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1 Challenges in the Adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards by Rural District Councils in Zimbabwe; case for Nkayi, Lupane and Hwange Rural District Councils , Mudimba Leonard, Tariro Grace Mswazi
The study is on the challenges faced by rural district councils (RDCs) in the adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) in Zimbabwe: cases of Nkayi, Lupane and Hwange. The main research objective was to assess challenges hindering, the councils in effective adoption of IFRS. The study adopted a positivism research philosophy with quantitative research design however supported by qualitative where narrative was required on interview responses. The study used the questionnaire and interviews for data collection. The study population was 300 people from which a sample size of 50 was selected using purposive sampling technique. The major findings for the study were that, Nkayi, Lupane and Hwange have no proper financial reporting framework and they have not either adopted IFRS. The study`s major recommendations were that, authorities should draw more sensitization programs on use and application of IFRS in presenting reliable financial statements.
2  An Investigation on the Determinants of Life Assurance Products Uptake in Zimbabwe , Tendai Towo, Kosmas Njanike, Knowledge Jonasi
The insurance sector is becoming a more and more important component for economic and financial development. However, the consumption and the density, for both life and non-life insurances varies across countries. The study seeks to explore the determinants of uptake of life assurance products in Zimbabwe. Data from Finscope Survey 2014 was used to estimate probit models and for robustness check Linear Probability Models were used. Using these data, the socioeconomic factors influencing individuals in deciding whether or not to take up life assurance products in Zimbabwe was analysed. According to our analysis, the decision to take up insurance policies by individuals is influenced by education level, health status, salary (formal employment), income, financial advice and being head of the household. There is need to build inclusive financial systems through different policies by governments and central banks. Financial literacy education and campaigns are paramount in improving levels of insurance uptake.  
3  An Investigation on the Determinants of Life Assurance Products Uptake in Zimbabwe , Tendai Towo, Kosmas Njanike, Knowledge Jonasi
The insurance sector is becoming a more and more important component for economic and financial development. However, the consumption and the density, for both life and non-life insurances varies across countries. The study seeks to explore the determinants of uptake of life assurance products in Zimbabwe. Data from Finscope Survey 2014 was used to estimate probit models and for robustness check Linear Probability Models were used. Using these data, the socioeconomic factors influencing individuals in deciding whether or not to take up life assurance products in Zimbabwe was analysed. According to our analysis, the decision to take up insurance policies by individuals is influenced by education level, health status, salary (formal employment), income, financial advice and being head of the household. There is need to build inclusive financial systems through different policies by governments and central banks. Financial literacy education and campaigns are paramount in improving levels of insurance uptake.  
4 Exploring the Impact of Neopatrimonialism Dominance in Africa , Wellington G. Bonga
States in Africa have registered insignificant prosperity in the post-colonisation era. External and internal factors have been blamed for development path registered by many nations. Among the cited internal factors, little has been said about neopatrimonial regimes dominating Africa. Well, the probable reason may be that existing political rulers may never criticise their actions, as it comes from their inside agenda. Neopatrimonialism has dominated many African states, though at varying degrees. The regime has diverted from the much needed democracy to a patrimonial regime blended in modern state. Neopatrimonialism takes many forms for different nations, and has differing impacts as well. Neopatrimonialism as a concept can be applied to a number of different regime types whether they be multi-party democracies, single-party systems, personal dictatorships, “plebiscitary”, or military oligarchies. Neopatrimonialism is regarded as a dominant feature of the developing countries of Africa, being seen as a core feature of local politics in Sub-Saharan Africa. Latin America, the Middle East and Southern Europe has also registered neopatrimonialism, but its use has never achieved such unanimity as in Africa. The foundation of neopatrimonialism in Africa derived from the experiences of colonialism combined with the precolonial style of administration. Neopatrimonialism has the capacity of diverting public resources to serve private interests rather than enlightened interests. Resource distribution in neopatrimonial systems is always motivated by the patron’s incentive to ensure incumbency. Neopatrimonialism is directly linked to corruption and damage the long term culture of democracy. The study showed the dominance of neopatrimonialism in Africa, its impact to revenue collection, income distribution, rule of law, weakening of institutions, investment promotion, human rights, information access, public sector performance among other social and economic concerns. The study explains that no meaningful development will be achieved in Africa when strong form of neopatrimonialism exist. The study suggest genuine political and economic reforms to be undertaken. Power have to be taken out of the hands of the state and given to the people, where it belongs. The reforms comes in the form of democratization, market liberalization, decentralization or diffusion of power, and the adoption of power-sharing arrangements. Given variations in neopatrimonialism across African countries, it is very crucial that policy makers and practitioners should not equate all institutions to be functioning in a neopatrimonial way. Key words: Africa, Clientelism, Colonialism, Corruption, Democracy, Imperialism, Neopatrimonialism, Patrimonialism, Politics, Post-colonialism, Rent-seeking. JEL Codes: D63, D72, D73, E21, E22, F51, F54, H53, H62, J71, K42, N47, P16, P48, P51
5 Demand Factors Influencing Funeral Insurance Cover in Zimbabwe , Knowledge Jonasi, Kosmas Njanike, Tendai Towo
A number of developing countries especially in Africa have funeral insurance services afflicted by poor uptake and in some instances the services are of poor quality. The study investigated the demand factors influencing the uptake of funeral insurance products in Zimbabwe. The study made use of data from Finscope Survey (2014) to estimate logit models. Linear Probability Models were applied for robustness check. The demand factors influencing one’s decision to get funeral insurance policy or not in Zimbabwe was analysed. The study found factors affecting the demand for funeral insurance policy cover include education, health status, social media, salaried, internet, death, marital status, income, financial advice, mobile user, age, gender and head. Employment history, social media, married and location were not significant. But for those not significant they had different signs showing that there is some relationship. The establishment of financial advisory on different platforms and by financial institutions can help people manage risks. Funeral insurance firms can partner with other financial services providers and other mobile services providers to increase their market. Partnering some religious sects and cultural groups would also improve percentage of people with funeral cover in the country
6  Relevance of Forensic Accounting in Detecting and Deterring Fraud , Leonard Mudimba
The study is on the relevance of forensic accounting in deterring fraud with reference to state owned enterprises in Zimbabwe. The main research question is How relevant is forensic accounting in detecting and deterring fraud in Zimbabwe state owned enterprises. The study adopted a positivism research philosophy with quantitative research design however supported by qualitative where narrative was required on interview responses. The study used the questionnaire and interviews for data collection. The study population was 300 people from which a sample size of 50 was selected using purposive sampling technique. The major findings include that Forensic accounting is a relevant tool in detecting and deterring fraud. The study recommended among others the engagement of the service of forensic accounting to compliment efforts of deterring and detecting fraud in Zimbabwe state owned enterprises.
7 Role of Fiscal Rules and Institutions on Fiscal Sustainability and Growth: Policy Options for Zimbabwe , Noell Machinjike & Wellington G. Bonga
The paper investigated the significance of fiscal rules and fiscal institutions, with the objective of achieving fiscal sustainability and growth in Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe is currently faced with unsustainable expenditures which have resulted in fiscal macroeconomic imbalances. To achieve the study goals, a case study approach has was employed. The study to strengthen its arguments for policy derivation reviewed the experiences of the United Kingdom, Australia, Japan, New Zealand, Canada, Chile, Sweden, Botswana, Cape Verde, Malaysia and Mauritius. The selected countries have achieved fiscal sustainability and growth, with sound fiscal policies through the use of fiscal rules. Fiscal rules in the form of overall budget balance rules, primary balance rules, debt rules and expenditure ceilings are key in achieving fiscal sustainability and overall economic growth. The study recommended that Zimbabwe should adopt a fiscal rule to attain fiscal stability and growth. The study also proposed that a rule be enacted to ensure successful and effective implementation of the fiscal rule.   https://storage.googleapis.com/wzukusers/user-28924863/documents/98ecde05ed9d451792eae1067c27c8ae/DRJ-JEF-V5i2-A%231.pdf
8 Assessing the Impact of Transformative Innovation Strategies on Organisational Growth in the Zimbabwean Telecoms , Mveku Blessed, Masamba Simbarashe, Mutero Tanaka T.T & Mutoko Bruce
The study main aim was to assess the impact of transformative innovation strategies on organizational growth in the Zimbabwean telecoms. The study was guided by the objectives that included determining the effects of proactive strategy on customer retention, determining the effect of active strategy on operational efficiency and to establish the relationship between passive strategy and market share. Relevant literatures were also covered in chapter two. The literature was presented by the aid of past researchers that wrote of transformative innovation strategies on organizational growth in the form of a constructive argument by the aid of authors in support and those who were against. The literatures also filled the gaps and showed the empirical evidence. The recommendations of the study were that the companies in the telecommunications sector should embark on transformational innovation strategies which help the organizations to do mass marketing, continuous innovation and increasing the operational efficiency of the organizations.
9 An Assessment of the Inherent Weaknesses in the Development of the Financial Institutions in Zimbabwe , Leonard Mudimba
This study sought to assess the inherent weaknesses in the development of financial institutions in Zimbabwe with references to Savings and Credit Cooperative (SACCOs) in Harare. The researcher used the descriptive survey method where questionnaires and interviews were used in the collection of data. Secondary data was collected by use of archival research where the institution’s records and reports, journals and websites were perused. The total population was 688 comprising of 680 members of the SACCOs, 4 Ministry of Youth Officials and 4 National Association of Credit Savings and Cooperatives Union of Zimbabwe (NACSCUZ) officials from which a sample of 40 was drawn. Stratified sampling and the purposive sampling methods were used to obtain the sample size. Major findings include that, over indebtedness of the SACCOs, poor appraisal of loan credit and subsequent poor loan monitoring mechanisms led to high default rates hence depletion of institutional funds.
10 Poverty and Pandemic Response in Zimbabwe , Wellington G. Bonga
Zimbabwe has been in macroeconomic doldrums for a long time with the struggle still persisting. To date no single economic indicator points to the stability path, hence calling for proper policy stance to be adopted. For the current year, 2020, a world pandemic has emerged with possible serious economic impact to many nations, and Zimbabwe in not an exception. The world pandemic has been declared by WHO, and now commonly known as COVID-19, having started in China towards the end of 2019. Zimbabwean economic situation has on its own caused great impact on the welfare of its citizens including the working class. Outlook for the Zimbabwean economy remains gloomy as domestic vulnerabilities persists while COVID-19 pandemic poses new challenges. The paper argues that, while the impact of the pandemic are unavoidable, the existing poverty levels brought by decades of macroeconomic instability drives the situation higher. The study recommends proper coordination on policies and even implementation of reforms as a way to ensure the economy is in a steady state path of development. A steady economy is in a better position to fight pandemics and epidemics than a fragile state. Fragile states are never in a position to manage disasters. For the public, when the government fails, it is perhaps time to recall the social virtues of locallevel resilience and self-reliance to lesson impact of pandemics, epidemics and natural disasters. The private sector is recommended to quickly act on possible measures as a contribution to economic development and avoid ripple effects of pandemics.
11 An investigation of whether Auditors’ Independence is a Reality or is just a Perception: A Case Study of Nkayi Rural District Council , Xamu Mexen & Leonard Mudimba
This study sought to investigate whether auditors’ independence is a reality or is just a perception in Nkayi Rural District Council. The study was conducted using the descriptive survey approach. The quantitative design methodology was used in conjunction with qualitative. The study population was 868 people. A sample of 30 participants was drawn from the population categories using a judgmental sampling technique. Data was collected using the questionnaires and interviews. The study found out that, there is a policy on auditor independence, but it is not being implemented. Lack of policy implementation on auditor independence is viewed as the threat to auditor independence. The study therefore recommends that Nkayi Rural District Council be exposed to frequent in-house training to stay abreast of the best practices in auditor independence.
12 Macroeconomic Determinants of Private Investment in Sub-Saharan Africa , Gerald Ngoma, Wellington G. Bonga & Thabani Nyoni
Using panel data covering the period 2000 – 2017 for 35 Sub Saharan African (SSA) countries, this study applied the pooled regression, fixed effects and random effects models as well as the Panel Corrected Standard Error (PCSE) technique in an attempt to analyze the macroeconomic determinants of private investment. Critical diagnostic tests were carried out: unit root tests indicated that the employed data was stationary. Further diagnostic tests also indicated that the fixed effects model is suffering from heteroskedasticity, autocorrelation and cross-sectional dependence. The PCSE technique was applied to counter the detected statistical problems. Main study findings indicated that, in the SSA region, private investment was determined by GDP, real interest rates, public investment and inflation. The research then proposed four policy recommendations for consideration by the SSA countries in order to materialize the much awaited private sector growth.
13 Entrepreneurship Training through Open Distance and eLearning at the Institute of Distance Education, University of Eswatini , Prof Chandraiah Esampally, Prof Cosmas Maphosa, Dr. Khetsiwe Eunice Mthethwa-Kunene & Mr. Sibusiso Candric Shezi
Entrepreneurship training is the most powerful tool to change the economy of a country. FinScope Survey(2017) indicates that Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) Sector in the Kingdom of Eswatini has been recognized as a significant contributor to livelihood, mass employment and economic growth. ‘The University of Eswatini, in line with its strategic plan and in collaboration with Commonwealth of Learning (COL), proposed to offer short-term integrated Micro, Small and Medium Entrepreneurship training programme to support for the disadvantaged young women, men and adults through Open Distance and eLearning Delivery (ODeL) mode at the University of Eswatini (UNESWA) from 2020/2021 academic year. It is proposed to run both Certificate and shortterm non-credit programmes. Field work for the core survey was undertaken between May and June 2019 and data was collected from 214 MSME Entrepreneurs from all four regions (Hhohho, Lubombo, Manzini and Shiselweni regions) of the country. The fieldwork was conducted by staff from the Institute of Distance Education at the University of Eswatini. An overall response rate of 100% was achieved. The main results of survey are: (i) about 98% of the MSME entrepreneurs are willing to acquire more skills to develop their businesses as majority of them indicated that they have developed experience on the job with little training; (ii) Majority of the entrepreneurs prefer short-term training programmes using ODeL as a delivery method; (iii) About 78% of the sampled entrepreneurs do not understand the taxation compliance requirements as well as existence of government development programmes.
14 Leadership and State-owned Enterprises Failure in Zimbabwe: A Critical Analysis , Chamisa Mufaro G, Tsikira Tafadzwa P & Muvundu Takunda R
This article uncovers contemporary and well documented issues of strong personnel in state owned enterprises in Zimbabwe and its effects on service and quality delivery from a corporate governance perspective. It focuses on why government parastatals in Zimbabwe fail meanwhile they had the personnel to achieve greater heights. The paper seeks to explore deeply and how these strong leaders out maneuver the legal barriers and how this weakens the institution in tackling its day to day activities. The research was qualitative in nature through the intensive use of secondary documents and interviews. A number of examples were made available to substantiate claims by the researchers and revealing the mismatch between strong leadership and weak institutions. Recommendations to improve and strengthen state institutions were also made i.e. giving arresting powers to ZACC and conducting public interviews to steer confidence in institution in Zimbabwe and the periodic publication of final performance of state institutions.
15 Hygienic Practices of Street Food Vendors in Zimbabwe: A Case of Harare , Thabani Nyoni & Wellington G. Bonga
This paper seeks to uncover hygienic practices of street food vendors in Harare, Zimbabwe. Questionnaires comprising of structured and unstructured questions were used for gathering data. Purposive sampling was used to select the sample size. Data was analyzed using simple graphs and pie charts. Amongst other findings, the study revealed that most street food vendors in Harare have not received any formal training in food preparation and handling and that the street food vending business is women dominated. Amongst other recommendations, we advise the government of Zimbabwe to provide low cost training to street food vendors in order to help them exercise standard food preparation and handling practices.
16 The Role of Web 2.0 in Education , Dr Cainos Chingombe
Developments in Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) have made significant impact on all spheres of human life. These ICTs has made a great impact in education. ICTs have been a prerequisite and a subject or course for every student even at kindergarten. The emergence of these ICTs has given birth to web 2. 0. Web 2.0 is a second generation of the World Wide Web that is focused on the ability for people to collaborate and share information online. Students can now connect with subject specialist, students, researchers and friends throughout the world. This article explores the role of web 2.0 in education. It demonstrates how web 2.0 can be utilized for the betterment of our learning processes. The challenges of the use of web 2.0 and how these challenges can be curbed are discussed in the development of efficient and effective educational system.
17 Stock Market Development: Evidence from Market Capitalisation Trends , Wellington G. Bonga & Rodrick Sithole
In this paper stock market development as proxied by market capitalisation is examined. The study period is January 2010 to May 2019. The data frequency is monthly. The paper concentrates on the Zimbabwe Stock Market, but briefly walks through Stock Markets in Africa. Examining stock market development is critical, as evidenced by growing number of debates on the dual link of economic growth and stock market development. The study applied the ARIMA model to examine the predictability of stock market development. Using the selection criteria for forecasting, two models have been found to be efficient, ARIMA (7, 1, 2) and ARIMA (12, 1, 2). Both models indicated the significance of past values of market capitalisation to determine current and future values. This implies that a previous level of stock market development determines the future levels of development. Forecasted values indicated a positive fluctuating growth in the near future. The study recommends policies that should aim at significantly raising the levels of stock market development to trigger economic development. Stock market development should not only be noticed in rise in market capitalisation, liquidity or index performance, but also in the quality of services rendered in the stock market.
18 The Introduction of Chingombe Eagle Intelligent Transformational Leadership Strategy , Dr Cainos Chingombe
From time immemorial, organisations without effective leadership have failed to demonstrate any enduring philosophy and have remained vulnerable to pressure at any given time. Most public institutions therefore need efficient and self-confident leaders who are not only active creators of great ideas but totally committed leaders to the development of their organisations. This paper examines the transformational leadership and develops eagle leadership model that shows how leaders can influence effective result in organisations.
19 Hybrid Corporate Culture and its Impact on Strategy Implementation in Commercialised State Enterprises in Zimbabwe   , Denver Mapetere  
The study sort to empirically examine the influence of hybrid culture (national culture and corporate) on strategy implementation in Commercialised State Owned Enterprises in the Postal and Telecommunications Sector of Zimbabwe (CSOEZ). The enquiry was base1d on a 5 point level of agreement likert scale questionnaire with a total of 478 respondents completing the questionnaire out of a target population of 836 giving a 57% response rate. Survey data was presented through percentile descriptive statistics and measures of central tendencies of mean, mode and standard deviation whilst ANOVA was used for statistical analysis. Findings of the study indicates that the existing hybrid culture in CSOEZ was not effectively influencing strategy execution. The study concludes that corporate culture of CSOEZ is not effectively influencing strategy implementation. Hierarchical culture and Power Distance culture on the basis of summary likert scale items mean score of 3.17 and standard deviation of 1.432 was the only corporate culture type that was positively influencing strategy implementation in CSOEZ. The study thus recommends that work be put in to draw a clear identity of CSOEZ as they trade between public and private entities thereby creating a unique hybrid culture. Thus an understanding of in-between entities allows for creation of an effective corporate culture.