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ULUSAM Türkiye Politik Çalışmalar Dergisi

ISSN(p):2757-5012 | ISSN(e):
Journal Papers (6) Details
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Afghanistan is located in the heart of Asia with over 99% of the population Muslims, most of whom are conservative and religious. Islam had an influence on governance and politics in Afghanistan from the long past until the twentieth century and religion was an integral part of politics. From its establishment until the twentieth century, it was ruled by kings and Amanullah Khan is the first Afghan king who started moving toward modernism and democratic order in the 1920s. The role of religion in politics changed after Afghanistan’s independence from Britain gained by Amanullah Khan in 1919, and its reason was the reaction of some Mullahs and conservatives against Amanullah Khan's modern and democratic reforms with the provocation of foreigners, especially Britain. The second democratic wave in Afghanistan has seen in the years of 1963-1973, but could not continue as a result of coups, interventions, and wars caused by Islamists and communists. Political Islam movements emerged in Egypt and the Indian subcontinent via establishing social and political groups by some individuals as a reaction to the abolition of the caliphate in 1924 by Mustafa Kamal Ataturk, the new world order, and Muslim backwardness in various fields. Muslim Brotherhood of Egypt and Jamiat-e Islami of Mawdudi, who are known as predecessors of Islamist movements influenced politics in Afghanistan after the 1960s. Hasan al-Banna’s moderate ideas spread in the 1960s through Afghanistan Muslim Youth Organization’s leaders who were educated in Al-Azhar and returned to the country with the influence of the Muslim Brotherhood’s ideas about Islam, government, society, etc. Jamaat-e Islami of Mawdudi which formed in the Indian subcontinent in 1941 is another Islamic movement that influenced Afghan Islamists and Mawdudi’s ideas about the Islamic government became a basis for Afghan Islamists. Sayed Qutb influenced Afghan Islamists, especially radical Islamists through his ideas expressed in his ''ignorance'' theory, during the Afghan-Soviet battle in the 1980s. Afghanistan is a country with a long history of instability, and political Islam is one of the major players in the situation. This study aims to fill a gap in the literature area about political Islam and democracy in Afghanistan and their relation and influence on each other.   Keywords: Islam, Political Islam, Democracy, Government, Politics, State
Geopolitics of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea is heightened in importance primarily due to issues related to maritime claims, access, and the quest for energy resources. Rights to demarcate, protect, and exploit Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) in the region are increasingly considered as significant aspects of sea power, strategy and security. In the light of recent hydrocarbon discoveries, a certain sense of disagreement has arisen among littoral states on how to equitable share the off-shore wealth, leading to formation of a U.S.-backed allied group named the Eastern Mediterranean Gas Forum (EMGF). Against the backdrop of this development, Turkey increasingly finds itself isolated from the energy conundrum. This paper seeks to examine the mounting instability in the Eastern Mediterranean particularly with regards to rising energy geopolitics, alliance behavior, and challenges in monetization of the region’s recently discovered natural gas resources. By addressing a range of political, economic, and military insecurity issues related to offshore hydrocarbons, this research highlights possible emergent threats, challenges, opportunities, and responsibilities for related actors. The paper conceptually views “alliance building” within the broader context of the term “negotiation” itself. Intrinsically, the assessment recognizes the essential multilateral component in international relations and analyses issues that illustrate how factors in the possession, supply, and distribution of energy resources may impact the outlook of conflict and cooperation in the region. It is argued that coalitional arrangements in the EEZ dispute depict deal-making behavior and are inherently voluntary and unstable. Turkey should be able to engage all stakeholders and create a positive atmosphere to invent options for mutual gain and try to pull away some members of the EMGF coalition, by carrots and sticks, if not form an alternative coalition of their own. This can reduce risks and vulnerabilities associated with the endeavor of accessing, exploring, and exploiting energy resources in the region. The paper ultimately seeks to discuss the instruments through which hydrocarbon security challenges can be addressed such as advancement of intensive political engagement among conflicting parties to build confidence and resolve fundamental differences over competing claims of maritime delimitation, and of multilateral maritime security governance in the region, particularly in reference to the role of regional alliances.    Keywords: Eastern Mediterranean, Alliance, Exclusive Economic Zone, Turkey
Eastern Mediterranean region; It is located at the intersection of the four important trade and natural resource centers of the world, the Middle East, North Africa, the Caucasus and Europe. The midpoint of the geopolitical and natural resources of Turkey. Which has the longest coastline on the eastern Mediterranean, Turkey is also a transit center in the Asia transferring resources to Europe. The TRNC and protection of the continental shelf of Turkey is important. It has been added to the Eastern Mediterranean geopolitics in China in recent years. ?nfluence, natural resources and trade routes are among the goals of China's foreign policy. One reason is the 21st Century Sea Silk Road, which is the sea route of the Belt Road Project. It establishes main container lines between the Eastern Mediterranean and Southern European ports and the Far East. Port collaborations are part of this. Turkey is a transit route for transport in Europe. The Mediterranean can provide energy security. China and Turkey are making strategic cooperation in the Eastern Mediterranean. In this article, the existence and objectives of China in the Eastern Mediterranean are given first. Then it has set the Turkey Eastern Mediterranean link in China's foreign policy.   Keywords: Eastern Mediterranean, Turkey, China, Geopolitics, Foreign Policy
This review focuses on Turkey's energy hub potential and energy policy as a transit country. The study emphasizes the conceptualization in energy trade by making an evaluation around the concepts of transit country and energy hub and Turkey's energy approach. In this respect, in this study, Turkey's energy approaches, strategy documents and discourses have been analyzed and an evaluation has been made on its position in energy trade. Accordingly, the transformation created by the national energy and mining policy in Turkey's energy approach has been revealed. In addition, the current infrastructure situation and international projects are among the topics covered in the study. In this respect, according to the results obtained in the study, it is stated that Turkey is a transit country with energy hub potential.   Keywords: Energy, Energy Hub, Energy Policy, Transit Country, Turkey
Historically, the Balkans has been and will always be a region that has gained importance from the past to the present and the future. The Balkans has been one of the most active geographies in the world throughout history. As a result of the multitude of small and different nations quantitatively (statelets) in the region, and the sharpness of religious and cultural divisions, conflicts have been intense. These differences have drawn the Balkan nations into a constant struggle. With the dynamics it has in the Balkans, it also spreads to the surrounding regions/countries. The fact that the Balkans experienced multiple diversity in terms of language, religion and race, and that it was caused by violent clashes, conflicts and wars on these lands, has been decisive. Chaos has never been lacking for the Balkans, and it never will be. The Balkans are also in a strategic position within theories such as land and sea geopolitics. The Balkans has always been of great importance due to its geopolitical location, its complex (cosmopolitan) ethnic structure and its characteristics arising from the conflicts of global powers. When we look at the Balkan Peninsula, it is very strategic; It is embodied as the Black Sea in the east, the Aegean and Ionian seas in the south, the Adriatic Sea in the west and Central Europe in the north, but the Thrace region in Turkey is included in this. The Balkans became a buffer zone between East and West during the Cold War period. In this context, it has always been a place where balances are broken and new ones are established. During the Second World War, the Balkans experienced the striking aspects of the war on the continent and the majority of the countries with different identity politics dispersed in this region with a spark, this is the reason why the Balkans are called "Powder Keg". After the Second World War, we can see that the borders in the Balkans have changed significantly and the lands of some countries have shrunk, while others are in the dusty pages of history. It would be appropriate to state that this study has been evaluated and analyzed with the dimensions created by the Balkan geopolitics and post-World War II dynamics in the region.   Keywords: Geopolitics, Balkans, World War II, Yugoslavia
Gender inequality is a global problem. Gender inequalities that have existed for centuries deprive women and girls of their basic rights. However, women and men have equal rights. Achieving gender equality and empowering all women and girls is essential for an egalitarian and inclusive world where no one is left behind. In this context, it is critical to guarantee equality in the constitution, to implement it and to monitor the development. Because the constitution is above all legal texts and no law can be unconstitutional. In this study, starting from the Ottoman period, the 1921-1924-1961 and 1982 constitutions are analyzed from a gender perspective. In other words, in this study, it is revealed how the patriarchal perspective is reflected in the constitutions or not. However, conventions focusing on "gender equality", one of the international conventions to which Turkey is a party, are discussed.   Keywords: Gender, Women'sRights, Human Rights, Turkish Constitutions, CEDAW, Istanbul Convention