Albania and Bosnia and Herzegovina, the diversity of natural resources, healthy living environment, cultural treasures, ethnographic elements, conditions for foreign investment and international cooperation are taken into account. Aggravating factors are reflected in political contradictions, unfavorable infrastructure, economic crisis, lack of professional staff, insufficient legal regulations and inadequate attitude of the authorities. We believe that the leading state entities must eliminate the weaknesses of the legal system and incorporate the legal legislation of developed countries and the European Union itself into their own legislation. It is necessary for the state leaders to pay more attention to the planned investments in tourism, hotel industry and processing industry. Implement the funds of the pre-accession funds of the European Union in fruitful development projects. Use the favorable geographical position with transport networks, diverse natural resources and a healthy environment to promote the tourist economy with accompanying activities. Numerous cultural and historical values ​​and specific ethnographic contents contribute to the overall ambience. Affirm paradigms that motivate foreign investors, where business strategies are formulated based on established international principles. New initiatives for cross-border cooperation between the countries of the Western Balkans are supported by the institutions of the European Union and the United States, especially in order to eliminate mutual problems and strengthen economic capacities. Keywords: tourism industry, regulations, resources, Western Balkans, European Union
7 IMPACT OF EU GRANTS ON EDUCATION IN KOSOVO , Prof.Ass.Dr.Theranda Beqiri University Haxhi Zeka, Faculty of Business Theranda.Beqiri@unhz.eu Ms.sci.Arbërora Haxhija Agency for Western Regional Development Arbërora.Haxhija@ardawest.eu
The main purpose of this paper is to present the investments made so far and the impact of these investments on the development of human capacities. This paper will also identify the potentials and needs for further development of human resources in both formal education and vocational training. It is important that the population of Kosovo is well prepared for Kosovo’s integration into the European Union so that future investments are oriented towards sustainable development through long-term investment policies and strategies. Although there are some reforms in Higher education still many reforms are needed to be implemented also in primary and secondary education. There is a need for skills that match the labor market needs and creation and development of these skills depends mainly on the quality of the education system, its relationship with the labor market, the conditions in which people work in the labor market, but also the opportunities to gain skills through vocational trainings or further educations.. Vocational training is very low, while at least a quarter of vocational schools do not offer internships in or out of school. Enterprises have no incentives to hire interns and in educational institutions there are limited career guidance although we found that  grants have had their impact in higher education in improving the policies and curriculum development in each level of educations  and through different trainings of teachers in primary and secondary schools. We find that although there is a high level of grants in education sector , a lot of resources are still needed to enhance the education quality in all levels , there is a need of infrastructure and increased improvement in curricula that than impacts in the increased quality of education. Key words; Grants, Education,, Curricula ,  Strategy, Training, , EU,