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Mediamusic

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1 MEDIAMUSIC ORIGINS, Chernyshov A. V.
The article investigates the origins of music in electronic regular broadcasting, which conditions have appeared in the XIX century. They stand out in the "telephone concerts", "phonograph concerts" and the proto-sound films (T.Edison, W.Dickson, Ch.Path, O.Messter). In the early twentieth century, a clear prototype of mediamusic playing by the music of "silent" films, which has been divided on the on-screen and offscreen sound layers, the method of compilation, the basics of synchronization between musical sound and off-music montage-structures. In addition, the origins of music of electronic mass media can be regarded as attempts to understand the "musical" noise features, which subsequently materialize in the phenomenon of "noisemusic" of media audio-score (L.Russolo, Ars.Avraamov, D.Vertov, W.Ruttmann, N.Voinov, P.Schaeffer). Are considered Russian, European and North American experiences.
2 PHILIP GlASS: SCREEN MUSIC, Neretina M. S., Chernyshov A. V.
Research is devoted to the music of contemporary composer Philip Glass, which he wrote specifically for the movies including feature and documentary films by American, British and Australian directors (M.Scorsese, E.Morris, S.Daldry, P.Weir etc.). It makes a connection of the composition technologies between his filmmusic and his artmusic written in the aesthetics of minimalism (the repetition and additive processes). The works in collaboration with director G.Reggio highlights as top Glass creative at the film industry. It also covers the principles of compilation the composers music for a variety of screen opuses, movies and commercials.
3 SOUNDS OF MODERN TALK AIR, Bysko M. V.
The author examines the role of broadcasting from inception to the present day; he means a new historical round of mass media that links modern radio with 1920-30s radio. Art genres of broadcasting and TV news covered in the direct synthesis with information radio genres. In this case, a more organized and balanced sounding of contemporary information radio (order of texts, music-speech structure, and sound design) has a more limited, local space in society. Radio is not only within national boundaries, but also within cultural, subcultural, narrow consumer boundaries. Hence the clear dominance of the road radio audience, as well as a return to the private broadcasting (mobiles, web-channels, podcasts).
4 ABOUT SOUNDS IN VIDEO GAMES , Denikin A. A.
The article considers the aesthetical and practical possibilities for sounds (sound design) in video games and interactive applications. Outlines the key features of the game sound, such as simulation, representativeness, interactivity, immersion, randomization, and audio-visuality. The author defines the basic terminology in study of game audio, as well as identifies significant aesthetic differences between film sounds and sounds in video game projects. It is an attempt to determine the techniques of art analysis for the approaches in study of video games including aesthetics of their sounds. The article offers a range of research methods, considering the video game scoring as a contemporary creative practice.
5 MUSICAL-COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY: THE LABORATORY, Gorbunova I. B.
The article deals with musically-computer technology in the educational system on example of the Educational and Methodical Laboratory Music & Computer Technologies at the Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia, St. Petersburg. Interdisciplinary field of professional activities relates to the creation and application of specialized music software and hardware tools and the knowledges in music and informatics. A realization of the concept of musical-computer education in preparing music teachers is through basic educational programs of vocational training, supplementary education, professional development of teachers and methodical support via Internet. In addition, the laboratory Music & Computer Technologies engaged in scientific activity: it is, above all, specialized researches in the field of pedagogy and international conferences.
6 PHILOSOPHICAL AND CULTURAL ASPECTS OF SOUND AND IMAGE ONTICS IN THE DIGITAL ART CONTEXT, Soloviev A. V.
The article is dedicated to philosophical and cultural aspects of sound and image ontics in the digital art context. The current situation of cultural genesis is characterized by the transition from the domination of analog technology to the domination of digital technology, and it is represented in crisis of traditional typology of arts and in revision of sound and visual image ontics as crucial elements of social-cultural reality. Sounds and images constitute the autonomous databases and flows, manifest simulation, seriality and fragmentation as their basic features.
7 SCORE DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY: THE CONVERGENCE, Chernyshov A. V.
Explores the role of digital scorewriters in today's culture, education, and music industry and media environment. The main principle of the development of software is not only publishing innovation (relating to the sheet music), and integration into the area of composition, arrangement, education, creative process for works based on digital technology (films, television and radio broadcasting, Internet, audio and video art). Therefore the own convergence of musically-computer technology is a total phenomenon: notation program combined with means MIDI-sequencer, audio and video editor. The article contains the unique interview with the creator of music notation processors.
8 ICONOGRAPHY AND GESAMTKUNSTWERK IN PARSIFALS TWO CINEMATIC SETTINGS, Alunno M.
The concept of Gesamtkunstwerk (as expressed and realized in both, Wagners theoretical writings and music-dramas) has informed the aesthetics of cinema and filmic language since the early beginning of the last century. However, over the past one hundred years, Wagners theories have undergone significant mutations that in some cases contradicted the original model. Filmmakers have altered that model according to their own ideological aims, cultural background and individual taste. With respect to Parsifal, one of the components of the "total work of art" that has been consistently reinterpreted is the operas imagery in terms of either scenographical reconstruction or visual representation. The iconographical analysis of two cinematographic versions of Parsifal (Edison, 1904 and Syberberg, 1982) illustrate how the visual aspect of the Gesamtkunstwerk has changed and, in doing so, the concept of the "total work of art" has undermined itself.
9 JINGLE: THE SOUNDING SYMBOL, Bysko M. V., Chernyshov A. V.
The article considers the role of jingles in the industrial era, from the occurrence of the regular radio broadcasting, sound films and television up of modern video games, audio and video podcasts, online broadcasts, and mobile communications. Jingles are researched from the point of view of the theory of symbols: the forward motion is detected in the process of development of jingles from the social symbols (radio callsigns) to the individual signs-images (ringtones). The role of technical progress in the formation of jingles as important cultural audio elements of modern digital civilization.
10 "ON-AIR SECRETS": TEN YEARS LATER, Bysko M. V.
The article is a scientific review on the training manual On-air secret by Andrey Bubukin, published in 2003. This guide has been written by a man who never had anything to do with radio, but by the will of fate suddenly became at once the program director of Russia's first non-state radio station Europa Plus Moscow, the commercial music radio. Then came to the fore not the questions of art qualities of broadcast, but technical-mathematical details of the automated programming of song material. Therefore, at the end of the Soviet broadcasting, it became possible appearance some people obviously alien to the electronic mass media. They are, however, strongly influenced the further "format" broadcasting in new Russia, so as the principles of songs rotation and playlist making on the radio still cant do without recourse to the Bubukin's textbook. There are serious concerns about the fact that the book is intended not only for program directors, but for the music editors also. Extremely dubious assertions and recommendations related to the problems of arts, journalism, radio-presenter's skill, history of radio.
11 THE MODEL FOR DIEGETIC ANALYSIS OF SOUNDS IN SCREEN MEDIA, Denikin A. A.
This article includes the analysis of the relationship between representational visual spaces and sounds in screen media. The methodology presented in this paper can be used for the accurate classification and differentiation for screen sounds, as well as for the general analysis of the specific sound of screen media. For this, the concept of diegesis is used. It allows us to analyze the spatial specificity of audiovisual images in cinematographic works and the spatial-functional interactive action in video games and others multimedia.
12 THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF FILMMUSIC STUDY, Egorova T. K.
In this article, author analyzes the theoretical aspects of the film music study taking into account with modern realities in the development of world film-process and attempts to its scientific understanding. Need for innovation in this area is long overdue, because the existing on this topic nonfiction no longer meets the new aesthetic and art-practical achievements and innovations in the film music development at the XXI century. Related to the phenomenon of music in screen arts a number of new terms and concepts require a certain adjustment as well. Their range of action is not yet fully defined. Author of the article offered her version of their content-semantic interpretation (largely experimental) designed to promote new research methods for the film music study.
13 FILMMUSIC: THE THEORY OF TECHNOLOGIES, Chernyshov A. V.
The article presents a review of the basic literature on the theory of film music technologies. Basic concepts of sound film music are discussed on the examples of works of Russian (Soviet and post-Soviet) and foreign scholars: Polish, German, French, English, and American. Analyzed the music theory, starting from the works by Sergey Eisenstein and Hanns Eisler to modern researchers such as George Burt and Michel Chion. Author of the article demarcated "functional theories of filmmusic" and "theories of sound layers".
14 SECRETS OF SONG VIDEO, Chernyshov A. V.
The article focuses on the origins of the song videos as TV and Internet-genre. In addition, it considers problems of screen images creation depending on the musical form and the text of a songs in connection with relevant principles of accent and phraseological video editing and filming techniques as well as with additional frames and sound elements.
15 COMPUTER MUSIC IN THE TEACHER-MUSICIAN TRAINING, Gorbunova I. B., Pankova A. A.
Information processes transform the environment of a modern professional musician cause the formation of students new educational needs in various musical disciplines. They necessitate the significant changes in activities of the teacher-musician associated with the creative work and the using digital educational resources as well as the widespread introduction of techniques and methods of networking. Music & computer technologies (MCT) allow to use fruitfully the rich pedagogical experience in traditional forms of teaching music as well as the unlimited possibilities of computers in a flexible and versatile manner.
16 MUSIC RADIO-JOURNALISM, Dubovt?eva L. I.
The article is based on years of practical experience, the author highlights the main radio genres in which music correspondent, music reviewer, music commentator, and music leading and a disc jockey work. Theoretical principles of their creative activities are analyzed in common journalistic genres, such as interview, reportage, talk show, live broadcast, radiofilm, as well as specialized genres like concert on demand and music competition. Journalist speech is seen as a logical element, the incoming with music in art-structural relationships. However, it does not become the predominant sound layer and aims to harmonious correlation or local penetration into music opus. In addition, important links in music journalism are defined the auxiliary "offscreen" editor's job and keeping the original sound archive. The author cites a number of own work examples on the air.
17 NOISOLOGY, Bysko M. V.
The article considers the noise as the most important category of media culture, its ontology and gnoseological quality, impact ways and possible forms of study. "Noisology" is offered like a separate direction in the science of sound. Today, there are systems of learning and teaching of speech and music, but we are not trained to understand or decipher the noises. We often resort to our own empirical experience when talking about noise or trying to identify it, describe its semantics, symbols or imagery. In the media artistic creation and production of the XX-XXI centuries, the role of the noise is not in doubt. "Music for percussion", "symphonies of noises", noise soundtracks, noisomusic, ars-acoustic, noise tools, data bases of noises and sound-engineering practice of audio effects, all can be confirmation of this phenomena. So, applied mission of art noises requires scientific understanding. Therefore the noisology presents three central topics: noise psychoacoustics, noise semiotics, and noise imagery including its "musicality".
18 MUSICAL ARRANGEMENT OF MEDIA ADS, Chernyshov Alexander
The music-compositional principles of commercial and political advertising and also the self-promotion of electronic media (radio, television, Internet) are considered in this mediatext: from the elementary beeps, symbolic functions, emblems/logos and musical brands to the sound engineering technology to underscore the product's name and the complex synthesis between music and intra movements and color-light design of frames. Simultaneously examines, how the musical arrangement of ethereal advertising is involved in creation the emotional drama or bravado which reach the level of explicit or associative counterpoint 'music with the advertised object or subject' and which extend to expression of cultural image of all the broadcast channel. The article explores the works of the next genres like infomercial, teleshopping, film-ad, and autonomous commercials that have been produced in European countries or USA.
19 ECOLOGY OF FILM SOUND: FROM AUDIOVISUAL IMAGES TO AUDIOVISUAL SIMULATIONAL SOUNDSCAPES, Denikin Anton
The article examines the aesthetic and technological innovations in the modern film sound: it discusses the concept of "simulational soundscapes" and questions on the "acoustic ecology" in films. Expressive techniques are analyzed, by means of which the distance between viewers and cinematographic images is leveled in modern movies, as well as the viewer's physical participation is simulated in the events shown on a screen. The author proposes to expand the conceptual framework and the methodological basis of on-screen sound research using the concepts of acoustic ecology (R.M.Shafer) and the "event" sounds (R.Altman).
20 L. VAN BEETHOVEN IN SPACE OF CINEMATOGRAPH: THE EXPERIENCE OF RE-INTERPRETATION, Volkova Polina
The sense of a musical work, actualized by film director, may either coincide with its established meaning (interpretation) or not necessarily (re-interpretation). The paper presents the experience of re-interpretation of Beethovens Ninth Symphony sounding in the films directed by Kubrick (A Clockwork Orange) and Tarkovsky (Nostalghia). This refers to the total rethinking of the classical art sample carried out within a cultural context due to the "past life" of a musical work. Consideration of filmmusic performed in reliance on the rhetorical canon as the trinity of Ethos, Logos, and Pathos. In the terminology of Bakhtin, Logos and Ethos are identified at the level of cognitive and ethical aspects of content. As a result, their co-existence creates Pathos like a unit, which "produced and perceived via art". Giving aware of the fact that in "perception a musical work, the intense deepening of ethical moment is permissible" [Bakhtin], author connects filmmusic specific feature with the experience of re-expression of musical language into pictorial speech.
21 FEATURES OF MINIMALIST MUSIC FUNCTIONING IN FILMS, Mikheeva Julia
The article examines the role of musical minimalism in aesthetic perception and theoretical interpretation of cinematographic works. The film music of Philip Glass, Michael Nyman, Alfred Schnittke, Arvo Prt, Alexei Aigui is analysed. Author specifies the analysis of the principles of musical minimalism in films in two basic phenomenons. The first one is a transcending of art space through the self-worth of a single sound (sound pattern). The second one is a change the meaning of film-time through the repetitive music technique.
22 "LITTLE TRAGEDIES": THE POLYPHONY OF MUSIC, WORDS AND VISUAL IMAGERY, Nikolaeva Julia
The music for three-part television movie Little Tragedies (1979) on Pushkins literature works (directed by M.Schweitzer, music composed by A.Schnittke) has been investigated. The trinity of music, poetic words and visual imagery, and their amazing consistency and reciprocal functioning has been considered in aspect of polyphony as the universal logical principle of building an art form. All the music of the TV movie grows out of two leitmotifs. And theirs varied implementation in the film is exemplified on examples of polyphonic analysis (music/words/images) of fragments from the four main film sections, such as "Scene from Faust", "Mozart and Salieri", "The Covetous Knight", and "A Feast in Time of Plague".
23 MEDIAMUSIC RIGHTS, Chernyshov Alexander
This article focuses on copyright and related rights related to music and near-music works (literary, scientific) in the media environment. The key legal issues of right holders and users are investigated on the basis of the modern Russian law (Civil Code), and on examples from practice of broadcasters, leading music education institutions and scientific databases. The emphasis is on the music art, literature and science in the digital space of Internet, which today is associated with the largest number of creative innovation, and in which accordingly, there is the greatest number of violations of copyright and related rights. In this regard, the author proposes to amend the current Russian legislation to allow the creation of the organization managing the intellectual property rights in the web on a collective basis.
24 MUSIC EDUCATION AND MULTIMEDIA PROJECTS, Orlova Elena
The article deals with the prerequisites of shift of music education paradigm in the XXI century, tells about emergence of new forms in the creative efforts of musicians enrolled in primary schools, and at secondary and highest education levels. Different types and genres of the multimedia creativity are considered. They were in demand by musicians at various events-contests, including Russian and international festivals and competitions in terms of which the music was called upon to play a leading role. Criteria of estimates of new forms of artistic expression are developed. The article contains some video examples given the varying multimedia projects noted by juries of several international competitions held in Moscow (Russia) in 2008-2013.