1 Linguistic Variation Among Pakistani Internet Blogs: A Multidimensional Analysis , Asia Latif MPhil Scholar RIPHAH International University, Faisalabad Ayyaz Qadeer Assistant Professor COMSATS University, Islamabad, Wah   Adnan Tahir Associate Professor Emerson University, Multan
Pakistani English, being a non-native independent variety, has its registers that demonstrate linguistic variation at all levels. With the dawn of digital technology and the internet, new Internet registers, such as E-mails, Instant Messaging, Blogs, Tweets, and Facebook comments, emerged swiftly. Internet blogs are one of the text-based varieties of Computermediated discourse (CMD) and the most popular form of written internet registers. The principal aim of this research paper was to discover linguistic variation among Pakistani Internet blogs using Multidimensional (MD) methodology, initiated by Biber (1988). A specialized corpus of Pakistani internet blogs, having 469,837 words, was designed and disseminated into 11 sub-categories. The corpus tagged by Biber Tagger at Northern Arizona University, USA calculated 154 linguistic features. The mean values of all the sub-categories on five dimensions were compared to discover linguistic and situational variances among Pakistani internet blogs. Two-factor ANOVA was conducted to discover noteworthy statistical linguistic disparity among sub-registers of Pakistani internet blogs. The results of the study exposed significant linguistic and situational differences on five dimensions among different sub-categories of blogs. All the blog categories have revealed statistically significant linguistic differences on D1 and D4. The language of blogs has been observed as nonnarrative, explicit, and abstract on D2, D3, and D5 respectively. The research will be significant for the future diachronic study of internet registers and Pakistani English. The corpus of blogs will be productive for computational linguists and researchers for new MD analysis, genre analysis, and critical discourse analysis. The detailed understanding of linguistic features of the language of blogs will help the second language teachers and students to improve their vocabulary, grammar, writing skills, and cognitive abilities. Keywords: blogs, computer-mediated discourse (CMD), multidimensional (MD) analysis, Pakistani English, register variation
2 Urdu Conjunct Predicates (N+V) Inventory from Urdu Universal Dependency Corpus , Farhat Abdullah Lecturer, University of Central Punjab, Lahore Tafseer Ahmed Associate Professor, Muhammad Ali Jinnah University, Karachi   Uzma Anjum Assistant Professor, Air University, Islamabad
This research study aims to develop a semantic inventory of Urdu nouns which may serve as a useful resource for developing natural language processing tools. It is an effort towards improving the severely under-resourced status of Urdu. Conjunct predicate is a type of complex predicate where a noun is followed by a light verb and both work as a single syntactic constituent. Conjunct predicate N+V collocation is extracted from universal dependency annotated Urdu corpus i.e., URDU_UD_UTB (Bhat et al., 2017). Resultant data provided adequate information to categorize the pattern of nouns compatible with light verbs in their allpossible morphological forms. This research yields a sizeable repository of Urdu conjunct predicate along with figuring out a range of case markers licensed by N+V collocation as a constituent which does further implication on the volitionality. Resultant mined data can be used in some future research work to train the data in some cross-linguistic computational programs. Keywords: conjunct predicate, inventory, semantic role, syntactic context, Urdu corpus, Urdu nouns, universal dependency
3 Foregrounding through Lexical Deviation: A Corpus-Based Analysis of Yousafi’s Aab-e-Gum , Muhammad Javed Iqbal, Lecturer, Centre for Languages and Translation Studies, University of Gujrat; Hafiz Muhammad Qasim, Assistant Professor, Department of Applied Linguistics, Government College University Faisalabad;  Masroor Sibtain, Assistant Professor, Department of English, Government Post-Graduate College of Science, Multan.
This paper provides a corpus-based analysis of lexical deviation as a foregrounding technique in Yousafi’s prose fiction Aab-e-Gum. The use of unusual and uncommon language imparts a strong impression on the readers’ minds. This distinguished use of language diverges from the literary conventions maintaining a dominant structure in a text (Leech, 1969) and is known as deviation. The theoretical and conceptual grounds for this work are Ross' (1998) structural incongruity theory and Leech and Short's (2007) conceptions of deviation in literary texts. The corpus for this research is the Urdu text Aab-e-Gum. The data is tagged using the UAM Corpus tool (UAMCT3). The system is used to manually tag all occurrences of deviation across various linguistic levels and sub-levels in the first stage. The more frequent lexical divergence is investigated in the second stage. It is discovered that the author used lexical variation as a foregrounding strategy to create novel Urdu terms. His use of lexical variation serves to both heighten the event being portrayed and to entertain the audience. Future work on different linguistic levels can be done in depth. This study is a first step in assisting linguistic researchers working on the Urdu language. Keywords: corpus-based, deviation, foregrounding, lexical, linguistic level
4 Neuro-Linguistic Programming: A Corpus-Based Critical Analysis of Motivational Speeches , Humna Nazim, M.Phil Scholar, National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad;  Muhammad Yousaf, Lecturer, National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad
Persuasion is a symbolic process in which speakers try to convince people to change their attitudes or belief. It has been studied at psychological and philosophical level in different times of history as it prevails in every domain of life. Motivational speeches are an emerging genre in the domain of persuasion that needs to be explored and investigated. The present study used Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) approach as a framework for the exploration of persuasion strategies in motivational speeches put forward by Bandler and Grinder (1975). They gave a set of patterns to guide people for an effective communication in their daily lives or public speaking. This research attempted to examine motivational speeches of Anthony Robbins keeping in mind NLP strategies. The recurrent patterns employed by the speaker were identified using Ant Conc. The results of the study showed that the most frequent patterns include cause and effect, universal quantifiers, nominalizations, tag questions, auditory, kinesthetic, and auditory-digital predicates and story-telling technique. The speaker had tried to convince his audience by logical as well as emotional appeal created through these patterns. He focused more on how the audience “feel” and “think” at abstract level. After studying the results, it is stated that persuasive messages are not confined to any specific strategy providing logos, pathos or ethos – it is always an inclusive idea. A persuasive message is always combination of rationale and narrative, an integrated perspective regardless of any dualistic approach. The data used in this research is limited, however, the research provides a methodological basis for further studies which can add more motivation speeches and a number of speakers to compare and contrast their speeches from the perspective of NLP strategies and their impact on the audience.  Keywords: NLP strategies, persuasion strategies, neuro-linguistic programming
5 A Corpus-Based Study of Austen’s Novel Pride & Prejudice using Cirrus Tool , Muhammad Asif,  Riphah International University Lahore;  Shafqat Zaidi, Riphah International University Lahore; Fariha Yasmeen, University of Education Lahore
Previewing approach develops reader's cognition and presents an epigrammatic digital understanding of the text. The visual representations of knowing a word cloud produces an everlasting impact on the memory slate of the reader. The study aims at constructing an interactive cirrus word cloud preview based on statistical data that will help the readers to preview the extracted major themes and important characters in Jane Austen's novel Pride & Prejudice. The study addresses the main research question: How does Cirrus tool reveal significant characters and themes of Austen's novel Pride & Prejudice? A mixed method approach was applied to find out the significant characters and themes in Pride & Prejudice". The findings reflect that Cirrus tool can quickly extract 59 words from the novel, the most frequent 59 words/themes were found in Voyant Tools from the complex text. The corpus of the text of the novel “Pride & Prejudice” represented the main characters and the themes.  Keywords: corpus, cirrus, word cloud, themes, Austen’s, previewing, prejudice.
6 The Use of Intensifiers in the Aftermath of COVID-19 Pakistani Tweets: An Analytical Comparison Between Pakistani Tweets and Contemporary English Speech (COCA) , Qurrat-ul-Ain, Lecturer, Department of English, Virtual University of Pakistan, Lahore. Email: qurratulain@vu.edu.pk ; Urooj Fatima Alvi,  Assistant Professor, Department of English, University of Education, Lahore, Pakistan. Email: urooj.alvi@ue.edu.pk
This research studies the use of intensifiers in the aftermath of COVID-19 tweets by Pakistani Twitter users (using English as non-native English speakers). It further compares the use of intensifiers in Pakistani tweets with that of the contemporary English speech data, popularly known as COCA. Three types of analyses (distributional analysis, adjectival collocations, and semantic prosody) have been performed on the target (COVID-19 Pakistani tweets) and reference (COCA) data. Most frequently occurring intensifiers in the Pakistani English tweets are ‘very’ (Urdu بہت) and ‘so’ and these results correspond with the American contemporary data. The data was analyzed in terms of ‘adjectival collocations’ as well. To see the combination of the frequently occurring intensifiers with the neighboring adjectives, five most frequently used adjectives (good, true, nice, bad, and hard) were examined in both the reference and the local tweets data. The results bring forth different patterns of adjectival collocation in the reference and target data. The intensifier ‘so’ hasn’t been coupled with ‘bad and ‘hard’ in the target data. Similarly, ‘very’ hasn’t been combined with ‘nice’ and ‘hard’ in the target data. In the reference data, ‘very’ is used with all the adjectives; however, ‘so’ doesn’t occur with the selected adjectives. The results of ‘semantic prosody’ data reveal some differences and similarities between the two corpora. The results align with the previous researches (Ito and Tagliamonte, 2003, and Tagliamonte and Roberts, 2005) that suggest ‘very’, ‘really’, and ‘so’ as the top most intensifiers used in the British and the American data. The study of adjectival collocation and semantic prosody in the reference and the local tweets data allow us infer that the study can be valuable for the academicians and social media users as it highlights striking differences between the two corpora. Further, this study can be expanded into different dimensions using different types of data in order to find generalized patterns in the native English and Pakistani social media data. Keywords: intensifiers, semantic prosody, adjectival collocation, COCA, COVID-19, tweets, and Pakistani corpus 
7 A Corpus Analysis of Metaphorical Expressions in Covid-19 Open Research Dataset (CORD19) , Shazia Riaz Dar, Assistant Professor, Department of English, Gift University, Gujranwala, Pakistan. Email: shazia.riaz@gift.edu.pk
Metaphors play a significant role in shaping our thoughts and processes of communication. They are extensively used in everyday language and hence are an indispensable part of shaping human thought and language structures. Therefore, amid the current situation of Covid-19, this paper investigated variation in language use particularly focusing on metaphors to describe this pandemic. Adhering to a mixed-method, the corpora of Covid-19 Open Research Dataset (CORD-19) were selected since it was openly available in the Sketch Engine database. Quantitatively, the analysis of metaphorical expressions was carried out with the help of corpus tools. Furthermore, the concordances of the selected metaphors were discussed with a critical lens. The findings of the current work showed that people made use of metaphorical expressions from the domains of war, crime, and calamity to highlight the gravity of the pandemic. Moreover, the results also showed that these metaphors denote aspects of real war, crime, and catastrophe and hence demand urgent action in an emergency. They also brought to light that the use of such metaphors inflicted damage on the thinking processes of the people.  Keywords: calamity, corpus, linguistics, Covid-19, crime, metaphors and war 
8 Digital Pedagogy, Learning, and Assessment amidst COVID-19: Perceptions, Practices, and Prospects , Humaira Irfan,  Associate Professor, University of Education, Lahore. Email: humaira.irfan@ue.edu.pk ; Saman Hina,  Associate Professor, NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi. Email: samhaque@neduet.edu.pk ; Naveed ur Rehman Khattak, Assistant Professor, Air University, Islamabad. Email: naveed.khattak@mail.au.edu.pk
The purpose of the research paper is to discuss the perceptions of university teachers and students towards digital classroom pedagogy, learning, and assessment methods in higher education in Pakistan amidst the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak. The researchers used the mixed method approach. The data was collected from a large-scale public-sector university with nine campuses across the province of Punjab, Pakistan. The instruments used for the collection of the data included Google Survey Form for students (n=92), university teachers' interviews via WhatsApp (n=15), and university students’ views extracted from social media platforms i.e.official Facebook page of the university (n=20). The data obtained from multiple sources was analyzed using the corpus-based techniques for Sentiment Lexicon Generation (Darwich et.al, 2019). The findings of this study have revealed that 92% of students were interested in face-to-face classes and 82% of students had a preference for a face-to-face assessment. It has also been observed that the students also expressed their views negatively on social media regarding online teaching and assessment. They poured out their frustration against the university administration for conducting online assessments amidst COVID-19 qualms, chaos, and uncertainty. In contrast to this analysis, it has been perceived that both teachers and students struggled and successfully adapted themselves to the online environment. Moreover, it is interpreted from the university teachers’ views that the quality of digital pedagogy, learning, and assessment can be enhanced through mentoring, observation, novel techniques and strategies, teamwork, and self-directed learning. The study has recommended that teacher education programs in Pakistan can organize digital pedagogical and assessment trainingfor teachers to meet the drastic changes in pedagogy and assessment amidst COVID-19.  Keywords: Digital pedagogy, digital learning, digital assessment, corpus-based techniques, COVID-19, and perceptions
9 A Corpus-based Multidimensional Analysis of Linguistic Variation in Pakistani Newspapers Columns of Opinion during Covid-19 , Muhammad Ijaz, Assistant Professor, Department of English, Govt. Postgraduate Islamia College, Faisalabad. Email: ijaz313@gmail.com ; Adnan Tahir,  Associate Professor,  Department of English, Emerson University, Multan. Email: adnantahirqureshi@gmail.com ; Sajid Ahmed, Assistant Professor, Department of English, Govt. Postgraduate College Samanabad, Faisalabad. Email: prof.sajidahmad@gmail.com
Growing research of language variation has resulted into the recognition of registers or language use in various everyday situations. The present day pandemic of COVID- 19 is one of these situations which have affected the use of language Therefore; this study has attempted to detect the effect of Covid-19 on the language of leading newspapers in Pakistani print media. It is a corpus study based on quantitative approach to analyze the English language in the columns of opinion in the leading newspapers of Pakistan in the wake of Covid-19 published during the period of 15th March to15th August 2020.The research tools comprise computer assisted corpora of about 2.6 lac words from the selected newspapers and the Multidimensional Analysis Tagger (MAT) with 67 linguistic features. The data has been collected through counting, normalization and standardization of frequencies of parts of speech co-occurring per thousand words as pointed out by Biber (1988). The data has been analyzed by factor analysis and calculation of dimension scores. The statistical ANOVA test has also been conducted to know the significance of variance. The results of this study have been compared with the results of the previous studies on Pakistani political columns and on press reportage in Pakistani print media. Comparison found that language use in Pakistani English newspapers during the COVID-19 is less informational, less narrative, more context dependent, more overt expression of persuasion, and less technical, informal and abstract than the language of political columns and press reportage before COVID- 19.   Keywords: Columns of opinion, Covid-19, Language variation, MD Analysis and Pakistani press reportage and Registers
10 Lexicogrammatical Features of Covid-19: A Syntagmatic and Paradigmatic Corpus Based Analysis   , Sadia Irshad, Assistant Professor, Dept. of English, Air University, Islamabad. Email: sadia.irshad@mail.au.edu.pk ; Sadia Arshad, Lecturer English, NUST, School of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Islamabad. Email: sadia.arshad@nice.nust.edu.pk ; Kaukab Saba Lecturer Linguistics, International Islamic University, Islamabad. Email: kaukab.saba@iiu.edu.pk
The outbreak of Covid-19 has influenced people worldwide and has led to generate a bulk of literature in the form of awareness campaigns, research reports, blogs, etc. The text and corpus produced, thus is of interest to the language researchers and linguists. According to Halliday and Matthiessen (2014), the corpus of a language helps to theorize the language as it provides authentic, representative, and quantitative data. The word Covid-19 since its coinage appears in the corpora as a lexeme with a particular grammatical structure. This study focuses on the lexicogrammar of the node word Covid- 19 in the Covid-19 corpus of 224,061,570 words available on the Sketch Engine. The design of this research focuses on the perspective of systemic functional grammar to analyze the paradigmatic and syntagmatic relations of the word Covid-19. We found that it occurred 423× times as a noun in the corpus of 1.51 per million tokens. The word-sketch of Covid-19 includes infect, spread,fight as syntagmatically related and the words pandemic, epidemic, disease, outbreak, case as paradigmatically related. However, the same lexeme may enter into both relationships like Covid-19 and disease, Covid-19 and epidemic. They enter into a systemic contrast, and they also collocate. The lexico-grammatical environment of Covid-19 in the corpus shows the dichotomy of emergency and safety; chaos and health care responsibility; and pandemic and health care systems. This analysis helps in understanding how lexico-grammatical systems and structures relate to meaning-making process. Keywords: Covid-19, Lexicogrammar, Paradigmatic relations, Syntagmatic relations and Systemic Functional Grammar 
11 Disease and Conceptual Metaphors: A Corpus Analysis of English Newspaper Articles Related to COVID-19 , Sajjad Rasool, Visiting faculty, University of Wah, Wah Cantt, Islamabad. Email: sajjadrasoolghumro@gmail.com ; Ayesha Jan, Visiting Faculty, International Islamic University, Islamabad. Email: ayeshakayani332@gmail.com ; Rabbia Noreen, Visiting Faculty, International Islamic University, Islamabad. Email: rabbianoor27@gmail.com
Metaphors are not just ornamental tools; they are fundamentally a reflection of human thought and embodiment. Based on the notion that metaphors are cognitive processes that reflect cognitive vision to understand human concepts through language, the current study is aimed at identifying Covid-19 conceptual metaphors in media discourse. To evaluate the metaphorical use of language, a corpus of three Pakistani English newspaper articles published in March 2020 was created. The needed data is extracted and analyzed using the corpus tool AntConc and the theoretical framework of Conceptual Metaphor Theory given by Lakoff and Johnson (1980). The results of the study demonstrate that the conceptual metaphor Covid-19 as war is excessively utilized in the Covid-19 editorial text. Whereas, other conceptual metaphors are also observed in the corpus, like Covid-19 as a killer, Covid-19 as a possession, and Covid-19 as an earthquake. The findings also reveal that the newspaper articles reflect persuasive ideology. Therefore, while stating the facts and figures, the use of metaphoric expressions is possibly used to instill seriousness among Pakistani public about Covid-19.  Keywords:Conceptual Metaphor, Covid-19, Conceptualization, CMT, and Pakistani English newspapers 
12 Conspiracy theories (CT) vs truth-based reporting: A corpus driven analysis of Covid-19 online newspaper(s) discourse , Zafar Ullah Shaheen, Lecturer in English, Govt. Gordon College, Rawalpindi. Email: zafarullahs@gmail.com ; Ayyaz Qadeer,  Assistant Professor (English), COMSATS University, Wah Cantt. Email: ayazqadeer@yaho.com ; Fouzia Rehman Khan, Assistant Professor, Department of English SBKWU, Quetta. Email: fozia.wu@gmail.com
In the backdrop of the emergence of conspiracy theories (CT) during the critical days of the pandemic, the discourse of online CT goes unchallenged and has become the part of mundane beliefs. The present study investigates the language/discourse of selected CT online newspaper stories related to the COVID 19 pandemic and compares it with truth-based covid-19 stories. AntConc 3.5.8 (Anthony, 2019) is used as corpus linguistics tool to extract the keywords of the selected newspaper stories, as they are lexical signposts to reveal the most characteristic themes or ‘aboutness’ of the text. A list of keywords generated from the conspiracy corpus includes <China>, <theory>, <conspiracy>, <theories>, <Chinese>, <anti>, >claims>, <wuhan>, <psychological> and <virus>, while the truth-based corpus generated <truth>, <science>, <bullshit>, <posttruth>,<death>, <theory><model> and <covid> as keywords. The keyword list was a handy tool for directing investigators to identify significant lexical differences between both texts and these keywords were further investigated through cluster/N-Grams, concordance and finally for collocates in order to get a more realistic perspective of the keywords generated. Further results showed conspiracy, claims and psychological has co-occurred in the conspiracy corpus and truth and post truth co-occurred in truth-based corpus.  Keywords: Chinese, claims, conspiracy, corpus, Covid, theory, post-truth, psychological. 
13 Conspiracy theories (CT) vs truth-based reporting: A corpus driven analysis of Covid-19 online newspaper(s) discourse , Zafar Ullah Shaheen, Lecturer in English, Govt. Gordon College, Rawalpindi. Email: zafarullahs@gmail.com ; Ayyaz Qadeer,  Assistant Professor (English), COMSATS University, Wah Cantt. Email: ayazqadeer@yaho.com ; Fouzia Rehman Khan, Assistant Professor, Department of English SBKWU, Quetta. Email: fozia.wu@gmail.com
In the backdrop of the emergence of conspiracy theories (CT) during the critical days of the pandemic, the discourse of online CT goes unchallenged and has become the part of mundane beliefs. The present study investigates the language/discourse of selected CT online newspaper stories related to the COVID 19 pandemic and compares it with truth-based covid-19 stories. AntConc 3.5.8 (Anthony, 2019) is used as corpus linguistics tool to extract the keywords of the selected newspaper stories, as they are lexical signposts to reveal the most characteristic themes or ‘aboutness’ of the text. A list of keywords generated from the conspiracy corpus includes <China>, <theory>, <conspiracy>, <theories>, <Chinese>, <anti>, >claims>, <wuhan>, <psychological> and <virus>, while the truth-based corpus generated <truth>, <science>, <bullshit>, <posttruth>,<death>, <theory><model> and <covid> as keywords. The keyword list was a handy tool for directing investigators to identify significant lexical differences between both texts and these keywords were further investigated through cluster/N-Grams, concordance and finally for collocates in order to get a more realistic perspective of the keywords generated. Further results showed conspiracy, claims and psychological has co-occurred in the conspiracy corpus and truth and post truth co-occurred in truth-based corpus.  Keywords: Chinese, claims, conspiracy, corpus, Covid, theory, post-truth, psychological. 
14 Semantic Frames of the Urdu Conjunct Verb lagnā: A Corpus-based Study , Humaira Jehangir1, Musarrat Azher2 1Postgraduate researcher, LAEL, Lancaster University. Email: h.jehangir@lancaster.ac.uk ; 2Assistant Professor, Department of English, University of Sargodha Email: musarratazher@gmail.com
In this corpus-based study, we present semantic frames based on principles of FrameNet of Urdu conjunct verb lagnā. In research studies on Urdu, while translating from Urdu to English or for grammatical analysis, lagnā is typically translated in English as ‘attach’ creating a perception that this is its prototypical meaning. However, Online Urdu Dictionary (OUD) shows at least seven different senses in natural language. The sources for the theoretical framework of the study include frame semantics (Fillmore & Atkins, 1992), and polysemic meaning (Traugott & Dasher, 2002). This situates the study in the cognitive linguistic framework. The analysis examples are extracted from 95.4 million words Urdu monolingual corpus (Jawaid et al., 2014) which can now be accessed using CQPweb. The frequency of occurrence of types of lagnā and observation of concordance lines of extracted examples helps in analysing to what extent the different patterns in which the verb lagnā generates different meanings. The preliminary analysis showed that there are two overarching patterns NOUN+ lagnā and VERB + lagnā. Within these two patterns, we observed and analysed twelve semantic frames, of which BEGIN is the most frequent frame followed by TOUCH with the second-highest frequency. This analysis also helps in understanding that certain verbs in Urdu also have polysemous use and their meanings are context-dependent that can be established through a corpus-based analysis. This analysis and its findings are especially beneficial for the Urdu language scholars who have an interest in translation studies or (descriptive) grammatical analysis to look for different interpretations as well as integrate semantic frame and corpus methods rather than relying on restrictive meaning of this verb (as well as other polysemous verbs) for data analysis. Keywords: Cognitive linguistics, corpus-based, frame semantics, lexico-grammatical study, Urdu polysemous verbs  
15 The Behaviour of Public and Press towards Burqa: A Corpus-Assisted Discourse Analysis   , Saqlain Hassan, Qurtuba University of Science & Information Technology. Email: dr.saqlainhassan@gmail.com
Clothing helps people to publicly manifest their religious or cultural identity. In the Islamic world, Burqa is considered a garment of modesty both in the religious and cultural contexts. This corpus-assisted discourse study aims to find out the behavior of the press and the actual Burqa users by analyzing the corpora of Pakistani and British newspapers through the Sketch Engine software and field surveys in the form of audio interviews and questionnaires with the help of the Grounded Theory and Thematic Analysis. This study looks at different forms of collected data to drag out the image of the Burqa created by the press and used by its actual users to show their distaste for the cultural-cum-Islamic Burqa such as the Shuttlecock. The current study takes into account both qualitative and quantitative research paradigms to triangulate the findings retrieved from the analysis of the newspapers discourse; which is mainly based on retrieving the keywords in context, their collocates and concordances and the field surveys; which will be analyzed with the help of coding process. A conceptual framework has been designed for the current study using the principles of the Grounded Theory and Thematic Analysis to categorize the important themes. The analysis of the current study will also reveal the future of Burqa or Purdah garments in the Pashtun culture. This contrastive analysis sheds light on the reasons why females in the Pashtun community are divided on the use of the Burqa and explains why some Pashtun women prefer to continue wearing it. Keywords: Burqa, Shuttlecock, Paronay, Pashtun, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
16 Corpus-Based Analysis of Career Services Language in the UK and Pakistani University Websites   , Sahar Javed, 1M.Phil. Scholar, University of Management and Technology, Pakistan, Email: saharyousaf77@gmail.com ;  Muhammad Saqib Zafar, Ph.D. Scholar, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan. Email: msaqibzafar@gmail.com ; Sibtain Bin Aslam, Lecturer, University of Management and Technology, Pakistan. Email: sibtain.aslam@skt.umt.edu.pk  
This study investigates the language of career services webpages in the top seven UK and the top seven PK (Pakistani) QS-ranked universities. Career services webpages of universities address career-related issues of students and serve as a remedy to the social problem of unemployment. These platforms train their students according to the requirements of employers by strengthening them with employability skills. Therefore, this research aims to highlight the notion of ‘career’ and ‘job’ in career services webpages of the UK and PK universities. The methodology used is corpus-based critical discourse analysis and the data is analyzed with Antconc 3.5.8 version. The sample size consisting of 353473 words of PK corpus and 323234 words of UK corpus is selected by using the judgmental sampling technique and the corpus is built by using Sketch Engine. The results show the inclination of PK universities towards the ‘academic career’ of their students because whenever they talk about the career and jobs of students, they show their concern about not having third division or D grade in their academic career to get a degree. This preference of PK universities is promoting rot culture of defining capabilities of students through their degrees that needs to be addressed. Whereas, UK universities show their concern about the skills and employability of their students by providing them knowledgeable and conceptual tasks to get an ideal job. The analysis concludes that the language of both UK and PK universities put emphasis on career development and employability skills, but their approach seems to be different in making their graduates employable. The findings of this research can be beneficial in creating awareness among students and academicians regarding the outcomes of language that is used by university websites and its influence on their professional choices. Keywords: Career, Job, Career services Webpages, Antconc 3.5.8, Corpus-based study, Critical discourse analysis  
17 A Comparative Corpus-based Analysis of Collocational Patterns in Self and Other-translators   , Zara Obaid, Lecturer, National Skills University, Islamabad. Email: zaraobaid3@gmail.com ; Muhammad Asim Mahmood, Professor/Dean Arts and Social Science, Government College University, Faisalabad. Email: masimrai@gmail.com ; Rashid Mehmood, Former Associate Professor Department of Applied Linguistics Government College University Faisalabad. Email: ch.raashidmahmood@gmail.com    
With the dawn of post-colonialism and a surge in migrations, several bilingual authors started translating their original texts into the target language. As a result, translation studies started distinguishing it from other-translations owing to its special status based on various extra-linguistic features. Consequently, now it goes by the term self-translation studies (Anselmi, 2012) - a field of its own. However, none of the studies have distinguished self and other-translations at the basic linguistic level. This study aims to trace and compare the patterns of collocations in other-translations and self-translations with reference to non-translated texts. For this purpose, a corpus-based on a monolingual comparable model (Baker, 1993) and consisting of three further sub-corpora i.e. other-translators, self-translators, and Pakistani writers is used. The lexical collocations model proposed by Benson et al. (1997) provides a theoretical framework for this study. The sub-corpora are tagged by TagAnt 1.2.0 and treated further using AntConc 3.5.8. The findings of the study reveal that self-translators employ more collocate types and they are more homogeneously distributed around a single node in comparison to the other-translators. The results are significant for the theoretical understanding of self-translations and invite more investigations at the linguistic level to set apart the features of the two categories. Keywords: collocations, self-translations, other-translations, Pakistani writers, monolingual comparable corpus
18 Use of Reporting Verbs in Research Articles by Pakistani Authors: A Corpus-Based Study , Amna Fayyaz,  Lecturer, Department of English, GCWUS. Email: amna.fayyaz82@gmail.com ; Maimoona Abdulaziz, Assistant Professor, Department of English, Riphah International University, Faisalabad. Email: abdulaziz.maimoona@gmail.com
The present study aims to explore the use of reporting verbs in introduction and literature review sections of different social sciences fields’ research articles by Pakistani authors. This study follows two objectives; the first is to find out the use and frequency of reporting verbs and the second is to identify the most dominant and least prominent category of reporting verbs. Hyland’s (2002) classification of reporting verbs into three categories (research acts, cognitive acts and discourse acts) is implied to explore the use of reporting verbs for citation in the introduction and literature review sections of research articles. By keeping in view, the simple random sampling research articles of social sciences’ disciplines published in Pakistani journals are selected to identify the use and frequency of reporting verbs. Cluster sampling is done to select the journals and random sampling is adopted to collect the research articles from different journals of Pakistan. Purposive sampling is deployed to take introduction and literature review sections of research articles for findings. Quantitative data analysis approach is used for data analysis and textual analysis is adopted as a research design. Overall findings indicate that reporting verbs relevant to discourse acts are more frequently being used by authors to cite the work of others. Cognitive acts’-based reporting verbs are the second most prevalent category of reporting verbs in selected research articles. The totality of results shows that reporting verb ‘state’ is commonly being used by authors for citation in introduction and literature review sections of research articles. Sub-category ‘critical’ of discourse acts’-based reporting verbs is not being adopted at all to cite the work of others. Non-factive as a sub-category of discourse acts is more frequently being used by authors of social sciences’ research articles to cite the work of others. The second most frequent sub-category is factive under the research acts’-based reporting verbs. This study is significant for academic writers to get an idea about the use of reporting verbs for citation, and to enhance their formal and informal writing skills.  Keywords: Reporting verbs, Hyland’s model (2002), Research articles, Pakistani journals 
19 A Corpus Based Study of Hedges and Boosters in the Speeches of Benazir Bhutto   , Sabah Aziz, Lecturer, Riphah International University Islamabad, Pakistan, Email: sabah.aziz@riphah.edu.pk ; Umaima Kamran, Associate professor, Department of English, Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad, Pakistan. Email: umaima@qau.edu.pk ; Sania Ali, MPhil scholar, NUML Islamabad, Pakistan
Hedges and boosters are significant in writing since they show the writer’s point of view. The paper identifies two types of metadiscourse markers in Benazir Bhutto’s speeches. It further aims at analyzing the pragmatic function and frequency of selected markers. The sample included thirteen selected speeches delivered from 1989 to 1997 by Benazir Bhutto and are explained through Hyland’s (1996) theories related to hedging and boosters. AntConc software has been used to extricate the hedges and boosters from the corpus. This study indicates that hedges (131) are used frequently as compared to boosters (150). After the analysis of the data, the finding reveals that the most frequently occurred hedges are “could” which appears 35 times and “need” 27 times. Results show that the speaker’s usage of hedge marks shows her cautiousness in speaking style. Moreover, the most frequently occurring boosters are “should” which appear 65 times and “must” 34 times. This shows that the authors’ voice is appeared assertive and confident. Frequency is also calculated to know which type of metadiscourse maker is used more frequently. The frequency shows that more boosters are used as compared to the hedges which show the potency of her speeches. Keywords:  AntConc software, Corpus, Boosters, Hedges, Hyland, and Metadiscourse    
20 Citation Practices: A Corpus-Based Analysis of Literature Reviews Sections of Ph.D. Theses in Biological Sciences , Ijaz Ali Khan, International Islamic University, Islamabad. Email: ijazswabi@yahoo.com ; Ayaz Afsar, International Islamic University, Islamabad. Email: ayaz.afsar@iiu.edu.pk Ijaz Ali Khan1, Ayaz Afsar2 1International Islamic University, Islamabad ijazswabi@yahoo.com 2 International Islamic University, Islamabad ayaz.afsar@iiu.edu.pk    
The writers construct a coherent discourse by presenting their stance based on previous research in academic contexts. Citation forms, being an essential part of discursive practices, have always been of interest to academics and researchers to explore their structural and functional significance.  The issue regarding these discursive aspects of citation practices has not been explored in Pakistan. The objective of the study is to differentiate the referring patterns of the theses writers at the doctoral level in Pakistan. To explore differences in discursive practices regarding citations by theses’ writers in L2 academic context. To this end, a corpus of the literature review chapters of Ph.D. theses of Biological Sciences, thirty in number, was constructed and later on analyzed through AntConc. Swales (1990) and Thompson and Tribble’s (2001) studies were taken as the theoretical framework for the analysis and further interpretation of data. The study was delimited to integrated and non-integrated citations, including the subcategories. It was found that majority of the writers preferred to use Source as sub pattern of non-integrated citations. Similarly, the structural and semantic analysis of these forms makes up a significant part of the study, which obviously reflects the indigenous practices of the writers in putting their voices into different forms of citation. Keywords: Integrated, Non-integrated, Reporting, Non-reporting, Source, Reference, Origin, Identification.